A Practical Training Taken At

“ Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station”
Submitted to Rajasthan Technical University, Kota In Partial Fulfillment For The Award of Degree Of Bachelor Of Technology(B.Tech.) In Electrical Engineering

Submitted To:Mr. Hemant Kaushik (Reader) Electrical Department

Submitted By:Sarita Sharma B. Tech.(final year) Roll No. – 11EMEEE213

Department of Electrical Engineering Marudhar Engineering College, NH-11 Raiser, Bikaner(Raj.)

Acknowledgement
This is opportunity to express my heartfelt words for the people who were part of this training in numerous ways, people who gave me unending support right from beginning of the training. I place on record my sense of gratitude to Mr. B.P.Chakraborty(X.E.N. STPS) for enabling me to carry out my training at STPS. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Mr. H.K. Tomar(A.E.N. STPS),Mr. Neeraj Gahlot(J.E.N. STPS) and Mr. Ramdutt(Operator) for providing me the valuable knowledge that I gained at STPS. I am equally obliged to all other Engineers and Technical personnel and operators at STPS who gave me their valuable time and rendered practical knowledge in my training period. I am grateful to Training In charge Mr. Hemant Kaushik for giving guidelines to make my training a success. I want to give sincere thanks to the Principal, Dr. R.P.S. Jakhar for his valuable support. I extend my thanks to Dr. Javed Khan Bhutto Head of the Department for his cooperation and guidance. At last I would like to express my sincere thanks to one and all who, directly or indirectly, have lent their helping hand in this venture.

Yours Sincerely, Sarita Sharma.

(II)

ABSTRACT
Suratgarh thermal power station is the first super thermal plant of Rajasthan. Suratgarh Super Thermal Power Station is owned by Rajasthan Rajya Vidhyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd. and is situated near village Raiyanwali about 25 kms from Suratgarh town, an ideal location for setting up a thermal power station in the state having regards to the availability of land, water, transmission network proximity to broad gauge railway and being an important load centre for north west Rajasthan. The techno-economic clearance for the prefect was issued by CEA in June 1991 –the planning commission accorded investment sanction for the project in Nov. 91 for a total estimated cost of Rs. 1253.31 crores on prices prevailing in Sept. 1990. The updated cost of the project is estimate at Rs. 2300 crores of including IDC. It has generation capacity of 1500 MW and installed with six Units of 250 MW each. It is a coal base thermal station. Water and coal required in a large amount. Coal is received here from coal-fields of MP which are state owned through railways and water is received from INDIRA GANDHI CANAL. The supply of coal is from MP, Jarkhand by rail. About 18000 tonne coal required per day for whole unit and each unit consumes 150 tonnes coal per day. About 2x3 km2 area covered by plant and approximately 1800 employees works in a plant including chief engineer to labour. The supply electricity to the northern Rajasthan, Ratangarh, Bikaner, Ganganagar .It has been decided to set up 2 X 660 MW super critical units (Unit # 7 & 8) at SSTPS. For this purpose about 446 Hectare land has been identified adjacent to the existing 6 X 250 MW plant. This land is under process of acquisition. M/s TEC have been appointed consulting engineers for this project. The state Govt. has also accorded its inpriciple approval for setting up in future, two additional units of 2 X 660 MW (UNIT # 9& 10) also based on super critical technology.

(III)

Index Of Contents
Serial No. 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11. Particulars Page No. Basic operation of thermal power station 1 Classification of thermal power plant Selection of site for thermal power plant Plant familiarization Coal handling plant Milling plant Water treatment plant Boiler Turbine Generator 2 8 9 10 12 14 15 21 25

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Condenser Cooling towers Deaerator Pumps E.S.P. Ash handling plant 220 kv & 400 kv switchyard and different equipments installed and bus schemes

29 31 32 33 36 37 39

19.

Maintenance jobs to be done on 220 kv 43 & 400 kv switch yard

20. 21.

Conclusion References (IV)

49 50

List Of Figures
Fig. No. Fig.1 Fig.2 Fig.3 Fig.4 Fig.5 Fig.6 Fig.7 Fig.8 Fig.9 Fig.10 Fig.11 Fig.12 Fig.13 Fig.14 Fig.15 Fig.16 Fig.17 Fig.18 Fig.19 Fig.20 Description General layout of thermal power plant Introduction to STPS Plant overview Coal handling Coal crusher Tube mill Clarifloculator bridge Water treatment plant Boiler drum Air pre heater Economizer Turbine Turbine governor Generator after the removal of end shields Surface condenser Cooling towers Deaerator E.S.P. Ash handling 400 KV layout of STPS 3 4 7 11 13 13 15 15 16 18 19 23 24 26 30 31 32 36 37 38 Page no.

(V)

List Of Tables
Table No. Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Description Installed capacity Sanction of schemes Commissioning targets and achievements Table 4 Table 5 Generator transformer data Technical data of SF6 circuit breaker for 220 and 400 KV 28 41 Page No. 5 5 6

(VI)

BASIC OPERATION OF THERMAL POWER STATION
 

 

Coal is used as fuel for the generation of heat energy. As the water in the boiler evaporated due to the intense heat, it becomes high pressure steam. And the steam passes through a conduit (there is a turbine at the other end of the tunnel), it forces its way through the turbine, thus rotating the turbine. As the steam is high pressurized, the turbine rotates very fast. The turbine is connected to a generator via a coupler. As the turbine is rotating from the force of the steam, electrical energy is being produced. After the steam have passed through the turbine, it enters a condenser. The condenser has got a cooling agent (namely sea water) and the steam will go through the cooling agent via a pipe. The steam thus changes back to its liquid form and returns to the boiler. And the whole process repeats.

1

CLASSIFICATION OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS
Thermal power plants are classified by the type of fuel and the type of prime mover installed.

1. BY FUELFossil Fueled power plants may also use a steam turbine generator or in the case of natural gas fired plants may use a combustion turbine. A coal fired power stations produces electricity by burning coal to generate steam and has the side effect of producing a large amount of carbon dioxide, which is released from burning coal and contributes to global warming.

2. BY PRIME MOVERSteam turbine plants use the dynamic pressure generated by expanding steam to turn the blades of a turbine. Almost all large non hydro plants use this system. About 80% of all electric power produced in the work is by use of steam turbines. Gas turbine plants use the dynamic pressure from flowing gases (air and combustion products) to directly operate the turbine. Natural gas fuelled (and oil fuelled) and so are used to supply “peak” energy during periods of high demand, though at higher cost than base-loaded plants.

2

GENERAL LAYOUT OF THERMAL POWER PLANT

Fig.1. general layout of thermal power plant

3

INTRODUCTION TO SURATGARH SUPER THERMAL POWER STATION

Fig.2. introduction to STPS

4

Table 1. Installed capacity
Stage Unit No. Installed Capacity(MW) Stage I Stage I Stage II Stage II Stage III Stage IV 1 2 3 4 5 6 250 250 250 250 250 250 Date of Commissioning May, 1998 March, 2000 October, 2001 March, 2002 June, 2003 May,2010 Running Running Running Running Running Running Status

Table 2. Sanction of scheme (Stage-I to IV)
Stage I II III IV Unit No. I & II III & IV V VI Capacity(MW) 2x250 2X250 1X250 1X250 TOTAL Cost(Rs.Crore) 2300 2057 753 1117 5127

5

Table 3. Commissioning targets and achievements
DATE UNITS ZERO DATE TARGET ACTUAL DATE OF COAL FIRING UNIT-1 Jun-91 MAR-1997 10-MAY1998 28-MAR2000 04-OCT1998 07-JUN2000 DATE OF COMMERCIAL OPERATION Remarks

01-FEB-1999 COMMISSIONED 6 01-OCT-2000 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE COMMISSIONED 6 15-JAN-2002 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE COMMISSIONED 6 31-JUL-2002 MONTH AHEAD OF SCHEDULE COMMISSIONED 19-AUG-2003 IN RECORD TIME OF 29 MONTH COMMISSIONED 30-DEC-2009 IN RECORD TIME OF 29 MONTH

UNIT-2 Jun-91 SEP-2000

UNIT-3

23Jun-99

MAR-2002

29-OCT2001

08-DEC2001

UNIT-4

23Jun-99

SEP-2002

25-MAR2002

17-JUN2002

UNIT-5

1-Feb01

JUN-2003

30-JUN2003

30-JUN2003

UNIT-6

15Jun-06

OCT-2008

31-MAR- 24-AUG2009 2009

5

PLANT OVERVIEW

Fig.3. plant overview 7

SELECTION OF SITE FOR STEAM POWER PLANTS
1- SUPPLY OF WATER:
A large quantity of water is required in steam power plants. a- It raise the steam in the boiler . b- For cooling purposes such as in condensers.

2- REQUIREMENT OF LAND:
The land is required not only for setting up of the plant but also for other purposes such as staff colonies, coal storage, ash disposal, etc. cost of land adds to the final cost of the plant. So it should be available at a reasonable cost. Land should be of good bearing capacity since it has to withstand about 7 kg.per.sq.cm. Moreover, land should be reasonably level. It should not be low lying.

3- TRANSPORTATION FACILITY:
The land and rail connections should be proper and capable of taking heavy and over dimensioned loads of machines etc. To carry coal, oil, etc. which are daily requirements, we need these transport linkages.

4- LABOUR SUPPLIES:
Skilled and unskilled laborers should be available rates near the site of the plant.

5- ASH DISPOSAL:
Ash is the main waste product of the steam power plant. Hence some suitable means for disposal of ash should be applied.

8

PLANT FAMILIARIZATION
    Main parts of plant are: Coal Handling Plant Water treatment plant Boiler o Super heater o Re heater o Economizer o Air pre heater      Turbine Generator o Transformer       Condenser Cooling towers Deaerator BFP(Boiler feed pump) E.S.P. Ash handling plant Forced draft fan Induced draft fan Primary air fan

9

COAL HANDLING PLANT
1. INTRODUCTION
It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. The coal is brought to the S.T.P.S through rails; there are eight tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails. The coal handling plant can be broadly divided into three sections – 1- WAGON UNLOADING SYSTEM 2- CRUSHING SYSTEM 3- CONVEYING SYSTEM CHP is a plant which handles the coal from its receipt to transporting it to boiler and store in bunkers. It also processes the raw coal to make it suitable for boiler operation. In brief we can say that receipt of coal mines, weighing of coal, crushing it to required size and transferring the quanta of coal to various coal mill bunkers. This is the responsibility and duty of the CHP and its staff. RECEIPT OF COAL: Normally thermal power station receives the coal by 3 modes of transportation: 1- By railway (80-90% of the requirement is fulfilled by this way) 2- By road ( if required 5-10% of the requirement is fulfilled) 3- By Arial ropeways.

2. MAJOR EQUIPMENTS OF CHP
12345678WAGON TIPPLERS VIBRATING FEEDERS CONVEYOR BELTS COAL CRUSHERS ELECTROMAGNETIC SEPARATORS DUST EXTRACTION SYSTEMS GAS EXTRACTOR TRIPPER

3. OPERATIONAL CYCLES
1. NORMAL BUNKERING CYCLE- Shifting of coal received from coal wagons directly to coal bunkers is normal bunkering cycle. 10

2. RECLAIMING CYCLE- When coal wagons are not available the requirement of coal

bunkers reclaiming cycle.

3. WEIGHING OF COAL
Weighing of coal is carried out at wagon tipplers. Weight of loaded wagon is taken after unloading the coal, weight of empty wagon is taken the difference of the two mill give the weight of the coal( NORMALLY 55-60 METRIC TONS OF COAL COME IN EACH WAGON).

4. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF COAL
Sample of coal is randomly collected from each rake by concerned, thermal staff and detailed chemical analysis, calculation of calorific value is carried out and is confirmed whether it is as per agreement with the coal mines or not.

Fig.4. Coal handling

11

MILLING PLANT
1. PULVERIZED COAL SYSTEMS
For steam generation, there is basically system of pulverization normally in STPS plant used is Direct Firing System.

1.1

Direct Firing System

1.1.1 Hot Primary System
In this system the fan is located before the pulverized and handles complete primary air required for drying a transporting the coal. Disadvantages are that the fan is required to handle high temperature air resulting in high a fan power. Separate sealing air fans are required to seal the mill and Journal bearings.

1.1.2 Cold Primary Air System
The primary air fan handles clean cold air either from FD fan discharge or taking suction from atmosphere. The advantages are saving in fan power and maintenance. The only disadvantage. Is the cost increase due to additional duct work and air heater.

1.1.3 Suction System
In this system the mill operates under negative pressure. Suction being created by an exhauster placed after the mill. The exhauster handles all the coal air mixture and forces it into the burners. The advantage of suction system is that the plant can be maintained clean. The disadvantage of this system id that he high speed exhauster has to handle coal air mixture and tends to wear more as the pulverized size increase.

1.2

Pressurized Exhauster system

In this system the mills operate under positive pressure. With exhauster provided at hr exit of pulverize to boost the pulverized coal into the pressurized furnace. Since the pulverized operates with lesser pressure than forced draft fan pressure.

2. DRUM/TUBE MILLS
In plant TUBE type of pulverized mill is used. This type mills is slow speed type. They operate at a speed of 17-20 rev/min and formerly were designed as suction mills. 11

fed to the drum through the inlet elbow and gets crushed to powder inside the mill drum. The ball charge and the coal are carried to certain height inside the drum and slowed to fall down. Due to the impact of the balls on coal particles and due to attrition as the particles slide over each other and also over the liners, the coal gets crushed. Hot flue gases are used for drying and transporting the pulverized coal from the mill to the classifier. As a result of this high availability in a tube- ball mill installation, it is not normal to provide standby milling capacity; this helps to reduce the overall capital cost of the plant. Power requirements have also been reduced, but they are still much greater than those for medium speed mills.

3. COAL FEEDERS
Coal feeders deliver the cola from the bunkers to the mill. Since the amount of coal delivered determines the output of the mill, if follows that the cola flow, through the feeder has to be controlled. This is normally achieved either by control of feeder speed or by control of the position of a scraper knife or plough.In plant Drag Link Coal Feeders type of Coal Feeder is used.

3.1 Drag Link Coal Feeders
In this type of cola feeder, the coal leaves the bottom of the bunker through a large outlet hopper which is connected directly to the feeder casing. The cola falls on the feeder top plate and is dragged along by the conveyor chain to the point where the top plate ends. The depth of the cola bed is controlled by the height regulating gate. At the end of the top plate the cola falls down between the stands of the chains to the Point of discharge at the mill inlet coal delivery chute. The rate of coal feeds controlled by variable speed motor drive.

12

Fig.5. coal crusher

Fig.6. tube mill

13

WATER TREATMENT PLANT
1.

INTRODUCTION

The natural water contains solid, liquid and gaseous impurities and therefore, this water cannot be used for the generation of steam in the boilers. The impurities present in the water should be removed before its use in steam generation. The necessity for reducing the corrosive nature & quantity of dissolved and suspended solids in feed water has become increasingly important with the advent for high pressure, critical & supercritical boilers.

2. IMPURITIES IN WATER
The impurities present in the feed water are classified as given below – 1. Undissolved and suspended solid materials    Turbidity and Sediment Sodium and Potassium Salts Chlorides

2. Dissolved Salts and Minerals  Calcium and Magnesium Slats

3. Dissolved Gases   Oxygen Carbon Dioxide

3. REMOVAL OF IMPURITIES
Our major concern is industrial water treatment, whereby, water used directly or indirectly in an industrial process is made suitable for that particular application. The use of water in boilers fro steam generation is an obvious industrial use. Depending on the process, varying degrees of purity of treated water are required. For example, a textile processing unit will require soft and clear water for process use: a chemical plant or electronic components manufacturing unit will require ultra-pure water containing total dissolved impurities not exceeding 0.5mg/litre or less.

14

Fig.7. clarifloculator bridge

Fig.8. water treatment plant

BOILER
1. INTRODUCTION
The boiler is the main part of any thermal power plant. It converts the fuel energy into steam energy. The fuel may be furnace oil, diesel oil, natural gas or coal. The boilers may be fired from the multiple fuels. The boiler installed in S.T.P.S. are made by M/s BHEL . Each of the boilers are single drum, tangential fired water tube naturally circulated over hanged, balanced draft, dry bottom reheat type and is designed for pulverizing coal firing with a max. 15

Continuous steam output of 375 tons/hour at 138 kg/cm2 pressure and 540 degree cent. Temp. The thermal efficiency of each boiler at MCR is 86.8 %. Four no. Of bowl mills have been installed for each boiler. Oil burners are provided for initial start up and stabilization of low load .Two E.S.P. (one for each boiler) is arranged to handle flue gases from the respective boilers. The gases from E.S.P.are discharged through 180 meters high chimney. I.D. fan and a motor is provided near the chimney to induce the flue gases.

Fig.9. boiler drum

1- CIRCULATION SYSTEM
It is essential to provide an adequate flow of water and/or of water-steam mixture for an efficient transfer of heat from furnace to the working fluid and to prevent ‘burn-outs’. This is irrespective of the mode of circulation being used. In STPS natural type of circulation system are used.

1.1 Natural Circulation
In this type, no external pumping device is used for the movement of the fluid. The difference in densities in contents of fluids in down comers from the drum and risers in the furnaces is used to effect the movement of fluids. This type of circulation is employed in most of the utility boiler.

16

One of the characteristics of natural circulation is its tendency to provide the highest flow in the tubes with the greatest heat absorption.

2. HEAT TRANSFER IN BOILER
In boiler heat energy is released from the combustion of fossil fuels and the heat is transferred to different fluids in the system and a part of it is lost or left out as unutilized. There are three modes of heat transfer :    Conduction Convection Radiation

3. BOILER OPERATION
Pulverized coal is air blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, forming a large fireball at the centre. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 degree F and 3200 psi. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. Here the steam is superheated to 1000 degree F to prepare it for the turbine. Plants designed for lignite (brown coal). Lignite is a much younger form of coal than black coal. It has a lower energy density than black coal and requires a much larger furnace for equivalent heat output. Such coals may contain up to 70% water and ash, yielding lower furnace temperatures and requiring larger induced draft fans. The firing systems also differ from black coal and typically draw hot gas from the furnace exit level and mix it with the incoming coal in fan type mills that inject the pulverized coal and hot gas mixture into the boiler.

4. BOILER PARTS 4.1. Super heater
Fossil fuel power plants can have a super heater or re-heater section in the steam generating furnace. it is piped from the upper drum area into tubes inside an area of the furnace known as the super heater, which has an elaborate set-up of tubing where the steam vapour picks up more energy from hot flue gases outside the tubing and its temperature is now super heated above the saturation temperature heaters in an attempt to improve overall plant operating cost. 17

4.2. Reheater
Reheater are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy already been extracted by HP turbine. The reheater is composed of two stages or section, the front pendant vertical spaced platen section and the rea5r pendant vertical spaced platen section. The rear pendant vertical spaced section is located above the furnace arch between the water- cooled screen tubes and rear water wall hanger tubes. The front pendant vertical spaced plated section is located between the rear waterwall hanger tubes and the superheated platen section. All reheater drains and vents are opened before lighting off. The vents and drains to the atmosphere must be closed prior to raising a vacuum in the condenser. Drains connecting with the condenser may be lift open until the boiler is under light load.

Fig.10. air preheater

4.3. Economizer
Economiser is a feed water heater.It uses the heat produced by the flue gases for this purpose.The feed water is passed through the economiser before supplying it to the boiler

18

Fig.11.economiser

4.4. Air preheaters
Air preheater is a heat exchanger in which air temp. is raised by transferring heat from other fluids such as flue gas . Since air heater can be successfully employed to reclaim heat from flue gas at lower temp. level ,then it is possible with economizer the heat ejected to chimney can be reduced to a great extent thus increasing the efficiency of a boiler. In STPS, there are three fans: 1. F.D.FAN (Forced fan) 2. I.D.FAN (Induced fan) 3. P.A.FAN (Primary fan)

4.4.1. Forced Draft Fan In the Axial Reaction Fans (Type AP), the major part of (about 80 %) energy transferred is converted into static pressure in the impeller itself. The rest of the energy is converted into static pressure in the diffuser. These fans are generally driven at constant speed. The flow is controlled by varying the angle of incidence of impeller blades. It therefore becomes possible by this process to achieve high efficiencies even during part load operation. The blade pitching operation is performed by mechanical linkages connected to a hydraulic servomotor which is flanged to the impeller.

19

Technical Data: Application No. off Medium handled Orientation Capacity Temp. Of medium Speed Coupling Drive motor Rating Speed Fan Weight : 700 KW : 1480 rpm : 8 Tones : Forced Draft Fan :2 : Atmospheric Air : Vertical Suction and Horizontal Delivery : 105.2 m3/Sec : 450C : 1480 rpm : Rigiflex coupling

Type of fan regulation : Blade Pitch Control

4.4.2. Induced draft fan:Radial fans manufactured are single stage, single/ double suction, simply supported/overhung centrifugal machine which can be used to handle fresh air as will as hot gases in power plant application. Technical data: Application No. off Type Medium handled Orientation Delivery Capacity : 250.5 m3/Sec 1540C 740 rpm Hydraulic Coupling 20 : : : : : Induced Draft Fan 3 NDZV 33 S Flue Gas 450 Top incl. Suction Bottom Horizontal,

Temp. of medium : Speed Coupling : :

Rating Speed Fan Weight

: : :

1750 KW 740 rpm 52.7 Tones

4.4.3. Primary air fan
PA Fan is same as forced draft fan. Only the differences is that in this fan there are two stages AP fan(Axial Profiles fan), the two impellers are connected by means of a link rod, with this we can operate both the impeller blades synchronously.

Technical data : Application No. off Type Medium Handled Speed Rating Fan wt. : : : : : : : Primary Air Fan 3 AP 2 17/12 Atmospheric Air 1480 rpm 1400 KW 10.8 tones

STEAM TURBINE
1. INTRODUCTION
Steam turbine is a rotating machine which CONVERTS HEAT ENERGY OF STEAM TO MECHANICAL ENERGY. In India, steam turbines of different capacities, varying from 15 MW to 500 MW, are employed in the field of thermal power generation.

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES
The Thermal Power Plants with steam turbine uses Rankine cycle. Rankine cycle is a vapour power cycle having two basic characteristics:

21

1. the working fluid is a condensable vapour which is in liquid phase during part of the cycle and 2. The cycle consists of a succession of steady flow processes, with each processes carried out in a separate component specially designed for the purpose. Each constitute an open system, and all the components are connected in series so that as the fluid circulates through the power plant each fluid element passes through a cycle of mechanical and thermodynamic stages. The turbine is of tandem compound design with separate HP, IP and LP cylinder. The HP & IP turbines are of single flow type while LP turbine is of double flow type; the turbine is condensing type with single reheat. It is basically engineered on reaction principle with throttle governing. The stages are arranged in HP, IP and LP turbines, driving alternating current full capacity Turbo generators.

3. SPECIFICATION
Type tandem compound condensing Reaction 250 KW 3000 RPM 537 C 150 kg/cm Rated output of turbine Rated speed Main steam temperature Rated pressure

22

Fig.12.turbine

4. TURBINE COMPONENTS
4.1 Casing or Cylinders:
A casing is essentially a pressure vessel which must be capable of withstanding the maximum working pressure and temperature that can be produced within it. The working pressure aspects demand thicker and thicker casing and the temperature aspects demand thinner and thinner casings. 4.1.1 H.P Turbine Casing: The principal parts of the HP turbine casing are and axially split inner shell, enclosing the rotor and outer shell of a barrel-type construction. The barrel type of cylinder construction ensures symmetry of the wall thickness around the axis of rotation and hence the wall thickness itself is relatively less than that used in other type of construction. 4.1.2 I.P. Turbine Casing: The IP turbine is split axially and is of single shell design. The outer casing accommodates a double flow inner casing. which are symmetrically arranged in the top and bottom halves of the outer casing

23

4.1.3

L.P Turbine Casing: The LP turbine is of double flow type. The casing is of triple shell, fabricated construction. The outer casing consists of the front and rear end walls, two longitudinal girders and a top cover. The inner shell of the inner casing acts as the guide blade carriers for the initial stages of the turbine. The guide blade carriers of the LP stage groups are so designed that, together with the inner casing, they form annular ducts which are used for extractions.

5. TURBINE GOVERNING SYSTEM
The main purpose of governor is to maintain this desired speed of turbine during fluctuations of load on the generator by varying steam input to the turbine. The governing system in addition to ensuring the falling load-speed characteristics of the turbine also ensures the following functions:

1. 2. 3.

The run up the turbine from rest to rated speed and synchronizing with the grid. Meeting the system load variations in a predetermined manner, when running in parallel with other machines. Protecting the machine by reducing the load or shutting off completely in abnormal and emergency situations.

The governing system also includes other devices to protect the turbine from abnormal condition that may arise during operation.

Fig.13.turbine governor 24

GENERATOR
2. INTRODUCTION
Mechanical energy is converted into electric power the stator windings of generator by the interaction of rotating magnetic field. Rotating magnetic field is created by field windings mounted on rotor shaft with the help of excitation system. When the shaft is rotated at 3000 RPM by the coupled turbine electric power is generated at a voltage 16.5 KV and 50 HZ frequency. Generator is filled with hydrogen gas for cooling its winding which in turn is cooled by circulating water. The voltage of such generated electricity is step up to 220kv or 400kv through transformer and power transmitted to Ratangarh GSS for Northern Grid, and different areas of Rajasthan. 6.0 million units energy is generated in 250 MW unit in a single day, out of this about ten percent is consumed in unit itself for running its auxiliary equipments like pumps, fans etc. about 3300 metric tons of coal is consumed in one 250 MW unit in one day. Turbo generator manufactured by BHEL in Co-Operate with most modern design concept and constructional features which ensures reliability, easy and constructional and operational economicity. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temp. of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temp. of wdg., core etc as per loads. Technical Data: Apparent power Active Power Current Voltage Speed Power Factor Hydrogen Pr. 294MVA 250 MW 10290 Amps. 16.5 kV+/- 825V 3000 rpm 0.85 3.0 bar 2386 Amps

Rated Field Current -

25

3. GENERATOR COOLING
Hydrogen gas cooling, in an oil-sealed casing, is used because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity which reduces special handling during start-up, with air in the generator enclosure first displaced by carbon dioxide before filling with hydrogen. This ensures that the highly flammable hydrogen does not mix with oxygen in the air. The hydrogen pressure inside the casing is maintained slightly higher than atmospheric pressure to avoid outside air ingress. The hydrogen must be sealed against outward leakage where the shaft emerges from the casing. The generator also uses water cooling.

Fig.14. generator after removal of end shield

TRANSFORMERS
1. STATION TRANSFORMER
When the unit is to be started, power supplied to the auxiliaries is taken from the station transformer. The rating of the station transformer is 50 MVA. It takes power from the grid at 220 KV and steps it down to 6.6 KV. At the time of starting all the auxiliaries are supplied from the station transformer. When the generator is synchronized and starts producing power about 80% of the load is shifted on to the unit auxiliary transformer. 26

2. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER
Each unit has two unit auxiliary transformers. Before starting of the unit, UAT bus is connected to the station bus. UAT is connected between the generator and the GT. UAT relieves GT from extra load of about 20 MW which is to be supplied to the auxiliaries via GT and ST, thus increasing the efficiency. It is a step down transformer, which steps down the voltage from 16.5 KV to 6.9 KV. The rating of UAT is 20 MVA. UAT bus supplies only those auxiliaries, which are not necessary to be energized in case of sudden tripping of generator.

3. UNIT STATION TRANSFORMER
It is a step down transformer, which is connected to the station bus. It steps down the voltage 6.6 KV to 0.433 KV. It is used to supply the low voltage auxiliaries.

4. UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER
It is also a 66 KV/415 V transformer which is used to supply the auxiliaries connected to the unit secondary switchgear bus.

27

Table 4. Generator transformer data

28

CONDENSER
1. FUNCTIONS
    To provide lowest economic heat rejection temperature from the steam. Thus saving on steam required per unit of electricity. To convert exhaust steams to water for reuse this saving on feed water requirement. Deaeration of make-up water introduced in the condenser. To form a convenient point for introducing makes up water.

2. DESCRIPTION OF CONDENSER
The condenser group consists of two condensers, each connected with exhaust part of low pressure casing. A by-pass branch pipe has interconnected these woe condensers. The condenser has been designed to create vacuum at the exhaust of steam turbine and to provide pure condensate for reusing as feed water for the boilers. The tube layout of condenser has been arranged to ensure efficient heat transfer from steam to cooking water passing through the tubes, and at the same time the resistance to flow of steam has been reduced to the barest minimum. 350% capacity condensate pumping sets are installed for pumping the condensate from condenser to the deaerator4 through low-pressure heaters. Two pumps are for normal operation and one works as stand by pump. IN STPS RVUN SURFACE CONDESER is used.

2.1

Surface condenser:

This type is generally used for modern steam turbine installations. Condensation of exhaust steam takes place on the outer surface of the tubes, which are cooled by water flowing inside them. The condenser essentially consists of a shell, which encloses the steam space. Tubes carrying cooling water pass through the steam space. Instead of one inlet and one outlet water boxes, the may be two or more pair of separate inlet-outlet water boxes, each supplying cooling water to a separate bundle of tubes. 29

Fig.15. surface condenser

COOLING TOWERS

1. INTRODUCTION
Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, chemical plants, power stations.

1.1.

CW Pump

Type is single stage double suction centrifugal pump Type Capacity Speed Power Weight : : : : : 1400S25-1 16000m3/H 370rpm 1600KW 35000kg 30

1.2. Cooling Water Pump Motor Specifications
The motor of the CWP has following specification; Type Out Put Power Stator Voltage Speed Frequency : : : : : Y1600-16/2150 1600KW 6.6KV 372rpm 50Hz 182A 2Y 50C Class B 17500Kg

Stator Rated Current : Stator Connection :

Ambient Temperature : Insulation Weight : :

Fig.16. cooling towers 31

DEAERATER
FUNCTIONS
    Removal of dissolved air/oxygen in boiler water. Chemical dosing for maintaining quality of boiler water. Regenerative heating of feed water for increasing its temperature and efficiency of plant. Storage of feed water in water/steam cycle.

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PUMPS
1. BOOSTER PUMP
1.1. Working
50 % tandem boiler feed pump sets are supplied to this contact, three pump sets for each boiler. Two sets are run in parallel, supplying each boiler, with one pump set being on stand-by. Each pump set consists of a “FA1856” booster pump, directly driven form one end of the shaft of an electric driving motor, and a “FK6D30’ boiler feed pump driven from the opposite end of the motor shaft through a variable speed turbo-coupling. The drive is transmitted, in each case through a spacer type flexible coupling. The bearings in the booster pump and pressure stage pump and in the motor are lubricated from a forced lubricating oil system incorporated in the turbo coupling. The booster pump is a single stage, horizontal, axial split casing type, having the suction and discharge branches on the casing bottom half, thus allowing the pump internals to be removed without disturbing the suction and discharge pipe work of the alignment between the pump and the motor. The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and the non-drive end by mechanical seals which are flushed by a supply of clarified water.

1.2. Technical specifications
Pump type : FA1856

Direction of rotation : Anti - clockwise (Viewed from drive end) Liquid pumped Suction temp. Flow rate Efficiency Input power Speed of pump : Boiler Feed Water : 161.10C : 490 m3/hr. : 81 % : 151 KW : 1485 rpm

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2 BOILER FEED PUMP
1.3. Working
The FK6D30 type Boiler Feed Pump is a six stage, horizontal centrifugal pump of barrel casing design.The pump internals are designed as cartridge which can be easily removed for maintenance without disturbing the suction and discharge piping work or the alignment of the pump and the turbo coupling. The pump shaft is sealed at the drive end and non-drive end by mechanical seals, each seal being flushed by water in a closed circuit and which is circulated by the action is cooled by, [assign through a seal cooler, one per pump, which is circulated with clarified cooling water. The rotating assembly is supported by plain white metal lined journal bearings and axially located by a Glacier double tilting pad thrust bearing.

2.2
Pump type No. of stages Direction of rotation : : :

Technical data:
FK6D30 6 Anti – clockwise

(Viewed form drive end) Suction temp. Design flow Efficiency Speed Input power Drive Motor Manufacturer Rating Speed Electrical supply : : : : B.H.E.L., Haridwar 3550 KW 1492 rpm 6.6 kv, 3-ph, 50 Hz 34 : : : : : 161.10C 490 m3/hr. 81 % 5310 rpm 3322 KW

2. CONDENSATE EXTRACTION PUMP
2.1. Working
The condensate Extraction Pumps are of the vertical, eight stage, Centrifugal canister type, with the driving motor supported on a fabricated head piece and the eight inter connected pump stage are suspended below the head piece. The pump discharge branch and suction branch are formed on the head piece above floor level. The eight pump stages are contained within a fabricated canister, and each stage casing is located by spigot and secured together with bolts, nuts and lock washer. The canister is suspended and secure to a foundation ring with screws. The head piece is also secure to the canister with screws. Each pump directly driven through a flexible coupling by a 325 KW electric motor.

2.2. Technical Specifications
Type : EN 8 H 32 Direction of rotation viewed : Clock-wise Suction temp. : 46.10C Sp. Gravity : 0.9901 Speed : 1485 Power absorbed : 266 KW Efficiency : 78 %

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ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS
1. THEORY
E.S.P. is a highly efficient device for extraction of suspended particles and fly ash from the industrial flue gases. E.S.P can handle large volume of gases from which solid particles are to be removed Advantages of E.S.P. are :- High collection efficiency Low resistance path for gas flow Treatment of large volumes at high temp.Ability of cope with corrosive atm.An E.S.P. can be defined as a device which utilized electric forces to separate suspended particles from flue gases .

3. WORKING
Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles Migration of dust particles. Deposition of charge particles on collector surface. Removal of particles. E.S.P. consist of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of thin wire, called discharge or emitting electrode in the form of plates. The emitting electrodes are placed in the center or midway between two plates and are connected to-ve polarity of H.V. D.C source of order of 37 KV collecting electrodes are connected to + ve polarity. The voltage gradient between electrodes creates “CORONA DISCHARGE”, Ionizing the gas molecules. The dust particles present in flue gases acquire ve charge and deposited on collecting electrodes. The deposited particles are removed by knocking the electrode by a process called “RAPPING’ DONE BY “ RAPPING MOTORS”.

Fig.18. E.S.P. 36

ASH HANDLING PLANT
The ash handling system provide for continuous collection of bottom ash from the furnace hearth and its intermittent removal by hydro ejectors to a common slurry sump. It also provides for removal of fly ash to the common slurry sump. Each boiler is provided with ash precipitator for collecting the fly ash from the flue gases with high efficiency of collection to minimize the dust mains and to reduce the wear of induced draft fan. The fly ash separated from flue gases in the ash precipitator is collected in hoppers at the bottom from where it is mixed with water to form slurry and disposed off to pumping area by means of hydro ash pumps. Bottom ash from the boiler furnace is passed through slag crushers and then slurred to the slurry chamber at the suction of the ash disposal pumps. These are high pressure and low pressure pumps for this purpose. At a time one pump is working and other two are stand by. From the ash disposal pump house ash slurry is pumped through pipe lines to the ash dump area within about 1.5 km away from the ash disposal pump house. Too separate discharge lines are provided one for each unit but only one line is used. The ash slurry from the two units is taken in one discharge line through electrically operated valves.

Fig.19. ash handling

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Fig.20. 400 KV layout of STPS 38

220 KV & 400 KV SWITCHYARD AND DIFFERENT EQUIPMENTS INSTALLED AND BUS SCHEMES
1. BUS SCHEME
Main function of the stations is to receive the energy and transmit it at the required voltage level with the facility of switching. At STPS following are the bays:               Bus coupler – 1 Sog -1 Sog -2 Generator transformer -1 Ratangarh -1 Station transformer -1 Bus sectionalizer Ratangarh – 2 Bus tie Generator transformer-2 Interlinking-1 Station transformer-2 Interlinking -2 Station transformer-3 Station transformer-4 39

2. BUS SYSTEM
There Are Mainly Three Buses    Main Bus-1 Main Bus-2 Transfer Bus

Material of bus bar- Tarantull Al conductor with a capacity of 2400 amperes. Bus coupler-1 can be used as GT breaker for unit 1, 2 and 3. Only one bus coupler can be used as a GT breaker at a time.

3. SF6 GAS CIRCUIT BREAKERS:
In this type of breaker quenching of arc is done by SF6 gas. The opening and closing of the circuit breaker is done by air.

3.1. Type designation:E L F SL 4 1 : : : : : : S F 6 Gas Insulation Generation Out Door Design Breaker Construction Code BIL Rated Voltage 4 – 245 / 460 / 1050 kv No. of chamber

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3.2. Specifications of SF6 gas ciruit breakers
Table 5. Technical data of SF6 circuit breaker for 220 and 400 KV
CIRUIT BREAKERS FOR Rated lightning impulse with stand voltage Rated short circuit breaking current Rated operating pressure of air First pole to clear factor Rated voltage Rated current Rated closing circuit voltage Rated opening circuit voltage Rated voltage, frequency Rated line charging breaking current 220 KV 1050 kvp 17 ka 15 kg / cm 2 1.5 245 kv 200A 220 V DC 220 V DC 415 V AC 50 Hz 125 A 400KV 1425 kvp 17 ka 15.5 kg / cm2 1.3 420kv 200A 220 V DC 220 V DC 415 V AC 50 Hz 600 A

4. ISOLATORS
Isolators are used to make or break the circuit on no load. They should never be operated on load. The isolators installed in the sub station have a capacity of 1250 amperes. They are double end break type, motor operated and can be operated from local as well as remote. 41

5. CURRENT

AND

CAPACTIVE

VOLTAGE

TRANSFORMERS
These are used for metering and protection. It should always be kept in mind that a CT should never be open circuited and a PT should never be short-circuited.

6. LIGHTINING ARRESTOR AND ARC HORNS
Protection against lighting

7. BUS COUPLER TO MAIN BREAKER
    Close the isolator 1 & 3 of GT. Close the breaker a 1 of GT Close the isolator 5,7 & breaker b 1 After this work close the isolator 9, 10

8. CHANGE OVER SCHEMES (BUS TIE SYSTEM)
When main breaker is in service (on load change over):      Ensure Transfer bus is free (check any temporary earthing) Charge the transfer by closing bus coupler isolator and circuit breaker. Put the switches provided on bus coupler on generator control cum desk panel. Charge the transfer bus by closing isolator d of GT. Check the isolator of GT through which it has been already connected to the bus. 42

MAINTENANCE JOBS TO BE DONE ON 220 KV & 400 KV SWITCH YARD
1. DAILY JOB
         Visual checking for any hot spot Checking of air leakage from the breaker Checking for any gas leakage from the breaker Checking of air pressure of breaker Checking of gas pressure of breaker Checking of oil leakage form CT and CVT Checking of oil level from CT and CVT Checking of lubricating oil level in compressors Checking healthiness of trip circuit for all breakers.

2. MONTHLY JOB
 Thermo vision scanning of conductor joints and attending to the hot spot on available opportunity    Breaker operation checking from local and remote Isolators operation from remote and local. Measurement of specific gravity and voltage of 220 V D. C> Battery cells.

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3. QUARTERLY JOB
3.1. Breakers
     Tightening of breaker clamps Cleaning of breaker cubicles Checking of oil level of compressors of SF6 breakers. Lubrication of rollers, mechanism shafts, anti pumping pin and c clips. Checking operation of breakers through trip coil 1, trip coil 2, both the coils, anti pumping operation and pole discrepancy operation  Checking of pressure of gas and air pressure of breakers.

3.2. Isolators
     Tightening of the jumper clamps Tightening of electrical connections Cleaning of male female connections Checking of fuses and replacement there F. Checking of operation of isolators

3.3. Current transformers
   Checking of oil level. Checking of oil and leakage Tightening of jumper clamps 44

3.4. Lightning Arrestors
     Tightening of jumper connections Tightening of earthing connections Checking of counter reading Checking of porcelain part Checking of grading current

3.5. Capacitive Voltage Transformer
   Checking of oil level and leakage Tightening of HT jumper clamps. Tightening of secondary terminal connections

3.6
  

Battery 220 V D.C.

Cleaning of battery terminals Tightening of battery terminal connections Recording of specific gravity and voltage of each cell.

4. DURING ANNUAL SHUT DOWN OF UNITS
4.1. Breaker
 Checking and cleaning of porcelain part of the breaker. 45

  

Cleaning of breaker cubical Tightening of all the terminal connection Lubrication of I) C and D Roller (II) Locking pins (III) Anti Pumping pins (IV) Mechanism Shafts

   

Recording of closing and tripping of each phase Recording of insulation resistance value of breaker Checking of annunciator and inter locks. Checking of tripping through Trip Coil I Trip Coil II

     

Measurement of resistance of trip cells and closing coils Checking of air leakage and its stoppage Checking the gas leakage Replacing the oil of compressors Checking of auto operation of compressors Complete maintenance of compressors

4.2. Isolators
    Cleaning of male female connections Tightening of all the jumper clamps Lubrication of control rotary post insulator with grease Checking of proper operation of the isolator

46

    

Cleaning the motor cubical Tightening of all the terminal connections Greasing the gear box of motor Checking of all the fuses Checking of operation of isolator from local/remote

4.3. Current Transformers
          Checking / cleaning of porcelain part of CT Checking of oil and level and stopping it if low Checking of oil leakage and its stoppage Checking of N2 pressure and maintaining it at 0.2 kg/cm2 Tightening of earthing connection Checking of BDV value of CT oil Tightening of all the secondary terminal connections Cleaning of marshalling box and tightening of terminal connections Recording of IR values of primary and secondary side of CT Tightening of bushing clamps.

4.4. Capacitive Voltage Transformers
    Checking of oil level and topping thereof Checking of N2 pressure and maintaining it at 0.2 kg/cm2 tightening of jumper clamps. Tightening of secondary connection 47

4.5. Lightning Arrestors
      Cleaning of porcelain part and checking Tightening of earthing connection Tightening of jumper connection Recording of IR values Checking of counter readings Checking of grading current

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CONCLUSION
The first phase of practical training has proved to be quite fruitful. It provided an opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like wagon tippler, 110 MW, 210 MW turbines and generators. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines, but the greater part is of planning proper management. It also provides an opportunities to learn low technology used at proper place and time can have a lot of labour eg. Wagon tippler (CHP). But there are few factors that require special mention. Training is not carried out into its free sprit. It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done. However, training has proved to be quite fruitful. It has allowed an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals.

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REFERENCES
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_power_station 2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deaerator 3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economiser 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regenerative_heat_exchanger 5. http://www.tva.gov/power/coalart.htm 6. http://www.google.co.in/images 7. http://wapedia.mobi 8. http://images.google.co.in/images 9. http://www.rerc.gov.in 10. http://www.rvunl.com

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