STUDY OF THE REGIONAL GOVERNMENT CAPACITY ON CLIMATE CHANGE RELATED DISASTER RISK REDUCTION IN SMALL OUTER ISLANDS (CASE

IN ALOR REGENCY PROVINCE OF NUSA TENGGARA TIMUR) ABSTRACT M. A. FATHONI Magister Manajemen Bencana Sekolah Pascasarjana UGM The research was conducted through a case study in Alor District as an outer island of Indonesia which consist of 20 small islands and have high vulnerability to multi-disaster. Climate change has increase the hazard of climate change related disaster in small islands includes abrasion, sea level rise, flood, drought and typhoon. High exposure of region to hazard and vulnerability should be tackled by strengthening regional capacity especially the capacity of regional government. The aims of this research were: 1) study the capacity of regional government in Alor Regency, 2) analyze role division for working units of Alor regional government, 3) formulate strategy for strengthening the capacity of Alor Regency; on climate change related Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR). Data collection was conducted by Focus Group Discussion, interview and institutional survey. First objective was analyzed using quantitative method based on Guidelines of Regional Capacity Assessment which published by National Disaster Management Agency, second objective was analyzed using qualitative method, and third objective was analyzed using SWOT analysis. Results showed that the capacity of Alor government on climate change related DRR was at the level 1 for: 1) information system, risk assessment, and disaster early warning; 2) research, education and training; and 3) basic risk reduction; level 2 for regulation, institution, and planning; and level 4 for preparedness. There were 4 working units of regional government which have a role on climate change-related DRR: Regional Disaster Management Agency, Regional Department of Marine and Fisheries, Regional Environmental Agency, and Regional Department of Public Work. Strategy for strengthening the capacity of Alor Regency on climate change-related DRR are strengthening the institution and regulation, developing forum for DRR which unite all stakeholder, also implementing community based DRR. Keywords: regional government capacity, disaster risk reduction, climate change, outer small islands

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as well as natural disasters and environmental degradation (Ministry of Marine and Fisheries. Pendahuluan Indonesia as the largest archipelago in the world have a long coastline of over 95.475 of which belong to the category of small islands. 2003). 2011) A region in Indonesia. Figure 1.508 islands with 17. Alor District consists of 20 small islands. Alor which consisti 2 ..1 million km 2 (Dahuri et al. 22nd UN General Assembly Special Session in 1999 generate State of Progress and I nitiatives for the Future Implementation of the Programme of Action for Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States for a period of 5 years (1999-2004) which stipulates that priority issues in the management of small islands in the form of: climate change and rising sea levels. 1996). which consists of small islands is Alor. as well as the vast of ocean about 3.1. Disaster vulnerability in East Nusa Tenggara Province (Alor was circled in red) (Source: BNPB. with 9 of them are uninhabited.181 km and more than 17.

Research Boer. (2009) proved that Nusa Tenggara. Besides relying on the type of threat. Logistical support from outside the area may be delayed in the event of a disaster so that emergency response in the early days to be prepared by the local government. hence the need for the notion of adaptation. vulnerability and capacity.. Therefore. including Alor experiencing elongated drought. The area included in the Nusa Tenggara region is classified as an area of shifting seasons. (Source: Boer et al. et.ng of small islands have a high level of vulnerability to disasters. The concept developed by 3 . it is necessary to strengthen the capacity of local governments in disaster risk reduction in Alor Distric. With the more crucial issue of climate change. 2009). In Alor impacts of climate change was already exist. Changes in long dry season in Indonesia. disaster risk reduction of climate change related disaster in the outer islands also have to pay attention to the lack of infrastructure and access to the surrounding area. Typical characteristics of small island causing climate change management in small islands is different from other regions. particularly in climate change related disaster. Figure 2. preparedness and mitigation through actions and investment programs as a form of good management for the small island community resilience. especially those in the mainland.al. especially for smal islands such as Alor District.

UNISDR (2010) revealed that in particular. Regional Disaster Management Agency. Regional Department of Marine and Fisheries. will determine and plan for disaster risk reduction in the region together with the local government authorities based on the capacity and the resources they have. the adaptive capacity of local government capacity in disaster risk reduction remains a major problem in disaster management in general. crucial thing to do is increase the adaptive capacity of a small island. 3. and formulate empowerment strategy of Alor government in climate change related disaster risk reduction in small islands in Alor District. FGD conducted with reference to a questionnaire from BNPB. It is often a reflection k apacitas weak local governance.Turner et al. 4 . A common challenge associated with this is the lack of interest and local government capacity in disaster risk reduction. Furthermore. FGD includes participants from Regional Planning Agency. issues related to local government capacity is a crucial need for efforts to establish a planning process in which people can participate. Rural Community Empowerment Board. The primary data in this study were collected by focus group discussion (FGD). Regional Department of Social Affairs. Regional Department of Public Works. assess the role of Alor government and strategies that must be implemented by the government in climate change related disaster risk reduction in Alor based on capacity analysis of local government. indicate that to reduce the level of vulnerability of small islands. This study aims to know capacity of Alor government in facing climate change related disasters in small islands. and Regional Department of Forestry. b. (2003). Secondary data were collected by survey to each related institution. Regional Environmental Agency. Regional Agriculture and Food Security Agency (BKPPP). Methods Data collecting in this research used triangulation technic to collect data as follow: a. Regional Department of Health.

focus group discussions.The variables and parameters of government capacity in climate change related disaster risk reduction that would be observed in this research adjusted with regional capacity assessment guidelines which is determined by National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) in reference to the priority of disaster risk reduction within the Hyogo Framework for Action. institutional planning  and  Parameter Local legal and policy framework for disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change already exist with explicit responsibilities defined for all levels of government Availability of resources (facilities. Variables. infrastructure. Research efforts.) School curricula. agency visits. interviews. budget) allocated specifically for disaster risk reduction activities due to climate change at all levels of government Emergence of community participation and decentralization via the division of responsibilities and resources at the local level Functioning of the forum / network specific to the area of disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change Availability Disaster risk assessment of climate change in d aerah based on hazard data and vulnerability to include the risk for local key sectors The availability of systems ready to monitor.. Table 2. and training related to disaster management    5 . education. risk assessment. human resources. literature 3. Variables Regulatory. education material and relevant trainings include concepts and practices on disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change and its recovery Availability of research methods to study the risk of disaster due to climate change as well as cost benefit analysis (cost benefit analysist) are always being developed based on the quality of research results Implementation of strategies for the entire community awareness membangu in implementing disasterData Acquisition Method   2. early warning and disaster      Questionnaires. development of systems to share information. archive and disseminate data on potential disasters due to climate change and major vulnerabilities The availability of early warning systems that are ready for large-scale operation with a wide range throughout the population Consider Regional Risk Assessment of Transboundary Risks To Promote Inter-regional Cooperation for disaster risk reduction due to climate change Provision of relevant information on disasters due to climate change and can be accessed at all levels by all stakeholders (through networks. Variables and parameters of local government capacity used in this research are presented in Table 2. 1. Information systems. etc. parameters and data collection methods No.

namely: a. Based on BNPB (2012). Level 1: The area has had small achievements in disaster risk reduction b. Availability of policy. interviews. especially infrastructure. literature The level of local government capacity is obtained by combining the assessment questionnaire with a variable index of priority capacity each derived from an index indicators or parameters capacity. including enforcement and permit requirements a building for public health and safety (enforcement of building codes) Measures of disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change integrated into the processes of rehabilitation and post-disaster recovery Ready originally procedures to assess the disaster risk impacts due to climate change or major development projects. the capacity level can be divided into five levels. Preparedness for disaster due to climate change    resistant cultural practice that is able to reach the wider community in both urban and rural. 6 . focus group discussions.4. Efforts to reduce the basic risk factors         5. land use and adaptation to climate change Plans and social development policies implemented to reduce the vulnerability of populations most at risk of climate change impacts Plans and sectoral policies in the field of economics and production have been implemented to reduce the vulnerability of economic activities Planning and management of human settlements contain elements of disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change. institutional and technical capacity for emergency handling mechanism with a strong perspective of disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change in the implementation The availability of a contingency plan disaster due to climate change are potentially ready at all government levels. Disaster risk reduction as a result of climate change is one of the objectives of the policies and plans relating to the environment. agency visits. regular exercise was held to test and develop programs for emergency response Availability of financial and logistical backup and anticipation mechanisms that are ready to support effective emergency response efforts and post-disaster recovery due to climate change Availability of relevant procedures to conduct a review after the disaster due to climate change on the exchange of relevant information during emergency response Questionnaires. Level 2: Region has implemented several measures to disaster risk reduction achievements are still sporadic. including natural resource management.

d. Table 3. Table 4. To ensure the capacity level of each indicator. 1. Question structure First question Second question Third question Functions Identification of initiatives to reach minimum result of each indicator Identification of minimum achievement whether it’s already achieved or not Identification of minimum function of the achievement whether it’s already achieved or not Identification of systematic change of developed function based on existing achievement Struktur penilaian If the answer is YES. e. so the region has reach level 2 If the answer is YES. Level 3: Commitment tekait government and some community disaster risk reduction has been achieved in the area and is supported by a systematic policy. Levels of priority index is obtained by finding the average value of each indicator value. The function and structure of the assessment questions for each question are presented in Table 3. 4 = No 80 5 Answer 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = Yes 100 7 . These four questions for each of these indicators have a question function and structure of different assessment. but acknowledged there are still limitations. so the region has reach level 4 4. the classification of levels of priority and capacity levels are determined by the system presented in Table 4. Level 5: Comprehensive achievement has been achieved with commitment and sufficient capacity in all levels of community and government levels. 2. Fourth question Source: BNPB (2012) Questionnaire answer was given a value according to each indicator as seen in table 3.c. Value of each indicator based on questionnaire answer No Questionnaire answer Indicators value 1 Answer 1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = No 0 2 Answer 1 = Yes. Relationship between question structure and assessment structure No. 3 = 4 = No 60 4 Answer 1 = 2 = 3 = Ya. Furthermore. so it takes a maximum of four questions for a total of 22 indicators needed 88 questions. 3. 2 = 3 = 4 = No 40 3 Answer 1 = 2 = Ya. so the region has reach level 3 If the answer is YES. Level 4: With the commitment and support of a comprehensive policy on disaster risk reduction in a region has obtained successful outcomes. but not comprehensive. so the region has reach level 4 If the answer is YES.

conducted a SWOT analysis (Strengh.1-70 35. Data processing for this research was done by gather stakeholder’s perceptions through FGD which is then described and summarized. Weakness. and Threat) based on the FGD data Based on the 8 . Classification of level of priority and capacity Value 85. education.Table 5. Oportunity. A E B D C Figure 3.1-55 ≤35 Level 5 4 3 2 1 Result of this analysis was presented in diagram as seen in figure 3. Priority index diagram Description: A = Regulation.1. institutional and planning B = Information system and warnings of disaster C = The efforts of research.100 70. To answer the third research question related to disaster reduction strategies that should be implemented by the government. and training related to disaster management D = Reducing the basic risk factors E = Effort preparedness for a disastrer response The concept of analysis used in the analysis of the role of stakeholders in the climate change related qualitative data analysis.1-85 55.

namely SO strategies (Strength-Opportunity). Regional Department of Public Works (DPU). In Alor District. Diagram of Alor Government Capacity in Climate Change Related Disaster Risk Reduction The result showed that Alor government capacity in climate change related disaster risk reduction is still low. and training related to disaster management C Figure 4. level 2 on the priority actions I and Level 4 on the priority action V. Priority Action I Regulation. Results and Discussions Capacity index of regional government capacity in climate change related disaster risk reduction can be presented in figure 4. and WT Strategies (Weakness-Threat). They are Regional Disaster Management Agency (BPBD). institutional A and planning Priority Action V Effort preparedness for a disastrer E response Priority Action II Information system. there were 5 departments who related with climate change related disaster risk reduction.SWOT analysis can be determined four different strategies. at level 1 on the priority action II. III and IV. education. ST Strategies (Strength-Threat). Regional Environmental 9 . 4. WO strategies (Weakness-Opportunity). risk assessment and B disaster warning Priority Action IV Reducing the basic risk factors D Priority Action III The efforts of research.

BPBD Dissemination of DRR (flood and typhoon) DKP Establishment of regional marine conservation area BLH Controlling the effect of climate change to provision of green land DPU Establishment of coastal protection facilities Pre disaster BPBD Rehabilitation and reconstruction of social environment after flood and abration Pasca bencana Emergency response BPBD Emergency aid distribution DPU Rehabilitation and reconstruction of road and bridge Figure 5.Agency (BLH). Role of each department in climate change related disaster risk reduction in Alor District Based on the results of local government capacity assessment can be formulated strategy for local government capacity building in climate change related disaster. The strategy was developed using SWOT analysis presented in Table 6. SWOT Analysis straregi disaster due to climate change in Alor District 10 . and Regional Department of Marine and Fisheries (DKP). The role of these department can be depicted in figure 5. Table 6.

In Alor District. Conclusion Alor government capacity in climate change related disaster risk reduction is still low. level 2 on the priority actions I and Level 4 on the priority action V. They 11 . III and IV. ST strategies:  Intensification programs in strengthening community preparedness and disaster risk reduction factors basic WT strategies:  Improved coordination and cooperation amongstakeholders in order to overcome the problems of low iagaan kesiaps society.  Strength Existing stakeholders implementing DRR PI practice and has formed BPBDs Availability of supporting data including the map is complete     Weakness Resources are limited. especially people for disasters due to climate change The high baseline risk factors SO strategies:  Intensification of cooperation amongstakeholders in order to improve resilience in the face of disaster areas due to climate change  Discussion forum as a medium for the dissemination of disasterrelated information that is backed by the full data WO Strategies:  Utilization discussion forum for capacity building and support infrastructure improvements such as written rules.  Development of communitybased early warning system in accordance karifan locally developed in the community. education. the media and academia) to DRR PI Communities utilizing local knowledge and natural phenomena as a warning of impending disaster due to climate change Threats There is still a lack of preparedness. high fator k basic risk factors. NGOs. and training related to DRR PI still limited The government has not established the system of early warning of catastrophic climate change      Opportunity Cooperation has been established between the government and local communities in DRR activities PI Discussion . policies and other supporting documents. there were 5 departments who related with climate change related disaster risk reduction. lack of education and training efforts related to CC-DRR 5.an informal discussion between groups (government. the Red Cross. at level 1 on the priority action II. there are no written rules specifically regarding DRR PI and yet have a specific budget for DRR activities PI There are no documents for disaster risk assessment due to climate change Research efforts.

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