EXPERIMENT-1

REFLEX KLYSTRON CHARACTERISTICS
AIM: To verify the characteristics of Reflex Klystron tube and to determine the electronic tuning range. APPARATUS: 1. Klystron Power Supply SKPS-610 2. Klystron Tube 2K-25 with Klystron MOLInt-XM-251 3. Isolator XI-621 4. Frequency Meter XF-710 5. Variable Attenuator XA-520 6. Detector Mount XD-451 7. Wave Guide Stand XU-535 8. VSWR Meter SW-215 9. Oscilloscope 10. BNC Cable THEORY: The Reflex Klystron makes the use of velocity modulation to transform continuous electron beam energy into microwave power. Electrons emitted from the cathode are accelerated and passed through the positive resonator towards negative reflector, which retards and, finally, reflects the electrons and the electron turn back through the resonator. Suppose an RF- Field exists between the resonator, the electrons traveling forward will be accelerated or retarded, as the voltage at the resonator changes in amplitude. The accelerated electrons leave the resonator at an increased velocity and the retarded electrons leave at the reduced velocity. The electrons leaving the resonator will need different time to return, due to change in velocities. As a result, returning electrons group together in bunches. As the electron bunches pass through resonator, they interact with voltage at the resonator grids. If the bunches passes the grid at such time that the electrons are slowed down by the voltage then energy will be delivered to the resonator and the Klystron will oscillate. Fig. 2 & 3 shows the relationship between output power, frequency and reflector voltages. The frequency is primarily determined by the dimensions of the resonant cavity.Hence, by changing the volume of resonator, mechanical tuning of Klystron is possible.Also, a small frequency change can be obtained by adjusting the reflector voltage. This is called electronic tuning.

KLYSTRON POWER SUPPLY

MULTIMETE R

2K25

FIG.-SET-UP FOR STUDY OF KLYSTRON TUBE

KLYSTRON MOUNT XM-251 FREQUENCY METER XF-455

ISOLATOR

VARIABLE ATTENUATOR XA520

DETECTOR MOUNT XD-451

VSWR METER SU115

OSCILLOSC OPE

PROCEDURE: A) Carrier Wave Operation 1. Connect the components and equipment as shown in Fig.1. 2. Set the variable attenuator at the minimum position. 3. Set the Mod-switch of Klystron Power Supply at CW position, beam voltage control knob to fully anticlockwise and reflector voltage control knob to fully clock wise and the meter Switch to OFF position. 4. Rotate the knob of frequency meter at one side fully.

5. Connect the DC Microampere meter with detector. 6. Switch ON the Klystron Power Supply, VSWR Meter and Cooling Fan for the Klystron Tube. 7. Put on beam voltage switch and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise slowly up to 300V meter reading and observe beam current position,” the beam current should not increase more than 30mA. 8. Change the reflector voltage slowly and watch current meter. Set the voltage for maximum deflection in the meter. 9. Tune the plunger of klystron mount for the maximum output. 10. Rotate the knob of frequency meter slowly and stop at the position, where there is lowest output current on multimeter. Read directly the frequency meter between two horizontal line and vertical marker. If micrometer type frequency meter is used, read the micrometer reading and use the frequency chart. 11. Change the reflector voltage and read the current and frequency for each reflector voltage. B) Square Wave Operation 1. Connect the equipment and components as shown in figure1. 2. Set micrometer of variable attenuator around some position. 3. Set the range switch of VSWR meter at 40dB position, input selector switch to crystal impedance. 4. Set Mod-Selector switch to AM-MOD position, beam voltage control knob to fully anticlockwise position. 5. Switch ON the klystron power supply, VSWR meter, cooling fan. 6. Switch ON the beam voltage switch and rotate the beam voltage knob clockwise up to 300V deflection in meter. 7. Keep the AM-MOD amplitude knob and AM-FRE knob at mid position.

8. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter. 9. Rotate the AM-MOD amplitude knob to get maximum output in VSWR meter. 10. Maximize the deflection with frequency knob to get maximum output in VSWR meter. 11. If necessary, change the range switch of VSWR meter from 30dB to 50dB if the deflection in VSWR meter is out of scale or less than normal scale respectively. Further the output can be also reduced by variable attenuator for setting the output for any particular position. Find the oscillator frequency by frequency meter as described in the earlier set up. C) Mode Study on Oscilloscope

6. RESULT: The characteristics of Reflex Klystron has been studied and modes have been found. 4. FM amplitude and FM frequency knob at mid position. 8. any mode of Klystron Tube can be seen on Oscilloscope. Setup the components and equipments as shown in figure1. keep beam voltage knob fully anticlockwise and reflector voltage knob to fully clockwise position and beam switch to OFF position. 3. 2. Keep amplitude knob of FM Modulator to maximum position and rotate the reflector voltage anticlockwise to get modes as shown in figure2. 5. Keep the time/division scale of oscilloscope around 100Hz frequency measurement and Volt/div to lower scale.on the Oscilloscope. .1. 7. By changing the reflector voltage and amplitude of FM modulation. Switch ON beam voltage switch and set beam voltage to 300V by beam voltage control knob. Switch on the Klystron Power Supply and Oscilloscope. Set the mode selector switch to FM-MOD position. The horizontal axis represents reflector voltage and vertical axis represents output power. Keep the position of variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position.

EXPERIMENT-2 GUNN DIODE CHARACTERISTICS AIM: To verify the V-I characteristics of Gunn Diode. BNC Cable THEORY: The Gunn Oscillator is based on negative differential conductivity effect in bulk semiconductors which has two conduction bands separated by an energy gap (greater than thermal energies). the Gunn diode is placed in a resonant cavity. Matched Termination XL-400 6. We have used a PIN modulator for square wave modulation of the signal coming from Gunn diode. In a Gunn Oscillator. Gunn Power Supply GS-610 2. the output ratio between ON and OFF state. Oscilloscope 7. A measure of the square wave modulation capability is the modulation depth i. The time required for domain to travel from cathode to anode (transit time) gives oscillation frequency.e. When this field domain reaches the anode. APPARATUS: 1. . Frequency Meter XF-710 5. A disturbance at the cathode gives rise to high field region which travels towards the anode.Although Gunn Oscillator can be amplitude modulated with the bias voltage. it disappears and another domain is formed at the cathode and starts moving towards anode and so on. Isolator XI-621 4. Gunn Oscillator XG-11 3. The Oscillator frequency is determined by cavity dimensions.

UP For DC V-I Characteristic Of GUNN Oscillator Threshold Voltage I V V-I CHARACTERISTICS OF GUNN OSCILLATOR .GUNN POWER SUPPLY GUNN OSCILLATOR XG-11 ISOLATOR XI-11 FREQUENCY METER XF455 MATCHED TERMINATI0N XL-400 SET.

OFF Gunn Bias Knob .Any Position 3. . OTHERWISE DUE TO EXCESSIVE HEATING AND GUNN DIODE MAY BURN. 6. Set the components as shown in Fig. Note: DO NOT KEEP GUNN BIAS KNOB POSITION AT THRESHOLD POSITION FOR MORE THAN 10-15 SECONDS. Measure the threshold voltage which corresponds to maximum current. Do not exceed the bias voltage above 10V. Measure the Gunn Diode Current corresponding to the various Gunn bias voltage through the digital panel meter and meter switch.PROCEDURE: 1. READING SHOLD BE OBTAINED AS FAST AS POSSIBLE. 4. 2. 7.Fully Anticlockwise PIN Mode Frequency . Switch ON the Gunn Power Supply. RESULT: The Gunn diode characteristics have been observed and are drawn. 5. Plot the voltage and current readings on the graph.Fully Anticlockwise PIN Bias Knob . Set the micrometer of Gunn Oscillator for required frequency of operation.1. Keep the control knobs of Gunn Power Supply as below: Meter Switch .

APPARATUS: 1. VSWR is denoted by S and is given as . The distance between two successive minimum or maximum is half the guide wavelength on the line. Isolator XI-621 5. may be considered as the sum of two traveling waves the ‘Incident Wave. The superposition of the two traveling waves. Tunable Probe XP-655 9. Wave Guide Stand XU-535 12. SS Tuner XT-441 10. Frequency Meter XF-710 6. Variable Attenuator XA-520 7. The ratio of electrical field strength of reflected and incident wave is called reflection coefficient.EXPERIMENT-4 VSWR MEASUREMENT AIM: To determine the Voltage Standing Wave Ratio and Reflection Coefficient of a waveguide. Klystron Mount XM-25 4. which propagates from the source to the load and the reflected wave which propagates towards the generator. Klystron Power Supply SKPS-610 2. give rise to a standing wave along the line. The reflected wave is set up by reflection of incident wave from a discontinuity in the line or from the load impedance. The maximum field strength is found where the waves are in phase and minimum where the two waves add in opposite phase. Slotted Line SX-651 8. BNC Cable THEORY: The electromagnetic field at any point of transmission line. Oscilloscope 14.The voltage standing wave ratio is defined as ratio between maximum and minimum field strength along the line. Klystron Tube 2K-25 with Klystron MOLInt-XM-2 3. Detector Mount XD-451 11. VSWR Meter SW-215 13.

Where ZL is the load impedance. The above equation gives following equation. . Z0 is characteristics impedance.

‘ .

Tune the output by turning the reflector voltage knob. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob or variable attenuator until the meter indicates 1.Mid position 5.Mid Position Approx.Frequency Knob .Read the VSWR on scale. Keep all the control knobs as it is. the deflection in VSWR meter will change. 3. Measurement of Low and Medium VSWR 1. Repeat the above step for change of SS Tuner probe depth and record the corresponding VSWR. 9. As you move probe along the slotted line. If required. Rotate the reflector voltage knob to get deflection in VSWR meter. 6. Tune the plunger of Klystron Mount and Probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter. 10. Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure. 4. 2.switch variable attenuator position and gain control knob to get maximum deflection in the scale of VSWR meter.40 db/50db Input Switch . Keep the control knobs of VSWR meter as below Range dB . VSWR meter and Cooling Fan. Move the probe along the slotted line to get maximum deflection in VSWR meter. change the range db. 4.0 on normal VSWR meter scale. 8. Keep the control knobs of Klystron Power Supply as below Beam Voltage . A.OFF Mod.AM Beam Voltage Knob . . 3.Low Impedance Meter Switch . amplitude and frequency of AM Modulation. Switch ON the Beam Voltage Switch position and set the beam voltage at 300V.Normal Gain (Coarse.Fine) . 11. 7.Around Fully Clockwise AM. move the probe to the next minimum position.Fully Anticlockwise Reflector Voltage Knob .PROCEDURE: 1. 2. Keep the variable attenuator in the minimum attenuation position. Switch ON the Klystron Power Supply.Fully Clockwise AM-Amplitude Knob .Switch .

3. 6. Adjust the VSWR meter gain control knob and variable attenuator to obtain a reading of 3db in the normal dB scale (0 to 10dB) of VSWR meter.2 and 10. Measure the distance between the successive minima positions of the probe. Move the probe along with slotted line until a minimum is indicated. 8. Measurement of High VSWR(Double Minima Method) 1. B. 4. change the range db switch to next higher position and read the VSWR on second VSWR scale of 3 to 10. If the VSWR is between 3. RESULT: Voltage standing wave ratio has been calculated by direct reading and double minima method.…. . Replace the SS Tuner and termination by movable short.Twice this distance is guide wavelength λg. Let it be d2. Set the depth of SS Tuner slightly more for maximum VSWR. Repeat the steps 3 and then move the probe right along the slotted line until full scale deflection is obtained on 0-10 dB in normal dB scale.5. 7. Let it be d1. Compute SWR from the following equation SWR = λg/π (d1-d2) OBSERVATIONS: Beam Voltage = Repeller Voltage = Low VSWR Reading on VSWR meter = High VSWR Position of first minima = Position of second minima = Distance between two minima= CALCULATIONS: VSWR (S) = λg/π (d1-d2) ρ = ….. Note and record the probe position on slotted line. 2. 5. Move the probe to the left on the slotted line full scale deflection is obtained on 0-10dB scale.

Tunable Probe XP-655 9. Klystron Power Supply SKPS-610 2. . Wave Guide Stand XU-535 12. Klystron Tube 2K-25 with Klystron MOLInt-XM-2 3. Detector Mount XD-451 10. Klystron Mount XM-25 4. Oscilloscope 15. BNC Cable THEORY: For dominant TE10 mode Rectangular waveguide λ0. APPARATUS: 1. λc. VSWR Meter SW-215 14. Isolator XI-621 5. Movable Short XT-481 13. Frequency Meter XF-710 6. Variable Attenuator XA-520 7. λg are related as below Where λ0 is free space wave length λg is guide wavelength λc is cut off wavelength For TE 10 mode λc=2a where a is broader dimension of waveguide. Slotted Line SX-651 8.EXPERIMENT -3 FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH MEASUREMENT AIM: To determine the frequency and wavelength in rectangular wave guide working in TE10 mode. Matched termination XL-400 11.

Fig. SETUP FOR FREQUENCY AND WAVELENGTH MEASURMENT Matched load XL400 ISOLAT OR /circulato r XI-621 Slotted line SK.621 Isolator XL621 VSWR meter Sw-115 Tunable probe XP655 Variable attenuat or KA 520 Frequenc y meter XI 710 Isolator XI 621 Microwa ve source .

3. The deflection in VSWR meter will vary.Fully Clockwise AM Amplitude Knob . 14. Set the variable attenuator at minimum attenuation position. 10. Keep the control knobs Klystron Power Supply as below Beam Voltage . Switch ON the Klystron Power Supply. If necessary increase the VSWR meter range dB switch to higher position. Move the probe to next minimum position and record the probe position again. Tune the plunger of Klystron mount for maximum deflection in VSWR meter.Crystal low Impedance Meter Switch . Calculate the guide wavelength as twice the distance between two successive minimum positions obtained as above. 7.Mid Position 4.OFF Mod-Switch . .PROCEDURE: 1. 13. Set up the components and equipment as shown in figure. Maximize the deflection with AM amplitude and frequency control knob of power supply.Around Mid Position 5. Keep the control knobs of VSWR Meter as below: Range . Adjust the reflector voltage to get some deflection in VSWR meter. Move the probe to a minimum deflection position. 8. 9.AM Beam Voltage Knob . Switch ON the beam voltage switch and set beam voltage at 300V with the help of beam voltage knob.Normal Position Gain( Coarse Fine) . 16. 15. 11. Note and record the probe position.Around Fully Clockwise AM Frequency Knob . 12. VSWR meter and Cooling fan. and detune the frequency meter. to get accurate reading.Fully Anticlockwise Reflector Voltage . 2. Replace the termination with movable short.50dB Input Switch . Tune the probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter. Tune the frequency meter knob to get a dip on the VSWR scale and note down the frequency directly from frequency meter. Move the probe along the slotted line. Tune the reflector voltage knob for maximum deflection. 6.

17. Measure the guide waveguide inner broad dimension ‘a’ which will be around 22. 20. 18. Above experiment can be verified at different frequencies. . Calculate the frequency by following equation. f=c/λ where c=3*108 meter/sec. Verify with frequency obtained by frequency meter.86mm for X-Band. OBSERVATIONS: Beam Voltage = Repeller Voltage = Frequency reading from frequency meter = First voltage minima position (d1) = Second voltage minima position (d2) = CALCULATIONS: λ0= f=c/ λ0 RESULT: The frequency and wave length in a rectangular waveguide working in TE10 mode has been and verified with direct reading. 19.

Isolator XI-621 3. Microwave source 2. VSWR Meter SW-215 12. Slotted Line SX-651 6. if the power is fed in arm 1 and 2 simultaneously it is added in arm 3(H arm) and it is subtracted in E arm. Tunable Probe XP-655 7.e. If the power is fed. it divides equally in to arm1 and arm2 but out of phase with no power to arm3 (H arm). Arm. and no electric field exist in arm 4. APPARATUS: 1. BNC Cable THEORY: The device magic Tee is a combination of the E and H plane tee (Fig.3 is the H arm and arm 4 is the E arm. Oscilloscope 13. Detector Mount XD-451 9. Wave Guide Stand XU-535 11. 1). Magic Tee XE-345/350 8. If power is fed in arm 4(E arm). further. arm4. . into arm 3 (H arm) the electric field divides equally between arm 1 and 2 arm with the same phase. Variable Attenuator XA-520 5.EXPERIMENT-5 STUDY OF MAGIC TEE AIM: To study & obtain the scattering matrix of Magic Tee. Matched termination XL-400 10. Frequency Meter XF-710 4. i.

as a load to the line while other ports are terminated in matched in matched load. A. Input VSWR Value of SWR corresponding to each port. MAGIC TEE The basic parameter to be measured for magic Tee is defined below. B. Thus α=10log10 (P4/P3) Where P3 is the power delivered to arm I and P4 is power detected at j arm. Isolation The isolation between E and H arms is defined as the ratio of the power supplied by the generator connected to the E arm (port4) to the power detected at H arm (port3) when side arm 1 and 2 terminated in matched load. .Fig1. Hence Isolation (dB) =10log10 (P4/P3) Similarly. isolation between other parts may also be defined. Coupling factor It is defined as Cij=10-α/20 Where is α attenuation/isolation in dB when i is input arm and j is output arm. C.

Meter Tunable Probe Matched Load Microwave Attenuator Line Source Isolator Frequency Meter Variable Slotted Magic Tee Matched Load Matched Load Detector Mount Magic Tee Matched Load Matched Load Slotted Line Matched Load BLOCK SETUP FOR STUDY OF MAGIC TEE .

detector to Earm and matched termination to arm1 and 2. Measure the VSWR as above.2. set any power level in the VSWR meter and note down the reading. 13. RESULT: Magic Tee Characteristics are observed by giving input to different ports and by seeing outputs at other ports. Let it be P3. By using those values Scattering Matrix has been . The same experiment may be repeated for other ports also. 2. 15. 14. Without disturbing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob. 4. Repeat the above experiment for other frequencies. Set up the components and equipments as shown in Fig. With the help of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. Note down the reading of VSWR meter. Remove the tunable probe and Magic tee from the slotted line and connect the detector mount to slotted line. 16. VSWR Measurement of the ports 1. 19. Let it be P4. 3. Energize the microwave source for maximum output for a particular frequency of operation and tune the detector mount for maximum output in VSWR meter. Connect another arm to slotted line and terminate the other port with matched termination. Keeping E arm towards slotted line and matched termination to other ports. Measurement of Isolation and coupling factor 12.carefully place the Magic Tee after the slotted line keeping H-arm connected to slotted line. Determine the coupling coefficient from the equation Cij=10-α/20 Where α is attenuation/isolation in dB when I is input arm and j is output arm. 17. Measure the VSWR of E-arms as described in measurement of SWR for low and medium value.PROCEDURE: 1. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation. Determine the isolation between port 3 and 4 as P3-P4 in dB. 2. Similarly VSWR of any port can be measured. α= 10log10 (P4/P3) Where P3 is power delivered to arm I and P4 is power detected at arm j 18.

SS Tuner XT-441 11. Matched termination XL-400 9.EXPERIMENT 7 IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENT AIM: To measure an unknown Impedance of the waveguide using the smith chart. . The unknown is device is replaced by movable short to the slotted line. One of the minima is used as reference for impedance measurement. Variable Attenuator XA-520 5. Microwave source 2. Movable Short XT-481 12. VSWR Meter SW-215 13. The measurement is performed in the following way. For comparison SWR can be calculated as Where Reflection Coefficient R= Z-Z0 / Z+Z0 Z0 isCharacteristic Impedance of waveguide at operating frequency. Detector Mount XD-451 8. Tunable Probe XP-655 7. APPARATUS: 1. BNC Cable THEORY: The Impedance at any point on a transmission line can be written in the form of R+jX. Slotted Line SX-651 6. Two successive minima positions are noted.Z is load Impedance. The known device is connected to the slotted line and the position of one minima is recognized. Frequency Meter XF-710 4. The twice of the differences between minima position will be guide wavelength. Find the difference of reference minima and minima position obtained from unknown load. Wave Guide Stand XU-535 10. Oscilloscope 14. Isolator XI-621 3.

Mark a point on circumference of Smith Chart towards load side at a distance equal to D/λg. Join the center with this point.Let it be ‘D’. draw a circle of radius S0. Find the point where it cut the drawn circle. The coordinates of this point will show the normalized impedance of the load. Take a smith chart. taking 1 as center. .

451 Variable Attenuator XA .520 Frequency meter XF 710 Isolator XI 621 Microwave source .Meter SW .655 SS tune XS 441 Movable Short XT .115 Matched Termination XL 400 Tunable Probe XP .481 Slotted line XD .

2.Around Fully Clockwise AM.OFF Mod. VSWR and Cooling fan. Switch ON the Klystron Power supply. 16.AM Beam Voltage Knob . Tune the probe for maximum deflection in VSWR meter.Fully Clockwise AM-Amplitude Knob . 8. Move the probe to next minima position and note down the SWR S0 on the scale.also note down the probe position. . Keep the control knobs of VSWR meter as below Range dB . Tune the reflector voltage knob for maximum deflection. Set the variable attenuator at the minimum position. Tune the plunger of Klystron mount for maximum deflection. Switch ON the beam voltage switch position and set beam voltage at 300V with the help of beam voltage knob. 14. Keep the depth of pin of SS Tuner to around 3 to 4 mm and lock it. 7. 6.Mid Position Approx. Adjust the reflector voltage knob to get some deflection in VSWR meter. 11.PROCEDURE: 1.Frequency Knob .Fine) . Tune the frequency meter knob to get a dip on VSWR meter and note down the frequency directly from frequency meter.Mid position 5.Switch . Set up the components and equipments as shown in figure. Keep the control knobs of Klystron Power Supply as below Beam Voltage .50db Input Switch . Move the probe along the slotted line to get maximum deflection. 15. let it be D. 13.Fully Anticlockwise Reflector Voltage Knob . Maximize the deflection with AM Amplitude and Frequency control knob of power supply. 10. 9. 3. Adjust VSWR meter gain control knob and variable attenuator until the meter indicates 1 on the normal dB SWR scale.Crystal Low Impedance Meter Switch .Normal Gain (Coarse. 12. 4.

Calculate d/λg. 18.17. Find out the normalized impedance as described in the theory section. 19. The plunger of short should be at zero. Repeat the same experiment for the other frequency if required. Let it be as d1 and d2. Note the position of two successive minima position. . 21. OBSERVATION: Beam voltage = Repeller voltage = First voltage minima position (d1) = Second voltage minima position (d2) = λg=2(d1-d2)= d/λg= Normalized impedance from smith chart = RESULT: The unknown Impedance of the waveguide is found by using the smith chart. 20. Remove the SS Tuner and matched termination and place movable short at the slotted line. Hence λg=2(d1-d2).

Multi Hole Directional Coupler XK-620 11. looking into the main-line input terminal when the matched loads are placed at all other ports. It consists of two transmission lines.1. BNC Cable THEORY: A directional coupler is a device with which it is possible to measure the incident and reflected wave separately. Isolator XI-621 4. VSWR Meter SW-215 13.EXPERIMENT-6 DIRECTIONAL COUPLER AIM: To study the function of Multi Hole Directional coupler by finding the Coupling factor and Directivity of the coupler.The power entering in the main arm gets divided between ports 2 and 3 and almost no power in port 4. Power entering at port 2 is divided between port1 and 4. Frequency Meter XF-710 5. Isolation I (dB) = 10 log 10 [P2/P3] when port 1 is terminated.directional coupler parameters are determined by using Coupling Factor C (dB)= 10 log 10 [P1/P3] when port 2 is terminated. Wave Guide Stand XU-535 12. Variable Attenuator XA-520 6. the main arm and the auxiliary arm. . Directivity is measured indirectly as follows: Directivity (dB) = I-C=10 log 10 [P2/P1] Main line VSWR is measured. Tunable Probe SP-655 8. APPARATUS: 1. the directivity of coupler is a measure of separation between incident wave and the reflected wave. Detector Mount XD-451 9. Slotted LineSX-651 7. Klystron Power Supply SKPS-610(or Gunn Power Supply) 2. Matched Termination XL-400 10. Oscilloscope 14. Klystron Tube 2K-25 with Klystron MOLInt-XM-2( or Gunn Diode) 3. With built-in termination and power entering at port 1. electromagnetically coupled to each other refer to Fig.

Auxiliary line VSWR is measured in the auxiliary line looking into the output terminal when the matched loads are placed on other terminals. is defined as Insertion Loss (dB) = 10 log 10 [P1/P2] .Main line insertion loss is the attenuation introduced in the transmission line by insertion loss of coupler.

COUPLER .2. SET UP FOR MEASUREMENT OF VSWR MHD.PROBE SP-620 VSWR METER XL-520 MATCHED LOAD XL-400 MICROWAVE SOURCE ISOLATOR XI-621 VARIABLE ATTENUATOR XA-520 FREQUENCY METER XF-710 SLOTTED LINE SX-651 1 3 MHD COUPLER 2 MATCHED LOAD XL-400 MATCHED LOAD XL-400 3 2 MHD COUPLER 1 MATCHED LOAD XL-400 FIG.

Compute the directivity as Y-Yd= I-C 16. and note down the reading. Connect the directional coupler in reverse direction. gain control knob of VSWR meter. i. port 2 to frequency meter side. Let it be reference level X 5. Tune the detector for maximum frequency. Let it be Z. Remove the multi hole directional coupler and connect the detector mount of the frequency meter. 3. 14. 7. 11. Let it be Yd. Without disturbing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. 15. Set any reference level of power on VSWR meter with the help of variable attenuator. Now carefully disconnect the detector from the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination from port2 without disturbing the setup. Compute the Isolation which is given as X-Yd=I (dB). 6.PROCEDURE: 1. Repeat the same for other frequencies. Set up the components and equipment as shown in figure2. 2.e. 4. Note down the reading on VSWR meter on the scale with the help of range-db switch if required. 9. Let it be Y. Matched termination to port 1 and detector mount to port 3. Repeat the steps from 1 to 4. Measure and note down the reading on VSWR meter. Energize the microwave source for particular frequency of operation. Without changing the position of variable attenuator and gain control knob of VSWR meter. Compute the Insertion Loss which is given as X-Z in dB. Connect the matched termination to port 3 and detector to port 2 and measure the reading on VSWR meter. Calculate the Coupling factor which is given as X-Y=C (dB). . 8. 10. 13. Insert the directional coupler as shown in figure 2 with detector to the auxiliary port 3 and matched termination to port2. 12.

OBSERVATIONS: Beam Voltage = Repeller Voltage = Input Power at Port 1(X) = Power at Port 2(Y) = Power at port 3(Z) = Input Power at port 2 (X) = Power at port 3(Yd) = CALCULATIONS: Insertion Loss(X-Z) = Coupling Factor(X-Y)= Isolation(X-Yd) = Directivity(Y-Yd) = RESULT: Directional coupler characteristic parameters are obtained. .

The gain of a horn antenna will also be determined. APPARATUS: Antenna test set-up.EXPERIMENT-8 HORN ANTENNA OBJECTIVE: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with making antenna measurements. VSWR meter CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: .

3) Prepare the computer for controlling the antenna angle. 4) Adjust the attenuator to obtain a mid scale reading on the -60dB range of the VSWR meter. o . Plot the attenuator setting on the 0 degree axis of one of the sheets of polar graph paper provided. in most cases the antenna maximum occurs at 0 . g) To terminate and start another set of measurements. Turn on the power meters and VSWR meter to allow them to warm up. Note the VSWR meter (reference) reading and attenuator setting. a) Turn on power to both computer and monitor b) After program has booted. c) Press F3 and enter antenna type (dipole to start) d) Press F5 and enter the antenna angle required (zero to start). The RX (Receiver) antenna is the antenna under test. The scale is arbitrary but since. e) When display asks for Attenuator setting. The angle of the TRX antenna is controlled by a computer. the scale should be chosen such that this first reading lies on or near one of the outer circles. This take s few seconds. The detector diode and VSWR meter allows for more sensitive measurement of the received signal. Figure 1 Antenna test set-up 1) Draw a block diagram of the test set-up labeling all the equipment being used. press F2 to enter name and student number – program will not proceed until this information is entered. The 10 dB directional coupler with thermistor mount and power meter samples the power being transmitted. Simply press ENTER twice after each request. f) The requests for power value and VSWR can be ignored. The TX (Transmitter) antenna is a calibrated horn antenna. The power received by the test antenna is measured by another thermistor mount and power meter. Press F2 and wait until the message “Hit C to clear data” appears. Then press C. 2) Turn on the signal sweeper and set it to RF Standby. Peak the VSWR meter by fine adjustment of its 1kHz center frequency. enter the current attenuator setting.Experimental Procedure A) Direct Antenna Pattern Measurement The antenna test set is shown in Figure 1.

to be entered. Plot the angle and attenuator setting on the polar graph (download copies of the polar graph paper). 8) Repeat steps 4-7 for the other test antennas: the dipole-fed paraboloid. narrow-wall slot antenna and horn antenna in that order.5) Rotate the receiving antenna to +10 . the relative power radiated in the various directions will be given by the difference between the corresponding attenuator settings. the VSWR meter and the precision variable attenuator in your explanation. Consider the accuracies and dynamic range of the diode detector. Note that the angle control program asks for power and VSWR meter readings. take some readings at intermediate points to determine the shape of the nulls or (less likely) peaks. If your plot indicates that the power is varying rapidly with angle. Adjust the attenuator so that the VSWR meter returns to the reference setting and record the attenuator setting. A typical plot is shown in Figure 2. 6) Using 10-degree increments. This is not necessary and can be bypassed by simply hitting the ENTER key. adjust the attenuator to give a maximum power reading on the o . Explain why the substitution method is used rather than a direct meter reading method in which the change in power level is read from the VSWR meter with no adjustment of the variable attenuator. 7) Using the substitution method in which the variable attenuator is adjusted to always maintain the same VSWR meter reading. Figure 2 Typical antenna pattern on polar coordinate plot B) Gain of a Horn Antenna o o o 1) Using the horn as the transmitting antenna and with the receiving horn set on the common axis of both antennas ( angle=0 ) . cover the angle range from -100 to +100 .

SGA 40 GHz Horn Antenna a. The rotation is user determined to go from a certain angle to another (i. You should read the following to become familiar with the demonstration. The resulting measurements form the radiation pattern of the AUT. Experimentation: Fig 4. The operation of the system is as follows: 1. The computer is connected to both the HP 8720A Network Analyzer and the Orbit AL-4806 Positioner. The role of the Orbit AL-4806 is to control the turntable which rotates the AUT during the measurement. The signal is then radiated to the antenna under test (AUT). 3) Suggest a method of determining the gain of 3 different types of antennas when only one antenna of each is available. The network analyzer sends an RF signal to the transmitting antenna at a specified frequency or list of frequencies via port 1.All antenna measurements are to be performed at 3. –180 degrees to +180 degrees). 2. Calculate the gain of the horns. The AUT receives the signal and sends it to port 2 of the network analyzer. 4. The FR959 software package controls both pieces of equipment.5 GHz. Calculate the power radiated by the transmitting horn PT and measure the frequency of oscillation.power meter. The date will be announced later. 3. The network analyzer measures the magnitude of the transmission coefficient (S21) as a function of the AUT’s angular position. Measure the power at the receiving horn PR and the distance between the two horns. C) Automatic Antenna Pattern Measurement This part of the lab will be done as a demonstration for the class during one of the lectures slots. 2. Physically describe the antenna’s operation and the expected radiation characteristics . The Automatic antenna test facility in the Department of Electronics Anechoic Chamber. 2) Replace the diode detector and VSWR meter with the second bolometer and power meter. Figure 4 is a brief overview of the measurement apparatus. Depending on how the antenna is oriented this could mean a rotation in the antenna’s azimuthal or elevation planes.e.

Perform the measurement. Given that the gain of the SGA 40 GHz antenna is 17.). Repeat steps (a)-(h) from the SGA 40 GHz Horn./ pattern level at 180 deg. Analysis: a. Orient the AUT so as to obtain the cross-polar radiation characteristics in the azimuthal plane. Measure the azimuthal plane radiation pattern. • HPBW is the half-power (3 dB) beam width of the main lobe. Orient the transmitting antenna so as to obtain the co-polar radiation characteristic in the elevation plane. Complete the summary table below: Table Notes: • Gain and x-pol figures are at boresight (i. Draw a sketch of the horn antenna on it’s coordinate system. b. Indicate on each of the antenna radiation pattern diagrams the transmitter’s and AUT’s E-field orientation. What is the drop in received power (at boresight) compared to the co-polar alignment? e. Which antenna is more directive? How do you know? Does that make sense? Why? d. e. 0 degrees). f. Indicate the electric and magnetic field directions inside the horn aperture. Repeat steps (a)-(h) from the SGA 40 GHz Horn. • F/B is the front-to-back ratio (i. Measure the azimuthal plane cross-polar radiation pattern. What is the gain of the slot antenna? 3. b.e. g. Orient the AUT so as to obtain the cross-polar radiation characteristic in the elevat h. d. Place the AUT on the turntable and align it with respect to the transmitting antenna so as to obtain the co-polar radiation characteristic in the azimuthal plane.5 GHz. what is the gain of the patch antenna? Slot Antenna a. b. CPW-Fed Patch Antenna a. c. pattern level at 0 deg. Why is the cross polarized radiation important? What does it mean? f. Discuss the antenna’s actual radiation characteristics with reference to part (a). Show where the azimuth and elevation pattern cuts were taken in terms of theta and phi angles.(azimuth and elevation co-polarization patterns only).5 dBi at 3. b. c.e. Why do we care about the front-to-back ratio? .