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UNDER THE EDITORSHIP OF

The

Rev.

SAMUEL ROLLES DRIVER,
Reg-ius Professor of

D.D., D.LlTT.,

Hebrew, Oxford;

The

Rev.

ALFRED PLUMMER,
College,

Late Master of University

M.A., D.D., Durham;

THE

Rev.

CHARLES AUGUSTUS BRIGGS,

D.D., D.LlTT.

Professor of Theological Encyclopedia and Symbolics, Union Theological Seminary, New York.

THE JOHANNINE EPISTLES
Rev. Canon A. E.

BROOKE,

D.D.

.

& T. 38 GEORGE STREET . HKC'l uiwuaa T. D. COIXMB IBLLOW. BROOKE. EDINBURGH CLARK. E.D. BEAM AMD DlVtXIYT LBCTO***.The International Critical Commentary A CRITICAL AND EXEGETICAL COMMENTARY ON THE JOHANNINE EPISTLES BY Ret. Canon A.

. EDINBURGH SCRIBNER'S SONS HEW YORK: CHARLES First printed Reprinted . .. 1912 1937 • MAY 1 8 1964 The Rights of Translation and Reproduction are Reserved ..AND OIBB LIMITED FOR T.PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY MORRISON .. & T. CLARK. .

apart from the wider question of the date and authorship of the Fourth Gospel. or the value of his words for The process is possible. or hazard conjectures. about the author's theology. and places of early Christian history. places. at least in outline. or their constituent parts. The vn carries with it one necessary result. if we do later generations. or the exact place and date his readers to of his activity. determine what it was that the writer wanted to say to definite groups of stances father to his men and women whom he knew. that of determining. and to assign them.PREFACE. what the writer seems to have intended understand by the words which he addressed When that has been done we may permit to them. The question of authorship has been It cannot be profitably discussed deliberately avoided. a matters connected with exhortation to given prominence method attempted . not know the writer's name. and decades. But we can. in the light of our knowledge of Christian life and thought at the end of the First and beginning of the Second Century. series of ingenious attempts to fit the Epistles into the scheme of known facts. dates. as a spiritual own children in the Faith. but definite persons. ourselves to draw conclusions. even. and whose circumhe enables us to depict. I believe. equally difficult task has been attempted. to A more modest. The following Commentary is an attempt to apply to the Johannine Epistles the method of historical interpretation. the only method of exegesis which can claim to be I do not mean by historical interpretation a scientific.

' seen. The may is or may Theologian. I have to offer for want of and completeness consistency in interpretation. Jiilicher's patronising " Der appreciation of its value is somewhat amusing. as well as for the late date at which the book appears. . Undoubtedly interest he was not have been a the Pastor of his " His chief the cure of souls. during the period of The This is the only excuse writing as well as that of passing the sheets through the Press. My sincerest thanks are due to Dr. trotz seiner erbaulichen Tendenz.vill PREFACE edification and which may seem But is Critical Commentary. as Jiilicher has not. lead to uneven results." The meaning of his words can the be determined by sympathetic recollection of this only obvious fact. even though in points of detail his and discusses only and believing have in order that his readers He teaches may believe. Rothe's Commentary on the First Epistle is by far the most illuminating book which has been written on the subject. Plummer for the kind liberality with which he has interpreted the duties of Editor. and knows them well. explanations of particular phrases and passages are often unsatisfactory and unconvincing." The supreme merit of Rothe's really remarkable work is that " " his tendency to edify has given him sympathetic insight into the meaning and aims of a writer at least as guilty as himself of the crime of 'erbaulichen Tendenz. Spasmodic efforts. life. July 191a. preparation of this Commentary has been the Tccpipyov of several years in such intervals as could be spared from Septuagint and College Work. any out of proportion in a other method of scientific. interpreting the Johannine Epistles writer or even possible? Flock. that the writer knows to He has whom he is writing. and the invaluable help which I have in consequence received from him. frequently interrupted. wertvollste.

lxxi 9. Greek Words used in the Epistles . . § 12. 229 235 E. 5..CONTENTS. xxxviii \< . Authors and Works C. . —The General B. 7. . . . .. lxii« 8. . The Second Epistle The Third Epistle Historical lxxix lxxxi Background Shorter Epistles . . 166 181 . The Epistles and the Gospel The Aim Destination Analysis The False Teachers Literary History . Greek Words and Phrases explained D. . Old Latin Version . 197 225-242 . Authorship of the Epistles . lxxxiv 1 Notes on the First Epistle Notes on the Second Epistle Notes on the Third Epistle Appendix Indices A. Second and Third lxxiii § 10. 3. FAOB Introduction to the Johannine Epistles § § § § § § i. Words used in Gospel but not in Epistles . 6. i-xc i 2. § § § The Text Commentaries. etc. xxx xxxii 4. . of the TWO .. § ii. . . . 225 226 228 . xxvii .

.

and Huther may be mentioned. § i. John in its relation to the Gospel. to the two writings to is An attempt has been made bring out its very true . which forms the second " Problem of the First of his series of articles on the Epistle of He has collected. all the evidence on the subject which can be derived from the vocabulary. And the patent similarity of style. that the explanation of the obvious connection between the two writings is to be found in imitation rather than in identity of authorship. style. Ewald. and content of In the present section the Epistle.INTRODUCTION. men of widely divergent views. Holtzmann's article in scholars cannot be ignored. especially as the number who reject the modern times. (a) Identity The discussion of the question whether the First Epistle and the Gospel are by the same author may seem to many to be almost a waste of time. as compared with the Gospel. But the views of a minority of competent of those increased in Baur's view. meets with an increasing number of supporters who have a right to be heard. among whom Eichhorn. Liicke." stated with absolute fairness. Keim. The list of phrases common striking. and S. 1882. De Wette. the freest use has been made of his article. traditional view has been largely Protestantische Theologie. and most of the lists are practically taken from his. and ways of thinking between the two writings might reasonably be regarded as leaving no room for doubt. The Epistles and the Gospel. of Authorship. 128. p. The most careful and exhaustive discussion of the question the Jahrbuch fur is contained in H. language. The view which at first sight must seem obvious has always heen maintained by the majority of The list includes scholars who have investigated the sebject. Credner.

v. Tbv vlbv rbv fiovoyevrj (buKev. xiv. 8. viii. iv Ty ffKorlg. viii. i. 14. 7. 8. iii. 29. 9. t& ov TiKva tov Oeov ri TJ} ii. 19). 8. I. iK (v. . . xvii. I. 36). ii. iii. ix tov rarpbi tov diafibXov io-Ti. iii. . Civ iK tov Otov. iii. iii. 16. viii. 5). iv. 9. ri lrvevfia rrjt oWtjOelat. iii. 13. aXrjOelat. pi] ffKorta. 4. 20. 6 yeyevvrj/xivot iK tov Oeov b yevvrjOtU iK tov deov. 6. fro Hkvo. rb aXyOelat (cf. i. 10. xwxore TeOiarau i. 18.ov Ijrt xvii. 3. fro yivwffKw/j. icri (cf. i. 23. iK tov K6fffj. ii.XXov xap&KXrp-ov vvevixa. xi. 6 Tf/MTarwK iv (cf. 16. Gospel. 6 Si iroiuv ttjv iX^Oetav. i{ clvtov yeyivvirru. IO). vvv TtK»a Otov iofUv (cf. 21. yeyevvrjfiivov iK tov V. eyevy/j. iv. 16). xii. ij aW-fjOeia ovk (any iv tj/mv. tov novoycvovs vlov tov . fro yiyuffKualy ct ri» fxbvov aXrjOivbv Otbv. II. 9. Orjo-av qui. 21. rbv vlbv avrov rby fiovoyeyi) &xi<TTa\Kfy. Oeov I. v. veptvaT^ffy iw i. iii. 6. tfwKev avroTs i£ovrlap riKva. iK tt}i a\t)9(lat ovk (o-tiv. T<jJ OK&rei TepiraTwfifP. xepJ tt}j dibaxvt) trbrepov iK tov Otov iffTlV. Cf. iK tov Otov ytyivvrjTOA (cf. 6. JOHN [§1. iv. rjj o-kotUj. /jLovoyevfy 8e6t (v. &yiirri iK tov Oeov iffrlv. TOT^po fwpaKiv iupaKtp x*4- iv. in the passages by a fuller quotation of the Greek which Holtzmann has collected. iv. Trjt . xi. Oeov yeviaOai. Otov K\r)6Qfity. 6. 18. 10. . 19. Oebv ovbeh vi. ii. tcrrw. 12. natus iii.\-/iO eta OVK 4. iii. Epistle. ov voiovfitv t^v i\-/)0eiay. vfiels iK tovtov tov koc^ov el xv. iv. 16 f. . 6 17. viii. 35. 12. xviii. ovx ^ T < T0>' Tit. 13. xviii. (1)1 fiovoyevovs irapa irarpbs. 37. . iK rrji aXriOelar ifffUv. iii. 47. 2). i. ii. vav rb Otov. 52. rb vvevpM rqt xvi. iK tov SiajibXov iarlv.THE EPISTLES OF significance S. vii. v. 44. iK tov v. 19. 18. 1). iv xv. i. 7- "h 1-4. 0? . ovk iffrw dX^fleto iv avry. v. b fiovoyevty vlbs). Oebv ovSelt Tore. 18. iK tov k6c/jlov iarly (cf. viii. 46. 14. 26). iKt'ivos. rbv Oebv Sv ovx iCipaxev. 20. b yeyevvrjfxivot ryevftarot. 2. iv. 12. 44. ovk (ffTip iK tov Oeov (cf. iras 6 &v iK ttji aXrjOetas. iv. Otov. i. (cf.tv rbv iXrjOivbv. iii. est). TQimp i] i. 6. rtpiraret iv bteffKopvifffxiva.

(cf. 6 feds ^c fiivei iv. v.u.ov. v. fiivere iv airrip. 16). 27. 8. iii. 20. iv. iiceivos virip rjfiGiv rijv ^/vxh v clvtov fdrjuev. tva elSfjre v. 12. 9. oi) Svvarai dfiaprdveiv. 4. dfiaprlav ovk t-xopev. rjfiiv (cf. 12. 1 4. 13. 6. ttjv fiaprvplav tu>v dvdpih- iruv \afifidvofiev. i. iii. 8). idv iv v/xlv fielvrj 8 dv' dpx^s ii. IS. curry fiiveiv 6. 4. 24. vltc-q v. vv. 6 \iywv ii. 28. 5* ^Ketvos 6 i<pavepibdri &prj. ii. v. iv iii. 20. 13. 13. viK-tjcracra ii. iv. 13). I. fielfav iarlv 6 (?eds ttJs iv. ioTiv 6 vikCjv Tbv Kbap. i. . fiel^wv iarlv b ^p 77 ft/up. viKq. Gospel. fieTape^Kafxev iK tov davdtov els TTjV £lj)i)V. T) Tbv 7) k6<t/j. 0^ (v. iii. 7rws) diWrcu d7a. tva rds dfiaprlas v. i\d&v 81 SSaros /cai ai'/uaros (cf. 6. xiv. 16).7rai\ iii.J THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL Epistle. 24. l6. 9.ov \ 9. 5' T^ s el Tbv k6(t/j. fielfav ii.ov (cf. fiaprvpla tov 6eov iariv. 8ti fwV ^X*7"* alwviov. 15. v. iii.

6 vlbs ntvei els rbv alwva. /jloi iii. . 16. 6. iverelXaro). 5. . r-qpui/xev 3. fie'vei els rbv alQva.1 TTjpu>v auras (cf. is the only exact parallel.\. . With regard to the use of ckcivos of Christ. iv. ov xP € ^ av £x ere fr" a Tts ^ l " ov xP e av ^ &X ev xiii. e'vroXds. ttov inrdyu (cf. S. 17). [§1.aivr)v SLSwpu vfuv. 5. ii. iii. which is obviously a mistake. iKelvos 8e fXeyev irepl rov tva. xiv. 33). 6 6 . (iKehos — Christ) Kadws ("KeTvoj irepLeirdTrjaev (cf. iii. . 23. ov xp el- av ^X e ' s (cf.ydirr]i> teal iyvwKafiev 6ti av el K. ovt6s io-Ttv 6 £d)v. 16. 9). xv. ayvlcruMJiv iavrovs.T. Kadus ZSwKev ivToKty vpXv. . iii. ovk oldas ol8a . iv. xiii. a growing tendency to use eVeivos of Christ.IT THE EPISTLES OF Epistle. 8e8u)Keiaav 8e ol dpxtepeis . the Gospel. I. ii. almost as a proper name. 5). ii. 4. ii. fierd crov 4Ketp6s 35. K. viii. 6 ^x uv Ta * £woXis /iov ko. a use which has become fixed in the Epistle.ev a. 22. . In all the other instances there is some sort of antecedent which determines the meaning of ckcivos. i. 6. /cat iKelvos 6l8ev Srt dXTj^f. JOHN Gospel. 5s 5' av TTjprj avrov rbv yoi>. it is possible to see in the Gospel. The attempt has been made to show how each phrase is used . ovtos t)v 6 ilirihv v.et> ffTevKafj. 7. ii. to the usage of the Epistle. 6 (?) xix.T. Kaduis ('vtoXtjv fdwKt't' trar-fip {v. at any rate. l va T^ ffe ipurgi 10. 6 xP ia r ^ i " ntvei els rbv alQva (not confined to Johannine books). 10). 8. XaXwv iffTLV. Kot r)/j. 3. Holtzmann quotes The last passage from Jn. ii. %va Tit 8d<TKji u/xas. . v. II. TTjpf)- (cf. 17. 4. (cf. 8rav fKOy iKelvos. 24. . ( dv ras ivrokas ai'roO XIV. ii. ovrSs 6 /SaTrrifwp.X. . 3. if it is to be interpreted in this sense. v. avrov. ivroXrjv iraTTjp 8£8wKev rl eiwu). iii. 7ro0 inrdyei. 34. 27. vaou rov (ribfiaros ("Keipov 8el auljdveiv.els iyvwKapiev tt]v kclI Trent- vi. 5. But. ianv ) — 8v elwov. \iyet. not quoted by Holtzmann. 7ras 6 iroiwv ttjv a/JLaprlav. 3). . ivroKriv K. /xapTvpricrfl. ras ivroKas raj ^tias crere. 7?/xe?r TreTTio~TeuKa/j. I. if it is earlier than the Epistle. ovk fX iii. iras 6 ttoiQv ttjv dfiaprlav (cf. ttov irn-dyeis xvi. 69. K<x2 8. €i XP e ^ av vlipaadai). ovk otte* irov inrdyei. dyvlfci iavrbv.

Other. at least been intelligent use and The noticed (1) : following points of similarity of style have often been The infrequent . I J n. «V avra> . 18 (the upper line gives the words of the Epistle. 41. in which the same outline is variously filled up.s I tt. rather question of copying. akXd. varies his own phrases. But the question can only be determined after considering the other evidence. 16. t VI. there has not slavish imitation. J .a tov /Lcovoyevovs 6 deos Trepl tov e viov ~ avrov ~ n tov utov *•• \ or i T j n. but extends to common types. i..tvovo'av. The connection is obvious. v. instances of this have been noticed. I 1. 4 with Jn. 13 with Jn. 1 In. Compare i Jn. the lower of the Gospel) 6 p. T Jn. 8 with Jn. iii. y^s eo*Tiv -. Again. In explaining it the choice has to be made between an imitator and a writer repeating. 2.. cV ^/aiv. iii. not without significant variations. . 7rarpos vjjudv f . ovk .. 1 y^s » * ev avru) fievofiev kcu ciutos v. 10 with Jn.. .l tovto xai tov koct/aou T77S \ XaXovcrtv ~ . t oiSaTC . use of the relative. This use ii. . «x« auoviov (v avrw p. 11. iii. is very frequent Cf. ill.r\ irioreiW tu> 1 6ew ' xl/tvo-rriv »?• ' TmroiriKtv avrov OTl « ov v . > >\ * 'zi rr\v aX-qduav. The usage of these phrases seems on the whole to support the latter hypothesis.rj rvpiav r)V fjL€/j. Jn. But these examples a long one. .. 8. ^ *£! % 7?rt9 rjv Trpbs tov ™ T T *P a • x j n< . J 01a 5 J with Jn. his common phrases and methods of expression. 6. tov ow £K » x tt^9 y?. i /»»«* Jn. 5 with J n. vin. uevovra. » to yeyevvT^evov ck tov £cot/v .. rriv TreTTlCTTtVKeV €ts '* uapr rjor) K€Kpirai * p. iv. IV. 31.apTvprjKev \ tt to ovop. Tl It would be easy to make the list serve as illustrations. v. J vm.s ko<x/zou eicrtV. It will be noticed that in the phrases quoted above the similarity is not confined to actual phrases used. 2 with Jn. ra «pya ^ r tou ' « toC 8iaB6\ov « . 32. / > ~ .§ 1.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL in the Gospel and the Epistle. The thought is carried (a) ov on by means of . J avroX o . T i. . the usage suggests a writer who If it is a than a mere copyist.. tov \oyov avrov ovk Ix £t€ iV v r^ 1 T . 21. and perhaps clearer. 21 with Jn. eV £/xot ^eVei *dyw 0£OU . T in. 13 1 Jn. 50. T_ .. Jn. t 30.. i.

. tva . rovro yeyivvr)/xai tva /xaprvprjcrw. i. 8tl ovk fyvui. iv rovTip icpavepuidrj r\ dydirr) > iii. . or on. tva xviii. etc. followed by an explanatory clause introduced by fva. 9.. 6 iv. . iv rovria. avrrj <pu>s icrrlv -r) Kptcris 6ri rb ii. . . . ovk Icttiv avrov iyivero 5. iv Tovrtf) yivuxTKO/iev . . . . icrri rb vi. I.. rovrb tpyov tva mcrrev-qre. iii.. II. afo-77 icrrlv ij i) TTLCTTLS 7jfJ. vIkt) . rypw/xev. . etc. 6. v. I and negative Jn. . . 8 (eav 9 1 8. . xiii. yivuaKo/JLev dycnruifiev. . 2. . brav Sta. ix. . o #€os <£a>S Icrrlv kcu CTKOTia iv awro) ovSe/xia Jn. rravra /cat x^P^ a ^rrov eyivero ov&k iv. . 4. idv . . iv TOVTlp . iv rovrif) b Xdyos icrrlv divbs . («av 6 Trio-revwv Jn. . iv rovrip yap rb dav/xacrrdv ecrriv Sri Vfieis ovk otbare. iii. 35. .. 19. iii. though some of them are often. JOHN Cf. mtTTivtiiV. 37. exTrwLLev) . drricrraXKev. . 4. to In most of these instances the reference of iv what follows is undoubted. if not usually. ix tva rod TTvevfiaTOS. rovro els oi yiv&GKei . the impression left by studying them is not that of slavish copying.. . 17. xv. . 3. o/xoXoywfxev). 81a rovro iirolei. 8. iv rovrcp yvwcrovrai - . eyw diricrreiXa K. 24. 6 i. iv. 12. \vo~i).t. iv roiTip . . . 8. . or by a clause added in apposition. 1 Jn. Disconnected €*Tru>fi€v). (3) Several other small points may also be noticed : The use of 7rSs 6 with a participle cf. (2) The emphasizing of a thought by introducing it with a demonstrative. . interpreted otherwise. . iii. v. avrr) icrrlv t/ ivroXtf dyairdre. . i.X. 16. yivwcTKOfiev . touto). xv. rovro i<pavepwdj) . irapprjcrlav ?xu/x€v.. sentences. . v. : a thought. . . 16. . 7ras 6 rrurrevinv. iv rofrrcp ido^dcrdr] Kapirbv cpiprjre. . 3. eV TO###BOT_TEXT###gt;Tip rereXduiTat. avrrj. Frequent in both writings. 7) avTT] tva dyaww/xev. . Again. ii. : iii. idv dydirrjv lx rTre 37. .C}V. . IO (eav lit] Jn. . where vavris might have been used. 6n . 30. dcpelXei.. . 29. 5n . 9. icrrlv dyyeXla . i [§ 1. . . expression of 81' Positive Cf. iXrjXvdev k.X. . idv. els iSLuKOv . . 3ri fjL€fxaprvpr}Kev. iii. . . Gospel. dXr/- Xiywv iii.vi THE EPISTLES OF (i>) S. iv. Epistle. . . .T. avTT) icrrlv ij fiaprvpla . Frequent (c) in Gospel and Epistle. iv TOVTCp yiVUHTKO/J-eV . irav (to) with the participle. 7ra? 6 ttolwv : Jn. tva V.

eva (i. IX.Tf. Of The First Epistle gives us ktovos and Trapdi<\r}To<. epya tov #€oi) Jn. 4. 1 Jn. /<ai vvv .8i)<. xpicrfia). koi: . which have taught us the danger of treating N. 1.e. I Vll vi. Xey6p. dv-rtxptcn-os. eyw €7rot?ycra . If the three Epistles are taken together the list is increased by the following words.Aous' oi Kti. KOLVmvia SI elliptic rjfxi. 19.a0-p.eva (dyyeAt'a.0s. i Jn. . even if the actual words in question not among those of which our knowledge has been substantially increased vulgar Greek. oi KaQuis l<payov 01 7raTepes xat aTre'^avov. iip. 1A. Katv €K tov iroimjpov t)v vi. . ^apr^s..pa: Jn. . 3. number The (piXowpwTevw. 7TV€Vfi. in the Gospel is far larger.T. Jn. 37. cf. 12. kcu 6 dp-ros 8e. . . 1 Jn. 5.T. . kcu #£OS. cpXvapew. as compared with the Epistles. 3. 771. dAAr. especially Kocrfios. vlkyj. : ii. Some of these are worth noticing in view of the assertion that the similarities of style and expression are mostly in the case of obvious points. : Jn. 8. St: cf.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL Cf.a.apTvpr)(rr) irept Jn. n. 51. Ka0ws ^kou1 crare . (4) Attention must also of both writings. €t. 18. The repetition of emphatic words. i. Kvpta.€yop.. dVa£ Xcyo'p-eva has naturally decreased in consequence of the discoveries of Papyri in the last quarter of a century.T.cv Jn. cf.' tva (pavepwdfj tol p. and does not offer any striking contrast to the other Books of the N. . The elliptic use of oi KaOm: Jn. The The frequent use of nai f) . But its longer list. <pouTO?. tva KaOa)<. ovtos tcTTtv 6 dpros 6 e£ ovpavov Kara/3ds. . Greek as an isolated are phenomenon. o ScSwaiv pot Tcav 7rpds p-i. V. irav to yeyevvrjixivov Ik toO 6iov vixa . Testament) words common to both writings but not found elsewhere in the New Testament we have only dv#pw7ro- be drawn to the limited vocabulary and the very small number of a7ra£ words not found elsewhere in the New which they contain in common. dXX' tva i£ >/utov Jn. which are easily imitated.at. 1 : yj use of dAX <pavepw6wo-iv on ovk elalv dAA.§ 1. iii. The importance of N. four a7ra£ A. xiii. dAA tva tva: ttolvtc: : toD . «ri8eXop. is adequately explained by the character of the words which it contains. 58.. ii. yeydvaonv *at cf. vi.eis noLrJTi. The use of Kaflws . dya7rw: p. It may is also by better acquaintance with be doubted whether the author's vocabulary really so limited as the perusal .

ov Kal rjfjuv Suriv. : Jn. 20. its source in Him 11. 35.aiv6p. 2. . ovrws iavTw. artificialities of the later literary koivtj. iv. the God who cf. airw £0177 r)v. 6 apTos tt}? 33. 20. 26a. iyw (In £0)77 el/u I . 'irjaovv XptcrTov iv cap/a iXrjXvOora. iv ipiol p. similarity is not confined to style and vocabulary. Kal T<i) i<pavcpw6r). li. ver. : Jn. i. : has been made known by Jesus Christ. tw Kocr/uup. Jn. 4~ 7- Jn. iv toj ui(3 Kal iv tw irarpi p.eis ifiol Kayo) iv vpiv. ouro? i<TTiv 6 a\r)6ivo<. xi. Him . ij'a Kal airol iv . V. 111. vi. (° pt'i'tov iv ip.evov. irepl toC Aoyou £0)771/ T17S £00779 Kal 77 Jn.Vlll THE EPISTLES OF of his writings at of what he has to first S. 20. r/v . and prefers to vary his forms of expression rather than his vocabulary. extends to ideas. vi. incarnation of the Son of God : Jn. 48). iyw iv to irarpi p. avTr] r) £wt) iv to v'uo olvtov (o yeyovev) iv 6 icrriv. 14. 26. however seem to be at loss for a word to express his But however this may be. I. debs atujvio? probably refers to the Father. xvii.aivovTa to express the same He is altogether free from the crqp. 56. kol J n. 6. He can say most suggests. (i) The general ideas which form the basis of the Johannine The The I teaching are common to both. V. tfarjv SiSors is i. the means of abiding : Jn. the limited meaning.ol Kayw iv avrw). Adyos crap£ iyevero. Jn. v. say by the careful use of a few words. uiw iv avrov h/aov Xpio-rw. JOHN [§ 1. I XV. And which I identified with 2. The I life which has 4. £0)775 (cf. He has no love for synonyms which have no difference in meaning. Jn. xiv. vp. V. Jn. vi. rj £0177. 21. i. range of normal vocabulary is a feature common to both writings. V. both as regards doctrine and ethics. iapev iv tw dA.evtiT€. He does not.77#<.) Abiding I in in God God being in Christ. oltt' apxys £0)77 .iv(L Kayu) iv avrw. o . He does not care to show his command of language by the use of many arjp. . .vui iv to Jn. . via) ZStoKtv ryetv ev 25. 24. 7ras 6 iv aiTw /xevtov.

r/yaTrrjaa Believers the children of I God .A. €K tov Otov y€y€vvrjTai. Cf. command to love the brethren. ivroXrjv rj/Mv (cf. To know and not to know God. 34. Love and Hate. . quoted by Holtzmann Gospel. iii. 12. iv. eya) oe e^to ryv fxaprvptav 'Icodvov k. 17). 1 7 f. V. "whose common authorship is undoubted. 11. Life and Death. 13. The I Yiydv-qatv vlov tov p-ovoyevrj iSwKev. 11. 7TaS 6 TTKTTeVtoV . To be of the World. i^ovaiav : T€Kva 6eov The I yevcadai. ii. kcu dya7rco/xei' dAA7yAov9 Ka0ws Jn.lv pivci.t. "In the whole of the first Epistle there is hardly a single thought that is not found in the Gospel. And it must be (part of) the two Epistles to the Thessalonians. o rjKOvaare a7r apx^S iv vp. Jn. viii. cSlokcv avTol<. i<pave. iva dyaTrare dAAryAous KaOws v/xas (cf. 38. would be very easy to extend largely those lists of similarities between the two writings. i. V. The children of God and the children of the Devil. 12.§ 1. 18). VV. 24. " " witness great stress laid on Jn. 6 #eds rbv Koafiov ware tov 1 6.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL God's word abiding I ix in us : 6 Adyos tow 6eov iv vp. . t6v Adyov avrov ovk *X eT€ £l V H^1 p-tvovra. The question may well be asked whether a writer of such (p. can hardly be denied. TO TTVCVfJid io-TLV TO [XdpTVpOVV (cf. iv tovtw which is the result ISojKev of this Jn. The Father and the World. rots TucrTevovo-iv ets to ovufia avrov. 6. 14. Jn. To have life and not to have life. To be not of the World. V. Truth and Falsehood. 9— Ii). Many more are noticed To quote all that exist would involve in the Commentary.pw6r) rj aydnrr) toO deov iv TjpZv OTl TOV VLOV OLVTOV TOV fJLOVOjevrj a7T€0"TaAK€V. To have seen and not to have seen Him. God and the Devil. I. : Jn. xiii. iii. 134). XV. iii. God's love proved by the sending of His Son I : Jn.7v pevcrat. Jn. that these similarities are closer than those which connect the Third Gospel and the Acts. admitted that these analogies raise the question of imitation. 37." In the Pauline literature the case of Ephesians and We ought perhaps to add that of Colossians is analogous. tov Jn. ovrtos 9. : 23. p-ti^io (2) Certain pairs of opposites common to both writings : Light and Darkness. V. printing practically the whole of the Epistle and a large part It of the Schulze's statement. 16. 36. ' Jn." No one would dispute Holtzmann's judgment.

another point which must be considered in this In what sense is the author of the Fourth Gospel connection. by himself or by another. we can hardly escape the impression which the study of the Fourth Gospel leaves with us. perhaps the work of the same imitator. But such a writer as the author of the Gospel might well "repeat himself. They must learn to use what they already possess." especially if he were fully conscious that he had already said or taught his readers all that they required to meet the circumstances in which they found themselves placed. even that which they had been taught from the beginThese are circumstances under ning. in the twenty-first chapter of the Gospel. 'Y^ets o rjxovo-aTe an His chief apxqs «V v/juv /jLeverio is the burden of his message. It cannot. which repetition was almost inevitable. There will probably always be differences of or from Another ? opinion as to whether he is most indebted to S. We may be nearer to the writer's own thoughts. he is intensely in earnest.X THE EPISTLES OF S. the author's originality ? How much has he learnt from others. especially in the case of a man whose nature led him to ponder deeply over a few ideas And new thoughts every day. He is fully aware that he has nothing new to say. therefore. Few would venture to deny the depth of thought and original ? How far is this due to spiritual insight of the Fourth Gospel. The answer to the question may prove to be discoverable The author of only in the light of the writer's circumstances." It is quite Gospel would be likely that a writer who had steeped himself in the thought of possible the Fourth Gospel might produce the First Epistle. S. The edificathe Epistle certainly does not aim at literary effect. John is not. or rather the process of assimilation may be more complete. He is convinced that he knows what truths will meet their needs. whereas in the Gospel we can trace more clearly his debt to another. The process may have reached a further stage of development in the Epistle. The Fourth Gospel has a large part to play in the controversy which rages round the question Jesus or Paul ? But whether we accept or reject the paradox of Wernle. JOHN [§ 1. . Paul who is original. for present purposes. rather than to produce There is object in writing is to remind them what it was. tion of his children in the faith is his sole purpose in writing. undoubted power and originality as the author of the Fourth " 1 only to copy himself. Paul or to the Lord Himself. be said that the absence of 1 new matter has given it If. we may so describe the man who to us in its present form." as a solution of the Johannine problem. " It is S. that its author meditates and transforms rather than originates. And it is by no means impossible that we have a similar case.

iroielv ttjv dXrjdeiav. 45 {eXiri&iv cis riva).T.si. Koivuvla. vi. 45 ev XpurTw. i. ." The "usage of the N. and where the peculiarities of the imitator would be most likely show themselves. x. are found in Acts (ix." is surely rather difficult to decide. and that Gospel and Epistle share the it construction. kir avrw. L > R '. iroietv tt)v oiKaioavv-qv.eiv diro occurs only once in the Epistle. must next consider the use of a-rro with the verbs d/couciv. occurs twice. a/ya. We > - > - With regard to aaovuv the usage is clear. iii. of suspicious. xv. while there are real differences in minor points of style and expression where conscious imitation would be less easy. or its use absolutely.ev. 12 find eis ov. . As to to : (X €LV eAanfia we have Ac. . 1 P. . 17 i-n-l €7rl ttXovtov a8rj\oT7]Ti. with a genitive of the person. 1 Ti. Ro. . 22). xv. 10.1 iyvuiKafiev. with the accusative. 17 i1 Trjv X° P LV I 3 It is unnecessary to illustrate or quote its use ekOeov. course. 15. or the infinitive. I Ti. Gospel. vi. ( 10) 1 Co.e. 5. and also to that of Jn.T. . ik-n-iSa t^wv ets t6j/ 6e6v. use for or . aiVetv once in the Epistle. have to be modified if convincing evidence were forthcoming that the resemblance between the two writings is mainly confined to obvious points which could be easily caught and imitated. emphasizing the ultimate rather than the immediate source of the hearing. 5 .T. The evidence is clearly insufficient to establish a N. The following differences are also noticed.aTetJKa. There is not very much ground here for a theory of separate authorship. irewi. 12 being a quotation from the O. though may be noticed that d/<:oi. dyaTTij TeTeXeiwfxipij.] in the Epistle THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL XI is necessarily But this view would. v. 19 i-n-l #ew.ir7)v debs irvev/ia. 1 Ti. Jn. xi. so far as it goes. xxiv. with the construction d-n-6 tivo?. against any particular construction. •= Is. Birth from above. and the As to iXvl^eiv we passage in question from the Epistle with «ri.ixev ko. . which for convenience may be tabulated Aa/xfidveiv : commoner Epistle. v. (Ro. iv. Xa/xfidveiv (cf. debs dydTrr].aTevKafj. dydwrjv 5i56vai. 20 i v 2I )> as against the aireiv. also «x etv n usual construction with napd which is found in the Gospel. v.T. In the Gospel Aa^aveiv Trapd is found four times. 13. eyvwKafiev Kal irein. or on. general usage of the N. The following points are cited in support of such a hypothesis This is said to be "contrary to the "E^eiv iX-n-iSa l-n-i tivi..). . xv. an-eiv -n-apd once. The Holy Spirit. cVi [tov] 6(6v. a-yairav. d-n-6 and -n-apd. where it probably has a slightly different shade of meaning. that both constructions.

StaKovetv. that their absence in the There Epistle would be more probable than their presence. The list of phrases is larger. (confined to the is conversation with Nicodemus. 6 iripuj/as..a. £u>t. 26. £wt}s (thrice and once). /at.r\ twice or thrice) dirodv^o-K€iv iv T-fj diuxprta (thrice. many which we should even expect to find. but cf. eyei'peiv. £corys. ti/xw tov -rraTepa p. 49. avrov 6 ttolti'ip). though the absence of 86£a. ttouIv Ta dya0d (once). dctoptlv ddvarov. .s alwviov (twice and once). ov p.a to dyiov (once in Gospel.d io-tiv 7] dAr/^tia).ov. xxi. p. 1 Jn. while common to both writings).).dv tov iraTtpa. (once). Kal t6 ITVCVjxa tori to fxaprvpovv. can we say that the peculiarities are greater than can be naturally explained by its So differences. whereas to Trvev^a is the usage in both). 6. (once). cpavXa Trpdo-o-eiv {twice). prip-ma. A few facts as to usage. epavvdv tcls ypacpd<. dv<x>8ev calls for notice. cf. eh. in ch. comparatively or absolutely. and Epistle). ti/o/o-ci Kpticretos besides which only viii.. cf.v Trj dkrjdela (twice. It will be sufficient here to notice the differences to which Holtzmann has called attention. /SacriAcia tov 8eov t Ta €7riy£ia (eVoupdi'ia). ifxcpavi^ecv. otl to 7rvtZfj. same i\cvdepovv (twice) and c'Acvdepo? yeviadai (once. which go far to modify the significance of the list.. Some of them remind us that the vocabulary of the author or authors is not quite so limited as is generally assumed. 6 Kiipios. SiaKovos. 6 Adyos \otpei (once). ttj<. (twice. tivai eV -rwv dvu>. tov Oeov. rj dpyr) ApOC.). differences of time. p. 22. also xx. 6 Kpi/xa. n-Xrjpwp. vif/ovaBai. . a7roAAiJva(. The following words are quoted from the Gospel which are absent from the Epistle 86£a.TL Kal aXtjOda rip. p. .ov. crco^etv. dvaarrjvai.apTvpia.xii THE EPISTLES OF far the list is S. So^d^tv. cf. . in one context). . Trpoanvvuv iv 7rvevp. c/>u>s tov Kocrp.. cf. 16 have not been included). awTTjpia. in brackets: to irvevp. dya7rdV to 6eov yervrjO^vai t* to o-kotos (once </>ws. perhaps more striking for its resemblances than There are. ipyd£eo-6ai (used in the shorter Epp. xpivetv. undoubtedly many words and phrases which are peculiar to each. ovk aTTo6vrjO-Ki.LV (twice. cf. tov Oeov (once. Of these words some are so rare.a aytov. 9. 7ri/jaj/as. The Index : dviarai'Civ. av<x<TTacri<. Kpivuv. XXI. There is perhaps not one of which we can say that the author of the Gospel must have used it if the Epistle were his. ovpavo<s. vlov (thrice in one verse. (once.ivetv iv ttj StSa^rj iv is to Gospel ftivet : the corresponding 6 . ol va<pot. kcitw (once each).a. 10). of God (? cf. of Christ (six times. (once each). v. xiii.). in context). of which three are in ch.TO<. 6 . fiiveiv iv tw Adyw Aoyos . yeveo-Oat OavaTov (once each). and subject? has been arranged so as to give with rough accuracy the full facts of vocabulary. in Gospel). clprjvr].. in l8eiv £wr}v iv. x^pis. however.aro<. dvdo-Tao~i<. dvcoOev. common yivvrjdrjvai Ik irvevp. have been noted are not Trvivp. i£ vSoltos koli Trvevp. In any case. 9. common . I Jn.apTvpa. xii. V. 2 Jn. circumstances. 14.a. JOHN [§ 1.

(once). 29. the brethren. (3) Ik tivos ytvcoo-Ketv (twice). Ja. 23. it certainly not to be presence in the Gospel of characteristic phrases found in the Epistle. Jn. aheiv iv t<5 ovo/moti (Xpiorov) I (y?^ times. «Toi/i. There are very few are generally confined to a special context. a relative sentence. It consists mostly of phrases which are found only once or twice.oXoywp. irurrtveiv e<s to <pw<.oXoy<'io'6cu. . 6p. ev elvcu (four times). fiovrjv -rrouLV Trapd tivi (once). iva waiv TtTeXeuoavTOVS xa^ws ip-( kcu ^ya7T^cras qydirqcras. Cf. pnadv tt/v \pvxqv (once each). is significant. 6 Trarrjp p.CV (idv of these verbs occurs in the Gospel. 9 .) (7) eairrov 7rXavav. (Found eight times in Jn.6v X. 27). 7T£pt7raTW/i. i Jn. which becomes (4) {i/acis followed by the subject of the main sentence (fyiels b rjxovo-aTe . dydirrj p. vloi tov <pwr6<. the use of to (pavtpovv is characteristic of ovo/xa (<?«rc.).ov b Sc'oWev p. 6 iraj^p iv c/xoi. and the use of idv is fairly frequent in both writings naturally opportunities for the use of the 1st person plural are far less in the Gospel than in the Epistle).) of God. fjLiiC.. 24.€F. The word is used once in the (io) 17 Gospel. Mt. i. Jn. (Cf.ivoL (Once. but certainly more frequent in the Epistle. of course. in the N.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xm toi'tou twice). (9) 7tio-to's. (May we not peverui. . xapirov of which six are in xv.. 1 8 (oOev).-xvii. . itrayyiXXeiv. fairly common). if they occur more frequently.tvov in the Gospel.y6p. <piXdv.01 7ravTiov iaTiv ?) (5) Koivoma.T. ..) (The verb is common to both. to both. xiii. (The teaching about Koivwvia in the Epistle is surely the natural sequel of Jn. of them of which we can say that their absence from the Epistle (pepeiv (eight times. cpavepovv If this list is at all complete. "pecularities" which Holtzmann has noted for (1) 6 with the Present Participle. etc. cf.) TtTeAciWcu. lx uv ' el Pl l l' r) v (once).) . (The verb is. £X €tv T ° cf.apria is peculiar. cf.-xvi. 6 vlbs dpx<0v tov Koa-fxov (once. to the one passage 1 Jn. It may be fifty worth while to go through in the same way the the Epistle.a£eu> in same context). (once). a7ra£ Xf. *^ s (twice). xiv.) (It may be noted that (6) dyyeXta. i$op. 6 -n-ar^p iv tw vtw (once.a. 1 4. or which.T.. iv i/xiv compare Jn.§ 1. cv T(3 7raTpt (?). Its use with dp. or both). affords very little evidence of the representative. (8) bjxoXoyitv Tas a/Aaprta?. €is Iv .) with each (2) €0tV €17T0)/A€V OTl. ii. 2-8). iirayyeXia. tottov (twice. Christ. Ka/ra to 0iXrjfj. xvii. with God. common Mk. . V. dyyiXXav is a N. ii.

iva aya-rare dAA. JOHN [§ 1. (27) op.) (Should we compare Jn. ii. (Cf. <l)p.09 is far more (16) i//€vSo7r/Do</)^Tat. At any rate the resemblance d-yamx? ue 7rA€ov toutwv ? of the two writings in their use of K007X. i. (32) dvouia. (31) dyi/os. 10 (cf.) (14) cri<dv8a\ov. 23.) (18) a\a£oveia (once).lv at d/xaprtat Sid to avrov. 43.. els ov -rjXTTLKaTc.oio<> avT(3 : 55. ) (Cf. idv (15) acpetDVTai. iii.aprias d<pewvrcu aurois. 6 tx wv tt)v i\TrC8a Tavrrjv iir a. 45.a vp. cf. dyairrjTe thrice.€pa ou 7rpoo"K07rrei. Tts TrepiTTOLTr} iv rjj i)p. in the Gospel. 3. (The phrase of the Gospel.. 9. Jn. however. (More correctly irapdyav occurs twice in The active TrapdyeaOau the Gospel.oyr]o-fv kcu ovk rjpvrjcraTO. quoted as a contrast. (TKOTia. Jn. (Cf.) in the same verse. 20. 3 Jn. (Cf.) (28. striking than the absence of a particular phrase from one of them. 39. Jn.) (13) ayaTTav tov<s dSeX^ous. perhaps. cf. 28.oios ip. (19) /3t'os (twice). v. 6 l^wv T^V VVp. 15. Jn. iii. dvTt^pto"Tot.) (Thrice.i)T<Z. ttov virdyei : ev 9. (Six times. in a different sense. in any of the Cf. tpya. 29.) (The zf><?r</ is fairly common (24) Trapprjo-ia.ov. is perhaps a sufficient parallel. 20.) ovop. (Cf.) .?) iXey^Orj (26) irapovaia (once). xxi. xi.at op. Jn.) (23) «x eu/ T0V "To-Tepa. (17) dya7rav tov Kocrp.) (25) alo~)(yv€0-6ai (ii. iva p.ous. tov vlov. rfj irepnraTci ovk otSev Jn. however. op. The word does not occur (Once.) iii.oXoye'iv. with the context. (Once. is But dyvilw.xiv THE EPISTLES OF ( 1 1 ) S. Jn. (12) 7rapdyeiv. dV Tivcov d<f)rJT€ Tas dp.<f>7]V. ix.) avTw io-op. ovk ep^erat 7rpos to <pa>s. with Gospels. avTou. c£ vii. v. The (20) dyoLTT-qToi doctrine of dydTr-q contained in the Gospel would certainly account for the frequency of this form of (21) to address in the Epistle. (? Cf..77A. XX. 7rp6s tov 0£dV. In the same context. icrop. to. oY8wo-iv to irvtvpa : (22) dpveio-6ai. aicr^uv^wpcv drr clvtov.lv. op. common (Tiuice. Btdvoia (once). xpio-yaa.(8a. tov vlov. Jn. iii. the passage in the Epistle. however.. Jn.0101 viii.) Omitted apparently by mistake. 34. 29) (30) lAir/s. which occurs to both.

(41) to 7rvcvpa t»)s 7rAaV^s. dAA' rj 36. (The contrast is character(38) 6 iv vplv. (The verb is common to both. Jn. closer inspection a considerable number of the phrases which are actually peculiar to the Epistle remind us Thus on .wv. Ta Ipya tov 7raTpos v/xwv. avroV having better support. iva pi) 41.ov.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL itfravepiodr) xv 3 1. d7ro^av£to-^€ Iv Tais dpapTiais vp.aprvpiav icrcpp ay icrev). p. Jn. Trjpr]o"q<. to both.) viii.) (37) Elsewhere only in Gal.cv« 23. cast iii. perhaps. occur in the Gospel. 23.05 €V TO) TTOVrjptO KElTai. istically Johannine. cf. T uv (Perhaps we may compare pxtpTvptav ix (49) Jn. 6v6p.) (Cf.. ix. 15. kolI Iva 7ricrT€vovTes £«n)v «X 77 TC * v T<? oVopaTi avrov). though the actual phrases do not KaTayuwK«v. <pavepio6fj to) lo-par/X. 11. ovk Oif/erai Cf. The one phrase xapSid. Jn. viii. (47) 6 KOO-p-OS iva 12. ccttiv.) oA. (A phrase ^(arfv. in a thoroughly Johannine mould.^ Tapao-o-foSio /capSias r)pu>v. 6 cU dirti. to 7rv£vpa ti}s a\r)6eia<s. xvii. (Cf. 41. i.) (40) 7rio~r€v€tv tw ovopan tov vlov (iii. Jn. i. (45) dpapria 7rpos #dVaTov. the phrase. *al e<pv\a£a. c/c #eov viii. Xvii. Jn. also Jn. Iva TrtcrTevrjTe oti It^ctovs Icttiv 6 Xpioros 6 vios tov Oeov.) iyevvrjdrjcrav (4>ai'e/)ow is characteristic of (36) £v tovtw (pavepd. the Gospel having only as the opposite (48) c/>o^os. 6 iv tw Koo-pw. eavTov <pu\dcrcretv. Perhaps it is not altogether c/>o'/?os fanciful to see some recollection of the fear which kept men from open confession.§ 1. 33.aTcp. in the love issuing " casts out fear. With T7/pei avToV. which iv eavrw. 13. Jn. a.) (34) Xvtiv Ta (Cf. W (50) KoAacris (once). (Cf. 6 XajSwv avrov rr?v p." in confidence.) of dyd^. not the true text. iii. ii.8C>v opyrj tov dcov p. (35) TO o~ireppa tov ^cov. or avTOV. For avrovs ex tov irov^pov. 12. : both writings..) (The former is probably (46) Trjpdv tawov. toV 'IovSaiW. BiafioXov.) (43) kXciciv tol o-n-Xdyxva.aTa (once). XX. 6 yevv^o-as (of God). o-rrippa 'AfSpadp. pivei : (Cf. xvii.) (Twice. 33. Ipya tov : XvOrj 6 v6[jlo<. If we complete we may compare Jn. vii. 31. (44) vpM>v r) which is common (Cf. irtideiv Tas (Cf. r) dpapria vpwv 24. avTov 'It/o-ov Xpio-Tov. eya) CTrjpovv avTovs iv t<3 cpvAdcrcreiv cf. suggests the other.) (39) peveiv iv t<S vi<3 tu> davdrw.) (42) So*apd£eiv Ta 7rvev'p.W' Iva (33) 6 vios tov Oeov.

Advocate. or whether the Epistle goes further than the Gospel in the direction of glorifying the The number of passages in the Epistle in which it is Christ. Christ and His own on the other. He Epistle is only Prophet. but the pre-existent personality of marked in the Epistle as in more definite Aoyos has been agreement with the growing Monarchian tendencies Trar^p is and as clearly It is possible that the Him who to " came in flesh " is as definitely taught in the Epistle as in the Gospel. vocabulary used and used up . extremely difficult to decide whether God or Christ is the subject. of the dyyeAia which the writer has God is light. sufficiently marked to compel us to assume a corresponding difference in author- ship? Such a difference can hardly be found in the Aoyos of the Gospel Prologue as compared with the vaguer Xoyos ttjs (wf)<s of the Epistle. the differences between Gospel and Epistle are as great as is assumed by those who maintain the theory of different author- In the Epistle the is sum announce said to be that . tion of utos the Gospel. In the Gospel. The variations in phrase suggest common authorship rather than servile. and no more new words than the differences of subject and circumstance call for. No doubt the one phrase describes a difference of But the personal distincPerson. The phenomena are not inconsistent with the theory of imitation. JOHN [§ 1. is separated from us by sinlessness rather than by Divinity. Example. It is probably true that in the Gospel Christ is always represented as the connecting point between God and the world. so is Christ to " His own. light is used as a description of the pre-existent and the IncarAnd in general it has been maintained that the nate Logos. avoided in of a later stage of doctrine." as to whether this is brought about by setting God on the one side. Christ of the Epistle is more definitely separated from God and The Christ of the brought nearer to the believing Christian.XVi THE EPISTLES OF S. Reconciler. so strongly of similar phrases and thoughts in the Gospel that it is again the resemblance rather than the difference that is brought into prominence. generally conveying some correspondingly slight difference of meaning . while the other is impersonal. Both writings show the same characteristics. but they do not find their mcst natural explanation in it. Is there any difference in the ideas and conceptions expressed in this similar but not identical phraseology. But it is doubtful whether certainly point in the latter direction." whereas in the Commentators are divided Epistle this relation is "simplified. reiteration with slight variations. As God is to Christ. a small copying. and are amply sufficient to explain. or even intelligent.

they can feel sure confidence as to the relationship in which God on . not a fundamental difference of And it is a difference specially noticeable in certain conception." They must abide in the In 1 Jn. Son with the Father is the type of the union of the faithful with the Son." love wherewith God loves the faithful is always grounded in the love wherewith He loves the Son. In the Gospel "the "this life is in His Son. but it is a difference of standpoint and of expression. they stand to God in His Son Jesus Christ. forms of expression which are used. 23) whereas the Epistle speaks more directly. it will explain the similar phenomena which are traceable In the Gospel it with regard to the ideas of life and love. xvii. in the Gospel it is in the Epistle it the Logos who gives power riKva Oeov yevicrdai " direct a is proof of the love of the Father Iva tckvo 6tov kXt]$Q)But in all these points it is hardly too much to kolI ia-fiiv. 9-1 1 the stress is laid on the love of God for the world and for But the intimate connection of this passage with Jn. "the Father HimJesus Christ." " God in us" and the same difference can be traced in the use of fxiveiv. in the Epistle we Christ who came that they might have life read £wt/v aiwvtov ISw/ccv rjfjuv 6 6c6<. 27. should be dwelt upon . to In the Gospel it is natural that the relation of Christ the one hand." The difference exists. iii. may compare Jn. xvi. and what the Christ is. "We are in God.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xvil ship. but the author hastens to add. 20. But such differences are not mutually exclusive. 16 us. say that a real difference can be established only by ignoring the expressions and thoughts in either document which tell the other It may also be true that in the Gospel the unity of the way. relationship is always conceived of as realized in and through "Our fellowship is with the Father. love may be expressed in the Epistle as an ivroXr] tov 6cov." We " "I do not say that I will ask the Father self loveth you concerning you. if they will but remember it. iv. and therein with the Father (cf. as He abides in the love of the Father. . Again. If this view of the general teaching of the two writings is correct. rather than in the general The Gospel taught who teaching of the Epistle as a whole. So with love. and with His Son Christ." fiev.§ 1. while in the Epistle the relation of the But this Brethren to the Father should be more prominent. Christ's command in the Gospel to exercise mutual is : — — . Son's love. xiv. and to His followers on the other. certainly suggests that the writer of the Epistle is conscious of no fundamental difference of view. To the mind of the writer or writers of Gospel and Epistle it is doubtful if The they would present themselves as differences at alL . The differences correspond to the different objects of the two writings. The Epistle is written to assure those who had learned its lesson that.

xvi. make such a view time by the same writer. eternal life is a present possession. that the Epistle was intended to serve as an Introduction to the Gospel The evidence does not justify the written to accompany it. indeed. are in the true God. remains the most probable explanation of the facts known to us. find the spiritual idea of an abiding presence. with the conception of the Parousia. or Elder. certainly in this particular instance. 2-4. . but there is room for them in the sufferings of the Disciples which are foreseen in Jn. Apostle definitely adequate reasons for setting aside the traditional view which It attributes the Epistle and Gospel to the same authorship. into the mouth of others. it is not enough to extremely improbable. and also in his own comments. " " the Ephesian Canonical Writings than when we assign them to S. 1 conclusion that they could not have been written at the same It does. difficult. in His Son Jesus Christ. On the other hand. false prophets of the Epistle are its peculiar form of expression. as hour. JOHN [§ L emphasis if falls differently. it is practically impossible to prove common authorship. naturally interpreted. him ye will receive. But there are no John." of Christ as propitiatory. Popular conceptions may be more prominent in the Epistle. It is not absent from It is to be found both in what the Evangelist puts the Gospel. 'IXao-fxos occurs only in the Epistle. a last The difference is one of emphasis.xviii THE EPISTLES OF S. points to fundamental unity of conception. a last day. or similarity produced by common education in the same school We are always on safer ground when we speak of of thought. too. maintained only by ignoring parts of the evidence. as against imitation. even if we refuse to see in " If another come in his own the warning of the Gospel. similar kind. and the more popular conception of a day of judgment. however. In most cases of a compel us to assume different authors. In both we So." " This (the God revealed in Jesus Christ) is the true God and The same is true of the conception of the death eternal life. 1 Unless. the Epistle was written to accompany after it its publication sometime was written. "We The idea is more prominent in the Epistle. and The many Antichrists and many also an object of promise. But the final summary of the Epistle. though we are not justified in ignoring the "spiritualizing" of the conception of Antichrist as fulfilled in many forms of But fundamental difference can be anti-Christian teaching. name. if not impossible. The differences of thought and expression make it probable that some interval of time should be placed between the comIn view of such differences it is position of the two writings. to accept Lightfoot's view. well as in the Gospel. In the Epistle." a historical reference to Bar-Kochba.

the profound teaching contained in the Gospel. It is only in the Gospel that the Monarchianism. The priority of the Epistle has been maintained on the following grounds (i) : introductory verses (1-4). common to the Epistle and other second century of the writings. is still more precarious. whatever his own highest achievements may have been. (b) Priority. the author is practically limited by the intelligence and spiritual The more the Epistle is read and capacity of his readers. which the author had tried to convey to his fellowChristians in all his dealings with them. £0177 cuwvio?.§ 1. studied. He had to descend to a lower plane.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xix The further conclusion that the theory of common authorship can be maintained only on the hypothesis that the Epistle It is really is earlier than the Gospel. and in a separate section. If our evidence were confined to the Prologue and the Introduction. are said to It does not go present an earlier stage of the Logos doctrine. for practical purposes of spiritual and religious life. " beyond the personification of abstract categories. the more fixed becomes the impression that we have in it an attempt to make plainer. or of the teaching which it contained. But the question of priority must be discussed more fully. based on the assumption that one who had reached the heights of the Gospel could never have descended to the more commonAnd this ignores the fact that place conceptions of the Epistle. but which they had in The results of the large measure failed to make their own. this statement might be regarded as satisfactory so far . is met by a clear differentiation of the Person The Father and the Son. though Holtzmann regards the latter view as tenable only on the assumption that the Epistle represents an earlier stage in the development of the writer's At any rate the question can be discussed theological position. Xdyos t^s £w?)s." and the concrete conception of the Personal Logos has not yet been reached. independently of that of authorship. its message ow exwpei among those with whom the author dwelt and for whom he worked. which show many points of close connection with the Prologue of the Gospel. had not realized To use one of the expressions of that Gospel. Gospel. document can be reasonably held in conjunction with that of imitation or of identity of authorship. The discussion of the identity of authorship has at least established clearly the close connection which exists between The view of the priority of either the Gospel and the Epistle. his expectations.

difficult to explain the Prologue as an expansion and development of what is contained in the Epistle. have shown. the doctrine of the Gospel was probably far in advance of the general Christian opinions and feeling of its Some accommodation to the average faith of Christendate. and is consequent on the withdrawal of the bodily presence of the Speaker. xiv. sphere of the Spirit's advocacy is on earth. Style and structure and vocabulary all point clearly to a close connection between the two. and distributed throughout the Gospel. In the Epistle. and the author's insistence on is Gospel (cf. though the relation of Christ to the Father is not so prominent a subject of teaching. Epistle where the "personal differentiation" of the Father and But what the Son presented as clearly as in the Logos doctrine of the ii. iv. To those who had been taught on the lines of the Prologue to the Gospel the opening expressions of the It is far more Epistle would be intelligible and full of meaning. v. even if we do not quote the third verse of the Epistle). "World" A . so to speak. or speculation. of Jn. the prologues is true. The "advocacy" consists in calling to the remembrance of the Disciples the real import of the Lord's words. 10. Christ as the Paraclete (ii. etc. which presents The two ideas are quite different.. dom would not have been unnatural. upon which the writer wishes to lay stress in the new circumstances that have arisen. JOHN [§ 1. Christ's advocacy is exercised in heaven. as the facts of doctrine contained in the two are concerned. And the general impression left by a comparison of the two passages is that the Preface to the Epistle presents a summary of the various points contained in the Prologue. the gives Him. in convicting the of the mistakes they have made with regard to the comChrist. 1). and through the fact that the fellowship of Christians with God is realized in their union with Jesus Christ often makes it difficult to decide whether particular statements are meant to refer to Christ And even if this statement of the relations between or to God. they lend themselves equally well to another It is at least as probable that in the Epistle there explanation. 16 was suggested by the doctrine of the Epistle. and neither of them excludes the other. to whose presence His "righteousness" In the Gospel. in the Epistle as in the Gospel.XX THE EPISTLES OF is S. 2. (2) It has been thought that the aAAos Trapdi<\r)To<. He pleads the cause of His followers with the Father. the right of entry. is a further accommodation to the Monarchian ideas which came As Rdville and others into greater prominence as time went on. and in leading the Disciples into all the truth. perhaps true of the prefatory verses cannot be so clearly established for the whole of the Epistle as compared with There are many passages in the the whole of the Gospel. 22 f.

The The "coming" has Evangelist has given up this expectation. The Parousia. v. to the average Christian expectation. In i. or at least the subordinates proclaims his near approach. it is said. perhaps more eagerly than when he wrote the Gospel. which at the time when the Gospel was written. reality. 7ricrr£ajs iv T(3 civtoi) The Evangelist. though never - actually repudiated. views is quite as probable an explanation as In growth out of the stage of ordinary Christian opinion. "l8e 6 Son in making His name known among men Again it is .K\-qTo<. been refined into the symbolical expression of a spiritual Here again it may be quite true that the Epistle presence. There are many expressions in the farewell discourses which point in the same direction. specially prominent in the Fourth Gospel. xvii. The writer of the Epistle. Christ is Ro. the difference between the two has been greatly Serious divergence can perhaps be maintained exaggerated. conceives of Christ's work from : a wholly different standpoint. The language of Jn. spoken of as lAaoyios 7repi tCjv ap. expects the hour has struck.§ L] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xxi parison of the use of irapa. in the Epistle with that found in the Gospel yields no indication as to which document is the earlier. which the writer of the Epistle expected. and Gospel. perhaps unpopular. 26-29. at a later period. it is (3) Eschatological teaching. 9. cf. yi 39> 4°> shows that the Evangelist had not given up the popular expectation of a " last day " and a final judgment. was nevertheless a spiritual fact rather than an apocalyptic display. on the subject of propitiation. — the glorifying of the Father by the (Jn. was less prominent in the writer's view. It should also be noticed that the "spiritualization" of the idea of zation Antichrist in the Epistle is at least as complete as the spiritualiof popular eschatology in the Gospel. said. however. only by the convenient. And even if there is any real difference. Parousia in the immediate future. iii. ai/xcm. of Antichrist may have led to a nearer approach. or the actual advent. process of eliminating from the Gospel all the evidence which tells the other way.tov 25. but arbitrary. God's justice is put forward as the motive for the forgiveness of sins. The last his work of Antichrist is already at work. a question of proportion rather than of fundamental The expiatory character of Christ's work is not difference. (4) The Epistle is said to come nearer to the Pauline teaching than the Gospel. it is not improbable that the events in which the writer of the Epistle saw the signs of the approach. 4-8). modification of more original. both in the saying ascribed to the Baptist.apTiu>v r)fJ. but it is clearly recognized. represents average Christian feeling more closely than the If it is so. ov irpoiOero 6 #eos l\aar^ptov Slo.

To the ordinary student it is certainly not obvious. of course. (6) Some have detected an improvement in the Greek style in the Gospel as compared with the Epistle. It may be added that the connection between the two passages The as has often been supposed.). in the record of the piercing of the a reminiscence of 1 Jn. ii. it is said. "nur schwer lasst sich das Missverstandniss beweisen. loses most of its force if we accept. It may be sufficient to answer. xi. if it is a fact. d/xvos aipwv ttjv dfiapriav tov and in the prophecy assigned to Caiaphas (Jn." (7) Stress has also been laid on the fact. xix. real or reputed. suggested to the writer of the Epistle the significance of water and blood in the Messianic work of the Son of God. 6.) side (Jn. with Holtzmann. perhaps rightly. 34 quoted. here. and it is not unnatural that the more popular writing which gave less offence to traditional Christian opinion should have become known first. as The (1) following points need consideration Many passages in the Epistle seem to need the help of : . such it is. 2. [§ 1. "es giebt auch Riickschritte. A considerable portion of the evidence which has been put forward in favour of the priority of the Gospel is as little conclusive as most of what has been considered on the other side. however. with Bishop Lightfoot on the one hand. no force or bearing on the question of priority for those who do not accept the common authorship of the two writings. that the Gospel was certainly known in Justin's time. and the Evangelist's comment upon it. is probably not so close meaning of the "coming by water and blood" is discussed in the notes on the passage. The argument. v. it would have little bearing on the question of priority. refers to the Baptism. JOHN koo-/jlov." It would certainly be difficult to prove the misunderstanding. ment. that the Epistle was used by Papias and Polycarp at a time when certain traces of the Gospel are wanting. Holtzmann's judgment may again be (5) Some have found f. It has.xxii THE EPISTLES OF tov 6eov 6 S. involving a In the Epistle the "water" misunderstanding of that passage. and has nothing to do with the death of It should not. And this is true whatever relation we assume to exist between the Gospel and Epistle. Schwartz on the other. The argument would no doubt appeal to those who have detected the difference. the more probable view that Papias knew and used the Fourth Gospel. or Dr. a Even if a real difference literary connection with 1 Jn. And by those who do. 51 f. in which some have seen. and need not be considered at length It is far more probable that the incident. have been introduced in that Jesus. could be established. which the Evangelist records. Most scholars will agree with Holtzmann's judgconnection.

aTi p.apTavei. tA.e pno-Htv /cat tov TraTepa p. But the instance does not carry us very far. os ovk eo-Tiv rjp.eis to ^pio-p. oti e/c tov deov ovk eo~Tf. /cat ou^ eirpo^jTevaev on ep. 12. 44. to irvevixa to .aTa tov deov d/covet' Std tovto vpets ovk d/coveTe. 27.apTtav e/c tov 8ia/36Xov eariV. 6 l^u)v tov vtov e\ei ttjv fcuirjv' 6 p. . 23. . an echo of the language. especially ov dAAd Trepl oXov. /cat ov )(peiav e\eTe Iva tis 8i. 77-as 6 apvovp. 8ieo~KOpTrio-p. Kai v/x. iii. at least. xiv. Jn.v Kai ep.u>v. iii. dv0pGJ7ro/CToVos 6 ytvajo^/ccov t6v Oebv d/covet r)pQ)V. . 6. . But there is no mistaking the Originality and force is general impression which they convey. V. : 2. viii. prjp. 23 f. as a rule. . 13.oXoywv tov vibv kolI tov TraTepa ex €l vvv 8k Jn. .e ev tw 6vop. tovto Troir]o~w edv Tt aLTrjarjTe p.eva crvvaydyr) eh ev.evo'i tov vibv ov8e tov TraTepa e^ei' 6 6p. ov Trepl twv ->)ueTepu>v oe dAAd . oti aw dp^ijs 6 8td/3o\o? dp. e/c tov Oeov ovk d/covet Jn. - . iii. xiv.e /cat tov TraTepa p. /cat aiT(x)p. 26. T(3 vldi V. viii.lv.6vov. Kai ewpaKacTLV /cat p. T€/cva . always in the Gospel rather than in the Epistle.ov.wv. The writer would seem to . 6 8e irapaKX-qTos.eOa /caTa. tov 8ia/3oAov core Kai e/c£tvos tois cVtrjv 0v/itas tov 7raTpo9 vudv OeXeTe iroielv. ecTTtv r) Trapprjala r]v e^o/xev Trpb<s avrov. iv. xi. sion in the Epistle which is obviously. and beyond all doubt. 6 ep. atwtov' 6 Se aireiOdv ovk oipeTai 14.eXX. /cat oti av aiTr)o-r}Te ev tu) ovouan p. . . oti idv Tt to OeXrjp.8dcrKr) vuds" dXX' ws to avTov xpio~p. . tov Oeov to. ovk eo-TrjKev. 6 Trtcrrevtov eis tov vibv e^ei t. ay tov . It is possible to see in the words of the Epistle. In none of these instances do we find any thought or expres- avrq . 51 virep tov eBvovs. I Jn.a 6 eXd/3eTe aTr' avrov pevet ev vp.ep.io'-qKao'i. /cat auros f. They could only have been addressed to those who knew the Gospel.ds otSd^ct irdvTa Kai v-irop. . Jn. derived and generalized.ov eya) Troirjo-w. and still more of the thought. 47.ov pnaei.ov.0s icrriv Trepl tu>v dizapriwv rj/xwv. Kai ev Trj dXrjOeia. v/ids irepl Trdi'Twv Jn. v/xets e/c tov iraTpb<. of the Gospel. 6 wv e/c tov Oeov to.a07x. 15.a ainov d/covet r)p. where the thoughts are.a 8toao-/c« .§ 1.tv 'Irjcrovs aTroBv-qcrKeiv vTrep tov eOvovs p.ov. /cat Trepl oXov tov Koo~p.u>rjv. or. 8. e/cetvos vp.] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xxm become intelligible. air dp)(rj<. 36. . tfurjv Jn. 6 ttolwv tt^ ap. the teaching which it contains. though the similarity of thought is obvious. ii. Cf. borrowed from the Gospel.vrjO'ei v/xas irdvTa a et7rov vtuv eyco.r) e)(wv tov vibv tov Oeov rrjv £ior/v ovk e^ei. Jn. The following passages are cited the Gospel in order to by Holtzmann 11.. xv. dXX' iva /cat to. There is nothing here to determine the question of priority. ii.

It may well have been that in the course of teaching they Even if we need the Gospel to explain the gradually took shape." etc. be choosing from a larger store what he can most usefully apply to the circumstances with which he is dealing. even if this is true. This is doubtful. where the Gospel. of course. It has been maintained that the a7rayyeXta announced in the Epistle (i. the readers of it may have had their necessary commentary in the author's oral teaching. of the Gospel. as Dionysius of Alexandria saw but it can hardly be said that the announcement " God is light" is the message of the Gospel as a whole more than of the Epistle. that which was from the beginning. and parallels : . taught its some time before he committed them to writing. though the critical examination of its contents tends to bring the passages devoted to controversy into greater prominence than those which deal with edification. Assume that they have been taught the content of the Gospel. so far as in them lies. if the length of these chapters be compared with that of the whole The situation depicted in the last discourses. 3." than the earlier chapters of the Gospel which show the Christ disputing with the Jews. xiii. especially in view of the identification of Christ with the " Light" in the Gospel as compared with the announcement of the Epistle that God is light. JOHN [§ 1. is one of the leading thoughts of the It is true that the Epistle does not deal with the whole Epistle. his last words to writing for the sake of his " children. if anything. and his language is nearly always seen to be intelligible and pertinent It must. to add to what his readers have already been taught. 5). The aim of the Epistle is far more to encourage and to build up than to warn and destroy. that which we have heard and seen. perhaps. The supposed direct references to the Gospel which are to be found in the Epistle must be considered next.. He has but little. and that the reference must therefore be to the Gospel. that God is light and there is no darkness in Him at all. as detailed in the first verse. Epistle. Attention has been called to the proportion of the closest between Gospel and Epistle which are found in chs.-xvii. naturally offers more points of contact with that of the Pastor committing. it does not amount to proof of the priority of the Gospel in actual composition. The proportion is certainly large. But the point has really no bearing on the question of priority. be remembered that. that fellowship with God is possible only for those who. And the idea which the phra»e is introduced to emphasize. contents for The author had. " message about life. Christ gives His last instructions to the Disciples whom He is about to leave. is not really carried out in the Epistle itself. in all probability. strive to make themselves like Him.xxiv THE EPISTLES OF S. There is much about light and darkness in both.

14 (lypau/a v/uv. The — — differences in vocabulary.t.e8a ttjv 56i. which have been discussed in the previous section. Kal 17 £or>) ty rb (puis tCov avdptjoirwv. The connection between the introductory verses and the Prologue of the Gospel has already been mentioned. indeed. made more either in themselves or as distinguished from the almost identical reasons given for the three statements introduced by ypdcpw. The other direct reference. in which case the difference between ypdcpw and lypaxj/a has less point. 2 almost compels us to take this view. 4 implies that vv. It must stand or but apparently never gave his reasons in full. fall with the identity of aim and content of the two writings. £t> iXK iva fxaprvpria^. and especially from the writer of the Epistle. The whole of the witness which their Christian teachers had borne to them. But the reference must have been explicit if it was to be intelligible. lead to no definite conclusion. John. 8ti air' dpxys jier' ifj-ov icre (xv.av aiiTov. They merely make it difficult to suppose that the two writings are of exactly the same date. deserves consideration.). is found in H.§L] THE EPISTLES AND THE GOSPEL xxv that in a sense the Gospel might be said to include it all. The change from present to aorist is difficult to explain. 1 But there is no necessary reference to the Gospel. who tries to show that the false teaching of Cerinthus is really combated in the " the Gospel written to prove the identity of Jesus with the of and in Son God" God's Christ. Kal v/jlcls fiaprvpeire. . when the Gospel was published. avru) ^urj Tjv. The case has been best stated by Ebrard.€V. and the whole of the teaching which they had received from them. And the reasons given for writing are not specially applicable to the Gospel. Creation. as has been supposed. the Epistle was written to accompany the Gospel. unless. Perhaps no thoroughly satis- At first sight the reference factory explanation can be offered. where the triple eypa\f/a has been thought to refer to the Gospel.ev of ver." ignorant of the Supreme God as well as in the Epistle. style. Kal 7] ^0)77 i(pavepudr] (taking up the yos ttjs fw^s) Kal iupoLKafifv Kal /xapTvpou/j. who refers to it three times in his lectures on S. Cf.X. -iracBia k. 1-3 contain something more than a summary of the contemplated letter. If the whole is most easily explained as presupposing the Prologue.fj. is a more natural explanation. as agent contrasted with "an inferior power. Kal 6 70s crap£ iytvero Kal i0facd. The theory that the Epistle was written as a Begleitungsschrift. 27) 1 Perhaps the phrase Kal raCra ypa<po/j. to the Gospel is tempting. The theory was held by Bishop Lightfoot. and thought. a closer examination of ver.

"Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. But writer's actual dependence on the text of the Gospel. [§ L tva iirayyfK\o/iev vpuv r-qv faijv ttjv alwviov ( . Kal icrKTjvucrev iv tjluv Kal £dea<ra/xe6a..X.XXVI ical THE EPISTLES OF Cf. wLcrrevrjTe ffri% fiv ical uvlav fxvre k.arL avrov. 44. xi. so closely that we are compelled to see dependence on its substance if " not on its text. recalls the passage of the Gospel (viii. 10. on cyw ££ k<u iiieU The born of God and those who are "of the Devil. appear to be a summary of the teaching contained in different passages of the Gospel (cf. 19. aiwva). xix. xiii. 35. The Lord had made a new commandment of the old legal precept. Again it is the Gospel that is original. tva Kal fyteis koiv- ravra ytypairrai . The "promise which He 25). ? fcrjcreTe Should we also compare section iii. JOHN Se . The in same direction. even eternal life" most naturally explained by reference to Jn. and its denunciation of the murderous character of hatred. 35 «") (ii. The Epistle presents a summary. especially o icrriv aXrjOh iv avrw Kal iv ifx. . ivroXrj kcuvt/ ko1 vaXatd of But in the language used in these verses doubtful. with its distinction of those who are In first The coming by explained as But a direct reference to the incident recorded in Jn.t.) vpbs rbv trartpa icpavepwd-r) ri/juv. There can be no doubt on which side the originality lies. the it is." though in Wellhausen we may hesitate to follow making use of the in its original form as presupposed the rewrite to Gospel Epistle KaiV tore) in order by the Epistle (i/xiU ck tov irarpos tou to get a simpler explanation of 6 irarrjp avrov in ver. ovtos tjv iv apxv vp^ rbv deov. " " water and blood is not to be 8-15. xiv.lv. S. of Jn. . again in each Christian The expressions used in ii. is (»cdya) promised. 34. 28 Kal oi ixyj airoXuvTai eh tov 81'Sw/u auTots £a)r]v alwvLov. .." It becomes new who fulfils it by obedience. These instances could easily be multiplied. fw^ Kal tva TriaTevovres txV T€ *v T V 6"6/J. 10 f. . hatred and darkness. 8 " new commandment " there is an almost certain reference to the Cf. but they are None of them amount to proof positive of the representative. of love and light. ii. 7. not The exact interpretation of the is a first sketch. " of the Devil " by the 40-44) where the Jews are proved to be with which hate murderous they pursue the Lord." who sinneth from the beginning. it is almost certain that the record of that incident suggested to the writer of the Epistle the significance of "blood" and " " of water in the Messianic work of the Redeemer.. all as such points their evidence. xii. x. 9. the Epistle we find again the generalization of thoughts struck out in the heat of controversy. .

They have received sufficient instruction and full illumination. They "all know. definitely polemical aim of the Epistles is discussed in another section. it. polemical. or even primarily. know. But in view of them such hypotheses are extremely unlikely ago been § 2. . It is probably true that the writer never loses sight altogether of the views of his The more opponents in any part of the Epistle. or " a body of teaching like " had not accomplished all that the writer had hoped. The impression left the more clearly the longer the Epistle is studied is that it was written to help and to warn those for whom the teaching of the Gospel. but not adequately grasped. and indeed throughout the Epistle. for him to write the Epistle. as well as the extent to which the writer has them in view in other passages not so directly controversial in tone. if they accurately represent the facts. not the first-fruits. if they would but make use of what had been theirs far apxrjs. p. The Aim." 1 to use Dr. And is difficulties Epistle so there is doubt and hesitation in the face of new and changed circumstances. writer seems to say. 1 Recent Criticism of the Fourth Gospel. failure to make the most of the abundance that has been given. And the general impression body of teaching gained from studying the two writings is convincing. the they already possess. It has not been realized in — — life. Throughout it is an appeal to the readers to use that which It never should have been necessary. It is the aftermath. or publication. of the writer's message to the Church. in spite of this. the real aim of the The Epistle is not exclusively. Their own experience should be able He writes to them not because they do not to do the rest. 245. determine with certainty the question of priority. They do not perhaps preclude the possibility of a later date for the actual composition. It owes its existence to the the earnest of things to come. so far as the substantial content of the two documents is concerned.] THE AIM xxvii "a Epistle presupposes in its readers acquaintance with compact like that which we find in the Fourth Gospel. The whole aim of the to recall to mind and to supplement what has long It is not fully given. where the passages which contain clear references to the tenets of the opponents are fully considered. of the Gospel." But knowledge has not been adequately translated into corresponding action and conduct. They needed no further instruction. These considerations. Sanday's phrase.§2. but because they know. But it is important to emphasize the fact that.

24. But there is still strong sympathy with their views. They wished to be on better terms with it than their Faith allowed. among whom Liicke and Rothe may be especially mentioned.a tov 6eov t?}s : 6. or lay on the line of true development. They were only too ready to welcome elements of religious and philosophical speculation foreign to the Faith and They could not tolerate a sharp distincreally destructive of it. and what was antagonistic to it. if only after a hard -fought battle. and did not owe their faith to strong personal conviction or experience.€V : avrio io~fj. JOHN [§ 2. 2. io-fxiv. This view of the circumstances and condition of the Church The writer's aim this or Churches addressed has been maintained by several writers. iv toutu> on iyi>wKafJL€i> airov 5. «k tovtov iv yivdio-KOfxev to Tryeu/Aa : dAr^eia? in : 1 3. opponents do not constitute the only danger. tion between Christian and Unchristian in belief and practice. Their Christianity had become largely traditional. Clearly his readers had felt the doubts which had grown in force in proportion as the enthusiasm of earlier days had waxed cold. half-hearted and nominal. yvdicro/jLeOa on e/< 1 16. themselves towards the Christian faith and life. /j.ev : 111.€i/ aural 0€ov). The enthusiasm of the early days of the Faith is no longer theirs. re'/cva tov ninefold "hereby we know" cannot be only to set forth the true knowledge in opposition to " the false " Gnosis of his Gnostic opponents. " of his " children in the true faith and life of The errors of the Christians is the writer's chief purpose. iv tovtw yivuxTKOfxev on [level : iv rjfuv : iv. oppressive. iv tovtio ytvwo-KO/xev on iv yivw0-KO/i. It is presupposed in the words in which the author expresses . And another consequence of this "loss of their first love" was doubt and uncertainty as to their position as Christians. They found the " moral obligations of their religion The " world had great attractions for them.€voijlcv V." or at least the leaders of the movement have withdrawn or been expelled. iv tovto) tt}s akrjOeia<. This is clearly seen if the verses introduced by iv tovtio yivwa-KOfxev Nine times at least the writer or similar phrases are studied. iv tovtu) iyvu>Ka/Ji. They had lost their instinctive feeling for what was of the essence of the Faith which they had received. The victory has been won. iv towtw yivwaKOfxev on dya7ru)jU. "have gone out from among us. 2. offers his readers tests by which they may assure themselves about the truth of their Christian position (ii. 3.ev tyjv ayairrjv 9. iv toutu) yivwo-neTe to irvevfj. Many of them had been brought up as Christians. and the opponents. iv tovtio ytvwo-KO/xev on to. and perhaps acute danger of their return in The real danger is the attitude of the " children " power. whose errors have been unmasked.XXVU1 edification THE EPISTLES OF S. And therefore they were easily deceived by specious novelties.

5. extent of the failure must be measured by the gravity of the They are of God. 14 were true ought not the appeal. 14. p. who have won the victory. he never loses sight. 13. before his message. past victories. ravTa lypaxpa ifxlv fva florjre otl tois 7rioT€voucriv cis to ovo/xa tov vlov toO 6*ov. The summary in the facts to urge them to the needed effort. meets The picture which they present with Holtzmann's approval. I. 4. and their knowledge. in whom the Word of God abides. He would recall to new life what is in danger of dying away. but their knowledge of the truth. 21. in denen die urspriingliche Klarheit des Bewusstseins verdunkelt. of the readers' state is too favourable to admit of such dark In reality it is just these passages which prove shortcomings. But they have to be reminded of over the opponents (iv. The writer appeals to their privileged position and They are of those whose sins have been forgiven. 4). But if they had been true to their privileges appeal to them. which they possess (20. <pv\d$a. abgestumpft. who have known the Eternal. The writer " " set forth the true knowledge of Apostolic Christianity in its opposition to the false gnosis for which such great claims were made. v. in anything that he Der erste BriefJohannis. 4. has to be completed by the warning of ver. 4. die Lauterkeit desselben verunreinigt ist. 14. the chief points of €T€ a ' (u *' t0l'j £. 18-20 of what they know. And it is of primary importance to realize the undoubted polemical aim of much of its contents.§2. . 27). 20. : " Der Apostel denkt sich also Rothe's words are worth quoting seine Leser als solche. 21. ii. which are due to the fact that 1 Rothe. knowledge is the possession of them all. v.] THE AIM summing up xxix the aim of his writing. 21. and have won a notable victory danger. The unless they had in some measure failed to do their part. 13. 18-20. if only they will use the powers He would not write thus. Mt) dya7raTe rbv koct/jlov Koa-fiw. also i. They do not need teaching. 16. IxrjSe needed the warning of ver. in denen die Frische des eigenthiimlichen geist1 lichen Lebens ermattet. iii. They have the unction of the Spirit. iv. it would not have been necessary to make Those of whom ii. 27. and the modifications in his statement of what he believes to be positive truth. On these grounds he can the point. He wrote to them to have ra iv tw not because of their ignorance.Te eavTa airo tuv Holtzmann has done good service towards the interpretation of the Epistle by showing how clearly Gnostic ideas are reflected always makes it his aim to throughout the Epistle." Huther's rejection of this view on the ground of such passages as ii. 15. sein christlichen eigenthiimlichen alles Unchristliche unterscheidender Tact scharf sciherer.<i>r)v «X Cf. and ought to use.

whom he knows. " three all ad Parthos. where. with whose needs he is fully acquainted. says. It nated. general character of the Epistles. and the undoubted connection of some of the Johannine literature with the Roman province of Asia. that his joy and theirs is may be fulfilled. an orthodox theologian only afterwards. iii. of fully recognizing the writer's other aims. the earliest traces of their appearance. of the false teaching and unchristian conduct of his But it is at least as important to remember that opponents. they are almost certainly addressed to a definite Church. or group of Churches. 1370) This attribution was not uncommon in the West. lay too exclusive stress on the doctrine which it teaches or the heresy which it seeks to refute. The TtKv'ia are not the whole body of Christians dispersed throughBut we have nothing to help us in determining out the world. even of the First. or at least Asia Minor. and who acknowledge his right. He is a pastor his primary objects are to exhort and to edify. the destination of the Epistles beyond the universal tradition which connects them with Ephesus. Destination. Dtv. from whom most of the information . They tend to obscure rather than to elucidate the author's meaning. in the title of his ten Tractatus ("in The show that 1 Cf. of the The author of the First Epistle writes to Christians Letters. The polemical and controversial aims of the Epistle are considered at length elseHere it is only necessary to insist on the importance. paragraph is taken. for the right understanding of the Epistle.xxx THE EPISTLES OF S. And no interpre- tation of the factorily if it likely to elucidate his meaning satisfails to realize where the writer's interest really lies. Forschungen. The § 3. But it is the life which he cares separate doctrine from ethics. Epistle nature and character of the false teaching denounced in But even a satisfactory the Epistle is a fascinating problem. 92. 1 is first found in Augustine. whom he has the right to help." writing is to help his fellow-Christians to lead this life of fellowship. the circumstances and difficulties of which were well known to the writer. in this Zahn. lit. JOHN [§ 8.. " " In the antiqua translatio of Cassiodorus (Instit. For him the Christian Faith is a life of fellowship " with about. etc." 14) Epistles apparently bore the title in his the and First Epistle is so desigComplexiones (11. His first object in the Father and with His Son Jesus Christ. or writers. solution of it would fail to provide an adequate explanation of Those methods of exegesis are unscientific which the Epistle. He cannot first.

olim Colb. (1) It has been supposed to be a " " Clement quae ad uirgines corruption of Trpos -rvapOivow. Scr. epistolam Ioannis ad Parthos ") and also in 1 Variinadum Vigilius (? Idacius Clarus) in the Contra 39. 15. title 'lwdwov eTTLarToXr) ft wpos trdpOovs is found in the Greek minuscule. how much of the Eusebian pointing out the uncertainty of (Cf. (2) Zahn suggests that the real explanation is to be found in the next phrase of Clement's Adumbrationes. whose children are cannot. 13. of the o-vvei<\eKTri of 1 P v. which must be a as TrapOivow. and the like was to be found for the Babylonian lady and her children. Ev. H.?. Oxford." The title found in a Genevan MS a Greek (Sabatier). Bodleian. i. First Epistle has been explained to the reference Its scripta). 30. title must have been suggested by the name of the recipient. Gr. the s of the preposition having the for origin been dittographed). He person. The title would therefore appear to have originated in the East. Laur. "incipit epistola ad Sparthos." including Athanasius. Mill. would be the natural There is no tradition of title to use in the time of Clement. which his translator read and translated accordingly. "Scripta uero est ad quandam Babyloniam. ." Clement takes the "Babylonian" lady for a real mentioned later in the Epistle. Trpos irdpQow. . 74 (Scr.. 'E/3pators. or at least a Greek archetype for the title as it occurs in that MS." Cf. have written 7rpos TrapOtvovs. iv. John and Babylon or Parthians. which apparently makes Clement Zahn meets by interpret that phrase allegorically of Rome. 60. therefore. have been suggested. from whence it may well have reached the West as early Various explanations of the title as the time of Athanasius. von Soden a in). p. E. 2 and in the Florentine MS. The relations between S. ii. electam nomine. 32 (Scr. 89). corruption of 7rpos TrdpOovs.] DESTINATION XXXI his Quaest. %v kcli <rwra£cu passage can be rightly referred to Clement. <pao-iv «7T avTijs 1 rtup-T. clx. (cf. and Zahn further suggests that Clement must have not vice versa. Misc. If a title corresponding to xpos TaAotTa?.§ 3. identified the IkXzkttj Kvpia. "Secundum sententiam hanc etiam illud est quod dictum est a Ioanne in epistola ad Parthos. 62). According to Bede the title was found The in "many ecclesiastical writers. Second Epistle with the 17 eV The difficulty raised by the Ba(3v\wvi passage in Eus. of the fourteenth century (Reg. introduces the gloss of the heavenly witnesses with the words "Item ipse ad Parthos. ii." suggests title (7rpos irdpOov.. both of the Paris MS It appears also as colophon in a eleventh century. as the result of mistaking the title of the Second for the colophon of the First.

a. of the writer's meditations is the real cause of this diversity of arrangement. Apocalypse is clearly connected with Ephesus. But whatever may be said for these ingenious conjectures. as well as of the Gospel. such as it is. Nothing in the Epistles themS. of Asia Minor meets all the known requirements of the case. and perhaps the attempt to analyse the Epistle should be abandoned as useless. ci. shows that it is in this region that we first meet with traces of It is natural. evye Johannes lucis.xxxn THE EPISTLES OF S. JOHN title is [§4. and especially Ephesus. was first made by Gieseler. ed. origin and destination of the Epistles are to be found in this The question The district region. to suppose that the their existence. has arisen out of a misunderstanding of the title 7rap#€i'os which was given to Petermann. Analysis. and which may have been used by Clement of Alexandria. 45. therefore. and we are certainly justified in attributing all the Johannine same school. gives us no reason to distrust the tradition which The connects them with Asia Minor. TrapOevos. or of all three. who traces back the probable origin of the tradition of John's "virginity" to the Leucian Acts). p. but the evidence. that TrdpOow. though not to the same author. scanty to enable us to attain to certainty in the matter. certainly the Zahn's explanation of the origin of the most ingenious which has been suggested. p. is . 459). It offers an adequate explanation of the opening sentences in the Latin summary of If the explanation Clement's comments on the Second Epistle. apftis in regno selves affords any clear guidance in the matter . there is no reason to suppose that the title which we find in Augustine. According to Von Soden (Die Schriften des NT. Books to the cannot really be discussed apart from the Gospel. 1. quoted by Zahn. Acta fohannis. the suggestion which. of the title of the First Epistle. and the literary history of the Epistles. qui Pis/is Sophia. rests on any trustworthy tradition about the destination of the We have nothing but internal evidence to guide us Epistles. § 4. is to be sought in this passage of Clement. i. While some agreement is division of the First Epistle into paragraphs. found with regard to the possible no analysis of the The aphoristic character Epistle has been generally accepted. Zahn's hypothesis offers the most But our knowledge is too probable solution of the question. John (cf. and v7ro8iaip cVcis as follows : p. in determining the question. according to (3) Liicke has accepted him. the commonest system of K£<pd\a<.

2) eu^?7 ev (i. ev u. C7T eA7rtot eis yvaicriv #eou. 16) 7rept avTtAr/i^ews tou a/xapravovTOS aSeAc/jou Sta Trpoa-ev^YjS Kai irepi (v. (v. £. to. 6) e£opoAoy7io-ew? /<at cts to fxr] a /xapravetv. 7ras T77S 9 or 10$) 7rept aya^s 19) 7rept «S tov ttXtjctlov Kai SiaGeaeuis p. ttjs ev Triarei Iyjctov XpLcrrov. 12) errayyeAta auTOU e7r eAfftSt 7rpos axpeAetav.rj apapravetv. /ca# T7. ev at. s.apria 7rapouo-tas f$. wept (iv. (i. #eoAoyta TTf. 7) Trepi aya7T7ys (ii.KOv cre/3acrp. (iii. (ii. i) e7ra.yyeA.ieioi. 77 yap tou (ii. tov p. 7raTpos So£oAoyta tou utou €<tt( 6eo\oyia. KecpaAata Iwavvou OU (i. Kut Atorpecpous (pavXorijTOS /ucraSeAcptas. a/xapTai'(x)v eortv eK tou Sta/?oAou. (iv. o-i. TOU XpiO~TOV evav6p<DT7r]Cr€WS. 15 Or V.o\oyia. eiricrTo\r]<.pL irepi Xpiarov. (i.iKr7 ( i. ev w. ev co. 7rept #eoAoyias utou ev 8o£r] 7rarpo5 Kai VLKTq% I770-OU TTjS KCLTO.] ANALYSIS KeciaAata. 3) OTi 77s TTjprjcrts evroAtoV Oeov ttjv yvwaLV /3. 2) on o 8.eTa9erov.o-ecos ayaOrj<.aTOS. /3e/3atot.ovi. r] 7rpoo-o^T/s (ii.§ 4. 18) 7rept a7ro^9 8aip.s Kai Trepi aTTOTpoTrrjs TOV KOCTjXOV y.«Ta to Tvpooipnov Trepi op8ov /?tou ev aya7T7.€Ta8oTLKr]^.. a.o\oyia cptAo^evias twv 9) 7rept tt. KecpaAata Iwavvou eTTtoroA^s SeuTepa?.s aSeAfjSaji- eu^apto-Ttag ecp Sta Xptorov. 18) 7repi y/euSacpeAc/jwv apv-qaiOewv kui oti rj eis Xpto-rov evaefieta 7rarpos op. ev ayiacrpw (iii.aTO<. <a. yap o ev Xpton-w cktos ap. . Iwauvou €7rto"ToXr^? irpMTrjs xxxiii a.aTwv e<p opoAoytu T77S €. Tpirrj<. (ii. 4) p. U7rep TeAettocretos /cat op. 1) 7) 7rept <f>i\a8e\rf)ias ets Oeocrefieiav. (i. (i. (iii. TOU TTOVI/pOV &LCL 7rtCTT€COS XpiCTou ei? £wr)v. ev w.apna%. aveu acrefieia. (iv. 26j 7rept #etou «at Trvev/jLariKOv )(apio~p. #eou Sta 7rto-Tews euo"e/3ous ap. 10) oti ou Set aipeTiKOv eiaoiKi^eiv £etv 77 ^atpert- €0 ap. i) 7repi Sia/cptorews 7rrevp.. ev ?rept 12^ 7rapatveo-t5 7]\lKL0LV 7T/DO? ^apiros eKaorou ayair-q<.

there can be no (2) The Christological thesis is found in fellowship with God. the mutual relations of the two theses. in light the true sign of fellowship I. 6). 5-ii. b. 1 i." No reference to negatively. 7-21. are so worded as to bring out clearly the intimate connection which. y. 1 (or 5)-i2. developed in the sections i. which may be called an Ethical and a Christological Thesis. vv." 1. 5-10 (vv. 17. Abhandlungen. w fxaprvpei ra KaWurra.." more specially defined as "love of the brethren. First presentation of the two tests of fellow ship with God (ethical and Christological theses) expressed " First exposure of the two lies. 17. they are so intertwined that it is two. 27. exists between the In the third (iv. 7-v. difficult. they are again presented in the same order. the one after the other. The chief differences between a and b consist in the terms used. in the author's mind. The thesis itself put forward in two to parallel statements. A. "beware of those who deny that Jesus is the Christ.. 1-6. hi. but (ii. 23. guard against possible misunder- standing). 5-ii. i. a. finds in the Epistle a triple presentation of two leading ideas. if not impossible. 24 of ch. Introduction. 27) these ideas are presented. iv. to separate them." Theol. JOHN [§ 4. (i. In one part an attempt at a different analysis has been substituted 11-24) where I find myself unable to follow that of Haring. 28 (?)-iv. 1 (iii. Being in God . iv. v. i. Mohr). He Carl von Weizsacker gewidmet. in the form of analysis. Fellowship with God. Knowledge of God." In the first part (i. 12) irtpi Ar)fjir]Tpiov. By far the (1) ii. (id and 2 being similarly subordinate). 1892. As Haring's analysis has generally been followed in the notes of this edition. it may be convenient to give it here. (S. which form the transition from the one to the other. 8-10 being subordinate to the main thought. 6. i. i. and Walking in Light. 13) 7T€pi a^u^tcos olvtov 7rpos ain-ous €7r wcpeXeia. 1-6. ." ethical thesis 24. 18-27. B. at least in substance. 5-ii. Walking with God (ethical thesis). without any In the second indication of their connection with each other. 5-ii. is The 28 (?)-iii. the sections ii. 1-4.xxxiv THE EPISTLES OF (i. 12). ii. "without walking in light. at least to some extent. 5-ii. is that of Theodor Haring (" Gedankengang und Grundgedanke des ersten Johannesbriefs. Freiburg i. Refutation of the first "lie. cv Ta^ct. most successful attempt to analyse the Epistle in such a manner as to show that there is a real underlying sequence of thought which can be represented. S.

"lie." .

iv. T. He have many points of agreement with Haring's scheme. separated are given. Third presentation of the theses. 23. This love of God shown in the sending Intentional intermingling of of His Son. because God is Love. [§4. iii. Faith the proof of being born of God. This love based on faith in its relation to Judgment (17-18). 1-6. Faith in this revelation of love in Jesus through the Spirit. R. 19-22. mand summed up love. 2. which is 1-3. in the two duties of belief and Obedience issues in fellowship. Faith. JOHN Christ. revelation of love. 7-12. v. the The example of 3. \a. 12. a. 1^-4. iii. ideas as now combined. 7-v. S. The reasons why they cannot be Love the proof of fellowship with God. Spirit of The gift of the Spirit. iv. v. This is the test by which we may know if we are of the truth. II. Clark. 2. Content of the confession. iii. iv. 1. Conhdence in God and the hearing of prayer. Conclusion. 3. The lesser proof of love and its absence. 5-12. Transition to the second thesis. The com24. iv. the two leading thoughts in two sections. 4-6. Attitude of the Church and the world. iv. Law in his study of the T. II. Both are C. 7-10. 2. Second explanation of the connected thoughts. The test by which the reality of the fellowship may be proved. its assurance. 17-21. 1909) First Epistle {The Tests of Life: Edinburgh. The God confesses Jesus Christ come in flesh. Love based on the revelation of love. First explanation of the two Love based on faith in the revelation of love the proof of knowing God and being born of God. 17. 11. and so still the accusations of our heart. recapitulation (19-21). 13-16.xxxvi THE EPISTLES OF Hatred and death. 18. Faith as the base of love. divisions adopted by Mr. I. in the Christ. The & in the Epistle a threefold application of three tests by which the readers may satisfy themselves of their being " begotten of God. as faith conceives it. the witness that Jesus is v. 3. 13-21. 1. b. As the ground of love of the brethren.] The Christological thesis. 1. love of God the sign of love of the brethren. v." finds . iv. shown to be connected. 12. iv.

A. content. a. Love. — i. An interesting correspondence between Dr. basis. and which belief in Jesus as the Christ inspires. 5 ii. Introduction. 29-iii. to the brethren. iv. however. 13-16. of which the most interest1907). Love. Sonship to God. v. It contains several schemes. 3^-21." and is hardly so helpful as Haring's scheme in tracing the (probable) sequence of thought. and Belief. iii. In parts it becomes rather an enumeration of subjects than an analysis. i. c. b. Belief. ness. Hort about the Divisions of the First Epistle has been published by the Rev.] ANALYSIS i. is b. ii. The scheme is as follows i. Westcott and Dr. 6. 7-v.. . genesis of love. 13-21. 1-4.). The Christian Divine Sonship. II. \oa. motives.§ 4. Second Cycle. b. as Mr. 28. life as that of — Belief. ii. 10^-240. Belief. 486) and his remarks upon it (p. 29-iv. 481 ff. to " separate off the Epilogue. v. 24^-iv. belief. Righteousness. Love. Love. Section a. iS — iii. 3a.24. ii. It also obscures the writer's insistence that the showing of love. The power. Section a. synthesis of belief and love. The certainties of Christian belief. Law explains in an appended note that The Haring's article was unknown to him at the time when he wrote the chapter which contains his analysis. 7-v. 6. The Christian as fellowship with God. 17. 7-12. 3a. substantial agreement of this analysis with that of Haring remarkable. 485 f. and 1 7-v. not in: difference. 18-28. ing is Dr. ii. It fails. Righteousness. Divine Sonship tested by a. c. i. iv. 6. 21. b. and hence likeness to His Son. iii. manifestations of love. Third Cycle. The The The iv. 7-17. c. Hort's Second Scheme of Divisions (p. and of abiding in Him. v. 6-ii. effect. iv. God and the true light: goodness. XXXVll life First Cycle. in the sphere where circumstances made it possible. iv. approved by the same tests. is the first and most obvious expression of the righteousness which is obedience to God's command. 5-ii. conditioned and tested by walking Walking in the light tested by — in the light. and issue of Christian 3^-12. Closer correlation of Righteous- I.e. Westcott in the Expositor (iii. ii.

heard' (oiSa/xev). not indifference. Judaizing Christians. A majority of interpreters . which is the necessary condition of Love (II. and the connection between the two. not say whether this correspondence was known his scheme. clearly the writer's meaning and purpose." Westcott also pleads for the "retention of the Epilogue (v. Hort replied. to which Dr. with abiding and the Anointed Son Faith. Judaizing or heathen. if iv. 18-21. Saturninus. Conclusion.). Faith resting on knowledge of the truth the mark of the Divine Spirit. 1-6 from the third to the second " As far as I can section (cf. If not." This is probably true if (p. Westcott and Dr. which is the After the Prologue we necessary condition of obedience (I. the doing of righteousness ( = obedience). with truth and the Spirit. JOHN [§ 5.). or some particular sect of Gnostics. faith and works. Valentinus or Some have supposed the chief error denounced to Cerinthus. Haring seems the better. 1321) instead of the connection of 13-17 with what precedes. his underlying agreement with the suggestions of this paragraph. The exact nature of the false teaching which is denounced in these Epistles has been much disputed. begin with this last simplest region. is highly significant. his threefold presentation of a twofold idea brings out more Belief and practice. or Gnostics. S. 485) "the three Dr. is associated with light and the Father . Law does to him when he framed § 5.xxxviii THE EPISTLES OF i-v. Haring). is his real The showing of love is the most obvious example of subject. or controversy. ' One Obedience naturally taking with us the results already obtained. It is interesting also to notice that Dr. On both these points the arrangement preferred by Dr. is the Christian knowledge. 1-6 of the cannot be the restored see. be Docetism. others Antinomianism.). Epistle symmetry is thrown back. though not But with the actual scheme proposed. v. Mr. great divisions themselves have a ternary structure. the first and the That which we have seen and last. The Christian knowledge: the true and the false. and feel our way downwards. and is still a matter of The opponents have been held to be Jews. Love. Basilides. ir. The False Teachers. j" The base of all.'^ It would : be difficult to find in the whole literature of the Johannine Epistles a more helpful clue in tracing the underlying connections of the "aphoristic meditations" contained in this Epistle. This is the necessary condition of Faith (III. 17. paragraph of his appended remarks is so suggestive that it must be quoted in lull. Westcott was anxious to transfer the passage iv.

especially in the light of i Jn. the pre-existent Son of God. however. Adv. or teaching similar in character and tendency. Cerinthianism. in late years by several writers. The unity of the false teaching is assumed by Wurm and by Clemen. or at least divided by no This would. even if further consideration may suggest that the conclusion which they have drawn is not inevitable. The work of reconopinions of the most diverse characters. ii. one sense this is probably true.. and is In accepted by perhaps the majority of writers on the subject. as defined by Irenaeus. which they regard as limiting the doctrinal differences between the and his opponents to questions of Christology and as demonstrating that with regard to the doctrine of the Father. their views must have been identical. The writer does not attack the chs. deserve special consideration. verse convincing support for his view of the purely Jewish Clemen draws from it character of the opponent's teaching. xxvi. excluded. who alone can reveal the Father But they both agree that the position of Cerinthus is to men. ii. Wurm finds in this ignorans eum qui est super omnia Deum.] THE FALSE TEACHERS xxxix still perhaps regard Cerinthianism. or wheiher he is combating different enemies in different passages. it may be well to consider whether the writer has in view the opinions of one party only in all the sections in which he denounces false teaching. Christological opinions of two or more definite pariies in of the he denounce does nor v. 23. and Christolegy iv. respectively. The views which the writer's statements justify us in attributing to his opponents are not necessarily inconsistent. 1. 1.. ii. of course. where the Creator of the world is described as uirtus quaedam ualde separata et distans ab ea principalitate quae est super universa et writer . one party and the ethical shortcomings of another. among whom VVurm and Clemen Though they differ in their solution of the problem. and the preceding verse the conclusion that the writer sees the most serious error of his opponents in their denial that the historical Jesus is the Christ in the Johannine sense of that term.§ 5. One or Many ? Before examining in greater detail the character of the views held by the false teachers. exclude serious difference of opinion. 23 on the subject. as the main object of the writer's deThis view has. they both maintain that the common view is untenable. They might all have been held by the same party. been seriously challenged nunciation.e. . But they do not form a complete They might have been held in conjunction with other system. i. Haer. They certainly have done good service in drawing attention to the importance of the bearing of 1 Jn.

if we may consider first the passages in which doctrinal errors are denounced apart from those which deal with moral . that both His sufferings and His death were essential parts of His Messianic form of (ovro?) work of salvation. This hardly suggests one leader and many likeminded followers. "Antichrist cometh. therefore. error is manifold. JOHN [§ 5. the denial that Jesus who is the Son of God came by blood as well as by water. iv. because many utterance. that the writer seems to deal more exclusively with one particular error. expressions which he uses certainly suggest variety. This passage should not be allowed to outweigh the impression left by the earlier chapters." is finding its fulfilment in the The He tells many Antichrists who have come to be (ii. 23). that varieties of false teaching are in the writer's mind in most of what he has And even in the fifth chapter most of the expressions to say. The Antichrist is characBut every one terized by his denial that Jesus is the Christ. Every This denial is the spirit which denies Jesus is "not of God. used leave the same impression. who is already working in the world in the It is only in the fifth chapter doings of his many subordinates. The readers are reminded that every lie (irav if/evSos) shows the characteristic of being derived from some source other than the truth. i. 18). readers are warned not to give credence to every spiritual The many spirits must be tested. few of the necessary bricks are supplied to us. But we have to remember how struction is always fascinating. are bound. The v/i. us that the popular expectation is being fulfilled. Thus. And error which is is the burden of his message throughout. Throughout he tries to fortify his readers by calling to their remembrance a few fundamental truths which will safeguard them from the attacks of all the varied dangers which threaten their faith. even if by way of illustration he refers more particularly to one attack which they had lately victoriously repelled." mark of Antichrist. that denies Him to be the pre-existent Son of God is cut off from This statement is all true knowledge of the Father (ii. to consider carefully any hints which the writer himself gives us as to whether he has one or many opponents to meet.e. The saying. made with reference to those who lead astray (Trepl twv 7r\avm'rwv The same variety of error may be traced in ch. false prophets have gone out into the world (iv. 1). and whether he regards them as We confined within one fold.xl THE EPISTLES OF S. manifold threatens in more forms than one. even if the various sections have all separated themselves off from the true body (c£ fjfxrov i£rjav). Truth is one. though not exactly in the way in which people were looking for it. and how large a proportion of the building material we have to fashion for ourselves.5s).

] THE FALSE TEACHERS xli dangers. Jews who have never accepted Christianity. which was often acute enough before. of course. but it placed Jewish Christians who had not broken with their national hopes and aspirations in an almost If single one enemy is in view. (a) Judaism. the right path. as they had hoped even to the last. which seem the times. for the recognition of Jesus as the Messiah by the majority of hopes had now been dashed to the not returned to save His people and And Christians had nation. At the his writing may have been occasioned by one special type of false teaching. They had still perhaps hoped against hope desperate position. which some of their former companions have been persuaded to leave. that the Jewish controversy was prominent among the dangers which threatened most loudly. if not certain. be the Those of whom the writer is thinking first are men who "have gone out from The phrases used. All such ground. and most characteristic of sets out clearly the corresponding truths which in his opinion will prove to be their safest antidote. But this obvious fact does not necessarily exclude all reference in the Epistle to non-Christian The writer's object is clear. to him most dangerous. have affected most profoundly the relations of Judaism to Christianity. it cannot. And his insistence on the confession that Jesus is the Messiah makes it probable. leads to the conclusion that the Epistle is directed against various forms of The writer sums up the different tendencies in them teaching. the general impression left by these passages and by many individual expressions which occur in them. or one special incident in the history of his Church in connection with it. They cannot refer to a sharper division between Jews and Christians who had hitherto been on more friendly terms. The Lord had . He must protect those who remain from all the dangers which threaten most seriously. The Jewish War and the destruction of Jerusalem must." point to a definite secession of men who called themselves Christians and were recognized as such. not been slow to point to the fate of Jerusalem as God's punishment on the nation for their rejection of the Christ. Jewish Christians could no longer expect anything but the bitterest their nation. It not only embittered the hatred between Jews and Christians. With this general caution in view it will be well to consider next how far various types of teaching are possibly reflected in He same time the Epistle. in spite of the words "they were not of us. of course.§ 5." us. And the effect must have become manifest very soon after the taking of the Holy City. It is to keep his readers in Jews.

ii. with whom the writer and his fellow Such a danger threatened primarily.. But it must have entered upon an acute stage within It must have been a a few years of the Fall of Jerusalem. own nation. themselves are not conscious of holding from those of the faithful.. or rather to those who in his opinion falsely represented it and had proved unfaithful to its true vocation. Their Lord had delayed His promised return. only Jewish Christians. it is unsafe to deduce the Jewish character of the false teaching denounced from the words of ch.xlii THE EPISTLES OF S. And if some openly cast in their lot with their faithful may have been Jesus was with higher powers. as Wurm has He draws the following conclusions from the passage. On the other hand. sent by God and endowed by Him presuppose in this respect. but it affected the whole body. as Wurm that the author states the fact . And the first statement does not necessarily follow from the (1) The false teachers any views of God different verses which are supposed and Clemen have pointed to establish out. it. done. but not the Deliverer of the nation. the Revealer of the Father.t. JOHN [§ 5. It is hardly necessary to restate at any great length the obvious fact that the needs of the Jewish controversy are a dominant factor in the Evangelist's choice of His hostility to his subject-matter and method of presentation. in fact. (2) There was. For it was an essential part of the Christian creed as they apprehended it that salvation is of the Jews. It may have reached its height about the time of Barcochba's rebellion. of course. is one of the most prominent characteristics of his work. In this connection it is natural to take into account the evidence of the Fourth Gospel. In the Epistle it is far less prominent. tov vlov ouSe tov TTaripa «^£t k. hatred from the members of their own nation with whom they had hoped for reunion.A. And many were ready to ask in scorn. The last statement is rather vague. others who still remained sorely tempted to accept the view that indeed a prophet. 7ras o apvovfjL€vo<. It is true. Christians identified Him. but it is difficult to discover any real difference in the situations which the Gospel and the Epistle own nation. "Where is " the promise of His coming ? It is hardly surprising if their Jewish brethren succeeded in persuading some at least among them that they had been mistaken in supposing that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah of their nation. It would admit of considerable differences of view as to the nature of the Father. 22 f. serious danger at any period to which it is possible to assign the date of our Epistle. no such difference in their teaching except such as was involved in the denial of the Son. and not the unique Son of God. The Jewish controversy was prominent throughout the first half of the second century.

that Clemen and Wurm have assumed. as in what follows (there can be no fellowship with God.] THE FALSE TEACHERS " xliii have not the Father " as a consequence could hardly have written the words of their Christology. for those who fail to obey His ivrokac). Post baptismum descendisse in eum ab ea principalitate quae est super omnia Christum figura co/umbae. The condemnation of those who say that The use of they "have not sin" points in the same direction. " have the Father. otSare 7rdi/T€?). no more necessity to interpret the apparent. perhaps too one possible interpretation of the passage is the only possible explanation. airoKa\vi(/at airw /cat Si' avrov tols /x€t avroJ) Writers like readily. at any rate. more point. 414).§ 5. the terminus technicus of Gnosis." unless these teachers actually claimed to But it does not follow that they claimed the possession in the same sense as orthodox Christians claimed it. ii.a. tov ayvwo-rov Traripa. and they have far Christians. unless. the first person plural shows that the danger is regarded as . of course. CTKoria must be taken in an ethical sense. Gnosticism. phrase 6 Ae'ywv on lyvw/ca avrov as presupposing any definite form of Gnosticism unknown before the second century. Cerinthus by Irenaeus may. indeed. 9. incognitum patrem. or that what can be known of Him is revealed exclusively to a few (o-Kon'a iv axnw ovk Icrnv ovSep. than there is to do so in the case of the Pauline f) yvukris cpv<ri<u. and unattainable by that the false teachers He Of such teaching the views attributed to the average Christian. in the phrase (a-iripp. (b) The connection of the Epistle with Gnostic ideas is quite There is. serve as an illustration. if the writer has in view types of Gnostic thought. or el tis dya7r<£ tov 6ebv ovros Though o-Trep/xa may be eyvwarai vtt airov. who is all light. Gnostic ideas are clearly a serious menace to the readers. And the whole passage loses in point unless there actually were real differences The words can no doubt be interpreted of Jews whose of view.ia. and the at the aimed following reiteration of this in negative form may well be view that the Father of all is unknowable. cf. in which a claim was made to superior knowledge of the unknown Father imparted to a few spiritual natures. conception of God was not materially different from that of But they are equally applicable.a reference to the system of Basilides is far from airai /zeW). ck deov will airov iv interpret the meaning of 0-n-ipp. A But being the only possible explanation (Pfleid. The essence of the writer's dyyeXia is that God is light. et tunc annunciasse We compare the Greek of Epiphanius. however we may Orjvat. our author's doctrine of yevvqexplain its use in iii.

Polycarp. 2 (D VE). how" Docetism " has both a wider ever. Trp6<. Jn. 19. unfortunate that the term and a narrower signification. Dion. own age" and perpetuating their (c) Docetism. too. 3) TrpoavaKpoveraL.xliv THE EPISTLES OF if S." Cf. Bibl. Cf. that Jesus is only the man with whom the Christ who came down from heaven was united for a " time. And the confession demanded of "Jesus Christ come " in the flesh possible antagonism for his influence in subsequent ages. The writer's own sympathy with many Gnostic ideas is well known. and only in some loose kind of connection {nur lose . Here. Concerning Jesus these opponents of the writer taught that He is not the Christ (ii. maintaining that He had a human body. 14). JOHN the [§ 5. we recognize again the assertion of the Gnostics. E. is his power "of absorbing into Christianity the great spiritual tendencies of his age. DVE.. not only to his own generation but to all times. The intellectual claims of the "illuminati" are met by insistence on the duty of love. tous ovk iv crapKt cpdarKovTas Christi. sarily go beyond the wider and more popular usage. StaTCtvdiv rots e^s iSrjkwaev. Gnostics. "More precisely the false teachers disclose themselves to be Docetics. Taxrra yap (1 Jn. 57. i\rj\v6ei'ai tov down " EBOJ. imminent. i.. geschichtliche p 29. 25. John. to the present time. which assigned to the Lord a merely phantasmal body. Encycl. nur aiisserlich). Schmiedel. i. and the obligations which it involves. vii. p. They contain no certain reference to Docetism in the stricter sense . (is H. with Docetism has Cf. This is seen more clearly cf. De came i\r]\v6evaL dvTt^ptoros And the same view has found favour Kvpiov. Tertullian. vii. only in The expressions used by Polycarp do not necesappearance. ofioAoyfj 'Irjaovv io-Tiv of this Epistle and 2 Jn. not actually present among members of the is the writer's protest against the Gnostic doctrine of the impossibility of any real and complete union between the spiritual seed and that which is flesh (cf. son of Zebedee.v. Alex. Perhaps his greatest service. Eus. ap. /tievos. 7ra9 yap os Xpiorov iv crapKL . It is to be found in the ReligionsVolksbikher. They denied that Jesus Christ came in flesh . 116. in iv." thus "disarming their community. The connection av fir] : been recognized from early times. It can be used in a more popular sense to characterize all teaching which denied the reality of the Incarnation. of flesh and blood. and therefore the reality and completeness of the It may also be used more precisely of teaching Lord's humanity. xxiv. 22). an expression directed equally against the other view of the " He had a body only in appearance. that s." It is. 2.

not A ovaiv acruy/xaTOis /cat Sai^oviKots ad Trail. . however. eyaj Tt The watchword "Jesus Christ come in flesh " held good BtSe/xaL. at any rate in This view has been of Cerinthus. as recorded by Irenaeus (et post baptismum descendisse eum ab ea prhicipalitate quae est super omnia Christum figura columbae.t. kcu dA-^ois t~a6ev.] THE FALSE TEACHERS xlv And the language of the Johannine Epistles does necessarily presuppose the more precise Docetism. one particular danger becomes more prominent. contains clearer reference to one definite form of error than is probably to be found in the earlier chapters. . false teachers are still apparently concerned with the earlier our Docetism stage of the problem.). ovx wcnrep a/mcrToi tlvcs \eyovo~iv to ookcu' avrov rmrovdivai. ad Smyrn. et £e . v.1 a\r]0Cj^ avtarrjaev iavrov. The grounds on which Wurm it have been already If the statements of ii.. Cf. aurots. the relation between the real man Jesus of Nazareth and the higher power with which He was brought into temporary connection.1 ev t<Z ac/xan) are certainly more easily explained in connection with the teaching of and Clemen have declared against in Cerinthus. Ign. avTol to ooKeiv ovt€<. of the term. Jerome. ii. ws xa. again the heresy seriously challenged by We many writers. and the former naturally All Gnostic insistence on the incompatibility led to the latter. et tunc annunciasse incognitum patrem. v. and Cerinthus in the Baths of Ephesus. X. comparison of the language of Ignatius makes this quite clear. But there is of flesh and spirit led in the same direction. (especially ow ev tw vbari jxovov dAA' iv tw v&cltl ko. (d) Cerinthianism. do not exclude the considered. As the Epistle proceeds. teaching of Cerinthus about the unknown Father. that the author is trying logical passages is in the to strengthen his readers' defences against dangers which threaten from more than one quarter. 23 f. the disciple of the Lord. Since the days when Polycarp told the story of John. auTOi ovtcs to Soxelv. In Joann.§ 5. part. the view has been commonly held that the Johannine Epistles. were directed. and the creation of the world (non a primo Deo factum esse mundum docuit sed a uirtute qua dam ualde separata ab ea principalitate quae est super universa et ignorante eum qui est super omnia Deum). et uirtutes per- . the more definite references of ch. and the passage in ch. if the suggested interpretation of the Christomain correct. kou ko^ws <fipovovo~iv kol o~v/xf3i](TCTa. nothing in stricter The Epistles which proves the existence of the to which the letters of Ignatius bear witness. if not the Gospel as well (cf. : against both these forms of teaching. have seen. Aeyoi/atv to Sokclv imrovdivai ai-roV.

deque creatura The world was made by angels. Mary. His teaching differed from that of Carpocrates in its more nulla Phil. Christum autem bnpassibilem perseve- than by any other known system. While they admitted that His baptism by John was a real mark of His Messianic career. and are not derived from Irenaeus. denouncing the view that the passion was no essential part of the Messianic work of salvation. and also by writers of a different So far as school. Phil.. ipse creation of the world. as Knopf (JVachapostol.-Tert. ovtos iK . 328 ff. to. This in the Crucifixion. and the reference to Cerinthianism is strongly maintained by Zahn (Einleitung. (2) His teaching resembled that of his predecessor as He was the son of Joseph and regards (a) The person of Christ. of (?) Hippolytus gives us hardly anything beyond material for reconstructing the original Greek of Irenaeus (Hipp. Simi/ia docens. But as the exact tenets of Cerinthus are a matter of dispute. JOHN [§ 5. concerns the type of teaching which is referred to. mundum institutum esse ab angelis (which Hilgenfeld has rightly restored for lllis) . ko\ tov Kocrp. Zeit. - (b) The Cf. nam et angelorum ps. which Lipsius rightly restores in Greek. Christum ex semine Joseph natum proponit. fecisse in fine autem revolasse iterum Christum de lesu. dAX' 17 lv . hominem ilium tantummodo sine diuinitate cotitendens Epiph. sec. the opponents refused to see a similar mark He came by water but not by blood. icra tw Trpoetprjfxevo) els tov Xpicrrov crvKocpai'Trjcras c^r/yeirai kou. Philos. Philaster. 70). As usual the contents of Hippolytus' Syntagma must be deduced. corresponds admirably with what Irenaeus tells of Cerinthus. where his statements cannot be checked by the other two writers who used the Syntagma. Cerinthus successit huius errori et similitudini uanitatis docens de generatione Saluatoris . rasse.). and in part conjectured. Tert. there can be little doubt that it is the most probable view. ps. The writer is Our chief authorities for the views of Cerinthus are Irenaeus and Hippolytus. 33). Maptas Kai in cnrepfxaros 'Iu)<rr](p tov Xpiarov yiytvrjaOat. sympathetic attitude towards Judaism. et Iesum passum esse et resurrexisse. a means by which He was fitted to carry out His work for men. biro ayyekwv ycyei'fjo-$ai.otw. . And as usual the Epiphanian account affords an interesting field for conjecture. in Cf. Epiph. from the writings of The Refutatio Epiphanius. The Syntagma of Hippolytus must have contained at least the following information: (1) Cerinthus was the successor of Carpocrates. Philaster. existentem spiritalem).ov 6/j. vii. and pseudo-Tertullian. p. it may be well to consider the accounts of it which we possess in greater detail.xlvi THE EPISTLES OF S. discordans ab illo eo nisi quia ex parte solum legi consentit quod a Deo data sit.

i]8r]Ti Kal that and on the keeping of the Sabbath and that he taught Christ had not yet risen from the dead. that he acknowledged the Gospel Epiph. Paul Irenaeus as to is in substantial agreement with Cerinthus' views about the person of Christ and the creation The Judaizing views attributed of the world by an inferior power. Paul (cf. Iudaeorum Deum non Dominum sed angelum promens. ch. Matthew only (cf. ch. vi. imroLiqKOTwv. ev tu Trpoari^iv Syntagma would seem also to have stated that Cerinthus regarded ™ the of the Jews as an angel. on his last visit to Jerusalem). that he paid honour to the traitor Judas . Cf.r]f)r] 6 T^crovs . unintelligible as it stands. to S.] THE FALSE TEACHERS xlvii tovto) fiovov ev T(3 ofioXoyeiv diro p.wv Ko<x/xo7roLoi God SeSoo"#ui. j hereafter {Christum turum annuntiat" IcrravpuxrOai. xpwvTtu yap to Kara. which offers the most striking resem- . in the light of circumcision avTos). though the attribution of " Ebion. From this point onwards there is nothing more to be PhHaster adds a number of gathered from pseud. Epiph. .T0atov cuayyeAiov oltto /xepovs). Epiph. Ma.§ 5. Koo-fjiov Kal tov ScSodkotci vo/xov fva tivai tojv ayyi###BOT_TEXT###lt;av Twv tov which we must interpret the sentence of Philaster. /i^7rw Se £yr]y£p&ai. further details which emphasize the Judaizing character of He tells us that he insisted on Cerinthus' teaching and views. 7T(pi€Tp. v.£pov<. Epiph. but would rise no?idum surrexisse a mortuis sed resurreccf. et ipsum Deum Iudaeorum eum esse aestimat qui legem dedit filiis Israel. (cf. 81 ovtos tov vojaov Kal tovs irpo<f>r}Ta<.£W(Lv Se dviOTao^ai orav 17 Ka66\ov yivr]T<u vcxpwv mao-rao-is) that he rejected the authority of S. The only statement that really conflicts with his account is that Syntagma But we have found concerning the resurrection of Christ. by one of whom the Law was given to Israel. tov ETarAov 6eTovo-i) . S. Epiph.. ch. vtt6 (f>d(rK€i dyyeX. V. TT(piTfx. insisting on the circumcision of all converts . and probably as one of the ayycXot. ch. Epiph. and that he was the mover of the sedition against the Apostles. Epiph. rejecting the other three Gospels and the Acts that he blasphemes the blessed Martyrs . ch. iii. according to . on oltto 6cov The BiSorau 'lov^aicr/xw oltto p. tov vofiov. ipsam quoque legem ab angelis datam perhibens." by Hippolytus and by many of the same tenets to The as the accuracy of the details. The agreements between Epiphanius and Philaster are sufficiently marked to in his Syntagma assigned some justify the view that Hippolytus such Judaizing position to Cerinthus. X^io-rov 7rc7rov#evai «ai p.-Tertullian. to raises doubts Irenaeus.epov<. ps. v. about the Baptism and the connect far to so teaching nothing Passion.-Tert. given by Irenaeus. and that the Apostolic decree was promulgated against the movement instigated by him who also adds to his crimes the opposition (cf. to him are not inconsistent with anything in Irenaeus' account.

fr avrov rbv ayvwcTTov irarepa. the remainder may be of the nature of explanatory additions made by Epiphanius himself. oA. Hipp.yovi.tr avwBev Swapeis avwQev dvaTrrrjiai e7riT€TeA. with the Hippolytean treatise. 7rpos oe tw tc'Aci a7rooT7}vat rbv Xptcnw dirb rov 'Irjaov. S..a i^ovcrLas ei (? av6tvria<. rbv KoapLov. Epiphanius. Toureort rb irvtvfia rb aytov. 21.€Ke'vai.ro Ik rrapOivov yfyfvrjaOai (impossibile enim hoc est) yeyoi eVat 8k avrov i£ 'Iu)o-))<£ Kat Mapta? vlbv bp. and the denial that Jesus is the Christ.ariKbv VTrdpyovra.vai. Kai Sta tovto £7j-€i8t) drro toC Irjaov avco. rbv 8e fir) 'Irjaovv VTri6f. JOHN [§ 5. iv tw 'Iop$dvr] Kai airoKaXvij/ai avrw Kai oY avrov tois p. cf. Apart from particular expressions. Hipp. 413). XpiorcV 81 tov dvwdfv fXOovra tts avrov airaGy] avaTrravra.o(oi<s tois Xoi7rots a7racrtf av6pw7roi<. vTrip to. ou^ Tivos V7TO tou 7rpwrov 6eov Kai yf. vii.1 rrj * 1 oAa au^evrta?. Philos. and this view is maintained by But Hilgenfeld (Ketzergeschichte des Urchristenthums.xlviii THE EPISTLES OF v. aVco Owupetos. rfj% ij/v^rjv parallels in his account of Carpocrates (cf. earlier of the Epistle. Jj). Haer. some of which find 2.fvov KarfXrjXvOevai tov Xptorov eis auToi'. oVep tort to Karebv iv £t<Set 7repio"T6pas. p.s KC)(wpio-p. Kai ov tov 7raA. the non-Irenaean matter in the identification of the Christ who Epiphanius is confined to descended on Jesus with the Holy Spirit. Kai rbv 'Yrjcrovv irfirovQivai Kai iyrjyipOai. . fid-Trrio~p.ivrj'i aire^ovar]<. 33). When all the definitely Irenaean matter is taken away. €K tov dvco Ofov pcTa.era to VTrep ru. Irenaeus (cf. rbv 8e Xpiarbv drraOrj Stapepei'r/KeVai vvevp. Kai p. ovk 0. blances to that denounced in ch. iv etSet irfpiarepd^. rbv HLpurrov ev rrfpLO-rfpd'i rbrf Krjpv^ai Tor ayva>o~TOV Trarfpa. (p 118). finds reasons for doing so in that part of the Epiphanian account which is derived mainly from Irenaeus (i.1:0 ttJs Trptorr]^ av(j)9ev Se Kai avuiOfv Surapews rbv koct/xov ytyfvrjO-Qai. xxvii. Kai awTOV rjXOfv i) Surapts eis avrov ibv Treirovdoros to 'Irjaovv cu'ai rbv Xpiarov. Lipsius however. to d8pvvBr]vai rbv 'Iijcrovv tov Ik Iwcrycp /cat o"7rep/AaTos Mapta? yey tvvqp. the mention of the Jordan.a KarfXOflv et'Set £ts' avrov rov dnb ko. Lipsius thinks that it must be derived from another source. vii. Kai oiKatoTcpov yeyoitVat uisum [«at (frpovLfuLrtpovj Kai o-ocf>ioTfpov. the phrase to ibv avwOfv (6 avmOfv fkduiv). Kai Surdpets iTrtrfXiaai. dAA' {nrb owdptajs tt. principalltate) Kai dyvoovar^s rbv vir\p iravra Ofov. For the sake of clearness it will be best to give the passage in full. d7reo~TdA#ai vtto rov avrov irarpos €<s ttjv avrov Sv^apcts). TVfirovdora 6e tov Irjaovv /cat iyrjyeppivov.

it would not be inconsistent Even if with the stress laid on the denial that Jesus is the Christ. at any rate. so far as we He seems to have combined those can now determine them. We may perhaps compare the language of the Prologue to the Gospel. tov Xpto-Tov i\r)\v9evcu Se eh avrov to vvtvfxa to ayiov kg! 8l a. and almost certainly many had extolled at the expense of Jesus of Nazareth. he certainly would not allow the identification of Jesus from his birth with the Christ. whom possibly some had identified with the Messiah. then safely conclude that though other forms of has teaching are dealt with in the Epistles. one of which spoke of Christ and the other of the Holy Spirit as the power who descended on Jesus. is similarly set aside (ovk tjv And if this was €K€U'OS t6 <£w9 dXA' Iva fiaprvprjar] irepl tov (pUiTos). t6v Xpto-Tov e7rtT€T€XcKe'vat SvVaui? ovvd/xeis eVaSr) r/###BOT_TEXT###ev et? avrov avmOev KaX avrov ireTrov$OTO<. the writer whose views some of the view in opponent teaching specially were. or that of the Spirit to Christ (i. unless Epiphanius is combining two accounts. he admitted that the descent of the Spirit at the Baptism raised to the Messianic office (more probably he would regard as setting Him apart for a prophet). It is noticeable that in Lipsius' attempted reconstruction of the Syntagma (pLera. tean account did contain a statement that a higher power came upon Jesus (? the Christ) and left Him (? the Holy Spirit) the original teaching of Cerinthus at the Baptism. there is a special significance in the language of the Epistle. offer the most satisfactory explanation of the language of the false fifth We may chapter of the First Epistle. . in the Johannine sense of the term. way by there is no obvious reason for the mention of the Spirit. Spirit And if was that the descended on Jesus which some had attributed to Him.TTOKa\v\f/aL avral iv etSci 7T€picrrepas ko.1 clvtov tois /x«t' avrov tov aVa> Oeov. before the Passion.e.] THE FALSE TEACHERS xlix There is nothing here that Epiphanius could not have added At the same time of explanation and amplification. say. the original teaching of Cerinthus. where the overestimation of the Baptist. to nvevfxa The place of the Spirit. whether they defined of Jesus to the Christ. the pre-existent Son of Him it God. very similar to those of Cerinthus. to Kare6v avaTrTTJvcu avco) most of the matter and much of the language is to be found in But on the whole it seems probable that the HippolyIrenaeus. Jesus).§ 5. And the particular views which we have good the relation grounds for attributing to him. Gnostic and Judaizing tendencies which the writer regarded as most dangerous. Se aSpvvdrjvai. not to perform the higher function bear was to witness. the writer would io-Ti to fiaprvpovv.

avrov fxr] T-qpwv if/eva-Tf]'. had condoned. And in the following verse (ii. however. his words have a wider reference than the one particular body of opponents. They must have claimed to know God as ordinary Christians could not know Him. But though the Epistle offers no traces of Antinomianism. without recognizing . by which the expressions used are not restricted to the fleshly sins. even if the writer is not thinking of them in i. writer seems to mean all desires which come to the natural man as yet untouched by the influence of the Spirit of God. guilty of. 5) the emphasis 6. clear that the writer of these Epistles is combating errors of life and conduct as well as of doctrine. The Johannine usage of the word o-dp£ suggests this wider reference.1 THE EPISTLES OF S. though he goes too far in maintaining that the praise which the writer bestows on his readers excludes the possibility that his warnings against certain practical errors could have It was clearly one of the chief special reference to them. and their withdrawal was most probably the occasion of the different party of Christological errors. io. As in the case of the he is content to point out the chief tendencies in which he foresees most danger. Again. if the errors of conduct which he denounces were conspicuously absent from the lives of those whose teaching he condemns. First Epistle. On a\r]6£><. 16). fellowship with God. 8. He could hardly have laid such stress on the necessary connection between true belief and right practice. eVrtv are certainly directed against the false teachers. it is clear that the opponents claimed that knowlege of God. and many more who hardly knew how to make up their minds. no grounds for supposing that in those passages which deal with moral shortcomings the writer has an altogether opponents in view. Ethical Errors. the grosser sins of the flesh. but he writes with the memory fresh in his mind of the recent withdrawal of a particular party from his Church. avrbv kou Tas ivroXas code. It is. or been That is not the most natural interpretation of the passage on which such a view has By ItnOvixia t^s o-apicos the generally been based (ii. JOHN [§ 5. This has been clearly stated by Wurm. as the writer viewed it. and love for God are compatible with is There no evidence that this party disregard of at least some of the requirements of the Christian The words 6 Xeyutv on zyviDKO. of course. There are. And it is almost a matter of certainty that he has in view the same opponents in what he says on both subjects. (Zv tovtw r] ayd-rrrj tov Oeov TeTtAcuuTai) suggests the same thought. dangers of the situation. that those who " had " gone out had left many sympathizers behind.

recognized by himself and his opponents alike as having authority." however the "old" and the "new" are to be interpreted. Sikcuoi without admitting the necessity of "doing the works. which has been made known to men in various ways. . iii. cf. They must have been unwilling to recognize that the ordinary and less enlightened members of the community had any real claims upon them. xiii. and that he makes the claim in 34) rjya.Tr]crei> koli avros The following section (ii. such as. who said evroXrjv Kaivrjv SiStafxt ifuv tva dya7raT€ dAA^Aovs Ka6w<. Again all becomes clear if we may suppose that their conduct was regulated by the moral precepts of the Old Testament rather than by the more exacting " " which had now been put requirements of the Aoyos olvtov In ver. The writer returns to the subject in ch. 1 6. 7 ff. for instance. argument against Antinomianism." but failed to see that all sin is lawless. condemned "lawlessness. is clearly exchanged They must have claimed to be part of the opponents' creed. opposition to a denial on the part of the false teachers that this was part of the requirements of God. The indifference of action as compared with other supposed qualifications. 15. ii. but that it was placed in a wholly new light in the teaching and example of the Christ. 29 As Weiss has pointed out." Thus on the practical as well as on the theoretical side we .) on the " new outws TrtpLiraTeiv). being disobedience to the Divine law. command. shows that their special failure was a want of recognition in everyday life of the primary Christian duty. or the possession of the pneumatic seed. apparent if we assume that the writer claims that the command to love the brethren is contained implicitly in the moral require- commands. But the passage is signifiIt most naturally suggests that the opponents cant nevertheless.Trr]cra v/xas (Jn. " and again " He has set the standard of doing (*a#ws e*eiVos ecmv St/caios).] the THE FALSE TEACHERS li obligation of complete obedience to the whole of His or of living a life in conscious imitation of the life of the Master (6<f>ei\ei /catfws efceivos TrepieTra.§5. iii. ments of the Old Testament. before 7 /A^Seis irXavdrui vfids may The contain a more definite allusion to particular opponents. love of the The full significance of the passage is perhaps most brethren. the words men. but not the sinfulness of all falling short of the ideal of human life realized in the life of the Son of Man on earth. To meet that he must have intelligent his subject and predicate. 4 would be a feeble leads up. They may have preferred to stand well with the more Jews and heathen in whose midst they lived (fir] dyaware tov Koo-fxov).. The duty of obedience to certain definite precepts they recognized. doing of righteousness constitutes the only claim to be righteous. to which ii. descent from " " Abraham.

The opening sentence. nav Trveu/xa 5 6/j. direct use and direct quotation. Literary History. seem to trace the same mixture of Jewish and Gnostic ideas which must have formed the most pressing dangers to the moral and spiritual life of a Christian community towards the end of the first century or at the beginning of the second. Xpiarbv iv oapni i\i]\vd6Ta eV rod Oeov iarlv. ^dires dX

ol 5. to In tracing the history of books and documents it is important emphasize the difference between echoes. at a much earlier date. xlix. ol iv rrj dydirr) ii<\eKTol rod I iv. ayaTrrjv iv Xpto"T<3 TrocrjcraTOi more Polycarp. 2. Clem. 1. but the meaning is The 49th chapter has different at least in the first passage. with or without indication of authorProfessor Bacon has rightly called attention to this in his ship. 6 dt 0o/3oi//t€»'os 01) rere- Xe/wrcu iv ry ayair-Q. sistent with his Judaizing position. § 6. Rom. ra rov XpLarov irapayyek/xara. avTixpiards iariv. other respects the teaching attributed to Cerinthus by the more trustworthy heresiologists affords a typical example of the errors which are condemned in the Johannine Epistles. 3. however. but at least deserve consideration. and the Chiliastic views attributed to Cerinthus by Caius of Rome If the attribution is correct. influences. The following list of "echoes and " of the Epistles which have been found in the writings influences of the second century and early decades of the third. The implied suggestions of In all immorality are not supported by any tangible evidence. koX irav irveu/xa 6 fir] . be traced of the second century. ofMoXoyvj 'lrjcrovv iras yap Xpurrbv iv I iv. they are not inconothers. recent work on the Johannine Problem. suggests But no clearly the teaching of the Johannine Epistles. vii. 6 c^w clearer reminiscences of 1 Co. Clem. weight can be attached to this coincidence of language. are not all equally certain. xiii.o\oyei 'Irjaovv aapKi i\rj\vdivai. though they have held very different opinions as to what may be reasonably concluded from The undoubted attribution of the Epistles to the facts of usage. 18. Oivres. Ss av /xrj ad Phil. £T(\eidi6ri(Tav deov. The distinction has always been recognized by competent scholars in dealing with the Books of the New Testament. iv ayairrj reXeiw- The verbal similarity is interesting. No account has been taken of material for accurate dating. Such matters really afford very little or perhaps even later. JOHN [§ 6. c. John by name is not found in extant works till the last quarter The use of them can.Hi THE EPISTLES OF S.

I ii.1 tov vl6v. or with the man who It establishes a very high degree of probability that taught it.17 6. No one who has read the evidence. ttoWoI irXdvot e^ijav ety tov oi fir) dfioXoyovvTes 'Irjaovv. lis iffTiv 6 ^ei/cTrii el /i-Jj 6 apvo^fievos 8ti 'I-qaovs ovk taTiv 6 'Xpiards . must be dated . characteristic of ai/Aa-ros). which contains the Johannine phrase c/c tov 8ta/3d\ou eo-Ttv. ii. iv. 6 ttoiCjv tt\v a/iaprlav e*c tov 8ia(3d\ov ecrrlv. The f. an echo of the teaching of the First Epistle of S.140X071.Te 5ti olvtLXPicttos HpxeTai Kal vvv avrlxpiOTOi voWol yeyovaffiv.] LITERARY HISTORY liii Kal 5s av /U. In view of it there would have to be very strong reasons to justify us in placing the Johannine Epistles later than the Epistle of Polycarp. the Lord's Messianic work (oSto? eo-riv 6 £wv 8l i-Sai-os Kal If so.). the case for the connection with the First Epistle The sentences in Polycarp give the reason for is strengthened. 2. 10 Jn. is obvious. equally with the Baptism. "abstaining from offences and from false brethren. he was acquainted with the actual Epistles. the language and thought are more closely connected with the First. (oini't? d7ro7rAavwo-i Kevovs avOpojTrovs. 6 &pvou/j. And the way in which Polycarp seems to use the language and thoughts of the Johannine Epistles is closely parallel to his use throughout his Epistle of the language and contents of other books of the New Testament. Ka9ihs 7jKoiJ0~a.§ 6. 26.a<. if genuine.Te 6Vt i-pxcTcu. and the Apostles who preached His Gospel to them. as the Lord Himself commanded. ovt6s (<ttiv 6 avTlxpio~Tos. I ii. 22. The passage may be said to prove the acquaintance of Polycarp with the teaching contained in the Epistles. and the Prophets who predicted His coming. John's Epistles makes it natural to see in the second. II 7. context recalls the situation of the Second Epistle (2 Jn. John on the Passion as being. 6 &Kr)K6a. 8.). the Johannine Epistles and the Epistle of Polycarp can doubt on which side lies the probability of originality. to ixaprvpiov tov cravpov £k tov 5ia[36\ov earLv. ko. 18. TavTa eypaxpa ifuv Trepl t£)V TrAavwVTCDV ifj. 6/xo\oyei tov 'l-qaovv 4k tov $tov ovk Ijtiv' Kal tovt6 cctiv rb tov avrlxpur- tov. who lead foolish I men " astray cf. And it must be remembered that his Epistle. Xpurbv The importance of this passage justifies a full presentation of The connection between the passage in Polycarp and 1 Jn.evos tov iraTipa. KSfffAOv. I iii. The obvious connection of the first sentence with the language of S. ipxofifvov ev oapicl' ovrds eartv 6 ttX&vos ical 6 avrixpio'Tos. 7. his appeal to the Philippians to serve the Lord with all fear and reverence. and from those who bear the name of the Lord in hypocrisy. or 2 Jn.

. 2. I iv. I. p. rfj ayairrj TtXeiwcrat iv may be a reminiscence of the language. Hermas. 27. 39. H. 9. immediately after the martyrdom of Ignatius (see Polycarp. 18. must have been known and valued during the first quarter of the second century. iKKXTjcrias crov rod pvaacrdai avrr)v dwb wavrbs wovrjpov iv rjj Kal reXeiQcrai avrrjv dydwy aov. ivroXds) Kal <hr' avri}s rijs rrapayivone'vas aXrjOelas. 3. yap . b aw' I i. 14. K6pte. JOHN [§ 6. xiii. The First Epistle. (nrb Ill 12.as. iii. 8 7jv aw' apx^s. impossible to distinguish between personal acquaintance with the author and his teaching. 8rt rbv vlbv avrov rbv novoyevrj dwiaraXKev b debs els rbv k6<t/xoi> (cf. and knowledge of the actual text of the The evidence does not exclude the possibility of such Epistles. dvdpuiwovs wpbs oOs dwiareiXe rbv debs rovs vlbv avrov rbv fiovoyevrj. rr)s Iiv.vf)o-Qr\ri Didache. as it certainly recalls the thought. The evidence does not amount to actual proof. 3). airrbs iii. 17). r))xels dyawCofxev. . X&P IV dwiareiXe Kbyov) <f>avels offros (cf. c. Papias (Eus. aeffffai iwiyvovs 84 rlvos otei wX-qpwdy)X a P&s % . of the Epistle. 8ri airrbs wpQros I i. can be little doubt as to which hypothesis is the simpler and the more natural.ri^ s dyaw7jo~eis rbv o~e 19. S. ad Phil. iii. § 3> °v it. if not the two smaller letters. as it is. Katvbs 6 . (txaipov) . ffydwrjo'e Kal waXaibs I iv. ftaprvplais dwb Kixpyrai 8' 6 rijs 'ludvvov irporipas irnoToXris. E. to Diognetus.apnjpr)Tai Trdvruv Kal virb avr^srijs dXrjOelas. 16. 17. Kal ovSev Trap' icrriv Kal C^nlrVTiv \(/ev8os. The nection coincidence of language may between the two passages. but possibly suggest a conit certainly does not prove Ep. iii.). But there teaching being embodied in Epistles at a later date. ov rereXeiurai iv ry dydirrj. Iva r) x a P& T/M^" V wewXr)- pufiivrj. Jn. r\ydwt###BOT_TEXT###lt;jev 4. oOrws wpoayaw-qaavrd .e/j. . of course. x. x. M. be an accidental coincidence. iv roiTip i<pavept&0r] r) dydwrj rov Oeov iv V/luv. Eus. r)/u. avrcf ipevSos. ArjfiyTply /j. 39. rots rds wapd rod Kvplov t-q wlcrrei ScSofj. but it is not without significance in the light of Eusebius' statement. . of course. 8ti 8 Kvpios dXr]- I ii.lir THE EPISTLES OF c. which we have not the slightest reason for discrediting. xi. rb avrov xP^fJia —A^Wi divbs ev wavrl prjfiari. I. The use of the phrase atirrj r) aX^Oeta by the "Presbyter" and by Papias may. apXVS & evpedets.e'vas (sc.

Irenaeus' use of the Epistles in this passage. aKoKovduv rQ apviu Sttov hv vwdyy. Quos et Dominus nobis cauere praedixit et discipulus eius Ioannes in praedicta epistola fugere eos praecepit dicens Multi seductores exierunt in hunc mundum (2 Jn. The quotation is also interesting if considered in connection with other evidence of this period and that which succeeded it.] LITERARY HISTORY lv The echoes of Johannine thought are obvious. 8ti clvtov ("kcIvos inrep ^i'xV tdrjKev ko. ii.tv i)ixQiv t^v ttjv id).1 rj/xeh 6(peL\ofj. rb Trvevfia. in the readiness of Veltius Epagathus to lay down (? stake) his life for the brethren.. 18. instance." " 8. and perhaps of the difference in definitely theological treatises as We should. 8 to Et rursus in Epistola ait Multi pseudooperati estis). as suggesting that.. 'Et> tovtw eyvwKa. autem similia sunt illi quod in euangelio dictum est. We have now come to the age of definite quotation by name. iv." etc. in. for apologetic writings. xx. et I iii. in some places. Omnis qui ex Deo natus est. tup &6e###BOT_TEXT###lt;pu>v tAj The connection with Johannine thought and expression is The true following of the Lamb. 7. prophetae exierunt de saeculo (1 Jn. is interesting. (Eus. testificatus — 31).71171-775 ^vedel^aro. Ep. the only one in which he makes definite quotations.ya. Propter quod (Jn.tv ei)5c»ci7<ras inrip rrjs Kal tt\v awoXoyLas ^ V XV V % v y&P Ka l ^""r "' yvrjcrios XpHTTod /j. the between what was customary to letters. 16. 21 Cognoscite ergo quoniam omne mendacium extraneum est et non est de ueritate 22 to Antichristus). i. quoniam Uerbum caro factum est et habitauit in nobis. is almost certainly a reminiscence of the First Epistle. Ltigd.K\r]Tov ev iavTtp. It reminds us of the differences of custom in quotation by the writers of the last quarter of the second century. opposed or . est nobis — rursus in Christus. "Exw 5£ o.fj. Vienn. " Irenaeus. Epistola clamat.-Kr\v.§ 6. tov Zaxapiov. as shown quite unmistakable. 1-3 to omnis Spiritus Haec qui soluit Iesum non est ex Deo sed de Antichristo est). 6 5id rov ir\T}pwfx. nouissima hora est (1 Jn.aTOs rrjs 0. be in a better position to determine Justin's exact use of N. ' adeXtpQv eavrov Otivai tQv virtp if/vxas Oeiitai.adr]Tris. and on the whole the similarity is greater with the Epistle than with the Gospel.T. unum et credit quia Iesus est eundem sciens Iesum Christum. . discipulus confirmat dicens Quemadmodum Haec autem Ioannes Domini Propter quod et in epistola sua sic in the form Filioli. at any rate. writings if his Syntagma against Heresies had been preserved. 19. 5. t6v Trapa. V. xvi.

V. lb. ill.i9et'as icr/iev (1 Jn. iv. iS/r. JOHN 6. salt). TeKvt'a p. ev tovtw yvu>o-6p.wrjv. The on Epistles.ev to tou a7roo-ToA.r) Trpbs rots dp.ds d. tou viou avrov Ir/croi) dp.apTt.r) dya.X.a. 37. dAA. Iwdvvrjs KaOapi^ei 7$. 6 f. known and used before the [iti^ovi i-rna-ToXfj ii.apTta icrri. 5- 42 Ae'yet.apTt. 113.7rwp. kSVf. 1 5).u>v* ei oti icr^drr} io-Tcv. sail). (i Jn. 8waei avT<3 £. lb.ev ?/p.7ro t?}s iii. 1 6) dyaTr. aXX' ovk y]crav i$ yap r)aav i£ i)p. lb.r) 7rpos ^di'aTov (1 Jn. Kai wpa vw dvTi'xpio-701 ttoWoi yeyoiao-iv.1 'Iwdwr]<s iv ttJ Tas Sta<popds twv dp. Ka ' ^ds 6 e^wv t??v iX-7ri8a Tavrrjv eVi t<3 Kvpiw dyvt£et.ev ws avrbs ev tu) c[>wti.apTtas (1 Jn.ev Aoyw p. is discussed subsequently. <p7)a\v 6 'Iwavvrjs ev ttj iirLCTToXf]. eavTov KaOws eVetvos dyvds ecrrtv. tva Tas evToAas atiToS rr)pwp. dAA' r) TcAeta dydwrj e£u) /SdAAet tov <f>6/3ov (1 Jn. Quis 38. 1 8)' avTYj eo-Tlv r] dyaTrr] tov Oeov.T. (pyjatv. 16 f.7rwp. or full use of the First Epistle. tovtIctl pera tov 6eov.jia tov 8ta/36\ov. div. . John were third gained as wide a circulation. iv. Str. in his Adumbrationes.wv' r) TeXeia ayaTn] iK^dXKei tov cpofSoV (1 Jn.'Eav el. iv.epevrjKeto-av av p. Kai ev toi'tw rj aXr/deia ovk eortv. «at to aip.r)8e yXdio-crrj <^c/»jo"tv>- Iu>dvvr]<. Str. l8f.ev ( I Jn. oti KOLvunnav e%op. 7#. first two Epistles of S. 4. O Aeywv. TeAet'ovs etvat 8tSdo-/c(oi'.ev p.av p. iv. /cat iv T(3 CKoret TrepnraTwp:ev. torj Eav Tts tov d8eX(f>bv *<at a{roi) Odvarov. 66.ou 'hodvvov.' 6 tois dya7rwcri yvtoo-TOS (1 Jn. 16). /cat.ovp. 44. ap.€T t<3 c/xdti amov - TrepnraTwp. Str. 'AyaTrr) 8e 6 6eo<. Clement makes at least two.ev /act' avroi).). (f>r)cri.1 ov 7ro1. 100. 4>atveTat 8e ko. o~rrepp.wv i£rjnv. 3).).aprd vorcri p. Str. Quis div. i£ i)p.)' 6t 8e dyaTzr) b Beo<. 32. lb.e8a oti ex ttjs dAr. 16).e&' i)pwv. fj. eyvwKa tov Ki'ptov. Str. 15. air^crei. ^77 (piXwv. 111. 'Ayd7rr) KaXvTrrei tt\t)0o<. 6pep. 6. tva ipwrrjo-y] Tts. Clem. u>v (1 18. iv. ipevbopeOa ko. oOev iyvwKap. V.' iv epyio ko! dXr^deia.ev tyjv dXrjOeiav' iav 8e iv KOivcoviav e\op. lb.wv. i)p. I. Kai r) Oeocrefieia' Qo/Sos ovk eo~TLV ev Trj dyaTrr). /#. 'AyaTrrj tolvvv /cat 6 debs etp-^Tat.ev. iii. 18) ov 7rep7repeveTai K. tov KatV. lb. 45. p. 13. iii. 16. 6. V. TrpwTOV p.a 0eiios ye /cat eVi7rvda)s 6 'Iwdvvrjs' 'O tov dSeAcpov dvBpwiroKTOVOS icrri (i Jn. ko1 Zcttlv d/xapTia Acyw. i. dya#os Jn.r) Trpbs OdvaToV €ltt€v' Ecrri yap d/xapTta 7rpos ^avaroV ov 7rcpi ckeivt/s 7rdaa dSiKta dp. IV. iv. /cat Tas evToAds airoii /A17 Tiqpwv if/evo-Trjs eari'v. Alex.apTiwv ckSiSuo-kwv iv Tovrots' ajxaprdvovTa dp. and recognizes question whether he commented on all three two only.lvi THE EPISTLES OF S.

/ceAeuo-^eis K007/. Origen makes very full use of the First Epistle. is full. Origen. dicens in semetipsum 'quae uidimus oculis nostris et auribus audiuimus et manus nostrae palpauerunt. v. Students can only feel astonishment at such statements as that of Dr. 132). o"rrj9o<. 8 Su lerscrictio Iohannes duas (? iTvi-yeypafi^viu). [/<aTaAe'A.0S ^wprjcrai twj/ €7TTa fipovrwv cpwvd<. p. Injoann." which assumes a reference to the two shorter letters in the second paragraph quoted." The text is taken omnium mirabilium domini from Dr. e<TTW Se K<xi Sevrepav kcu rp'vrqv. At least none are recorded in Lommatzsch's indices. ov 7ravT€S (ftaal yvrjcrlovs etvat TauTas" irXi^v ovk eto"i crTi^wv dya(/)OTepat e/carov. 25). Icoavvou.. Tertullian's use of the First Epistle 1 He frequently Sed et MS (ace. . "Addit nihilominus adhuc et Ioannes tuba canere per epistolas " (Lomm. haec scripsimus uobis. or in the volumes at We do not know the present published in the Berlin Corpus. the controversy raised by the different interpretations of these two passages in the Muratorianum which have been maintained by competent scholars. p. Zahn's Grundriss d. Geschkhte d. a ov8l 6 eSrvaTo. This will be more other evidence fully discussed later on in connection with the for the circulation of only two Johannine Epistles. vi. H. There can be no doubt that the (Greek) author of the document regarded the Epistles as the work of John the Apostle. lvii " Quid ergo mirum si Ioannes tam constanter singula etiam in epistulis suis proferat.<r9a. to Zahn the et is a later addition). But there is nothing to suggest that the Church for which he speaks (? Rome) accepted as Scripture more than two Johannine Epistles. " 2 Iohannis duae in Epistola sane Judae et superscriptae et ab amicis Salomonis in honorem habentur catholica Sapientia ipsius scripta.' auditorem. 05 euayye'Aiov 6/xoXoywv hvva. xi. Aeyeiv tov 'Irjaov. There are " no quotations or " echoes of the smaller Epistles. "The way in which these two small Epistles of John are named seems odd. without further discussion. sed et Sic enim non solum uisorem se et ! scriptorem per ordinem profitetur.i roaavra ttolt^(T€lv.] LITERARY HISTORY Muratorian Fragment. eypaipc Se koX tt)v A-rroKaXvij/a'. 3 {ex Euseb. It is not necessary here to go over again JVT. 63). Gregory {Canon and Text of the New Testament. on Joshua (§ 1) original Greek of the passage in the Vllth Homily which Rufinus translated.oi7re] criar7r?/0"(u xai [IV] ypdipai ras /cat iTri(TToXi]V eirei Trdvv oAtytov <rTix<i}V. 78. Jfanons. Tt Set Trepi tou ava7rea6vTos eVi to tv KOLTa\i\onrev.§6. E.

explain their survival except the authority and reputation of their real author. by name. or as the "friends" of Solomon. So far as their origin is concerned. or even a Presbyter. about the limits within which hospitality should be shown to travelling teachers. The first Epistle was known and valued by the generation of Papias and Polycarp. we are fully justified in attributing their authorship to the Elder. their preservation. and there is no trace of the Third in his writings. The evidence which has been quoted above shows that the date of the Johannine Epistles cannot reasonably be placed later than the first decade of the second century. or to the Apostle himself. which are known to have been matters of controversy in the first half of the second century. who doubtless "lived on till the time of Trajan. quotes in full. the very dubious situation of disputed authority which the Third Epistle reveals. and it was not only towards the close of their lives that they became acquainted with it. JOHN [§ 6. The history of the reception of the three Canon of the New Testament is more difficult Epistles into the to trace. . century." and whose authority and reputation in the province of Asia stood so high throughout the second . whoever he may have been. No one would have created for the glorification of an Apostle. in the view of the author of the Muratorian Fragment. Paul by writing the Acta Pauli. Even if his object had been rather to gain Apostolic or early authority for particular methods of treating strangers. They go with the and in view of their contents. The reasons for preferring at a later date the view which attributes the authorship to an Elder " " author of the First Epistle.lviil THE EPISTLES OF it S. and which probably often called for solution some considerable time before that. tried to do honour to S. it is difficult to separate the two shorter Epistles from the First. of whom Tertullian tells us. They bear on their face marks of genuineness which can hardly be seriously questioned. are as opposed to the Apostolic It is almost impossible to find any serious reason to obvious. he could hardly have done his work so badly as such a theory would imply. There is no doubt that the First Epistle was generally accepted before The only certain exception is the close of the second century. thought to honour the Jewish king. First Epistle and the traditions attached to them. as the Asiatic Presbyter. perhaps Philo himself. It is unnecessary to quote the passages here Their evidence has been used in the Appendix on the His use of the Second Epistle is Latin text of the Epistle. doubtful. They deal practically with questions. It is almost inconceivable that any one should have written them "to do honour" to some "great light" of earlier times.

we have earlier Epistles. or by another of the same name. Grundriss. iii. and not very easy to interpret. 81). found in Cod." 2 (2) The statement by Origen. i. in which perhaps significant.€va. which in his case is (3) The Canon of the Peshitta. p. H artel) vindicates for it a place in the African. (1) Eusebius' knowledge of the use and acceptance of the Epistles in the early times led him to place only the First Epistle among the two smaller Epistles being placed among 6fjLo\oyov/jL€va. 8 Euseb. a Canon which is three Catholic Epistles only But the acceptance of the " sevenfrequently found in the East. quoted above. 11 by quotes the First Epistle. Bible of that period. ix. 81. 400 A. find a place." as after that of 3 other the On Petrine the two hand. except the Gospel (i. Gaul and Africa is supof The the Third Epistle. The chief evidence for the acceptance of only one Epistle is as follows. ed. 20 (saec. " whether they be by the Evangelist.D. with the added caution. Catharine on Mt. But it is sufficiently definite and widespread to deserve serious confuses the two consideration." The evidence for the acceptance of the first two Epistles without the third is less clear.d.] LITERARY HISTORY lix Canon of Edessa. at least in the Again we find no trace of Carthaginian. JTS. the Acts. or of his predecessor.§ 6. the Diatessaron). absent from the Canon of Marcion. Syr.e. the avTi\ey6fj. the use of the first two his writings. to be read in church. was retained without comment in the the legendary account of the origins of Christianity in that quarter. S. where the influence of epistula is clearly to be seen. (1) We have seen how Irenaeus There is no trace of the use of the Third Epistle in Epistles. 10. who has added after the mention of the " una three Johannine Epistles the words sola. (4) The protest of the scribe of the Cheltenham list (Mommsen's Canon? 360 a. " letter Canon must be dealt with later on. Sinai 1 (A. (5) In " Elder. . London. of course. where we know from the Doctrine of Addai that as late as the fourth century (? fifth) the statement that no books should be accepted as Scripture. 25. (2) We have evidence of He himself frequently in Africa in Cyprian's time.). E. 1894). evidence of the use of 2 John as authoritative in Africa. p. Epistulae Iohannis III ur CCCL una sola (Zahn. yvwpLfxa tois 7roX\ois. "Iohannis apostoli Iohannis presbyteri epistulae duae. 459. usage (3) 1 All three Epistles are. H. and the fact that he does not seem to have quoted them. and the Epistles of Paul. 1900.). and the quotation Aurelius a Chullabi (Sententiae Episcoporum. that the authorship of the two smaller Epistles is disputed.) of the convent of S. 554-560). The same Canon is found in the Syrian Canon (? c. Jerome una alterius Epistles of 2 Jn." in the attribution of the two smaller Epistles to the the Roman list of 382 (cf. Lewis.

lx

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[§ 6.

Rome. There can be little doubt as to what the natural interpretation of the language used by the author of the Muratorian Fragment. When he is dealing with the
ported by that of
is

Gospels, and feels himself obliged to defend the Fourth Gospel against attacks which clearly had been made on it, probably by Caius, he quotes the Epistle in support of his view that the Fourth Gospel was the work of an eye-witness of the ministry, to prove that the author plainly declares himself not only a
witness, but also a hearer and recorder of all the wonders of the Lord in order. When he comes to that in the Epistles, he makes the plain statement that in his Church two Epistles of John are

There is nothing to suggest that he excludes the First, which he has already quoted elsewhere, or that he is dealing now Dr. Zahn's argument 1 on this point only with doubtful books. would seem to prove too much, for it involves the consequence that the only books which the Roman Church at that time treated as undoubted Scripture were those contained in the
received.

of Edessa, Gospel(s), Acts, Pauline Epistles. epitome by Cassiodorus, and Clement's Adumbrationes on the Catholic Epistles, contain notes on the first two Epistles of S. John only, is significant. The evidence of Eusebius, who states that Clement commented on all the (seven) Catholic Epistles, as well as on Barnabas and the Petrine Apocrestricted
(4)

Canon

The

fact that the Latin

which is supported by Photius, must be set against this. But the suspicion is at least well grounded that the general statement of Eusebius may be loose. On the other hand, no stress can be laid on Clement's use (see above, p. lvi) of the
alypse,
It is equally compatible with his rrj /xei£oi/i liria-ToXrj. And later writers who recognition of three Epistles or of two. undoubtedly accepted all seven Catholic Epistles frequently quote the First Epistles of Peter and John as "the Epistle" of those

phrase eV

writers.

It is difficult to estimate the exact bearing of this

evidence

;

but in view of
of
it,

its

distribution,

and the
it.

definite character of

some

we can hardly
it

neglect

where

was

fully accepted, the

hardly any trace of its existence. not found in the other Epistles, But such as it is, the evidence points to a period when quoted. only two Johannine Epistles were generally accepted in the West, and perhaps at Alexandria, a Church which is frequently found in agreement with the West rather than the East, in matters connected with the Canon as well as in matters of greater

It is quite natural that, even Third Epistle should have left There is scarcely a phrase in it, which we should expect to find

importance.
circulation

The Second
more
*

Epistle would seem to have come into The evidence does rapidly than the Third. Gcschichtc des NT. Kanons, pp. 213-220.

§ 6.]

LITERARY HISTORY
any

lxi

rate, justify the usual treatment of the two shorter With the possible excepa pair of inseparable twins. tion of one phrase (air airn?s r>}s aXrjOeias) in Papias' quotation, or summary, of the words of the Presbyter, we find no certain trace of language of the Third Epistle till the time of Augustine and Jerome. It was known to Origen, whose influence on Eusebius is perhaps most clearly seen in his treatment of the " books which form the first section of his Antilegomena." It is it as Scripture. treated his Clement that predecessor possible But it seems to have been very little used. It is quoted by Augustine and Jerome, and formed part of the Bible out of which Augustine selected his "Speculum," which must, of course, be clearly distinguished from the Liber de Divinis Scripturis, the generally known as m,' in which there is no quotation from Third Epistle. The text found in the Speculum is, of course,

not, at

letters as

'

Vulgate, whether that text goes back to S. Augustine himself, as Professor Burkitt supposes (JTS xi. 263 ff., 1910), or is due to

subsequent alteration. Sabatier's attempt to reproduce fragments of an old Latin translation of the Third Epistle from the quotations in Augustine and Jerome, shows that it probably a fact which is placed existed in an old Latin pre-Vulgate text, beyond doubt by the fragment contained in the Latin of Codex

Bezae.

The history of the smaller Epistles is closely connected with that of the substitution of the seven-letter Canon of Catholic of which a Epistles for the three-letter Canon of the East, and
short sketch must now be given. In the East the Epistle of James, which Origen certainly treated as Scripture in some sense, though not without recording the doubts which were felt about it, was soon added to the These three generally recognized Epistles, 1 Peter and 1 John. letters form the Canon of Catholic Epistles in the Peshitta. And this three-letter Canon is found in all the provinces which were under the influence of Antioch. Chrysostom, who was moved from Antioch to Constantinople in 398, knows and uses no other Catholic Epistles. The same Canon is found in the

Cappadocian Fathers, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzum, and Gregory of Nyssa in the last quarter of the fourth century. According to Lietzmann, 1 the same can be proved to have been the usage of Methodius of Olympus about 300 a.d. During the fourth
century the process of replacing this shorter
seven-letter

Canon by

the fuller

most places carried through. It is fully recognized by Eusebius in several places, and his formal list, in which the five Epistles, James, Jude, 2, 3 John, 1 " Wie wuiden die Biicher des Neuen Testaments heilige Schrift?"

Canon was begun and

in

(Lebens Fragen, ed. Weinel), Tubingen, 1907.

lxii

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[§ 7.

2 Peter are separated off from the rest of the Antilegomena, In this suggests that it is the Canon which he himself preferred. he was no doubt influenced by the statements of Origen about these letters. In 367, Athanasius put it forward in his thirty-ninth Festal Letter as the official list of Egypt. It is, however, found still earlier in Cyril of Jerusalem The fact that the letters (340). always are found in the same order, wherever this Canon is used in the East, suggests that here its adoption was a matter of

definite policy,
felt

due probably to the necessity for uniformity by the Nicenes in their struggle with the influence of the The varying orders found in the West point to a more Court. natural and gradual process of adoption. It may be noticed that Gregory of Nazianzum names all seven Epistles in his list of the Canon, but his own practice seems to have been to Both the threequote only those found in the shorter Canon. and the seven-letter Canons are mentioned in the list of Amphilochius of Iconium in Lycaonia. In the Island of Cyprus, On the Epiphanius is a supporter of the seven-letter Canon. other hand, Theodoret of Cyrus (430-450) apparently uses in
In the Syriac Bible the writings only the three letters. seven Epistles appear first in the recension of Philoxenus of
his

Mabug

(500).

Enough has been

said of the history of the reception of the

Johannine letters in the West. The acceptance of the Athanasian Canon, which contained the three letters of S. John, and its final supremacy in the West, were due to the influence of Augustine and Jerome. As we see from the Canon Mommsenianus,
it

did not pass without protest.

Thus the literary history of the letters shows that the assignment of an early date to the two shorter letters, especially to the
Third, depends on the internal evidence of their character and content rather than on external attestation. Their final acceptance was undoubtedly due to the belief of the men of the fourth century, and in part of the third, in their Apostolic origin. During the earlier period of their obscurity they would hardly have been preserved but for the respect felt for their author. Internal evidence is practically decisive against the hypothesis of The question of their authorship is part of the wider forgery. problem, which still awaits a satisfactory solution, of the author" " ship and date of the Ephesian Canonical Writings and of the personality of the Ephesian "Elder."

§ 7.

The

Text.

The

following

list

gives

most of the older and more important
:

manuscripts and authorities for the text of the Epistles

§ 7.]

THE TEXT
B.
N.
Si.

lxiii

Codex Vaticanus. Rome. Vat.
(iv.).

Gr. 1209
(iv.).

82.
S3.

C.

Codex Sinaiticus. Codex Ephraimi.
(v.); iv. 2
1

Petersburg
Paris.

Jn.

ccttii/

— (3 Jn.

i.

1

tovs

Bibl. Nat.
(2) tupa^Kop

9

tv],

2) tpvxv-

A.
ty.

84.
86.

Codex Alexandrinus.
Mus. Royal Libr. Athos. Lawra 172
I.

London.
D.

Brit.

v.-viii. (v.).

13

(

= 33

((3 52) (viii.-ix.).

gosp
-).

S48. Paris.

Bibl. Nat. Gr. 14 (ix.-x.).

48 (=105

gosp

8257. Oxford. Bodl. Misc. Gr. 136 (a.d. 139 i) 03. Petersburg. Bibl. Roy. 225 (ix.). Palimp sest. 1 Jn. iii. 20-v. 1 rov. laiavvov 16 (x.). 074. Patmos. 389.
-).

P.

25. C1103.

London.
1087).

Brit.
1

Mus.

Harley 5537

(a.d.

Jn. v. 14-2 Jn. 5 missing.

61. ai62.

London.
Kairo
Sinai 273

Brit.
(3i/3\.
(ix.).

Mus. Add. 20003, and

7rarpiapx 351 (a.d. 1044).
(viii.-ix.).
2.

Apl. 261.
S.

a.7.

a2.
a.5.

Athos.

Lawra 88 (a88)
Angel. 39
E^7rop.
(ol.

L.

Rome.
Chalki.

384.

£154.

2x° A??

A. 26

15)
vi.

(ix.).

(x.).

9. ai.89.

Cambridge Univ.
x ;:
).

Libr.
p.

Kk.
91,

4 (xi.-

a

gives of the interesting readings conIt is not included tained in this MS. in von Soden's list of the manuscripts of which he used collations for the
list

See Westcott,

who

text of the Catholic Epistles.

Old Latin
h.

Version.

Fleury Palimpsest, ed. S. Berger, Paris, 1889, and Buchanan, Old Latin Biblical Texts, Oxford (v.). 1 Jn. i. 8 — iii. 20. 1 Jn. iii. 8-v. 21. Marburg, 1876. q. Ziegler, Itala Fragmente. m. Liber de divinis Scripturis sive Speculum, ed. Weihrich. Vienna Corpus xii., 1887. The following verses are quoted: 1 Jn. iii. 7-10, 16-18, iv, 1, 9, 15, i. 2, 3, 8, 9, ii. 9, 10, 21, 23,
18, v. 1, 6-8, 10, 20, 21 1 Jn. Augustine's Tractatus.
;

i.

2 Jn. 7, 10, i-v. 12.

n.

Egyptian Versions.
Sahidic.
Balestri,
1

Sacrorum Bibliorum Frag. Copto-Sahid. Mus.
Vol.
iii.
;

Borgiani.
Jn.
i.

(continuation of Ciasca).

1904.

2-v. 15

2 Jn.

5-13

;

3 Jn.

[xiv

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[§ 7.

Oxford, 1 Jn. i. i-v. 21 ; 2 Jn. ; 3 Jn. 1799. Nouvelle Serie ii., Delaporte, Revue Bibl. internat. 1905. 1 Jn. i. i-iii. 7, iii. 9-21, iii. 24-iv. 20. Gives by far the most interesting form of the Sahidic text. Version of the N.T. in the Bohairic. Horner, The Coptic Northern Dialect. Vol. 4. Oxford, 1905.

Woide, Appendix ad editionem N.T. Graeci.

Armenian
Armenian
Bible, ed. Zohrab.

Version.

Venice.

These Epistles do not offer many problems of special difficulty or interest so far as the determination of the true text is concerned. comparison of the texts published by Westcott and

A

Hort with Nestle's text, shows how few instances there are in which serious doubt exists. The chief interest of the textual problems which they present lies in the history of the glosses which have been inserted into their text, and a few paraphrases which have been substituted for the true texts. The most famous " of these glosses, the addition of the Heavenly Witnesses," does The tendency to gloss is most marked in not stand by itself. Latin authorities, but it can be traced in the Egyptian and other versions, and cursive Greek manuscripts offer a few instances of An attempt has been made to collect the its presence in Greek. evidence for the Old Latin text of the Epistle in an Appendix. The critical notes which have been added to each verse are based on Tischendorf's eighth edition, supplemented where possible For the Egyptian Versions from later sources of information. (Bohairic and Sahidic), fresh collations have been made, and Tischendorf's information has been realso for the Armenian. produced, as it stands in his edition, where it appears to be Corrections and additions are given under the symbols correct. boh, sah, arm. The heavier type should make it possible to see at a glance the extent to which Tischendorf's information has been supplemented or modified. The attempt has also been made to extract from von Soden's Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments, 1. ii. C, the variants in the text of these Epistles which are to be found in Greek MSS, quoted by him, but which are not contained in Tischendorf's The number of instances in which it has critical apparatus. been necessary to add a note of interrogation may form some indication of the difficulty of using von Soden's book for this
It is much to be hoped that the stores of interesting purpose. information as to the readings of Greek MSS, especially min-

§ 7.]

THE TEXT

lxv

uscules, which are contained in his great work, may be published in some form which would render them available for general

In the citation of these readings von Soden's system of use. notation has been reproduced, so that the new material is easily At the end of each group of MSS quoted, the distinguishable. in the group bears in Gregory's list number which the first In the case of 8 MSS (i.e. those has been added in brackets. which contain the Gospels as well as the Acts and Catholic It may Epistles, etc.), Gregory's Gospel number has been given. be noticed that several of the readings of 86 (*) are of conAs the Latin text has been dealt with in an siderable interest. appendix, no attempt has been made to revise Tischendorfs presentation of its evidence. It may be worth while to give some account of von Soden's assignment of variants to his different groups. For the I-H-K text he claims the following readings

MS

:

I

Jn.

i.

4.

77/i.ets

(vp.iv,

CK

a

r).

ii.

19.
2.

ef Tj/xwv rjaav (yjcrav e£ rj/xwv).

iii. iii.

14.

om. 8e (after oiSu^ev) (habet K Om. tov a$e\(pov (after o p.rj

La

r).

aya-rroiv)

(habet

CiTaTX
iv.

12. TeTekcito/xevr] €<ttiv ev
eavTiD (avrco).

17yu.1v

(t€t. €v rjp.Lv eariv).

V. IO.
V.

20.
5.

Kat otSa^tev,
Kaivrjv

Aa

(oi$ap.€v Se

:

om.

/cai).

2 Jn.

ypatpwv

crot (ypa<f>wv

aot Kaivqv).
:

The
I

Jn.

following cases he regards as uncertain cv avrw ovk ecrriv (ovk 6CTTIV €V ii. 10.
iii.

avrci),

W

rag
).

23.

£VTo\.rjv\ + rj/xiv
(rjfJLWV,

2 Jn. 12. v/jlwv

W mg
rj.

(om.
).

KLaf

).

TT€Tr\r]po)fj.evr]

3 Jn.
If.
1

9.

eypa\j/a]

+ ri

(om.

ti,

KLa?:

av, 13 a).

Uncertain
Jn.
iii.

:

5.
7.

om.

t^/xwv after

iii.

(?) 7raiSia,

W mg (reKvia).

a/xapnas (habet

77/Acov,

X

C a «).

iii.

19. ttjv KapSiav (ras Kapdcas).
(Trapafiaivuiv).

9. irpoayw " Sonderlesarten "
:

2 Jn.

1

Jn.

ii.

18.

om.

o before avrix/Hcn'os (habet

o,

AKLar).

I.

1

Variants due to reminiscences of other passages: mgl Cf. Jn. xv. n. (r)p.wv). Jn. i. 4. vfi<Dv,

W

1

i.e.

the margin of Westcott and Hort's edition.

lxvi

THE EPISTLES OF
I

S.

JOHN
i.

[§ 7.

Jn.

i.

5.

— avrrj
ex a,ft€v

coriv.

Cf. Jn.

1

9.
ii.

C7rayy£Ata (ayyeAia).
ii.

Cf.

25.

27. fiiveroi (fxevei). 28.
1 1.

Cf. ver. 24. Cf.
iii.

ii.

(o-x«/i.ev).

21,
il.

iv.

17.

iii.

€7rayy€A.ia (ayycXta).

Cf.

25.

iii.

15.

aurw,

(earn-to,

W m2
i.

).

Cf. ver. 9.

v. 20.

a\?7#ivoi/)
77

+ 0eov.
Cf.
2,

Cf. Jn. xvii. 3.
ii.
:

far)

77.

25

;

Jn. xiv. 6.
Cf. ver. 2.

Doubtful cases of a similar kind
I

Jn.

i.

5.

a7rayyeXXo/i.ei/ (ai'ayy-).

i.

8.

~€v

vp.iv

ovk

ecrriv.

i.

9.

a/u.apTiag]

+ 77/xwv.
Cf.
. .

Cf. ver. 5. Cf. ver. 9, iii. 5.
vi.

ii. ii. iii.

12.

vfjiuv (vfj.Lv).

Mt.

24. 10.

—irarpL
vi.

15.

.

van.
pr.

Cf. ver. 22.
7-77V.

§iKaLoo-vv7)v~\
1,

Cf.

ver.

7

;

Mt.

v.

6,

iii. iii.

18.

23.

om. ev. to vico

33Cf. context,
.
.

.

Xai
36,

(tlo
ix.

ovofxan tov vlov

.

.

.

Xv)

Cf. Jn.
iV.
iv.

iii.

35.
iii.

I9. TTpOiTOV (77y)a>TOs).
16.

om.

fievei (2

).

Cf.
6v.

24

([//.evei],

W).

iv.

19.
6.

ayaTTLoix.lv)

+ tov
. .

Cf. ver. 20. Cf. Jn. xix. 34.
.

V.

— aifxari

.

uSan.

v. 10.

vlw (dew).
ovo^taros]

a Cf. ver. io

3 Jn.

7.

+ avrou.
:

Cf.

i

Jn.

ii.

12; Ro.

i.

5.

irapa (a7ro).
I

Cf. 2 Jn. 4.

Doubtful cases of other kinds
Jn.
i.

9.
6.

Ka8ap(.<rei

(-trrj).

ii.

om.

ouTws.

~ovt(ds kcu avros.
iv.

3.

om.
iva)

«k.

v.

16.

+ Ti<;.

Cf. Jn.

ii.

25.

V. 21.

eauTOUS (taura).
vialov (rjixtov).

2 Jn.

3.

" Sonderlesarten
1

arro (irapa). "
:

Jn.

i.

3.

om.
-rjp.lv

8c.

ii.

8.

(vp.Lv).

li.

26. TrXavovToiv. 29.
iSrjTe (etSTTTe).

ii.

ycycvTiTai.
iii.

17.

dewpei

(-prj).

§7-1 .

ev vfxiv /xcvci. ii. iii. .a<. 28. iii. ii. 11/i. v/ia? Kat (W m2 ). 29. 24.). I. ii. 13. Jn. JOHN [§ 7. ypa<p<a (cypai/'a). ii. avro (avrou). fl€V€lT€ (fJL€V€Te). (rjfx. om.eis) + ow.lxviii THE EPISTLES OF I S. ii. 27. orav (cav).

except in so far as it supplies us with information about new readings not known before. The readings adopted by Westcott and Hort and by Nestle have been If the agreement of these two authorities may be underlined. . But von Soden's treatment of the "H" text may perhaps throw valuable light on the readings where the " other authorities for the " text part company with 81-2 (B N). It may. . readings stand as high as those claimed for It is difficult to believe. It is also difficult to suppose that the occurrence of the word in Mk. 32 (Jesus "going before" His disciples on the way to Jerusalem) had any influence on the Johannine text here. variant or variants have been class of readings which he attributes. " " I " " or to notice how seldom the readings assigned to have been accepted as original. 3 Jn. it would seem that we must wait for the publication of von Soden's Greek text before we can make much use of the information contained in his section on the text of the Catholic Epistles. and which have been H H K K K . 23. softened down by later influences to irapafiaivuyv. iv. 2 Jn. for instance. 2 Jn. 2.To<. .i cu/xaTOS kcu 7rvevfxaTo<. Jn. of doubt. II. 9) is not the true text. true of most of the small best critics.] THE TEXT " lxix "Sonderlesarten i of unknown (*•* eo-fxev. or at least not recorded in the apparatus criticus of the ordinary editions. aTroXecriD/xev eis . x.§ 7. 1. that the I-H-K text. and that the words " " recension because of the kcu 7TV€u/xaros were removed in the absence of corresponding words in the second half of the verse ? On the whole. The inclusion of the omission " " is of kcu 7rvevfjLa. it will be seen at once that the variants which von Soden claims for the I-H-K text. €x £l ~ € X €t kcu ii'a om origin ° ° 2 - — X" : £ 2 °)* iii. 5. om. the other added in brackets. . be worth while to append a list of the MSS which he assigns to his three Recensions. if we neglect differences in the order of words. tous (tovto). It is also interesting a subject which needs further investigation. v. ii. however. Jn. o yap Aeyojv. ran o tXOmv Si uSa-ros «a. 7rpoaywv (2 Jn. are with one exception (kcu oiSapev for otSa/xev Se) those which have been accepted as part of the true text by the The same is. (1 Jn. for the Where it seemed necessary sake of clearness. mostly with some expression " " text. om. 2 Jn. yivwcrKeTui. to the Indeed. I 6. aTro\a/3wfxev. taken as affording a rough standard of what is probably the true text. however.. (ipyaaafieOa . by the test of intrinsic these probability. 8. (i°). 6) among the Sonderlesarten of Does this imply that the true text of the passage interesting.

lxx THE EPISTLES OF S. used by Teschendorf and Gregory are given below the von Soden numbers. 82 83 84 86 B K C A * 848 -257 33 (13AK) 33 1 3 74 P 389 103 25 162 61. JOHN [§ 7. i. H Si Recension. . The symbols fully examined for the purposes of his great work.

Westcott. Haupt.L. John. — Modern — Wettstein. D. A 1 883-1 892. of S. Commentary on the Epp. Die Johanneischen Schriften.). 1879.] COMMENTARIES. Luthardt (Strack-Zockler Kurzgef. 34). Macmillan. (Clark's Foreign Theological Library. and Exegetical Handbook to the General Epp. The First Epistle of S. In the prepara6th edition. Macmillan & Co. 1 Schools and 884-1 886. ii. Articles. T. The fullest bibliographies are to be found in Holtzmann (Hand-Kommentar) and Luthardt (Strack-Zockler). Stahlin. § 8. ed. Thomas Huther (in Clark. Oecumenius. (Migne. Lias (Cambridge Bible for Schools). Cramer. The following list of Commentaries. & T. al. Der Erste Johannis Briefpraktisch erkldrt. 1820-1856. 1. Ancient Greek — iii. B." Konigsberg. iii. 1859 in (Olshauseti's Biblischer Commentar). in Epistolam Ioannis ad Parthos P. Translation. "Die Briefe Johannis. only extant in Cassiodorus' Latin Summary of the Adumbrationes on Jn. Kommentar. Ewald. 1899). John. iv. Clark.§8. most valuable Commentary. Maurice. Translation. Tractatus x. 1 John.. ed. . ETC. tion of the notes of the present book the 5th edition (1888) was used. Plummer {Cambridge Greek Testament for Colleges). Catena. and Books has been compiled more especially with reference to what has been used in the preparation of this edition. Clement of Alexandria. 1861. 1895. p. i. Ebrard. F. 1887. Latin Augustine. 1882. 1837. Bengel.. Weiss (Meyer. 1869. 1855-1880). 1889. Rothe. John. ofJames and 1 John. 1857. Bede. Theophylact. 1909). (Clement. etc. lxxi Commentaries. Critical Meyer. Lucke. Gottingen. Translation. The Epistles of S. John. The Epistles of S.) 1878. 209. Pulpit Commentary.

1905. Correspondence between Drs. Harris. Stevens. 1903. 1899. ff.. Bedeu- 1906. Expositor. Holtzmann. 1898. Kritiken. Wohlenberg.). 1902. Findlay. J. Abhandlungen Carl von Weizsacker 1882. nach ihrer Entstehung u. 1894. Expositor. Weisinger. Ueber den III Joh. Tests of Life (Lectures on Jn. 357 5i7ff Bartlet. P. Windisch (Lielzmann's Handbuch zum NT. articles in Encyclopedia Biblica. Belser. iv. v. Untersuchungen. Gedankengang u. 1882. p. (in answer to Chapman). gewidmet). Schmiedel. Karl.). *9°73'5-35 2 )- Holtzmann {Hand-Commentar zum NT. . 1908 ("besorgt von W. Clark. Bauer"). Jour?ial of Theological Studies. 1 1909. 19 10. 575 ff. u. Chapman. Theologie. Articles : Briefe Johannis 1849. 3 ersten. 1896. der ier Johannesbrief. Weiss. JTS. Jahi-buch fiir Protestant. Gibbins. also Religionsgeschichtliche Volksbiicher . i 8 97- Das Evangelium und die nach ihrem Lehrbegriff dargestellt. D. T. 909. xv. 1906. Harnack. Expositor. p. pp. 531 ff. i. 1902. iv. 1881. II. Das 4 Evangelium gegeniiber tung. Die Irrlehrer im 1"" Johannes Brief. Baumgarten (J. 204 ff. Salmond. 278. p. p. in seinem Verhdltniss zum Evang. The Johannine Theology. Monographs and Hilgenfeld. 1898. Ojfenbarimg des foh." (Theolog. 1904. of S. New York. Texte u. W. 1 Law. 1905. Zeitschrift fur NT. 3. Wissenschaft (Preuschen). 228 ff. Johanneische Studien.lxxii THE EPISTLES OF S. " Haring (Theodor). Briefe. and Hort. Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift. R. Poggel. Hodder. pp. Die Schriften des NT. 1901. Hermes. & T. III John. ii.). 2). Studien u. Wurm. Fellowship in the Life Eternal. de?i Evangelium. 194 ff. Clemen. p. Smith {Expositors Greek Testament. Wilamowitz. Westcott Ep. 191 1. W. JOHN [§ 8. Das Problem des I Joha?inesbr. Grundgedanke des 1 Joh. p. June 1907. The Divisions of the First John. Freiburg in B. article in Hastings' Bible Dictionary. 3.

: AUTHORSHIP lxxiii General Wellhausen. The Second and Third Epistles. 1909 Translation. t4kVO.X-fjaofi. NT.§ 9. ii. § 9. Zeitalter. kclI cr6p. iroXXd efyov ypdtpai aoi. 328 ff. Primitive 1902. CLKOVUl TO. though many writers have found a reference to the Second Epistle in the Third But the similarity of their style and the (lypa^/6. Einleitung in das Jiilicher. Nachapostolische Zahn. ^ av • • • con irepnra.a irpos ardpia Xa. & T. 1904. Spitta. The following phrases show the close similarity of their general structure b' 6 irpecr/3i/repos.ten Evan- Pfleiderer. T. J. Evangelium. 1905.] SECOND AND THIRD EPISTLES. u. Berlin. not only to common authorship. ' 8 Tl cvpyxa 4k T&v ritcvuv dXrjdelq. . Montgomery.. 19 10.. London. daird^ovral <re ol ipLXoi. ypdcpetv. Das Urchristentum. ~f°-P oOs ^70) ex°-PV y ^ at dyairw £v dXrjdelq. The Second and Third Epistles of S.ev. t£kvo. John naturally form a They are almost exactly of the same length. An Introduction to the New Testament. P. It is hardly necessary to discuss the question of their common The similarity between them is too close to admit of authorship. irepLwarovvTa. Kadws p-a-prvpotivruv <ri) ev 0X17- irepnraTUS. dXX' 01) 64Xuj 81a. Their length is probably determined by the size of an ordinary papyrus sheet Rendel Harris). First edition.. but to nearness of date. Christiariity. Translation. iKrlfru 84 ei>64us <re I8e?f. Clark. a<rird£eTal ae ra. ti rrj iKKXrjo-La).as. 1906. 6v eyu dyairio 4v dXrjdelif. IW iroXXd tyuv v/mv ypd<peiv. /lAavos Kal KaXd/iov dXXd Airffw yeviodai irpbs vp. Kai ffrdfia irpbs crrd/xa XaXijaai. Einl. 1897. pair.Tovi>Tas ev tj dXijdeig. Anderungen im <f. parallelism of their structure point clearly. tv T% dXydflq. trot. ifJLO. ttjs d8eX<pijs <rov. Erweiterungen gelium. Knopf. Das 4. Einleitung. : r 6 irpeff/ifrrepos. (Zahn. ovk if$ov\T]dT)v 5ia x°-P T0V Ka-l V-tXavos. p. : Translation (from the 2nd edition). any explanation except common authorship or conscious imitaIt would tax trie ingenuity of the most skilful separator to tion. ix°-PV v ffov detq. determine which is the original and which the copy. Ward. London. They probably do not deal with the same situation. Authorship. 581.

Tovi>Tas iv dX-qdeia. (xaprvpla i)fj. pivovaav 4v 2 Jn. 3Jn-3wepnraTunxev /card rds ivroXas. 11. 'iva avn\ . 3 Jn. Here there is a certain amount of evidence. 'iva TrepiTraTw/xev avTT) iarlv fj. b/j. Jn. one positive and the other negative. and how much should be regarded as the But the close resemblance. complete independence in the parts where circumstances and sub- ject-matter naturally lead to diversity. . Jn. Cf. Jn. /xivuv iv ttj ay&Trr]. ivToXrjv I waXaidv ii. oi>x ewpaKev avrbv. iii. 6. more serious question is raised when the two letters are compared with the First Epistle. xxi. cf.lxxiv THE EPISTLES OF S. J. 6 dpvovfievos rbv iraTipa Kai Tbv vlbv. 6. • • • Kal Kukiei. dXrideia thrice in each Epistle. Jn. ireTrXripw/nivT). 'iva 77 7. ovk ivToXrjv Kaivrjv ypdcpu) vofxev. ii. Jn. v.. 5. 24). 2 Jn. t) dyoLTrr].oXoyovvTes 'Irjcrovv ipxb/xevov iv aapKl. 9. fiivuv iv tt)v TTJ We may notice the following : 5i5ax?7. dpxys. twice in 2 Jn. coupled with sondergut of the writer. 2 Jn. 77 Jn. 6 dyadoiroiuiv 4k 77 Kadus eKelvos 7rds 1 TrepieTraTrjcrev I rbv debv Sv oiix euipaKev. 6 dvrlxp<-o~Tos. iv. iv. We may also notice the thoroughly Johannine method of emphasizing an idea by parallel clauses. ii. 6 a/j. I Jn. Jn. 23. . dXrjdis iaTiv Kai oiiK iaTiv \pev5os.. eix eT£ a7r Jn. tov deov £gtIv. 16. iv. 2 Jn. 3 Jn. I Jn. ™ Jn. 4. ^x e ' s Ka ^ ' • • 4ffTiv. 'iva i. 6. 6 Xoybs rod 6eov iv vpuv fievet.Te air f/v TjKOvcraTe air' dpxys. .ivrj 77.apTavu>v 6. Ka. both external and internal. I Jn. Tavra ypd<po/xev fi i]/j. 9. 4o-ti. ypd<pu>v vfj. I Jn. ii. &PXV*> II. They have many phrases which recall.ev. 27. 2 Jn. 7. crot el T7}v fx. A those of the First Epistle. 2 Jn. 6. oCre iiri5ix € 10. Jn. 11.1 rbv vlbv 2 Jn. . 2 Jn. I irepnra. 11. Airifto yeviadai Trpbs .Qv dXr)dr)s eari. thrice (four i] dXr/deia Jn. 4 tj/mv.apTvpiav tQiv dvdpunrwv Xa/x/3dvp. 4. .eh I 77 X aPa Vfiuiv _ 12. Cf. Jn. but at least needs serious consideration. I oi>x wj ivToXijv 5. 1 ivroXrj ai>Tov iii. Triarevu)- 2 Jn. Xpio~Tbv I iii. fiapTvpia rjfAwv dXr)df)s iariv. . 3jn. 3 Jn. tt\v dXrjdeiav 2.. i)v ' (ivroXTjv) -c- t)v dxofiev aw' dpxys. ovre iv. 3 Jn. Kaivr)v. 4k tov deov itrri. 2. Kadws ol fxr} i)Kovtio. which is not conclusive of difference of authorship. 20. Jn. Vfxuiv TreirXrjpufj. 12 (cf. debv ovk lx e 'j 2 J n 9- e?x a > dpvov/xevos - Tbv vlbv ovSe Tbv rraTipa <?x €l 6 ofxoXoyuiv Tbv vlbv Kai tov warepa ex e 'j I Jn. times) in 3 Jn. iv.Giv 6 ovx eupaKev rbv debv. once in ii. icrnv 6 dvTixpt-o~Tos. 9. JOHN [§9- It may be a question how much of this should be referred to epistolary convention.lv. ovros Kai rbv Traripa ko. 22. 12. ' ev tu) (purl TrepLTrarQi/xev. can hardly be explained on any other theory except that the two letters are by the same hand.v Xpiarbv 2 Jn. 8 6/JLoXoyei 'Irjcrovv iv crap/a -^ ovrbs 777 . 1 ii. x aP a £o~riv . 14. I i. ii. 1 eight times in 7ras 6 Jn.KOTrot.as . oCtcjs iX-qXvdbra. I Jn. 23. or are identical with. . 2 Jn. 2jn. 9 . 1 I Jn.

but it gains in point if it is written in view of what is said there about the "fulfilment of joy. who dictates to the faithful as to the company they are to keep." though one who is aged may be in a to position speak and act with authority. 1. And the freedom with which the same and similar tools are handled points clearly to the former as the more probable alternative. and the use of the title "The Presbyter" by the author in both. word that is lacking to assure the fulness of joy which comes of fellowship. i. A knowledge of the First Epistle. And it is interesting to notice the similarity of the results obtained by a comparison of 2 and 3 John with 1 John to those which appear when we compare the Gospel and the First Epistle. or of its contents. A some are pure assumptions. 3 Jn. There must have been many other " Presbyters. He notices (1) the anonymous and general character of the First Epistle.establishes beyond the possibility of doubt the intimate connection between the two. pure docetism. and is offended at their being neglected. in the other the spoken. (3) The anti-Gnostic polemic of 2 John is the same as that of Polycarp.§ 9. vii. seems almost necessarily presupposed in some passages of the smaller Epistles. and the Third to an individual. ad Phil. 9. though it was not the famous "Presbyter" of Papias. and others are by the (possible) differences of circumstance. The authority which Of these reasons for fully accounted . as found in Ignatius. 2 Jn. and not the milder and later separation between Jesus and Christ. There is nothing in the Epistles which necessitates an official use " of the term Elder. AUTHORSHIP lxxv careful comparison of these instances of words. The internal evidence of different authorship on which Pfleiderer depends is not conclusive. named Caius. We are compelled to choose between common authorship and conscious imitation. as compared with the address of the Second to a particular Church. The connection is indisputable. "Elder" is used in the natural sense of the term. and constructions which are common to the two smaller Epistles and the larger Epistle . 11. 4. phrases. 12 need not contain an actual reference to 1 Jn. especially 2 Jn. in these Epistles it is a title of office. Cf. Such an one was not likely to have busied himself with Gnostic In his case the term theology and anti-Gnostic polemic." In the one case it is the written. used by one who claims respect for his official position. (2) The common identification of this "Presbyter" with John the Presbyter is supported by no valid reasons." and those addressed would know who was meant. gives letters of commendation to wandering preachers. We really know nothing of Papias' Presbyter except that he "handed down" a Chiliastic saying attributed to the Lord.] SECOND AND THIRD EPISTLES.

that the Second and Third Epistles are described in the Muratorian Fragment as written in John's name to do honour to him. and Jn. could easily be paralleled by similar the Gospel (cf. 18. 22. in order to bring these interesting documents into the Canon. as well as their relative unimportance. But where is the justification for differentiating between the Second and the First Epistles in this respect ? The language of the Second is hardly intelligible without reference to the First. 218) are not more convincing. 2 Jn. are quite enough to account for their more gradual acceptance." This is an excellent reason for supposing that the name John never stood in these Epistles. however. genuine letters of a real Elder. 6 KdKOTroiwv ov^ ewpaKtv tov deov. cannot have been John. <f>v\d£aT€ eaura). V. 66ra and ep^o/xevov is at least less striking than the resemblance of the rest of the passages. JOHN [§ 9.. The use of the singular only of Antichrist is equally unconvincing. There is. Schwartz x regards the two Epistles as. also Jn. by Pfleiderer . The difference between iXrjXvespecially in view of 1 Jn. considerable evidence for the acceptance of two Johannine Epistles. especially Ueber den Tod der Sdhne Zebedai. 9). are mentioned. p. Both writers also lay stress on the external evidence. It may certainly be interpreted in the same sense. /ii(r6bv irXr)pr) airoXafj. The apparent contradiction between 3 Jn.ixxvi THE EPISTLES OF is S. The expressions i\° PV v ^«"/ (3\(ireTe L . even if they were written by the author of the First. "in contrast to the First.- /Javeiv. 21. II. I Jn. rests on a very doubtful interpretation of the passage in which two Johannine Epistles. ayaOoTrouiv. p. 47. or it would not have been necessary " to cut away his real name.. It does not help us to determine the probability or improbability of the view that the letters were written by one John. who described himself as " the Elder" without adding his name." far greater than ever attached to the office iavrovs (cf. I Jn.e. the author claims " of Presbyter.e6a. That the two smaller Epistles found their way into the Canon apart from the First is partly true. 1. xiv. The question of whether " pure Docetism " is earlier than "dualistic separation" of the kind attributed to Cerinthus is an open one. i. " " contradictions in 12. The reasons brought forward by Julicher (Einleitung. i. do not prove much. arvvepyol yivw[j. Pfleiderer's statement. ii. The impossibility of a Chiliast such as Papias' "John the " Elder having any part in the composition of the Johannine literature is emphasized by many 1 writers. before the three were generally recognized." whose name. after which comes the sentence dealing with the Wisdom of Solomon. however. And the private character of the smaller Epistles. almost certainly the First and Second. iv.

tion. favour of dnTerent authorship for Gospel. p. not claimed so much as used and acted upon.] SECOND AND THIRD EPISTLES.§ 9. and in some sense a disciple of the Lord. AUTHORSHIP lxxvii and ReVille ("ce presbytre Jean en qui le mill£naire Papias All we saluait un de ses maitres. smaller Epistles is the view which seems to be best supported by We The arguments in external tradition and by internal probability. 50). or one which was perhaps too grossly 'Chiliastic" in its literal meaning to have been taken literally. but they are not con- . If the Presbyter to whom Papias owes his it we do not know. and the two shorter Epistles are not negligible. Mark is the same. Whether it would be natural for John the Apostle to describe " " himself as the Elder is at least open to question. by the author of these two Epistles." or how expectation of most Christians. that he was a pupil of John the Apostle. account of S. Harnack's conjecture. His century. or is 0eia?). In any case we have but slender evidence to justify the transference of all his The to the Elder John whose traditions he has preserved. we have not enough evidence to enable us to solve. the disciple of the. at present at least. position of authority. It would be difficult to find any one end of the first or beginning of the second century who did not in some sense share the ordinary Chiliastic But as to how "gross. probably Millenarian. have every reason to believe that an "Elder" held a predominant position in Asia Minor about the close of the first There are valid reasons for calling him John. relation to John the son of Zebedee is a mystery which. recalled by. he was certainly capable of sound judgment and careful appreciaAnd one phrase which occurs in the Third Epistle recalls." He handed down a 'Chiliastic" saying. 316) was incapable of anything "spiritual. as would seem most probable. know of him. is that Papias recorded famous Chiliastic saying about the fruitful- In what sense he interpreted ness of the Messianic kingdom. is such as perhaps could only belong to a representative of the older generation." Le Quatrieme Avangile. His views were even by the Elder who handed it down. Lord. is perhaps the hypothesis which leaves That he is the author of the two fewest difficulties unsolved. the words of Papias' preface (obr' avTrjs ttjs a\rj" It is somewhat hasty to assume that the Presbyter venerated by the Chiliastic and stupid Papias" (Reville." his views were we really know nothing. There can be no doubt of the naturalness of the title if used by such an one as stupidities " " John the Elder. First Epistle. p. if in this case we may trust Irenaeus more than many on his authority the writers are usually willing to do. Even Papias "stupid. "venerated" at the may have been better than Eusebius thought him. based on the most natural interpretation of the fragment of Papias' preface which Eusebius has preserved.

It is than the conservative interpreters of these Epistles. the more clearly The most obviously " genuine " of the writings are to stand out. at last " wrote it down that those whom he had taught. by the hypothesis that a disciple is responsible for the final redaction The longer and the more carefully the of his master's teaching. and assuring them that in it they would find the help they needed to face the circumstances in which they now found themselves placed ? The differences between the two writings may well be due to the needs of a simpler and more It is the circumstances of the hearers and their popular appeal. not so much what he could and . interpret his words. The theory which attributes to him some share at least writing of Gospel and First Epistle is the most probable To what extent he is conjecture that we can at present make. perhaps Most of the insoluble in the present state of our knowledge. is a strain upon credulity which is almost past bearing. might elusive. impossible to understand these letters if they are regarded as having been originally composed as a message to the whole Church. If we are to circumstances and of their spiritual powers. answerable for the matter of either is a difficult problem. The writer knows those whom he He writes with full knowledge of their immediate addresses. The term "Catholic" is It has perhaps misled the critical even more a misleading one. and that he therefore made the appeal of the First Epistle. To the two shorter Epistles. bidding them make use of what they believe. and again the At in his own position or opinions. in the some and believing might have life in His name". believe that an author. and they are the least original. difficulties which every historical inquirer must feel to stand in the way of attributing the Gospel (in its present form) and the Epistle (they are less in this case than in that of the Gospel) to the son of Zebedee are modified. capacity to understand which determine his message. already knew. rather than any very clear change the same time or at a later the special circumstances individuals.lxxviii THE EPISTLES OF S. period he may have had to deal with of a particular Church or particular special circumstances of his hearers their intellectual and spiritual capacity have determined the form and the substance of his appeal. modelled their style and teaching on the two smaller Epistles. and others. capable of producing the Gospel. we must consider. Are we not moving along lines of greater probability if we venture to suppose that a leader who had spent his life in teaching the contents of the Gospel. that after years he felt that the message of the Gospel had not produced the effect on their lives and creed which he had expected. JOHN [§ 9. or authors. or for all time. o rjKova-are air apxys /xeveVw. though they are not removed. or even the First Epistle. one point seems Johannine literature is studied.

2. who " walk in love. xiii. Even to give them greeting is to participate in their evil works. Evanabout from place to place. and to make appeals to his personal authority in the case of those to whom his deeper thoughts were as a sealed book. It was a necessary part of the duty of each Church. They are the same points which are insisted upon in Those who carry out the Gospel in their lives. or of some leading members in it. and perhaps the vwOporrj-i of his hearers. Teachers. The Second Epistle. there was danger of the abuse of hospitality. The may duty of hospitality was recognized and enforced. during the whole of the period when the union of the various members of the Christian body was being secured by the work of "Apostles. offer a far more probable explanation of the difference feel between the spiritual heights of the Gospel and the common-place advice of the shorter Epistles. while gelists. claims to exert his authority over all the Churches in the sphere in which he lives. though he dXXa to aya66v." and who recognize fully the reality and the permanence of the Incarnation.§ 10." are to be received. Prophets. till he has the opportunity of seeing and ." who went the resident officers were expected to submit to the authority In the opinion of the Elder. who "confess Jesus Christ Progressives who coming in the flesh." " " and to urge on them once more the duty of walking in love as well as of remaining true to the teaching which they had heard " from the beginning. He who proclaimed 6 Xoyos crdp£ eyeVei-o may still have believed finds himself compelled to write fir) fiifiov to kolkov it. But the special circumstances which called for his intervention. which may form guiding principles in offering hospitality to strangers." He reserves what he has' to say at greater length. and even weakened his powers. False teachers are taking advantage of the opportunity to disSo he lays down the two practical tests seminate their errors. which we cannot but § 10. Incidentally the Elder takes the occasion thus offered to encourage those who are faithful. who clearly of the higher rank. that advancing years may have modified his views. We compare He. as the circumstances which tied him down to It is possible saying that which his readers could understand. the First Epistle. The " do not abide in the " teaching of the Christ must be refused. who are "walking in truth. clear advice and instruction about the reception of Christians from other Churches.] THE SECOND EPISTLE „ lxxix have said himself. The chief object of this letter is to give the Church or the family to whom it is addressed.

27. which is not unknown as the name of a also been suggested. stances does not necessitate the assignment of both writings to exactly the same date. and by the improbability of two If the letter is addressed to an sisters bearing the same name. The use of Kvpta is individual. or mark of courtesy real or assumed. the name is clearly not given. whether as a token In spite of of affection. Advocates of this view have found her name either in 1901). semination of false teaching is the chief danger to be guarded It would be rash to describe the situation found in against. It is It may be a purely formal title of courtesy. certainly excluded by ver. or Polycarp's thanks to the Philippians for their kindness to the there prisoners (Pol. certainly used frequently by near relations. Electa or in Kyria. very wide. We may also compare itself the parallel is clear and interesting. the Didache as a later development than that which is suggested At the same time the similarity of the circumin this letter.lxxx THE EPISTLES OF visit S. Asiatic Churches. p. where the same how the "Prophets" are to be received is seriously at and discussed length. There the danger is rather of those as who make a regular custom of demanding maintenance Prophets who come in the name of the Lord. The well-known controversy about the destination of this shows no signs of a final settlement. The evidence. the the name (Martha-dominalatter for a supposed play on It is hardly necessary to discuss seriously these conKyria). we might naturally expect stages to be reached at an earlier date than in some other regions. Development was at different rates From what we know of the history of the in different places. therefore. and so of living In the Epistle the disin idleness at the expense of others. Liicke. xix. Rendel Harris' ingenious suggestions. JOHN [§ 10. 444). 10). which he hopes soon to be The felt difficulty of situation recalls that of the Didache. Sm. conversing with them. Epistle ad Phil. the use of the word by relations. 13. on the able te pay them. even if the Editors of Papyri are frequently right in " towards establishMy dear. The names of Mary and Martha have . the former because of the incident recorded in Jn. of this resemblance to the Didache should In be used with caution in determining the date of the Epistle. the praise bestowed on the Smyrnaeans by Ignatius for their hospitable reception of Philo and Agathopus (Ign." does not go very far translating it " love-letter. i). The view that it was addressed to an individual lady and not to a Church has of late been most vigorously supported by Rendel Harris {Expositor." The ing the view that we have in this Epistle a woman (cf. The name Electa is almost jectures of Knauer and Volkmar.

5. 1 is general. and the character of the Epistle can only be determined by more If we examine the whole contents of general considerations." is at least more natural if it is addressed to a community. is extremely : precarious. or have recently visited It would seem that the Missionaries had previously visited Church of Caius. 12) certainly favours the view that a Church is addressed. the letter we can hardly escape the conclusion that a Church The language of ver. 10. Julicher's argument (Einleitung. p. and had been hospitably received by him. and to a part of it in ver. and not I only. the difficulty. the family between change singular and plural (4." while the address in ver. The object of the letter is to claim the good services of Caius on behalf of some travelling Missionaries who are about to visit Caius' Church. 216) does not gain much by the inclusion of this We cannot say more than that the references to the point. There can be no doubt that it is addressed to an individual. Interesting parallels of a similar change between singular and plural have been noticed in the Book of Baruch. On the other hand. 8. 4. the received at his hands. and his identification with any of the other bearers of that name who are mentioned in the New Testament. as Julicher truly says. i. 1 than in ver. It is clear from ver. is about the same whether the reference is to a single family or to a whole Church. whole family in ver. On their return to (?) Ephesus they had borne public witness at a meeting of the Church to the kindness which they had it. and not an individual is addressed. 1. are rather more " " natural if the be a Church. but all who know the truth. there are many details which cannot be so certainly determined. when . 4. J THE THIRD EPISTLE lxxxi formal use of KvpCa is undoubtedly well established. 4 that the writer can only praise the conduct of some of the "children. the general contents of the letter are " anything rather than private in character." § 11. and who are either members of the Church over which the Elder presides. On the ground of this the Elder con- fidently appeals to Caius to repeat his former kindness. and not to a Church though nothing is known for certain about the Caius to whom it is sent . And. " and her children. such as it is.§ 11. The writing though general outline of the circumstances which led to the of this Epistle may be traced with some certainty. " Whom I love in truth. or known to early tradition." If it is necessary to assume that the word TeVva has a narrower meaning in ver. The Third Epistle. 13 as compared with 6.

maintained the Pauline custom in their work among heathen. and of the enjoyment of the Vision of God. came with the Elder's commendation. i Th. and that he at least travelled with the Missionaries on the journey which forms the occasion of the Epistle. He is clearly one who possessed the esteem of the Elder. the over-ingenious conjecture of Dom Chapman. or as their leader. that one of the main objects of the letter is to serve as a letter of commendation for Demetrius. His relation to that Church and to the travelling Missionaries is not equally certain. on their next visit to his Church. listen to his admonitions that there are such things as right and Their choice will show whether they are Christians in wrong. It would seem that Diotrephes had found his opportunity in the suspicion in which Demetrius was held by the Church. xx. Some have regarded him as one of the Missionaries. whether he was actually one of their company or is not. Others have thought. The Elder had previously written to the Church of which But Diotrephes. should be claims on their behalf hospitality and help. iii. that he had nothing to do with them. or to persuade the Church to ignore its He not only refused himself to receive those who contents. of course. It would. themselves fellow-workers with Truth itself. to whom the Elder had borne witness in a previous letter of commendation. for they had served. but was a member of the Church to which the letter Such a view is quite possible. or rather to make power. He the occasion arrives. To do the right is the sign of the birth from God. if he could not succeed in preventing their It was time for the Elder efforts by simpler methods (ver. had managed either to suppress the letter. All Christians (ver. and who had succeeded in gaining an ascendency over the Church. anything more than name. but made it his policy to try to drive out of the Church those who were anxious to take the opposite course. 35 . 9 . 8) were bound to support and help forward such work to the best of their To do so was to work for the Truth. 10). of receiving nothing from those to whom they preached (cf. Without accepting addressed. with Wilamowitz. from the separate mention of him and of the travellers. Ac. They " sent forward " in a manner worthy of the Master whom they And they had a right to claim support. and different views have been held on this point. it is certainly natural to suppose. and who had been recommended to Caius' Church by him. ambition was known to the Elder. 8). 2 Th. whose Caius and Diotrephes were members. be fairly easy to form a good many . JOHN [§ 11. ii.lxxxii THE EPISTLES OF S. He has to remind Caius and those who will to intervene. that the Elder had already mentally designated him Bishop of the Church. or at any rate over the majority of its influential members.

Of these reasons. which the Elder possessed. on the other positive suggestions of the Third Epistle.*. serious difficulties are raised by (1) the absence of any mention in 3 Jn. i'lktjv). fallen under suspicion. one who has. of any reference to Diotrephes. of the False Teachers.§ 11. It is more reasonable to confine our attention to what may be legitimately deduced from the actual references of the Epistle. official or personal. is addressed to a Church . rov vvv alwva /cat iiropcuOr] €is ®ecr(ra\o- favour save its necessity to complete a fabric of conjecture of which the ingenuity is far more apProf. and (2) the absence in 2 Jn. in his opinion is other Caius fitable to idle to identify the recipient of the letter with any known to the Testament. that he is the Demas of 2 Ti. hand.] THE THIRD EPISTLE all lxxxiii hypotheses which would suit the few facts of the situation known to us. If it personal influence with a faithful friend. 10 (A^pSs yap fie eyKaT€Ai7rev ayaTrrjcra. Of these arguments the The connection is hardly so close as first is of doubtful value.e. it is even less pro- New Dom Chapattempt the identification of Demetrius. 9. It is and most natural. xix. which are urged by Harnack. reference to (3) we must certainly remember that the object of both letters is to a large extent the same. the determination of the rules which should guide Churches in the matter of receiving and offering hospitality to travelling Teachers. 24) is more likely. Bartlet's suggestion. or to the high-handed proceedings of an official or prominent member of the Church. Demetrius the silversmith (of Ac. has little in its A member g might naturally succeed rather than precede the . further question is raised by ver. better to confine ourselves to the simplest And that would seem to be that Demetrius was one of the band of Missionaries whom the Church of Caius It seems to and Diotrephes had special reasons to mistrust. In some ways the negative rules of 2 Jn. 2 Jn. man's suggestion. (3) the close connection between the two Epistles in thought and language. But the game of guessing is misleading in attempts to reconstruct the unknown circumstances under which the Epistle was written. the evidence for a period two Johannine Epistles (i. form a natural supplement to the more But. the first is the The high-handed action of any prominent most important. (2) the probability that 2 Jn. and all his to ensure a hospitable reception for unjustly. need all the authority. of acceptance of is often supposed. Are we to identify the letter to which reference is there made with the Second Epistle ? In favour of this have been urged (1) the close connection of the two Epistles in tradition. and in considerable. that parent than its probability. iv.) without the third is really The others deserve serious consideration. may be placed slightly higher in the scale of probability. 1.

iv. of course." Dom Chapman reminds us that the Second Epistle to Timothy found him at Ephesus.T. It must have dealt with the question (or questions) of the reception of Demetrius and the travelling Missionaries . . We should probably therefore add this instance to the many indications in the Epistles of the N. and which Dom Chapman possibly the least convincing. Historical Background of the two Epistles. Paul when danger became acute (contrast Col. former supposition is the more natural. and suggests that the Asiatic Churches were inclined to take a harsh view of the conduct of Demas. 5176". if highly conjectural. ments in 2 Jn. 357 fT. iv. possible that the reception of his requireway. 41). of a wider correspondence than has been preserved in the Canon. 10 who forsook S. is contributed in his articles in the Journal of Theological Studies (1904. is written to secure through the good services of a private friend what the Elder had demanded in a more public It is. § 12. and of the Churches Detailed criticism of many points suggested by addressed. "having loved this present world. 23 and following the early (" mine host and of the whole Church ") tradition recorded by Origen (on Ro. reconstructions have been attempted of the circumstances which called out the two Epistles.). The attitude of the two Churches to strangers is quite different. pp.lxxxiv THE EPISTLES OF S. at least it is natural to suppose that 3 Jn. had been such that he now hesitated to make But the public the different requests which he writes to Caius. that this Caius . He also urges that 2 Jn. reception of the letter which contained the Elder's instructions. xvi. x. Perhaps a more convincing reason is found in the fact that the Second Epistle does not contain " " the matter which we should expect to find in the suppressed letter to which the Elder refers in 3 Jn. presupposes an altogether different state of feeling and opinion in the Church to which it is addressed as compared with what we may naturally conclude from the Third Epistle. In the recipient of this Epistle he sees the Caius of Corinth. Seeing rightly that the language in which Demetrius is commended by the Elder clearly implies that he had for some reason or other fallen under suspicion. he puts forward the bold conjecture that Demetrius is the Demas of 2 Ti. these schemes is perhaps better reserved for the notes on the text. But some general account of one or two of them may be attempted. The most that ingenious. with more or less complete identifications of the persons named. Within the last few years a number of ingenious. 14).. JOHN [§ 12. whose hospitality is praised in Ro.

is specially applicable to Antioch or " elect sister " is naturally the Church of Ephesus. the First So Epistle has closed the doors of Asiatic Churches to them. with the emphatic reference in 1 P. False Teachers have lost their footing in Asia Minor. The clusion that it is the Church of Rome which is addressed. 4 in connection with Jn. sufficient ground for assuming that the Elder would claim such a position of authority in respect of the Churches of Macedonia as is implied in the words and threatened action of the Third Epistle? His suggestions with regard to the Second Epistle are even more hazardous. as we received commandment for the faith. 13. 17 is too doubtful to serve as a foundation. Professor Bartlet (JTS. while he rightly welcomes the correct appreciation of the significance of the terms in which Demetrius is commended. 17. and when he presented himself with a commendatory letter from the Elder he was " well " of Diotrephes received by Caius. v. It is supported by many ingenious suggestions But the interpretation of ver. have we for exegesis. none of which are in of history. as to details. if it is translated correctly. who was perhaps a Macedonian. which he may have left when the reception of 2 Timothy made his position there untenable. to pass through Thessalonica on his way westwards.§ 12.] BACKGROUND OF THE TWO EPISTLES lxxxv became the first Bishop ""of. when combined into a single hypothesis fail to form a satisfactory basis And the question naturally arises. At a later date he wished to return. It is perhaps sufficient here to suggest that imaginary reconstructions of this kind do very little to help forward the study series of propositions.. when he left Rome had travelled to Thessalonica. x. The the beginning. but the pratings He now has persuaded the Church to refuse him hospitality. 1905) has pointed out several of the difficulties presented by the text of the Epistles. x. and as having heard the command- ment from Rome. to these ingenious conjectures. 18. they are making attempts elsewhere. The community to whom these words are addressed must have proved So we are led to the contheir faithfulness by martyrdom.KTrj. Thessalonica. general outline. His suggestion that . A themselves either impossible or specially probable. where the "Father's command " is connected with the laying down of life. 17 b> BafSvXwvL a-we. He connects ckXcktos.KXe. and bears a second letter from the Elder to secure a more friendly reception." should be interpreted in the light of Jn. a word foreign to the Johannine vocabulary. and suggests that the phrase "walking in truth. he suggests that Demas. and the warning is issued Such is the hypothesis in to the Church of the metropolis. The description of the Church as loved by all who know the truth.

apost. as at least as Dom probable that And his further suggestion Chapman's conjecture. Dionysius. Ariston. wenn die Sage der lay much stress on the point. Gaius (Mycenae). delphia). Genesis des Johannes Evangcliums. "by me John. By itself it hardly the personal and affectionate character of the letter. Of a very different character to these curiosities of exegesis Canon. Rendel Harris has made no attempt at so complete a The instances restoration of the background of these Epistles. Aquila. 1 that Pergamos should be regarded as the Church with which the Second Epistle deals. Euodius. in and probably a widow In this connection we should perhaps mention the conjecture of Thoma. Timothy. it would not go far towards proving that in this He particular Epistle it use is in any case establishes or justifies the description of it as a " love-letter. Annianus. Linus. JOHN is [§ 12. rather than of courtesy. a heathen parallel to the language of 2 Jn. Demetrius (PhilaMarathones (?). Zacchaeus." Ariston. that Caius was ordained Christian. Crescens. 46 is worth quoting list : of "Bishops" mentioned James the brother of the Lord. or (?) mock courtesy." The question " " " of or Church " must be determined by the general lady character of the letter. 8. Demetrius has which he quotes of Kvpia used relatives are interesting. Ignatius. Symeon. 46). And even if this point were proved. according to the Apostolical Constitutions (vii. Thyatira is more probably the Church of Caius and at least the merit of looking in the right quarter. Demetrius the silversmith may be meant." . is so used. Nicetas. Constitutionen von dem dortigen Bisthum des Gaius einen Grund ti nd Werth hat. which should form a welcome addition to our Biblical marginal references. Archippus. Avilius. on the ground. Con.lxxxvi THE EPISTLES OF S. Ap. Jude the brother of James. John. Thoma does not " Dies ware Pergamus. ii. 6 tov KAedVa. Crispus. 791. Theophilus. might perhaps afford interesting evidence as to the contents of the But its predominantly Biblical character hardly inspires confidence. far Ru. Clement. It Onesimus. p. that even in such cases in the correspondence of near has hardly succeeded in proving it is used as a term of affection. Cornelius. He has also noticed an interesting Its official and ceremonious more frequent. vii. 1 Thoma. ! in The bishop of that Church by John. within the natural sphere of the Elder's influence and authority. Philemon. 12. Dr. But it would be safer not to deduce from the occurrence of Ipyacria and /aio-0os irhqpris in one verse in Ruth the suggestion that the recipient of this letter was elderly. and to the many indications that the author of the Johannine Epistles was well acquainted with the Scriptures of the Old Testament. Strataias.

2. 2. 8).. 9. 3 ff. He uses As leader and as the plural of authority (3. 3. 4). he assigns punishment or He passes the most absolute judgreward without hesitation. 6) or in other ways (2. of being in the truth himself. 4). Within alike. 11). 8). and whom Papias describes as a disciple of the Lord. 3 He does not hesitate to place his own witness 2. He receives. no greater joy than to hear that they are walking in the paths He claims his share in the work which has brought of truth. he claims to judge whether others " " are walking in it. 1-4. 12). letters. 12. 7 cf. Their chief importance lies in the information they afford with regard to a certain stage of the development of Church life and The position of the Elder is organization in the Asiatic province. The importance of such teachers is clearly seen if 2. The position which Irenaeus and Polycarp proves the contrary. to warn some Church or individual against to Caius The custom to which these certain travelling false teachers. and have witness borne to them by it (3. Harnack next turns to the evidence of the relation of the Elder to the travelling Missionaries and the Churches. 10. 12). 10). 12). 2. " Elder" of whom has been described might well be held by the tradition knows. 10. through it of other Churches who travel. is unnecessary for him to add serve to identify him. and to know children (3. If he lives in Ephesus. Assured the Churches to their present state (a yjpyao-dfxida. facts point is neither new nor of very long standing (3. statements about the teaching and behaviour of Churches and of leading individuals (3. io. of these Epistles {Texte u. unique. . xv. Paul's dealings with his Churches. by the side of the witness of the truth itself (3. The Third Epistle is written to accredit some travelling Evangelists the Second. and of his similar claims to authority and practical use of it. or through Evangelists. Church assembly (3. and makes use of these reports in his We are reminded of S. his is He widely known. Untersuchungen. the members of other Churches are his He claims the right to lead them. judge he threatens in the confident assurance that his personal From a intervention will put an end to what is wrong (j. ments on prominent persons (3. Such an one could maintain his claim to the position of patriarchal monarchic authority which we find presupposed in these Epistles. It is own name to the title which will . distance he issues his commands to individuals and to Churches The sphere of his authority is apparently large. • . The testimony of that the work of Paul had fallen to pieces.] BACKGROUND OF THE TWO EPISTLES lxxxvii the important contribution of Harnack to the interpretation First Series). members in full We may be surprised that thirty years after the death of Paul But this is no proof another should hold such a position' in Asia. 12). he administers praise or censure.§ 12.

JOHN [§ 12. of the struggle of the old patriarchal provincial mission organization against the consolidation of the individual Churches. We have reached the We are in the heat beginnings of the monarchical Episcopate. He is obliged dividuals. " " his messengers. 6). and tries to keep it under his control. The differences which we find in Ignatius fifteen or twenty years later are noticeable. not among those (j. He will not supervision which the Elder claims to exercise. The writer does not identify J. We get a glimpse into the earlier stages of the development of the monarchical Episcopate. " " have disappeared. 15). to confess the dangers of false teaching being disseminated by the travelling Missionaries. it The danger arising receives from outside only brotherly advice. He would withdraw it from this his Church against them. Yet he feels sure of victory. if he comes in person. d£ta>s row 6(ov). The change which elders supervising these Epistles show us in the making is already made in this region. Harnack's question. Thus the Elder uses them as a means by which he can exercise control over his Churches. from whom they ought to receive On their return to support. and how they have been received (j. who are already brethren. from heretical teachers who travel from place to place is still But travelling "prophets and teachers" and felt acutely. though the Elder The Elder cannot be sure that the still has his friends (j.lxxxviii THE EPISTLES OF S. himself with them. Each Church is independent . as they threw off all outside influence and developed the Diotrephes takes the lead in this movement. " Would Paul have done so ? " is suggestive. 11. letter which he wrote will ever reach the Church. Diotrephes regards the Elder and the travelling brethren as He tries. 6. Episcopate. But a reaction is making itself felt against this supervision. Here then we have to notice the leading of a single man. the place whence they set out they appear before the assembly of the Church and tell how they have prospered. The Elder mistrusts the new movement. as they obey the Lord's command. receive And the majority of the Church apparently lean to the side of Diotrephes. 8 with 2. He sees in it only the ambition of inYet he fights for a failing cause. Thus these two Epistles give us a valuable contribution to the history of an obscure period. By addressing the Church as Kvpiu we compare he practically recognizes its independence. It seems almost impertinent to criticize this admirable summary of the position which forms the background of the two . to set forming one party. but he values them and their work highly Their work is missionary. In his time monarchical Episcopacy is established throughout Asia. apparently with success.

it is going in the face of such evidence as we possess to represent the Elder as opposed to a movement with which he is always represented as being in close connection. doubtful to the understanding of their contents. while this is almost certainly the case. and which he is confident Those who have a right to speak maintain.§ 12. which he has succeeded in silencing in his own Church. doubtful as to the reception which will be given to those who come with his Few would question importance Epistles. which the he can still regards as his by right. and of division and dissension in consequence? And what was the attitude of the Elder to the new movement? Or did he see in some such change Is he struggling against it? of organization a way of meeting the danger which the old system could no longer control? Will Caius or Diotrephes be the first monarchical Bishop. themselves and set up a local Episcopate? Or is the Episcopate the means adopted to deal with the private ambitions of individual members of Churches who have made themselves prominent. if it is exercised only from a distance. of Pergamus or of Thyatira ? The passages which Harnack quotes to show the connection " of the Elder with the " Bishops of Asia certainly do not point to his having fought a losing battle against the new movement. and act in virtue of their connection with earlier days have almost dissappeared. He is that his letter will reach those for whom it was intended. .] BACKGROUND OF THE TWO EPISTLES the of its lxxxix And its weakest of the organization of the Asiatic Churches. which he can utilize to further his own views and perhaps But is this the struggle of the local Churches to free interests. is passing away. It is clear that The generation of those who the old system is breaking down. could claim and exercise the kind of authority. however. The tradition which these passages embody has doubtless been But modified in the light of later views about Episcopacy. and the danger which arose from the spread of various forms of teaching. And in his own case he can no longer be sure of his authority. as having part is the attitude which it represents the Elder assumed with regard to the new movement. It is. will receive only too ready a welcome It is equally clear that an ambitious neighbouring Church. recognized and " " Elder clearly accepted as valid but unofficial. if we may use the evidence of the First in a Epistle in this connection. whether it points to exactly the right moment in the development contribution own personal commendation. member of a Church can count on a widespread feeling of dis content with the present informal arrangements and customs. He is evidently afraid that false teaching. The personal ambition of individual members of the Churches In one case he cannot feel sure is getting beyond his control.

14 (Clement) TrpOTp<nrevTa vtto toiv yvwpi/zwv. in Apoc." Cf. 6Aas eK/c/V^crias ap/mocroiv.XC THE EPISTLES OF The following passages S. and it is in conformity with what may be reasonably deduced from the earliest and most trustworthy traditions about the Elder as they are to be found in Clement.lVOfJL€###BOT_TEXT###gt;WV. and his attitude towards the monarchical Episcopate. Pro/ogue to the Tractatus in Joann. 42 airrjei Ta 7r\. : : Mur. E. ottov Se kXtjpo) Iva ye rtva TWV VTTO TOl) 7TV€VfJLaTOS 0"qp. aduersus Cerinthum. Schol. ottov p. But the evidence of tradition which represents him as in thorough sympathy with the movement is too strong to ignore. VI. all of them except the last may be later paraphrases of the TrpoTpawevTa vtto twv yvoipipuov which is found in Clement. And on the whole it is better suited to the evidence of Ignatius. Most of these passages are too late to give satisfactory evidence . 10 " Asiae episcopis. may be quoted. ottov oe K\r)pU)0-IS>V ." Victorinus Petau. "Compulsus ab Episcopis Asiae scripsit. His exact share in the process may not be determinable now. move- Cohortantibus condiscipulis et episcopis suis." " Jerome. rogatus ab Fr. The passage from the well-known story of the Robber which Clement tells in the Quis Dives proves that at a comparatively early date the name of the Elder was connected with the development of Church organization in Asia which resulted in the monarchical Episcopacy. de Vir.r)(riO)(<iipa Tail' £6vm>. when it is in no way contradicted by the evidence of the Johannine The modification of Harnack's interEpistles in themselves. Euseb.ou//.0. Alex. JOHN They prove [§ 12. 1. quite clearly the connection of the elders with the Episcopal ment in Asia so far as tradition is concerned. Augustine. H. 9 Scripsit euangelium." : : Clem. but which he has received from tradition.ev : 7rapaKaA. Olds Dives. i: " Conuenerunt ad ilium de finitimis provinciis omnes episcopi. " " pretation of the background which has been suggested above is at least as natural as his. ///us. xi.evos /cat eVi e7r«rK07rous KaracrT^arwv.

He cries triumphantly to his readers that he knows of a Being. cognizance of sense-perception shows itself to the careful observer But every intelligent man must feel the desire to to be untrue. 18 part of his note may be quoted or " The thought of an original being. Such a reality can only be found in so far as it is revealed under material forms and In Christ the writer claims to enters into the world of matter." Cf. in the work of Prophets. What he has to say is one stage in its unveiling his words are part of " a process of teaching which began when God said.NOTES ON «*• 1 JOHN. The words vepl tov yov tt)s £wt?s necessitate some such interpretation of the It cannot refer to the eternal. though in the writer's conception this is no doubt included. 1. but yet it lies close to hand. find somewhere an existence which has not come into being. The mystery. which transcends the limits of it dyyeXia. the Son of God. . the revelation of life. air dpxTJs] What the writer has to announce about of Life. p. The whole message of God's revelation. o r\v the Word It culminated in the earthly life and Psalmists. Rothe. till it was completely manifested in Jesus the Christ. pre-existent nature of phrase. the ground of what is temporal and finite. object in itself. the personal Word. which has its paraphrased. The revelation began with creation. Introduction. 1-4. is the object of the writer's The mystery which he takes his part in " revealing " is concerned with the eternal reality underlying the phenomena apparent to sense-perception and needed to explain them. . Let there be light. was gradually revealed. Legislators. and to be able to rest on this. as creation. It was continued in the history of the nations and the People. as has been gradually unfolded. is no new discovery. have found this eternal reality. which is as old teaching of Jesus of Nazareth. . This the Apostle has found. but which is from eternity. and no one can dispense with it who examines attentively That which falls under the himself and his surroundings. is indeed the most abstract thought to which human consciousness can reach . transcending all that is transitory.

All the human powers of perception are necessary to grasp its fulness. in this preface can only be interpreted naturally as a claim on life the writer's part to have been an actual eye-witness of the earthly It is not impossible to suppose that the of Jesus Christ. that he can suggest no really satisfactory explanation of the words ai x**/3 * 5 yp&v ii)/7]\d<pr]o-av on these lines. Clemen's confession (Z." The anarthrous use of the word makes it denote "character. 4 . i. JOHN [X. so that they can make it known to others who have not themselves had the same privileges. Christ. Cf. the com- pleteness of which can best be described under the metaphors of sense-perception. however.VTIV vi. does not. i. so that it has become intelligible to finite The perfect has its full force. note on Christian dispensation. but it is an admirable expression of ideas which may reasonably be connected with them. What the writer and his contemporaries have heard and seen remains with them. and the results are abiding. vi. writer uses them metaphorically of a spiritual vision. and those whom he associates with The terms used himself by the use of the first person plural. and as such it deserves full consideration. Nothing but absolute necessity could justify their . 281. explain by strict grammatical exegesis the meaning of the opening phrases of this Epistle. has been made in terms which men can understand. ii. parallels in Genesis and the Prologue of the Gospel exclude the possibility of a reference merely to the beginning of the For the writer's use of apxr]. What he has seen in Jesus and the sensible and material." rather than a definite fact or point of time. xvi. and can be used beginning. of the nature of The "hearing" may perhaps include the whole revelation. A revelation understanding. 1905). which is really a paraphrase in more modern terms of thought of the Johannine conception of £<D77. God and His relation to the world. Such an interpretation. which is regarded by us as " beginning. that for that purpose. Jn. Gn. The to?s 6<£#aA/xois emphasizes the personal experience of the writer. 8 AKTjKoafjtek] The author justifies his claim to be able to announce "that which was from the beginning" on the fact that a revelation of it has been made under the conditions of time and space. 7. is forced and unnatural in the extreme. i. 64. 1. is significant. 1. according to man's The apprehension. heard from Him is to himself indubitable evidence of the truth of his claim. cf. That dpxrjs] Anarthrous. iupdKa^ev rots 6<f>9a\fiois] The revelation has been made through nature and through man." This passage. from the is But if it is not confined to the earthly life of Jesus what the writer has prominently in view.2 THE EPISTLES OF S. of course.

3). and addressing Donatists. a. 1). that they too. See Briggs. speaking as a Catholic. He will hand on to them what he and his fellows have seen and heard. we should.rfr cISes /jltjt ^/coucra?. Such a claim might naturally be met with the ironical words of Philo (de Decalogo. ws p. a fx. 105) quotes to illustrate There can be no doubt as to the phraseology of this passage. airaaiv. p. of course. addressing the public in a highly rhetorical passage. 2.€v6<. 195). 464 . identify himself with the disreputable action of the body to which he belongs.(piKop. Here the writer is contrasting his position with that of his readers. and as man He can explain them intelligently to His fellow-men. 88. " We suffer persecution at your hands. speaking as a Christian to Christians. are not quite parallel. c. of the nature of a desperate expedient. passage which has sometimes been quoted from Irenaeus (v. pp. some of whom had actually " seen the Lord.I. can with equal propriety say. 87-89. is emphasizing what he and others with whom he identifies himself. men. 8 (nostri oculi ad armatis uestris cake et aceto extitiguuntur). w ovtos. Agricola. a member of the Senate. could have been written by an eye-witness of the life of Christ on earth. In the Introduction to Book V. impossible to suppose that this Epistle." But here the writer.J NOTES ON I JOHN 3 If on other grounds it is reference to "spiritual" perception. ws I8wv. but is not really This use of the plural is quite natural in the satisfactory. These considerations hold good also against Karl's idea of ecstatic vision The hypothesis that the writer (Johanneische Studien. what is the natural interpretation of the writer's words. p. he has reminded his readers that the Church tradition And Christ alone could teach goes back to Christ Himself. What we have seen and heard we tell you. Augustine. The absent from Rome at the time of the incident to which he refers. iv. though they have not seen. and Augustine. have to give to the Christians " to whom he writes. l. can naturally. irap7]Ko\ov6T)Ku)<. unless we admitted that the writer has put forward a But it is well to recognize that such a course is false claim. but p. may believe and share his joy. The Messiah of the Apostles. when using the first personal plural identifies himself (?) and his readers with the Christian body. in that as God He knows the things of God. be compelled to accept this forced interpretation of the words . Findlay. ws aKOvaas. which Windisch (Handbuch zum NT." is open to less objection. Tacitus. Ep. passages quoted from Tacitus. i." emphasizing the fact that the Incarnation was the only means of teaching men the truth about God. 45 (Mox nostrae duxere Heluidwm in carcerem manus). Irenaeus is "per audition nostrum uocem eius percipientes. or other writings which cannot easily be separated from it. Fellowship in the Life Eternal. . fxoi p-apTtprjcxov.

The aorist presents object as a complete fact. and in the later books . Prax. also Tert. iv. 24 . The different tenses are used with reference to the same object under different aspects. . iv. xv. xxii. i.eVos. hence to handle. as to enable them to appreciate rightly the significance of what they saw. is to grope or feel after in order to find. always suggests careful and deliberate vision which interprets. 38. Cf.wi' e\J/T}\d<|>T]crcu'] Cf. iii.] xvi. 39 (iSeT€ tos ^eipas fiov kcu tous 7roSas fJ-ov xp-qXa^rjcraTi /xe /cat iSere). xxiv. [Mk. only eight times. 45 . Ign. and especi£0€ao-c{fA€8a] xvii. Emphasis is first laid on the results." behold. 11 . 6eacr0aL is to " The word nearly ally 2 Mac. having a definite character. 36 a7rep r)v vtt oij/lv Te#ea//. xv. corresponding to the natural distinction in mean. like a {f/rj\a(f>a. iii.4 THE EPISTLES OF S. 2 Ch. The witnesses have not only rightly or wrongly. JOHN [i. Lk. 39. xx. de An. But their reference is wider illustrate the meaning of the words. presented in such a way (by the use of the aorist) as to emphasize their character. 1. where the word is not used. xi." intelligently. cf. 35. and the incident recorded by the writer in his Gospel. . appears to be very doubtful." and bpav to "see. thatjr may share our joy. Lk. Luke. touch. 1 . 14. it is also satisfactory in kind. It rests and intelligent use of adequate opportunities. " If fiXi-rruv is to look. reason for restricting the object of the two disciples' experiences after the Resurrection. The special reference of \J/r]\a<f>av to grasp it. or series of facts regarded as one The witness is not only whole. so as to grasp the meaning and significance of that which comes within our vision. The Lord's command in quoted.v The idea blind man or one in the dark . iii. or to the incident recorded in Jn. 1 Jn. 14. its abiding. Adv." The "we" are clearly distinguished from the whole body of Christians. But see Westcott. Mt. its object. It has been "heard "and "seen" so that permanent those who first received it have it as an abiding possession which Now the facts of its reception are they can impart to others. and ing between the perfect and aorist. 6. de Pat. Acts Ro. vi. already leal a! x € ^P € s 'ifJ. xxiv. vii. Jn. 26-29. It is simpler to suppose that the same object is described in different ways. on complete There is no to aorists the Such a distinction must have been more readers to clearly marked if the writer intended his . " " 8 60eacr(i|jL€0a] The message has so far been viewed in its results. than to any definite events between the Resurrection and the Ascension. Cf. then on the method. Their "seeing" was of such a character seen and remembered. comp. 24 . and the note on ewpuKa/xev.. 14 .. 12. Smyr. Lk. In the LXX the word occurs i.

I (eVayyeAiav). 1 5 (ttjs a\r]9eia<. " " Compare pr]p. xiii. 19 (tov yov ttjs KaTaAAayTjs) Eph. 28 (68ovs. XX. viii. vi. 15. As a rule. 19 (to £v'Aov).kotjs) . 3 On the other hand. 63). 1 3 (Adyov o. 34. Polyb.w) .ara Jn. iii. i. 18. " though not always. cf. V. in opposition to the Docetism which may have characterized the views of the writer's It certainly marks the intimate character of their opponents. ii. . 48. . I (ttjs <*pxtjs T0 ^ Xpiorov) Apoc. Their opportunities the Lord. Ac. They were competent witnesses who spoke the truth. But the two meanings are not mutually exclusive. I Th. I P. 2 Ti.: Is. vi. . . lix.1 1. or which gives life. Jn. xiv. iprj\a<pr)crovo-iv d>s rvcpXol toi^ov Job xx. Ac. 10 (A). i. /xecrrifx(3pia. V. 7 (tov £vAov). the genitive expresses the contents of the message. xx. viii. 14. 11). xvi. 19 (ttjs ySacriAeias). Westcott's phrase the revela-rijs £°"is] probably gives most accurately the meaning of the the whole message which reveals. 6 Trarrjp (of Isaac) : : evidence available for sense-perception other than hearing and Possibly it emphasizes the reality of that with which sight. Cf. xxviii. 3 xvu & ( T0 - (3ifiXlov). 3. xxii." (quoted by L. Ja. ii. i. Mt. 5 (ttjs aArj^etas tov cvayycAi'ov) . personal intercourse with included all that was necessary to make their witness aXr/Owr) as well as aXrjOrj?. 29 (avdo-Tacriv). announces life gives life (cf. i. xi. cxiii. xiii. iii. 6 (tov vSa/ros). xxi. Jn. where (ttjs) (totjs Adyous ttjs Trpo<pr/T etas). : Gn. Ro. i. 68. ear) \pr)\a<pS>v Ps. 7 (xdpiTos). 29. He has something to tell about it. 18 (Si/cauocriv). The 32 (ttjs xapiTOS civtov). TTcpi] The message which the writer has to announce concerns the word of does not claim to handle the whole message. ii. al Se X e 'P €S 15. v. On the bearing of this preparation life. 27. 39). What He . 12. and if/i]Xa(f)rja~r] /xe S. 68 (pTjp. 4 used in the sense of closely. . ii. Col. Lurprore Dt. v. 18 (6 tov (TTavpov) 2 Co." or some cognate idea. 26 (ttjs o-a>TTjpias tcivttjs). Ph. ^eipas l^oucri kol ov i/ojAcKpTjcrouo-i Here it naturally suggests all the airov \prf\a^>r](Tov(TLv dSwds. xix. and Jn. toi exact meaning of the genitive is doubtful. person. iii. tov deov. 17 (vSup). 12 (to <pws). ii. vi. 1 (uSaros). £gjtjs is added to a noun as a qualifying genitive it generally. . 16 (Adyov). 10. xvi. xxvii. p-q/xara £cdtjs alwviov. iii. 35 (6 dpTOs). fJ. Jn. vi. 2 Ti. 5 (ttjs /3i/3Aov).).a. denotes life-giving.) He. 7 (tot) tvayyeAiov) 1 Co. IO (tov (•/^X 7?)) crretpavov). they had been brought into contact.<. 2 (£i'Aov). .] NOTES ON i JOHN 5 It may also be of searching sometimes disappears altogether. Ps. ii.Ta. 4 (kcuvottjti) . xv. i. Ph. 20 (toi prjpaTa) iv. 16 (Adyov £wtjs eVc^ovTcs) . II (irvevLta). not of a Cf. satisfactory in kind as well as accurate so far as it went. 12. 15 (tov = dpxTjydv). " examine Cf. 13 (ttjs dArjtfeias) . Apoc.ov iracrav i-mvoiav. o~Tecf>a. xxi. Cf. 35.vov) 12 (t6v 3 ((3l/3\. V. irep! toG you life tion of words : Dr. when (6) Adyos is followed by a genitive.

6
as the

THE EPISTLES OF
meaning of the whole

S.

JOHN
on
6

[I.

2.

verse, see the note

rjv

a-if

apxvs2.

For the use of parenthesis to emphasize or explain a
cf.

In this parenthesis the which is repeated at the end of the The writer and his circle could bear their witness about verse. the word of life, because the life had been manifested, to men and under conditions which made it possible for men to apprespecially important word,

Jn. xix. 35.

emphatic word

is i(pavepdi8rj,

hend
is

its

nature.

The

reference

is

in quite general terms.

17

£077

never used to express the being of the (personal) Logos, or

pre-existent Christ. According to Weiss, tjtavcpow never denotes the becoming visible of that which was before invisible, but the making clear

of what was hitherto
4, ix. 3, xvii. 6).

unknown (he compares Jn. ii. 11, iii. 21, vii. But the distinction is hard to maintain in view

of the Johannine usage of verbs of sight to include the understanding of that which falls under the ocular vision (cf. Jn. iii. 3). <f>avepovv may be used of all processes of making known, whether intellectual or sensible. dTTaYYeXXoiJ.ee] It is doubtful whether a distinction can be maintained between d7rayy€AXcu/, " to repeat with reference to the source from which the message comes," and dvayye'AAeiv, " to " See report with reference to the persons addressed (ver. 5).
ver. 3, d7rayyeAAo/xcv koli vpiv iva
tJjk lwr]v TTje
kol\ ti/Aets

k.t.A.

alcovioe]
rj

For the double
:

article,

cf.

ii.

25,

and

ver. 3,
is first

7}

The idea 11,6 7rotyu,r)v 6 koAos. put forward generally, and then more particularly defined.
KOivwvia
rjperepa

Jn.

X.

find it stated (Weiss, Comm. p. 28) that always used in the N.T. in the sense of endless duration, or even that £tor) cuomos denotes in S. John (as in S. Paul) "our everlasting further life (ewiges weiterleben) after the death It would be truer to say that it of the body" (Karl, p. 6). On the other hand, never has the sense of endless duration. It can only mean it does not denote what is supra-temporal. " " of which the writer is speaking or belonging to the age thinking, and so comes to mean possessed of the characteristics If the "age to come" is supra-temporal, then of that age. euwios denotes that the subject which it qualifies has this
It
is

strange to

aiwios

is

characteristic.

"Spiritual" probably suggests its meaning most clearly in The words which it is used in the N.T. to popular language.
qualify are
Kpicrews),
kXt/ctis,
:

7r?p,

far},

/coAao-is, Kpto-is,
0£o's,

ap.apnr}p.a

(Mk.

iii.

29,

v.l.

a-K-qvai,

\povoi,

(3dpo<;,

So£???,

oiKta,

oXeOpos, irapdirvivfia,
1

Kpdros,

8d£a,

cAttis,

awrrfpia,

Kpt'/xa,

Avrptocrts,

K\r)povop.la,

SiaOy'jKrj,

/3acriA.€id,

of

its

use in the N.T., 44

ewzyyeAiov. are passages in

Of

the 7
it

instances

which

qualifies far].

L

2, 3.]

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

7

fact. It is meaning is best considered in the light of this noticeable that in the Johannine Gospel and Epistles, where it occurs 23 times, it is never used in any other connection. The life manifested in Christ, to which His personal tJtis] witness on the strength of what they had disciples could bear seen and heard, is eternal, inasmuch as it is in union with the Father that it attains to its true realization. The distinction

Its

between 09 and oon-is, which disappears altogether in late Greek, can still, as a rule, be traced in the New Testament, where in all It is never a mere substitute for the relative. probability oo-tis either suggests a reason for what has been stated before, as here, or it introduces the designation of a class to which the antecedent belongs. (Cf. Mt. vii. 26, xiii. 52.) i. 2, tjv Trpos tov 6c6v, and Dr. Westcott's note on irpos] Cf. Jn. the differences of meaning between 717309 and other prepositions
denoting relations.

Expressed

force of 7rpos would seem to realized in active communion

in simpler language, the particular be that it suggests a relation

and intercourse.
ix. 19.

Cf.

Mk.
true

vi. 3,

ovk ctViv at

d8eA.</>ai

avrov

toSe 7rp6s T7/tas;

The

life

of

the

Son was realized in union and communion with the Father. By means of the Incarnation it was manifested to men.

ment
it

The announce3. 6 !wpdicap.ev Kal aiaiK6a|jie/| Resumption. The difference in order, if rests on eye- and ear-witness.

is not purely a matter of rhythm, may perhaps throw more in which emphasis on the earthly life of the Incarnate Logos, what was seen naturally takes precedence of what was heard, as contrasted with the wider description of revelation in ver. 1, where hearing must come before seeing. The treatment of minute differences in this Epistle, and in the Johannine writings There can be no doubt that generally, is a difficult question. and intended to convey very often they are either deliberate,

slight change of meaning, train of thought which has led to the particular expression. kcu ufuy] To find in these words a proof that the writer

some

or the outcome of the exact
is

addressing a circle of readers different from those among whom he began his Apostolic work, and therefore a special appropriateness in their use by one who had changed the sphere of his is forced. (Cf. Zahn, activity from Palestine to Asia Minor, Einleitungin das NT. p. 566, "friiher an anderen Orten an welche der 1 Jo. gerichtet jetzt im Kreise der Gemeinden, " Such a thought could not have been trans, iii. p. 358.) ist conveyed to his readers by so obscure a hint. It is always dangerous to read into the words of this Epistle the things which
.

.

.

;

any particular theory of its authorship make the other hand, the words do not there.

it

On

"show

desirable to find the readers
all

of this

Epistle

to

be those who are the hearers of

his

8
Apostolic

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[I.

&

preaching" (Weiss, p. 30). Their more probable is suggested by the following Kal v/ms. What the eye-witnesses have heard and seen they announce to others as well, in order that they too may share the fellowship which Apostles and disciples have so long enjoyed. Koifamaf ex ! 1 6 ] The exact phrase is found only in this Epistle The writer is rather fond of the use of «x €tv with in the N.T. a substantive to intensify the meaning of a verb. Cf. his use of
significance
"

1

it with As afiapTiav, xpeiav, Trappyo-Lav, iX.iri8a, £wrjv, koXcktiv. contrasted with the simple verb, which merely expresses the fact, it may perhaps suggest the sense "to have and enjoy." Koivwveiv is always used of active participation, where the result depends on the co-operation of the receiver as well as on the action of the giver. Cf. Philo, Leg. ad Cai'um, § 4 (quoted by Grimm), tis

oIkzlov eVmjSeuKori ; I Co. It does not XpioTou eortV ; properly denote a merely passive sharing, as p.€roxq can express, though the words are sometimes used interchangeably cf. 2 Co.

ow
X.

'

KOivmvia

irpo<;

kiroWwva tw

yurjSev

16, ou^i KOivwvia tov au)fxaTO<; tov

;

vi.

1

4,

Tt's

yap
.

3 Jn. 12, Kal i^peis " 81 fxapTvpovfxev. It may be considered doubtful whether the kcu emphasizes, while the 84 serves as connecting particle." The use of Kal . . 84 would seem rather to develop and intensify a
.

o-kotos; see Kal .

fxeroxT] ^LKaiocrvvr] kou dvo/xia T. S. Evans in the Speaker's

77

tis Koivcovta cpwrl Trpos
1

Comtn. on

Co.

x.

16.

8^] Cf. Jn. vi. 51, Kal 6 apTos 84:

.

thought or idea.
say
;

See Ellicott on 1 Ti. iii. 10. "Fellowship, I and remember that the fellowship of which we speak, and which we enjoy, is no less than fellowship with God and His

Son."

Comp. Jn. xvii. 11, 20-23. became possible jactA tou TraTpos k.t.X.] Fellowship with when Christ revealed to as the Father, with

God

Him

men

whom

His children could enter into communication. Such fellowship, i.e. that which is possible between parent and child, is only realized in and through Jesus Christ, the man whom God sent to make Him known. The title T^o-ovs Xpio-Tos always emphasizes both ideas, of the historical life and human nature of Jesus of Nazareth, and of the Divine commission of God's Messiah. And the use " of the title " Son (p,cra tou vlov airov) emphasizes His capacity to make God known. The writer can conceive of no adequate knowledge of God which can be apprehended by man except in so far as it is revealed in a real human life, by one who is an onlybegotten Son of God. Only a Son can reveal the Father. Only an only-begotten Son, who, so to speak, sums up in Himself all the qualities of His Father, which are completely reproduced in one heir, and not distributed among many children, is in a The burden of the position to make such a revelation complete.
writer's

message

is

summed up

in the last verse of the

Prologue

I. 3,

4.]

NOTES ON
"

I

JOHN

9

to the Gospel,

God

hath no

man

begotten (or the only-begotten Son),
Father,
4.

seen at any time ; God only who is in the bosom of the

He

hath declared Him."

The reference is most probably to the contents of " There are the Epistle, already present to the writer's mind." many instances in which it is a matter of dispute whether the
TaoTa]
oia writer, in using outos, avr-q, Tavra, tovto, iv tovtw, ck tovtou, what follows. tovto, etc., intends to refer to what has preceded or Both usages are found in the Epistle, but the reference forward

would seem to be his prevailing custom. Sixteen instances may be noted where the reference is to what follows (preceded by xai,
i.

4,

ii.

3,

iii.

23,

24

;

without

kcli,

ii.

6,

iii.

1, 8,

10, 16, iv. 2, 9, 13,

17,

v. 4,

11,

14) as against seven where the reference to what

preceded is at least probable (without /cat, ii. 22, 26, iv. 6, v. 6, Here the reference is probably 13, 20; preceded by kcli, iv. 3). The ravra are not identical with the message to what follows. described in ver. 3, nor are they contrasted with it. They are the part of it, or the things to be said in explanation of it, which it is expedient that the author should communicate in writing.
Scriptio valde confirmat (Bengel).

Both words are emphatic. The avToirrai Ypd<|>o(xei' rjneis] have always borne their witness by preaching or teaching. Now there is much that the survivors, or survivor, must write down. " we who have seen and heard," In this context rj/xels must mean whether the seeing and hearing are to be interpreted literally or

And the literal interpretation is undoubtedly metaphorically. The word contains no claim to Apostolical the most natural. authority, unless, indeed, none but Apostles could rightly claim to be witnesses of what has been described in vv. 1-3. And it does not justify the view that at the time of writing many still survived who had seen the Lord. The conditions are satisfied if even one survivor only is speaking in the name of those of whom he is the last representative, especially if he is addressing Christians among whom the later survivors had spent their last years. It points quite naturally to the "Johannine" circle at Ephesus, but
The plur. It offers no proof. does no more than point. in not the does occur Epistles. Johannine again ypd4>o^(v
it

IVa

.

.

.

t]

TTeirXTjpufA^if]]

For the resolved

And

for the sense, cf. Jn. xv. writer's joy is increased the

tense, cf. Jn. xvi. 24. The 11, xvii. 13, iv. 36, iii. 29. more his readers can realize the

fellowship of which he has spoken, object of his letter.
Tjfiwi']

and

to

promote which

is

the

It

is

very difficult

to
is

rjfxwv

and

vfxwv.

The former

decide between the readings supported by better MSS, and

the latter may possibly be affected by assimilation to Jn. xvi. 24. On the other hand, tj/jlus is almost certainly the true text just

IO
before,

THE EPISTLES OF
and the reading
v/wov offers write, that you who

S.

JOHN

[L

4.

a pointed contrast, " we who have not seen may enter into full joy." And it is a contrast which would not appeal to scribes. Perhaps, however, the r)iiu>v suits best the thought of the writer. He would not dissociate himself, and other teachers, from the common joy felt by all when his readers attain "fellowship." In

have seen must

the spiritual harvest, sower
2.

and reaper
:

rejoice together.

eupaKafiev] pr. o

B s 40 +Kai
X X k 8cr

aKrjKoa/xwev
/cat i°]

40

|

rr\v %i0t\v\

om.

K

|

ttjv

aiwviov]
3.

om. boh-cod.
/cat eupaKa.fj.ev
/cat

aKTjKoafiev]
2).

7 b2B3 "(Greg.
Kai
v/jliv

awayye\ofj.ev] pr.

om. boh-cod. am. arm-codd. Thphyl. Ka.TayyeWofj.ei>
harl.
|

:

KABCP
om.
/cat

Did. Aug.] om. /cat Dionys. Oec. Aug.
/cat i>yueis] /cat
>}

K L

7.

13. 40.
al.
sch
.

68. 180 harl. syr80 *1 et? sah. arm. aeth.
cat.

pier.

vg.

arm-codd.

cop.

syr

p txt

sah. syr
/cat

Koivwvia 8e] om.
_

boh-txt.

:

om. 8e C* P

a

scr*

13. 27. 29. 69. 81.

180

V g_ sa ]1 arm

(

u ifj_) S y r p,

avrov] om.
4.

sah
am.
harl.
:

ypacpo/xev] scripsimus,

463 ypa<pw A' (62)arm-codd.

bohcop.

codd.
i/yitets

X A* B P

13 harl.* sah.]

vixiv

A

corr

al. fere.

om.

cat. vg. syr

utr

arm. aeth. Thphyl. Oec.
nixwv 31. 39. 40. 42. 57. 76. 78. 95. 98. 99. 100. 101. 105. 114. Iect leet acr am fu har] to j sah S y rS ch ar « Thphyl com 177. I9O. I ^lect j 4 -jpe a J8 P al. plu. vg cle demid. cop. syr? arm. aeth. Thphyl txt Oec com ] v/xwv C
_

XBL

A

K

Oec ut

.

ireirXTipoifxevrj]
ij»a] tit

+ ev

gaudeatis

yfiiv et vg.

C*.
(om. gaudeatis
et

am. ).

A. i. 5-ii. 27. First description of the two signs of fellowFirst refutation of the ship with God, expressed negatively. " twofold "lie." The "ethical" and " christological theses one the after without definition of their other, presented any
mutual
I.
i.

relations.
5-ii.

17.

Walking

7i>ith
1.

God
i.

(ethical thesis). The 5-ii. 6.

in light the true sign of fellowship Refutation of the one " lie." thesis maintained in two parallel

statements.
(a)
i.

5-10.

The

nature of

God and

the consequent relation
is

of

man
i.

to

God.
to enable

5-10. Having stated that his object in writing

his readers to enter into fellowship, and that the mutual fellowship of Christians leads onwards to that higher fellowship with God in Christ on which indeed it is based, the writer proceeds

to deduce from the nature of God the conditions under which He does so by setting aside fellowship with Him is possible. three false pleas often urged by those who claim such fellowship, the denial of the bearing of moral conduct on spiritual communion, of the responsibility for sinful action, of the actual fact

1.4,5.]

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

II

Wilh regard to the first two he states by way of having sinned. of contrast the provision made by God for overcoming the hindrances which would seem to prevent the possibility of
fellowship with God, in the case of those who by their conduct or their confession refuse to shelter themselves behind such The verses which follow contain a similar contrast, false pleas. expanded into a different form in order to meet a difficulty which might be suggested by what has been said in this
passage.

God is light, and therefore only those 5. The nature of God. " whose conduct can be described as walking in light," can enjoy
fellowship with such a Being. In form the opening of the Epistle is closely parallel to that This verse corresponds to Jn. i. 19, and it is of the Gospel. introduced in exactly the same way (kcu. avr-q ia-rlv rj fxapTvpca). There also the idea of "witness" is taken up from the middle
verses

of

the

Prologue, just as
2, 3.

dyycAta

here

takes

up the

aTrayyiXXofitv of VV.

what immediately precedes is not kcu] The connection with obvious. According to Dr. Westcott it must be found in the " idea of fellowship. Fellowship must repose upon mutual knowledge" (p. 14). If we are to have fellowship with God

and with the brethren, we must know what God is and what we False views on either subject must prove a fatal barrier are. But see the preceding note. It would to true fellowship. seem to be simpler to find the connection further back in the He makes his announcement, idea of the "announcement."
contained in the letter he finds it necessary to write (ver. 4), with And the burden a special purpose which he has now stated. of the announcement is this, that God is light, and men must walk in light if they would enjoy His fellowship. dyy 6 ^ 1 01 ] The simplest form of the word is chosen, as the writer wishes to describe its twofold aspect as a message from God to those whom he addresses, in the following words. It is an d.7rayy€Xta from God Himself, ^v aKrjKoafiiv air avrov. It is also an dvayyeAid meant for those to whom he writes The word may also suggest that the (kcu avayyeWofxev v/xiv). message contains a conception of God which men could not have formed for themselves without His help. It is a "revelation and not a discovery," it is the message which has come from God to be delivered to men. God's nature is to express quality. <j>ws ecrr£e] Anarthrous to cbuis would have suggested light best described as "light."
'

some particular relation, cf. Jn. i. 5-9. <£ws describes His nature as He is, the description being true so far as it goes, though not complete. The primary idea suggested by the word
in

12
in
this

THE EPISTLES OF
context
is

S.

JOHN

[I. 5.

"illumination."

It is of

the nature of light

and makes visible. God's nature is such that He must make Himself known, and that knowledge reveals everything That this thought is present here is else in its true nature. That God can be suggested by the following section (ii. 3 ff.). " known," and by those to whom the author is writing, is one of the leading ideas on which he lays special stress. But in view of the use of the metaphor of light and darkness in the Bible generally, and especially in S. John, and of the immediate
that
it is

context in this Epistle, it is impossible to exclude the ethical meaning from the signification of the word here. The context shows that this is the idea which he is most anxious to emThe word must suggest the notes of Holiness and phasize. The conditions of fellowPurity as essential to God's nature. " Be ship on which he insists are closely akin to the Levitical ye holy, for I am holy, saith the Lord." The full meaning, however, of what is contained in words is not limited to the sense in which they were probably used and understood by the writer and his first readers. Jesus' revelation of God as " " Father goes far beyond what was understood of it by the men of His own generation. For the more permanent meaning of the sentence, and the further ideas which it may be regarded as connoting, see Dr. Westcott's note (p. i6f.); Findlay, p. 102. kou oxotici k.t.\.] This is not a mere repetition of the sentence in negative form, in accordance with the writer's love of double expression by parallel clauses, positive and negative. And it probably does not merely emphasize the " perfect realization in God of the idea of light." It emphasizes rather the completeness of revelation. God is not the apprjTos myrj, or " unknow/?v#os, of the more developed Gnostic systems, or the able" God of the Gnostic thought which preceded those systems. Though complete knowledge of God is impossible, He can be truly "known" here and now, under the conditions and limitations of human life. His nature is "light," which communicates itself to men, made in His image, till they are transformed into His likeness. From the ethical side, the words also emphasize the conditions of fellowship. Walking in darkness must exclude from the fellowship of Him "in whom is no darkness at all." Conduct is not the matter of indifference that in some of the teaching of the time it was made out to be. With the order of ideas here, Xoyos, £w*7, <pm, o-kotio. (vv. 2, 5), comp. the same sequence in the Prologue to the Gospel
(i, 2, 4, 5).
i°] eo-riv

km

om. boh-codd.
8cr sor

Thphyl.

60 txt syrP cnm7XBCKLP 31. 40. 69. 105. 137 a c al. fere. A 13 al. uix. mu. cat. arm. vg. syr 3Ch p mfs Oec] avrrj
e<TTii>
et
.

This revelation of curiosity. 40. 73. Those who continue to practise the works of darkness cannot be in fellowship with the light. pier. He is not wasting his weapons on purely hypothetical situations.e&x).] cop. Thphyl comm Oec comm vg. al. arm. the Hebrew *^n) is Cf. uix eirayy^i-a. 137. where the writer is thinking of his TCKvta. boll. It of man to God as determined by the God is not made to satisfy speculative If truly apprebears directly on practical life. 57 lect a 8cr . The metaphor become part of The use of already the natural religious language of Christian irepnTaTtlv of conduct (cf. Did. 69. 40. viii. IOO. syr p Or. 10. The expression must have the same the Father. icai 20] om. such language is a And the actual conduct of those who make such a statement belies the claim they put forward to have fellowship Their actions are not an expression in life of the with God.] i) NOTES ON C I JOHN 1 3 ayylia S arm. been made by Jesus Christ. Caes.(?) syrP ABKL 17 8Ch syr sah. aeth. with whom he is in spiritual fellowship. used by the Lord in the Gospel has . 18.I. and with whom he identifies himself as "compassed with infirmity" and not free from the dangers to which he knows them to be exposed. fere. jxcT auToO] reference as the ev ai-rw of the preceding verse. iv tw : CTKorei TrepiTraTw/xek'] 7repi7raT€t Jn. of the realization of which he felt no serious apprehension. And the use impossible. (uid.C P 13. Cat.] ovk €<tti. " moral ideal revealed by Jesus Christ. 9. Jn. 31 aeth." Fellowship with God is impossible where men "walk in darkness.v ev avru B 13. The relation God is light. 6. xi. 31. it puts aside three false pleas often put forward by men " love of darkness. Aug. An obvious careless scribes. They do not the truth. fact that 6. II." lav etirufxew] The form of the sentence introduces a not as light has deliberate lie. contingency. 6-10. 180. ii. avay^eWofiev] away-yeWo/iev tv Jf^L K* (sic). ^ ' assimilation to a commoner word by a »" <ur] wap / (233) ^(154). To assert the opposite is to state what is contrary to the facts Now that the revelation of God as we know them (i/'euooju. Tr€pLTraTy]o-r) iv rrj (tkotlo. boh-txt. 98.) Or. 12. Did. cat. 137 a 70 Thphyl** Oec^ ." to excuse their The first of these pleas is the "indifference of moral conduct to spiritual communion. avrw ovk eanv K A C K L P al." The light transforms those who receive it. 5. Throughout the Epistle he writes under a pressing sense of danger. 70. vg. 69. perhaps a not unlikely. hended. 8cr mu al. is an indication that the influence of his opponents had made itself felt both in thought and practice among those who were in the " main still faithful to the " truth as he conceived it. of the first person plural. (6 /Atcratv) iv rrj (tkotlo.: cf.

xx. In relation to man it has to do with in any sphere of being. most completely in conformity with the nature and will of God. <£a>s. : with <p£)S. well as to word and thought. xv. . 21. his whole nature. kolv 07roiais (rvyKaTayivoiVTai Trpa£ecriv. John." or to "do a lie. 1 K. faithfulness. 29 and riEN3 "l^>n. 7ras /3tos d*aVSwo? €k\€ktQ. in S. when it refers to what is spoken. 2 S. 5. "darkness absolutely." The form arKOTos occurs only here and in Jn. "Speaking" the truth is only one part of "doing" the truth. . Is. moral and spiritual as well as intellectual. . 2. iii. 33. Paul and S.ev no! oi diro Hpo8iKOv i/^vScovuptoS Tv<j)(Ttlkov<. viii. The "truth" has no exclusive reference to . vi. iii. ii. aXrjOciav Ip^erat 7rpos to 6cuj ka-Tiv etpyao-peva. and later. ToiauTa tw tpiorl Kvpiov. which denotes reliability. . common Cf. ii. hi. Gn. 9. rots eOecriv irepiTraTelv.ru> : Ec. ou iroiou|i€»' tt|»' dXr^eiak] Cf. as of his being. . 6 ttolQh' To "do xxii. I. to TrvcupariKoj/ ^cAoucrtv ol auTot elvai dBvvarov rrj : <f>6opav KaTaSe^atrOai. /3oi\vyp.14 THE EPISTLES OF in S. ix. and not the most important. Is. xlvii. Str. 4. 30. n). o~<£as airous dvayopet'ovres Soy/xaTt'^ovcrtv vlovs p. TO. and conduct and feeling. [I. Mk. TU VKOTU] U &6 (&). We may compare the phrases noNl TDn nb'V. . 21. "the concrete thing called darkness." and "darkness realized as a state. ii. ii. It expresses that which is highest. Apoc. Ac. TrepLirarovcriv xxi. 40. d8ia<popu>s f^v SiSdo-Kouo-tv Iren. In the Synoptic Gospels it is Kara ttjv TrapdSocriv. Compare also Neh. xxi.vyevua. To "do the truth" is to give expression to the highest of which he is capable in every sphere It relates to action. For the LXX usage. xi. iii. 6. and therefore.a kcu i/^euoos the truth. 5> Seure iroptvBwp. 20 Jos. the sphere of the intellect. meaning of the Hebrew DON. The distinction can hardly be maintained in this (tk6t€i\ Epistle between o-kotos. 49. 6 2 K.zv cftvaei tov -rrpuiTOv 6eov Xe'yovTes clvtovs. 6 (f>l\wv KCU ttolwv i/zeDSos. where Jn. dXrjOciav oroirjo-as : 27. Al. (XKOTIO. KaTa^pwtievoi Se rrj (. in this verse we may compare e\ev6cpia ^wcriv u>s fiovXovTai' (3ov\ovtcll Se ^iAtjSoVojs* and 5. vii. on and for the opposite expression. cf. opposed to light. 6 Se ttolwv ttjv Iva (jmvepwdrj clvtov rd epya on iv the thoughts of this verse find expression in a positive form. " its abstract quality " (cf. 4. iv 68ots StxatocnJvTjs 7rep17ra. as Dr. /cat For the false views combated Clem. 14 3. 1 5.os 20. truth. found only Pr. xxiv. Westcott defines it. xxxviii. 19 in the Johannine writings. 3. TrepiiraTei iv and for the use of " walk " in connection 6801s KapSia? crov a/Aa>/x." and a-KOTta. or. JOHN ." are natural expressions in : the Johannine system of thought in which dX-jdeia has a far wider its modern connotation signification than that with which The Johannine usage corresponds with the familarizes us. eav~] +yap A.

throughout His life and in His death. and larger spiritual life life it in is God the " (Wstct).). while our conduct does not correspond to the claim. It is based on active realization of that fellowship. who "light. 100-102. The contrast is in it. etc. himself with an exact antithesis. will in goodness and righteousness. gradual (/<a0api'£ei) in Palestine at a definite date. live in Jesus Christ. significant. and God with us" (Aug. Men 6.e. is possible in consequence of what the Son of God has gained for men by His human life." especially as that revelation has been made finally and completely it of fellowship. other. NOTES ON "Walking is I JOHN 1 5 endeavour to live a in the light. kcu] And where the endeavour to "walk in light" is carried out (it depends on the exercise of man's will whether or not the endeavour is made). " walk " in God "is" Findlay. " be " in the blood. the As Christians enter more fully they come into fuller fellowship with each to live the life "in God" into which they have been born again. Ew. the conscious and sustained life in conformity with the revelation of God. . removal of sin in those who is effective for the . Enoch xcii.] 7. Comp.t. fellowship is is no lie. he carries the thought a step further. though mutual fellowship is the first step in the path which leads to that. pp. 4). to alfia k.17." i. fur aXX^Xwv cannot mean "we with God. nor can it mean that we share with each other the Divine indwelling (Karl). "The righteous . the power of which has been set free by death so as to become available for all men. the sense to be the removal of sin rather than the cancelling of As ritual cleanness was the condition of approach to God guilt.] As Westcott has pointed out. strict antithesis to ver. The Instead of contenting writer follows his usual custom. The blood "atones" through the life which is said to xvii. The power of Christ's life. To claim real. Fellowship among Christians "shows the reality of that which is fellowship with God. we lie. "if we walk in light we can claim fellowship with God. avTou or cum Deo being at substituted These readings are clearly attempts simplification. the removal of sin. the significance " blood " in of Jewish thought is most clearly expressed in Lv. . freely rendered to God. some texts." would naturally be. and set free by death for wider service than was possible under the limitations of a human life attempt to realize The use of KaOap^ei determines their union with God in Him. jict' d\YJ\u>v] The "if we claim fellowship with God." This has led to the alteration of dAA^Acuv in for it. n. which hinders fellowship with God. is the necessary condition Where this condition is fulfilled.\. and will walk in eternal light" (Book of outos eoTic] light.

| ecrriv] ambitlat. cum Deo. 2 Co. scr Kadapifei] Ka8api<rei 5. tov viov avrov iv xv it\aov 29. v. showing itself in Wo. In the LXX it is found as the 23. sin in whatsoever it may manifest itself. p. boh-codd. is not justified by the words used by the writer. 31. In the Fourth Gospel it does not occur. Test.iyav . Cf. dfiapTtas] Sin in all its forms and manifestations. 8. Clem. that of interpreting the Epistle by the help of the Epistle 5e] fier : _ itself. rather than of specific acts of sin.] H™ (33) 7 (318). iii. Briggs. Mt. xi. Tit. JOHN [I. 1 Eph. ] + Xpiarov A K L fu. 15. vg. not only of the pre-Christian period of a man's life. He. (2) to pronounce clean. is found in the Discourses of the Upper Room (xiii. but also those committed in the course of Christian life. 14. 29. pp. : - many forms. I3 I4 Aug. 8. Karl's limitation of the meaning to Christian" sins require also intercession {Johannische Studien.8. xii. syr sch et p '" sah. von der dem Christentum begangenen "). tou ulou aoTou] Cf. to igwdev). E P h i. cat. 10). pier. . Ja. 82). rightly throws the emphasis on Troun??. Trdo-rjs As Son of God His help is effective. 26. is a curious instance of the perversion of an excellent principle. xi. 'I770-0W tov vibv tov Oeov). In Acts it is used in the sense of "pronouncing clean" (x. ix. arm. 22. " xiii. h. Fulg. (Calvin). 26. The present tense may point to the vivjavOai. 469. apparently thinking of sin as an active power. gratuitam sed perpetuo 14 (apx<-€pea gained the p. al. And the reason suggested. would require the and form sins committed before men became Christians ("d. under the Jewish sacrificial system. but the adjective Ka8ap6<. and also (xv. 2 . syrP c* aeth ro aethPP Tert. 69** a scr Clem. 39.* boh-txt. KaGapi^ei] In the Synoptists the word is used especially of cleansing from leprosy (see also its use in Mt. Aug. ii. boh-txt. tov uiou avrov] om.16 THE EPISTLES OF S. sah. fier avrov A* uid boh-txt. xv. equivalent of "ina and npn in the senses (1) to cleanse. Rub. tol. vii. 14. plural. om. x. The Messiah of the Apostles. to cVto's: Lk. harl. Aug. 5. As man He power to help men. 9). : : nadapiei 6. (semel) I c 174 lect lect 2 al. aW-rjXwv X A Did. 3). 7. 10. iv. Weiss' interpretation "all sins. iraaa 2. iv. v. "Docet hie locus peccatorum veniam non semel tantum nobis in ecclesia residere 'It)o-oG dari. n. cop. so the " blood " of Christ cleans men's consciences for God's service and See fellowship. x a P* The writer is <ro<pla: and for the singular. Bed. corr BCKLP etc. a soiling world (Jn. 7. xxiii. a 192 N B C P 29." i. 1 Jn. 106. 9) with ras KapSias: cf. i.e. iv. He. that "postvor But in general sense it is correct. 9. of which even 6 AeAmyieVos has frequent need in his walk through . 18. 66** harl. 66** . (dis) purgabit. aeth. 4. 15. . Tert. .

I. ix. djiapTiai' ouk exop. 13. Pr. and it is suggested that the meaning here must " If we be. in his sinful acts. in the passages in the Gospel where the phrase occurs these But they are contained in the Hebrew ideas are prominent. The selves or in others. in the use . 8. If they had been as ignorant. In the N. just as much as he who "has sin" and who feels. passing incident which leaves behind it no lasting consequences. To deny this is to refuse to accept the received at his baptism.. 130) . to principle working in us have faith. \. So long as a of which sinful acts are the several manifestations. consequences must be fatal unless men acknowledge their mistake and retrace their steps. sin ceases to be of any importance. tt'mjtiv e^tiv.T." must be noticed. hi themAnd they lead themselves astray. p. necessitated by the contrast demanded by ver. 6 tTnKaXvTTTwv aaefieiav iavrov ovk evoBwOrjcr ctcu. xv. in himself the presence of a power which manifests itself And though the idea of guilt is prominent of the phrase in the Gospel. it does not exhaust the meaning of the phrase as used there. To "have This is sin" is not merely a synonym for to commit sins. where the antithesis. xx. He who has committed sin is responsible for his action. that in the Gospel it has a quite definite sense. say that we have no guilt." It probably true that as compared. teaching of experience. 10 between " " Sin is the principle afxapriav ovk €\ofi€v and o&x rjpapTrJKa/xev. rather than in the one expression as opposed to the other. cl rvcpkol rjre ovk av ci^ctc auapriav. 41.] 8. tis Trapprjo-idcrcTat KaOapbs eivai d. The plea rests on self-deception.with the simple verb the And phrase accentuates the ideas of guilt and responsibility.ei'] Cf.T. It can only be maintained by those who shut their eyes to the teaching of experience. and conscious of their ignorance. and that it "specifically denotes the guiltiness of the sin" (Law. or should feel. which we have committed. no responsibility for the actions. the use of the phrase d/xapTiav e^«v is confined to this Epistle and the Fourth Gospel (ix. cf. The meaning of the phrase in the Gospel has been raised as an It is maintained objection to the interpretation given above. 24.7ro d/aapTiwv. emphatically developed in the teaching of the N. 9. especially in xv. 22. sin is an active power working in him and its power still remains after the forgiveness of sins which he . conception of sin. xix. Christian commits sins. Cf. 11). 22. It is merely a such a view. and xxviii. NOTES ON The second false plea I JOHN 17 denies the abiding power of sin as a To those who hold principle in one who has committed sins. eav €i-n-a)|x£k] For the general idea. " Now they have no excuse for their sin. as an active and forming our character. The Tests of Life. is wrong in themselves.

. a further point). Sin could now work with more fatal power in the High Priest." and which is not merely antithetical but adds This meaning is especially clear in ver." in spite of See Findlay. though case the simpler meaning "the greater guilt" is more But even here the thought may be of the power plausible. 26. iii. 8. in spite of this. 11. p. 9. We have no excuse for the sin which we " have.apTtav ovk ei'xocrav). which it could never have had but for their missing the opportunity of better As it was. And the same idea The rejection of Christ's words by His is present in ch. The "sin" which had got its hold. ii. etc. be used with something of . 106. though the exact nuance may be different in the two writings. It is the special characteristic of the writer that he loves to use his phrases. 6 7rapa8iSovs pcu^ova apaprlav e^et. 12 .). The mistake must have 7 Jn. But probably. and whatever "sin" they had would have lost its power. And the the same in xix. established in them and working its will. in consequence of their rejecting Him in spite of what He had done among them. than in Pilate. any possibility of their seeing the truth." it would not The necessarily bear exactly the same meaning in the Epistle. But as the and when it was presented to them. Apoc. of spite Even if the phrase meant no more in the Gospel than the denotation of the "guiltiness of the agent. vii.Kao-iv kcu their refusal to see the truth their insistence that they fXijXKjrjKaa-iV is phrase in this may possibly the contrast to a. had conceived and brought forth hate (vvv Se kcu kwpa. who knew the relative power of God and of the Roman governor. JOHN [I. they not only had " sin " as an active power things. ii. the fundamental idea expressed is the same. irXavav always suggests the idea of leading astray from the lauTous irXayw/jiey] n-XavuifieOa. who in his greater power was more ignorant than the Jew. . opponents had given sin a power over them. man whom they had condemned. of which his store is but scanty. which sin acquires over him who admits it. xv.1 8 THE EPISTLES OF S. The phrase.p. knew. but they had no excuse to offer for its presence there (Trpo^aaiv ovk e^ova-iv vepl " they have no excuse t?}s d/mp-rtas avrwv. xii. back into the way of truth. with slightly different incited shades of meaning. they might have learned. writer likes to put new meaning into the phrases he repeats. fatal consequences until we lead ourselves . • . and who meaning him to his crime against justice. right path (cf. our denial of the fact. which cannot mean for their guilt. gave their Henceforth it could prevent sin an abiding power over them. 20. The evidence is there only wilful blindness refuses to accept it. 24. as contrasted with the simple emphasizes the agent's responsibility for the mistake.

syrP aeth. The two adjectives is are co-ordinate.X." cf.apT-qjxa. tva eav tis avrov . 9. Lcif. shows " that those who make it have not "truth working in them as an inner and effective principle. Rothe. '• . tva Xpto-rov a7roo-vvaywyos yivrjTai xi. It is more than the sense of truth. It may be worth while to collect (roughly) the passages " in the Johannine books where the " telic force has given way to to the definitive: Jn. . p. avveTeOetvTo : . tva /3aW. is a patent fact. viii. i. 25. in spite the fulfilment of men's failures remains true to the covenant which He made conditions. God's faithfulness shown of His promises. al. pier. 7. .t. toCto cVti to epyov fva 7no-T€vr)Tt .] The statement that we have not sin. naturally maintained in Latin authorities. He just. Tert. 47. o-vp. to fulfil He . The the Christian morros Kal Si'kcuos] justice in Not to "faithful because He in is just. 23. 22." and His relation men fulfilling the promises which He includes the necessity of His has made. tovto ecrriv to 6iXr]p. iii. Oec] post ri/xiv scr 75 al. But it does not make impossible that fellowship with God which sin interrupts. ad loc). possibly due to Latin influence. 6). avrov 8lol ttjv irapecTLV twv irpoyzyovoTwv ap. ^yaXAtacraTO tva bp. avtipuTrov ovk KaTafifj xp^y : : c^w . Aug.T. For the meaning of "truth. 50. and. . a£tos tva \vo-u: ii. 137. He.a 56. an external standard in accordance with which actions must be shaped. rjpwTa tva V. SiKaiocrvvr) diov. .(pipei atrodavrj: 57.Tinv iv rjj avo)(rj tov 6eov. God has provided for its forgiveness and removal. . SeSw/ceio-av . 65. 9. syrP arm. or as an inner principle. the frequency of the definitive tva in papyrus documents. ovk etrnv KBL A K 13. : ix. is their obligations. is the primary signification of Cf. . at any rate. Cyp. x. even in those who have entered community.o-<ji . working from within and moulding a man's inner life. .?7 : vi. Xva] Defines the sphere in which the faithfulness and In view of the usage of the writer.apTvprjo-r) iv.r) airo\(. 8. It can be regarded both objectively and subjectively. C P 5. with them It is and this includes forgiveness on certain probable that throughout the Bible this idea of faithfulness to His covenant in spite of man's unfaithfulness. eis evSetftv ri/s hiKaioo~vvq<. p. In those who acknowledge the fact. : . and Ro. Thphyl. 69. 180 a vg. 27. 39. .rjvvay . in that. either as something that can be done (ver.oXoyy]0-f] toY/ : . . sah. ov «*x €v tva Ti9 p. 25. difficult the and it is maintain the "telic" force of tva throughout the N. note on ver. Probably an accidental alteration. justice are shown. Iva cf. 7ricrTos o tVayyctAa^evos.I. cvroAas tva cav tis yvw . . . 40 . 2scr cat. m existence of sin. uprightness and honesty of self-examination and self-knowledge (cf. 31*.] NOTES ON I JOHN 19 ica! tj dXrjGcia k. 6. 29.

Iva apiys . 30. on the whole subject of forgiveness.77 tis Swi^rai dyopdcrai /x€ydAa. 8. . 3. Maurice's insistence on the view that d<£i£vai means to "send away. . As applied to "sins" it suggests the cancelling of the outstanding debt. Though a few of them might possibly be interpreted differently. : XV. will But though always be grateful for what he said on the subject. . fo'Aa) Tva . . iva axova). iv Toirra) TereAciwrai iva 7rappr)criav l^w/xcv : 21. . . ii. avrrj cotiv rj dydir-q . 24. tpwra o-vty] 32. o"W7/^€ia . TrjpuifMcv : 2 Ae'yo) iva ipwrrjo-rj. : K\r)6wp. : xix. eo"Tiv . ippeOrj : avTois iva avairavcriovTai 13. . cannot treat it as non-existent. ov Jn. The determination away" the sense of "send is of the meaning of this word from tempting but unsound. 7rep«raTu>p. r) wpa iva $o£a<r$fj iva 2. ov : . 12. iariv . xai iva eA^Aufov iva : crKopTricr6r]Te : xvii. . rjpwrrjaav . . ivroXrjv xaivip' SiStoui iva dyaTrare . r}\Oev avrov rj wpa KapSiav iva TrapaSoi 29. avrr. iva 7ras 6 a>pa d7reA#a> . by F. ipwrw . iva . 17. . : "J.€i£oTe'pav Tovroiv ovk ()(0) : -^apdv. . . : V. 7roiei cr^/i-cia narafiaiveiv 15. Ip^crat iva . dya7ra . it is confusing to transfer all the associations of the metaphor to the new subject who can remember which it is used to illustrate. . unless it has been actually or . o~vp. . it must be confessed that linguistically his The application of the word interpretation cannot be defended. I." and not to let off a penalty or to cancel a debt. . drroKTCiva? v/xas ^0^3 Xpeiav ex«ts iva . .20 xii. iva ayaTrd/xev 23. a7roAvo"0) . cori Sc . I. : . 4. yivioo-KOKTiv 15. iva . avr?. p. . Tavr^v tt/v evroA^v e^op. . . /^f/JA^Koros eh iva 6fj: ttjv xiii. . iva Saxriv . e\y\v8ev fjL€Taftr} • . THE EPISTLES OF 23. xiil. . . 7roiei iva 7rup iroifj . 27. Jn.ev : . Ip^erai wpa rj . . . d7TOKTav#a)o-iv : 16. 2. . Ae'yci : : airw avrrj Iva . 17 cvtoAt^ ccttiv . 16. 7roiei 7rdvTas xix. Trorairrjv aydiriqv II. remembered that. . right in substance. to "sin" is almost certainly suggested by the metaphor of the At the same time it must be remission or cancelling of debts. . JOHN [I. there is abundant evidence to establish the d<J>fj] usage.tv . avrj? cctiv ^ cvtoXtj avTov iva 7rioT€vcra)uev : iv. Apoc. . the removal of that barrier to intercourse between man and God which is set up by And the transaction must be real and not imaginary. iva 38. 9. 6. . iva TrpoaKwrjcrovo-iv . 12. ivroXr] if/vxyv . God sin. at least for themselves. . dya7raT€ xvi. . . fiei^ova ttjv . . : 13. 3> : icrrlv aiaivio? £<d?) . Those the light which was thrown. 3 Jn. : S. D. . 17 dydirrj. avrr. 39. iva iripnraTrjTi. iva . .<p£p€i : Tavrrjs . as in the case of most metaphorical expressions which are used to emphasize some particular point of similarity. . . r/pwrrjcrev KaT€ayioo"iv hi. iva rj ow : 34. . iva . iSoOr] avrfj iva avToi<s [k ai] iva p. vi. 11. I : xviii.€v. 7roi7joT7 [f^a] . in respect of which comparison is possible. ov %peiav Se'Sw/cev iva . waiv 31. £^ct« iva tis 818110-/07 : : iva dprj. . : TrepifidXrjTai. e'oriv 17 dyycAi'a . .

acfrievai is used in the N. pier. 23 Ja. ix. xl. the 7raow twv olBlkiwv gutwv <5v rjp. iii. of which the . His word can have no place sin. aeth. 15. xviii. 64>€i\t]ixa Mt. 31. Oec]+iyMOT X C 5. m C46 tol. Mk. Lk. he may yet deny that he has To do so is to deny the truth of God's revelahimself sinned. sense. 35 (or subject). v. committed is the denial of the fact of having a man may allow the abiding power of sin as a principle in those who have sinned. 7 ( dvop. since it is implied 10. : 69. xii. but the xx. 2i. . : with to 8dviov. . " " with in the following passages remission the sense of with xviii. vi. cf. scr 98 a vg. Hier. Mk. C I aSi/aas] pr. sah. : 2. 25. stands by itself in the N. 9.dpToadv p. Though in His whole message to us. Trdorjs dSiKias] d/m/mas. Apart from actual statements in Scripture (cf. 34. Jn. ii. Ac. viii. + 5e/ a551 (216). Mt. 26: with d/xapTia or dpdpTrjfxa. 12.ia. Mt. Hier. God's dealings with men (xiv. KaGapiorj] In d<ptevat. It . 1). om. scr : 68. 12. 10. 20. 6. no act of Tjfiap-rrJKafie/] have committed consequences remain. iv. Lk.] potentially in NOTES ON I JOHN 21 removed or destroyed. with 17 eirLvoia rfis Kaphias.) 2). eai>] rjixiv] ) al. vi.01. Injustice in whatever form denotes injustice. is borrowed from the cancelling of debt. Aug. He is also His covenant. xxiii." not only to fulfil the terms of removal of those injustices of which or the for cleansing provide men have been guilty in their relations with God or with other Cf. xviii. 27 . xx. 24. the whole plan of To deny the is based on the assumption that all have sinned. 3. Aug. xii. A B C K L P o^a/mas (2 Thphyl. Ro. xiii. Lk. . (liii. Ps.9. Jer.10. 32. ea boh-cod. 17/ias] Dam.T. 5. doWa men. 4. arm.T. 5. arm-codd. j m vg e Cyp. xi. 26. 22 = The use of Kparuv in Jn. : . -n-dcrrjs it may manifest itself. xii. 14. faithful to forgive sins according to His promise. fact in our own case is to make Him a liar. is therefore no need to equate the meaning of Kadapi^iv to It should certainly be interpreted in an ethical that of dcpuvai. tion.1. kclI KaOapiu avrovs caro dSiKias] Cf. Mt. +Ta<ras /a"02 (219). 47-49. 1 23. The third false plea sin. boh- txt. 15 without a direct object Jn. Hi. 10. or the existence of sin in Christians after forgiveness. 32: ofpeiXrj. 28. 21. iv. v.) 3. xxxii. . 8. or Trapdirroyfia. also in Mk. 23 must be interpreted in the light of this usage of dfcVai. Ps. in the development of our being. Mt. metaphor There idea which the metaphor is used to illustrate is ethical. but also to "just. with xi. xvii. ap-aprtas Kal (154). syr u(r sah. 12 vii. om. 7. ii. 1 xi - 4. failure to mainIf God is tain right relations with other men or with God.

10-11. 21. 1. iv. 1." pletely. Thphyl. Jn.os the of course. (in the case of those who acknowledge that they have sinned. 55. Imitation the sign of union. 20. S.iv'] + habit'ans. which it is the great aim of Christ's work to establish. 1. 4. 3-5a. and active in men. though relationship than aXrjOeia. Obedience the sign of knowledge. Further statement of the conditions of fellowship. i)/j. includes means by which such an aim may be gradually realized. Whenever any one gives way to any act of sin. 1 viii. in contrast with i. 5b. 22. 10. 44. Sin is wholly antagonistic to the Christian ideal his whole object in trying to set out that ideal more clearly is to prevent His aim in writing is to bring about sin. the Christian. syr p 69. The remedy for sin If it is impossible for any one. 6 Aoyos 6 ovk e/u. an external message or an inward force effective the exact phrase. Ja. to . Men might easily pass too lenient judgments on its heinousness. 137 a arm. fxt) d/xapr^Te). ecrriv] post scr arm. is addressed to one who is Father of both Advocate and suppliants. and ignore the responsibility of those who Knowledge and obedience. 6 yos] Like the truth. as eager as they can be that the fellowship should be restored. not to condone it. 6. And for Jn. if non-legal And His mediation phrases convey the meaning more clearly. to present their case truly and com. v. the means exist by which this fellowship may be restored. why condemn with such uncom- promising severity failures for which men cannot reasonably be held responsible? Why strive so earnestly against what is inevitable? The writer hastens to warn his readers against such conclusions. i. suggests the speaker. ii. on the only terms on which such fellowship can be restored. ou ^wpet iv rjfiiv vfiiv: He. 2). arm-osc. i. 14. 1-6. 2. personal 37. : speak for them. to transact their business. Logos. to escape sin. 10). Jn. even give way to its promptings. 12. ii." who is perhaps the representative of a generation which has almost passed away.22 ^cu'ctttji'] THE EPISTLES OF Cf. the removal of the sin which has interrupted it. There It is. from which even Christians are not actually free. The recognition of the universality of sin. naturally thinks of the younger generation to whom he is speaking as his "children. no reference to the word implies a more personal Cf. iv. 1 Jn. the word can be viewed objectively or subjectively. such as must interrupt the intercourse and fellowship between men and God. 1 viii. Jn. " sinlessness " And the Christian scheme (Iva. might lead to a misconception of its true character. Christians have an "advocate" with the Father (7rpo's cf. JOHN [I. Tcim'a jxou] The " Elder. (b) ii. who is able and willing to plead their cause.

" " sinlessness. on airol lxi.vTa. 5. 1. cf. 665) gives a summary of the evidence . circumstances of the case with sufficient accuracy to determine. TrapaKaXicrai irapaK\r]6rj(TOVTai. is clear). it is possible in xv. also Julicher's shorter statement in the Encyclopaedia Biblica (iii. The use of Trapd/cA^cris in the Trd.) is to be found in the notes of Wettstein and Westcott. os Aesch.XCiv. where it is used with (cf.T. Those who are bathed need not save to wash their feet . 3567). 6. where the influence Of Is. 10. Gn. KAeap^ov TrapeKaXtcre [xdXia-Ta twv 'EXXrjvwv TrapaKaXeuv . very clear of ira. . 26. he naturally falls into the language of Whether he is thinking of them as his affectionate endearment." after an And this is not a fruitless Kcu IdV] aspiration ideal which cannot possibly be realized. Ctes. xiii. crvp.T. 2 Co.rj6r}vai T* Set ere Arjp.T. teaching of the Epistle has been already declared his Xva jult) dfidp-njTe] The aorist suggests definite acts of sin rather than the habitual of is incompatible with the position Christians who are in truth what their name implies.-i tov<s 7r€v^owras. 7. which Jn. needed in the Epistle. 3. rjs is also well established (cf. is uncertain.K\ri<TUti<. 26. 26. it has the sense xxxvii. 35. The passages where it occurs in the N. i. "sons in the faith.Ka. summon original meaning was to to one's aid.] NOTES ON I JOHN 23 wishes to emphasize the importance of the thought which he has to teach. and probable in In xiv. The sentence introduced by these words is not contrasted with the preceding. The article on the word in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible (iii. for the means of dealing with the sin which he desires to combat are at hand. i. 1 Jn. i8oK€i TpoTip. already TauTa] must refer to the contents of the to the preceding present to the mind of the writer. 16." who owe their conversion to Christianity to And when he We do not know the historical ministry.ocr6ivr]v orav 7rapaKaXrj<. state. 200.(3ovXov. are Jn. 1. . meaning of one called in to help. corresponding to the Latin aduocare. cf. is of real importimpciKXTiTos] Most of the information which ance in determining the meaning and usage of this word in the Johannine writings (it is not found elsewhere in the N. its : But The following passages are often quoted : Xen. comfort in the reference to Jacob) and in the N.II. 16. Mt. . As regards the use of the verb LXX sense of comfort irapa. 2. whole Epistle. Anab. 7. send for. Sid rrjs irapaKaXovpaOa). 4. ii. 26 it must have the wider and less technical xvi. (cf. but added to it "as a continuous The writer's object is to produce piece of one message. The meaning "advocate" is clearly xv. xiv. xvi. . v. KaKOvpybv avOpwirov kol TeyyLT7)v Adywv With this corresponds the classical use KAt'rTeis t^v aKpoaaiv. though part any chapter in outline. 4.pa. rather than the main some extent to of or it.

si orator est. tu>v 7. . de Josep/10. SovXwv irapaKXrjTOiv irXrjp(!icra<. ISlojv 7rA. it is used specially in connection with the law courts. It is used as an adjective . it denotes any friend called upon to give help. Its " " Latin equivalent is aduocatus. 13. in Q. .24 THE EPISTLES OF S. of the word irapdnXyjTO'i. c. where the parallel to the Johannine thought is clearly marked.apTr)p. The Paraclete the advocate or intercessor .). Demosthenes." The form of the word is passive dya7r?7T09. cf. aut praesentiam suam commodat amico. afivyoTtav diravroiv Trap(\(j} tcov €is ip-e n €tt p ay wt'vcov" [iTjOfVOS kripov SetaOf irapaKXrjTov. pr/para In Job xvi. right in saying that the only .\prj<. In Zee." rather than patronus. is used to translate the Hebrew D^na.TU)v Kal ^oprjyiav r\v tov icpwuevov T(o tou Kocrp. of the Septuagint corresponds. The meaning " comforter " or " consoler " can attach to the word only in so far as that expresses the good office which he who is called in performs for the friend The usage irapaKXrjTiKos kolXo. word is Though The meaning of the /at) auros eX6fj<. 40.cret9 Kal cnrovSal Diogenes Laertius. Qui defendit alterum in iudicio. an indication that in later Greek the meaning of TrapdKXrjo-is was beginning to influence that of 7rapd«Xr/Tos. must mean one who is called to the side of the suppliant. iv. . 6repo9.. cf. JOHN [II. i . . Symmachos has Traprjyopovyres.w Bion. either by pleading or giving evidence. tt]v . 2. . by TrapaK\y]Twp (7rapaKX^Tope? KUKUtV 7rdvTCs). in a note on " Cicero. 14. c. but Cass.a. xlvi. the High Priest is said rightly to bear the symbol of the Logos (to Aoyeiov is the expres- LXX sion for the breast-plate). de Falsa Legatione. 71-pos tov dSoXcV^ryi/ Xiirapovvra aura) lav TrapaKXrjTOVi ir£p. whether the Cosmos or the Logos is to be regarded as the "son perfect " who is used as Paraclete. ." which corresponds more in meaning to our "advocate. 20. etc.vrj(TTCtav ap. not one who comforts or consoles. ouScvi Be TrapaKX-qro)' Tts yap t/v quoted.eove£<. In another passage usually in virtue de Opificio Afundi. Caecilium. 1. or in virtue of his position and power. aut patronus dicitur. tt)v ayopav more often absolutely cf. 6." The distinction is clearly defined by Asconius Pedianus. de Vita Moy sis. i. ckXcktos. iii. Sc eaurcp \prjadpevos o Beo<% <pvo-iv. 341. who claims his help. at elv€Ka twv irapaKXrjTwv aurai 8e?. Theodotion) render it by TrapaKXrjTot. But it should be noticed that two of the later versions (Aquila. Kal o~vXXafi£o-9ai' to i/cavov o~oi Trorfcru). or exhorts. It (cf. dvayKaiov yap ap. Jiilicher may be eyva> <dciv evepyereiv . yiyvovrai. DriJD is translated Kal Xoyous 7rapai<\r]TiKovs. aut aduocatus si aut ius suggerit. Dion. thus clearly wider than that of "advocate" in English. is Philo's usage corresponds with the classical.ov 7rarpl TrapaKXrjTio xprjerdat TeAeioTaro) tt/v apcrr/v uiu) 7rpos t« afpOowTaTOiV dya^tov. uoVw . kA^tos.

rrjy Qwovcriav CKetv^v. p. thank-offering for the pardon obtained (Sifra. (ix. vi. and only one to plead for his exoneration. as showing the " redeem a man from going to the pit. 69). he is saved . B^piB is used for advocate. to TirDp (KOLTrjyopos and performs one precept has gotten to himself one paraclete. advocate. 3). such paracletes man has in repentance and good works . 515). In Chrysostom it has the sense of "comforter. feasible far as . Megora These and other passages are quoted in the Jewish Encyclopaedia. "Paracletus uero quod dicitur Spiritus sanctus. in Joann. is cf.t/tos . of the word with the ordinary meaning of found in Rufinus' translation of the De Principiis. and is followed by another offering. Cf.evov. d>s av6pwiru}v (^ucrcoos kcu i\a. where the use of the word is independent it Johannine use of the term kA. and if there are nine hundred and ninety-nine " accusers. 15 ." so concerns the duty which the Paraclete is needed to perform but the point of the sentence is that God confers His benefits on nature Himself.v.II. rrjv Trepl rjfiwv avrov 877A01 7rapaKaAovvTOS vTrep Trp." Origen seems to have understood the word in the sense different enim Latine consolatio appelsuggest that the word may have a applied to the Holy Spirit and to Christ. Taylor. KaraTrorovvTa tov 6\i(36fj. Paracletus Saluatore of " intercessor. t« 17/u. 6 Kar-jywp). (Shab. The word occurs as a loan-word in the Targum and Talmudic It is literature. in the sense of helper. 32a). cikos tjv cr<^oSpa Itti^t^iv 75. The connection irapdK\r)o-L<. ra pij/Aara." of angelic agency to In the Talmud." Cf. dici deprecator. ttXovctlwv irapdlav fii] evpt$wp.(TKO[J. 23 as a paraphrase " taken in the sense of interpreter. a iii. irpbs tov 7raT€oa Trpocrracriav Comtn.w rrapd- ecrrai C. intercessor. i. iv.ev K\r)TOL } TTiVrjTUiV aVO/JLOl KpiTCU. 2 Clement. 6 7rapaKAr. " The sin-offering is like the paraclete before God . in Jo. xii. §§ 3." He goes on meaning when "Videtur enim de Utrumque enim significat in Graeco Paracletus. 9. latur. 20 and xxxiii.TOS Kat l\acrp. i-n-eiSr] yap ovStTrw oivtoV eyvwKoVas kcito. capxa auroC Trapovatav.os. 1. a Paraclesis to consolatione dicitur. 7." Horn. 3. epya cx ovT£S oaia ko\ SiKaia." The latter passage is of pfflO late Jewish view of the need especially interesting. IO. rrjv .] NOTES ON I JOHN 25 meaning is something like "instructor. XX. without using the help or services of another.ivov." "adviser. 4. cf. used in the Targum on Job xvi. The same usage is found in early Christian s. ii. 38. also In Flaccum." in opposition "He who cf. et deprecatorem et consolatorem. Apoc. intercedes for man. Barnabas. "Whosoever is summoned before the court for capital punishment is saved only by powerful paracletes . he who commits one transgression has gotten to himself one accuser" (Pirke Aboth. of the literature.

In the Epistle the idea of one who pleads the Christian's cause before God is clearly indicated. 20. presence" to his friend. Sta kcu : Trapap. Pudicit 13 Vulgate of Is. the Epistle. ipwT-qo-o) rbv iraripa kcu aXXov irapaKXrjTOV Sdjfrei vpuv' tovtIcttlv' aXXov ws 6/i. iv. intercession.XC1v (cf. 14. Ylap6. and the 7ra. Aethiopic. 1. 348).Tertullian. Hal fir]$€fj. xv. where the irapaKaXio-ai tous 7rev#owTa? of Is. id est Consolator. Marc. xvi. 2. This. cf. and Luther also has "Troster" in the Gospel and " " Fiirsprecher in the Epistle.vOdo'Oai viii." 26 being quoted in support. In itself it denotes merely "one called in to help. p.'av Si^ecrOaL rrapap. or mediation may be suggested by the context in which in the Gospel.e. JOHN [II." " " or either in the sense of "consoler. Arabic. dcr^emas Ro. adduced by Ronsch (Itala u. Vulgata. in the others it suggests one in which it is used in the Gospel who can be summoned to give the help that is needed in a " wider sense. Ixi. xl.vdiav a7rovros' Tt <f>rj(riv . The help it describes is generally assistance of some but it has a sort or other in connection with the courts of law " lends his the help of any one who wider signification also. . with the " " it has he that prayeth for us in the Epistle." which has strengthener been so generally connected with it in consequence of the influence of Wycliffe and Luther. Any kind of help.36 THE EPISTLES OF S. it is . Its meaning must be "one called to the side of" him who claims the services of the called.KXr)To% 8e KaXetrai. " 8rjXov 8e on 77-pos tov 6eov. 2 is translated " " aduocare Advocare " is a natural translation of languentes. adv. Tert. and owes any connection with the idea of "comforting" that it may have to that fact. /cat crvvavTLXa/xf3dvicr9ai rrj<." throws no light on Augustine's The other versions the meaning and usage of the Greek word. no doubt. 3. of advocacy. while The Vulgate has " — ." Iren. quoted by Ronsch). influenced " " " " Comforter in the Gospel and Advocate in Wycliffe renders the Epistle. There is no authority for the sense of Comforter. v. and Bohairic it is transliterated. and in the Sahidic also .pa. In the " " aduocatus Epistle "aduocatus" is used. In Cyril of Jerusalem the sense is not limited to that of "comforting" to irapaKaXtlv 17/Awv ." used. and "advocate" is the most This sense suits some of the passages satisfactory translation. do not throw much light on the subject. that " aduocare " acquired the meaning of "to comfort" (cf. except Patristic interpretations of its meaning in S.Ka. which is naturally passive. " " " Paracletus in the Gospel and Aduocatus in the modern versions. 1. In Syriac. Thus the evidence of early use supports the evidence of the form of the word. in. " Paracletus." explanation of inr€p€VTvy\dv€t The evidence of the old Latin Version is similar. Catechesis. ix. in the Gospel either " This is not seriously affected by the evidence or paraclitus. John.

6. 19 10) quote the illustrations of its use. In reality it hardly needs explanation.K\rprov<. m : : : . ." fitted a/xapr-qre] a/xapTaurjre 14*. Xpioroi' Si'kcuo/] As true man (lrjcrovv). Comp. ad Vigil.II. who "acts as the advocate of men at the instance of Ea and Marduk. b 157 b 62 om. vol. Book of Enoch xxxviii. Its use in the Targums and Talmudic Literature is important. It was probably a common word. : cap tis a/iapTr}] si peccetis. the case for men with absolute knowledge and real 'Irjaouc He can state sympathy. . quam ponere se pro Christo aduocatum et inueniri inter damnandos superbos. but whenever any one does fall. not because any of them might. They actually possess and have experience of the means. and being summoned. a. So/in. Kat] om. which -axe potentially available for the whole world. 192 \t###BOT_TEXT###lt;jow XpL<7Tov~\ post 8iKaiov 1* (318). Tert. 7 (173) + Dominum nostrum et boh-cod. warepa] deov arm. deum palrem. He is naturally for the task and acceptable to Him before whom He As St/caios He can enter the Presence from which all pleads. Deissmann (Licht von Osten. that its use in Christian and Jewish thought may be connected with the Babylonian myth of the intervention of Nusku (the Fire God). Did. one from "a very illiterate " letter of the second century a.). liii. Moulton and Milligan {Expositor. 1. n. Cels. 2. e^o/xev). p. 7 8ucaioi>] for km 7 (29) (498) sitffragatorem Cyp-cod. The lapse of one is a matter which concerns the whole body (idv tis .] NOTES ON I JOHN 27 The suggestion of Zimmern ( Vater.C. where the Messiah is called "the Righteous One. boh-codd. where it has been restored 60 1 12 ). " Maluit se ponere in numero peccatorum ut haberet aduocatum Christum. worth quoting. And the need is felt by the whole Church. and the obvious one to use.Trapa. Fiirsprecher in der babylonischen Gottesvorstellung). irapdwhere they suggest that it may mean " on an instance of the use of aTrapa. kcu tov apa/3wva toG ~%apair(. u. He needs no advocate for Himself. OGIS 24s 25 (175-16 1 B. far simpler explanations are to be found in its use in Philo and Rabbinic Judaism.." (BU kXt^tos) Se'SwKa avTw... x." has not been favourably received. Eus. As God's anointed messenger to men (Xpiorov).wvo<i irapaKXo^ (/. arm-codd. So far as concerns the Johannine use of the term Paraclete. sin excludes. 1) lays stress on the use of the word in Aramaic as a proof of its frequency in vulgar Greek. * b Xptarov] om.d." As frequently the writer identifies himself with the rest of the Christian Body. 243. 1 scr 37 a Cyr.K\r]To<. Dam. exofiey] The extent is of the author's is Rabbinic thought at last beginning to Augustine's comment acquaintance with be recognized. 69.

the sacrificial feast which forms the ground of closer union between God and men. valid. absence of direct quotations. His views on propitiation therefore. Testament. the removal of He is not the sin by which the intercourse was interrupted. meaning is most safely determined by reference to Old Testament In spite of the theories of sacrifice. have. there can be no doubt that the author of this Epistle is greatly indebted to the Old Testament. who dwells in the light to which ." Hi« because He can Himself bear witness that the only condition on which fellowship between God and man can be restored has actually been fulfilled. and to some extent has made himself acquainted with Hellenic thought. or rather of propitiation. If the hand is the hand of a Hellene. They must be "covered" before right relations can be restored between the Deity and His worshippers. the Old Testament type and the Christian counterpart is that of the absolute holiness of God. his own thoughts on the subject are the outcome of his knowledge of the Scriptures.e. but also the propitiation which He offers. 2. their But it is the counterpart in Christian thought and teaching.t. but man. and guilt-offering. must be considered in the light of the Old Testament. to the ritual of the day of Atonement and Both ideas. " only the High Priest. Though he has lived among Greeks and learned to express himself simply in their language. latter which dominates the writer's thought here. i. duly qualified to offer the necessary proThe writer's pitiation. advocacy Himself is a propitiation for our sins. which Greek thought had been borrowing from the East from at least the beginning of the century before Christ. who has estranged himself from God.X. and of Jehovah's estrangement from His people.28 2. in national thought and feeling. he is really as much a stranger and a sojourner among them as his He may have some acquaintance with Gnostic fathers were. in an age in which failure and disappointment are fast clouding the clearer The dominant idea which is common both to vision of God. it expresses the thought His mind is steeped in the thoughts of the Old of a Jew. theories of redemption. of course. JOHN [II. the whole system of sin-.] is S. The joyous sacrificial feast which the Deity shares with His worshippers consequently gives place. trespass-. as shown in is not God. This is the dominant thought in the sacrificial It is the natural outcome of the system of the priestly code. as in Greek thought. The vened between him and his God. or the sins which have intertheir Scriptures. and the propitiatory offering by means of which interrupted relations can be restored. as on all other subjects. object of propitation in Jewish thought. THE EPISTLES OF aoTos k. sufferings of the nation before and during the Exile which had deepened their sense of sin.

heart. which dominates experience of intercourse. ) (i37) 1. (uid. iii. 101* al.] NOTES ON I JOHN 29 no man can approach. 80*. or rather being known of Him" (Gal. 9). He now proceeds to point out the signs of Christian life.-COd. We about the development of Gnostic ideas before Basilides to say either that the stage of Gnosticism implied in the Fourth Gospel had or had not been reached by the year 1 " Dei cognitio Deus. 2. who in His life and death freely and voluntarily offered Himself in complete surrender to the will of God and the work of righteousness. 66*. The work of the the ceremonial has given way to the spiritual. knowing (cf. 1. for the possibility of their final removal assured. " " is never a purely In the Johannine system.) / c 1I6 . The stress laid in the Johannine writings on the true knowledge is certainly connected with the necessity which the author But to see of combating certain stages of Gnostic thought. / A sch Eus. as realized in knowledge of God and union with God. is precarious. knowledge It is acquired by the exercise of all the intellectual process. but its genuineness and reality can be thus tested. They are to be found in obedience and in Christ-like conduct. Or. "knowing God. and will. . boh-codd. So far as they attach themselves to Him their sins are covered. men similarly developed 2). pauc. 33. in the language of this and other similar verses of this Epistle any necessary reference to the particular stage of second- of God felt century Gnosticism little definite systems of know too which immediately preceded the more Marcion and Valentinus. 37. 3. The author has stated that his object in writing is to produce sinlessness. " " the whole Old Testament idea of knowing God and of God " " is in S. 68. The writer can conceive of no real knowledge of God which does not issue in obedience. auros] om. 2). 1 faculties of intellect. wherever the Divine will has been revealed in definite precepts. Cypr. till he has put away the sin which cannot So far as the means are concerned. It is developed in the growing This conception. there is a remedy (vv. and that if sin intervenes to interrupt the fellowship between man and God. 3. HiL Aug. fiovov] fiovwv B 21. of course. Se twv Vfi€repuv] I ( c364 A'* 359 . sah. has made possible the removal of the sin which keeps is men from God. enter the presence of God. syr i\a<j>os] post ecrriv b 396 . 180 vg. Paul's Am. iv. sed res est efficax. Se]om. Or. citur quum se intus cordibus nostris per Spiritum patefacit Neque enim nuda imaginatione " cognos(Calvin).II. much more than obedience to His commands. Christ. Knowledge of God includes. boh. Fellowship and acquaintance are its cognate ideas.

30 THE EPISTLES OF S. icpv\a£dp. facts which suggest that no Latin rendering was felt to be an exact equivalent. including the Xdyov) It occurs in the Gospel 12 times. God which does not carry with it as its necessary consequence the attempt to carry out His will. 4. Jn. and in the Apocalypse 6 (cf. in which those parts of the whole 6e\r]p. also Sifre. perceive more and more its through clearly that our knowledge is genuine results in a growing willingness to obey. iv avrw Epistle 6.ev A : : cognosctmus boh-ed. jcai] om. so obedience penetrates beyond the latter to the It may be noticed that the Vulgate has obseruare in this spirit. % Yii/oj(7KO|jie>'.ey] The phrase Trjpeiv rots evToAds (tov the Johannine books. iv tou'tw] points forward. 4.v. The is test is adequate. . and seruare in 5. [II. should he sit still and not do them? Rather shouldest thou As opposed to (pvXdaauv {custodire). falsehood.r]v Ik veoTT/ros p. may be applied with certainty knowledge which does not issue The man who claims to have know. also Apoc. T-qpCiv turn to do them.a which are known to us have found expression. Tas crroXds] The various commands. of the Greek word Tr\pCiv. I Ti. 7 a 397 fff (96). 4. or that a considerable number of years must have passed before the Church could have demanded so definite a break with opinions of this kind as is suggested in the Second and Third Epistles (cf. may ( contrast xviii. verse.ov As knowledge is not confined to the intellect. or completely satisfactory rendering. 3. note on i. 3. if not conscious and deliberate. to. xix. 20. Cf. 1 VU. 48. In the Gospel seruare is the regular rendering. {r-qv Elsewhere it is found only Trjprjcrai ere in Mt. 17. or definite precepts. pp. For the converse thought. Cf. X* Ti)pr\crwjxiv H& (<£). = Lk. 19). Deut. JOHN 4. that the doing of the will leads to ledge of fuller knowledge. Mk. and as for there no such thing in corresponding action. 21. 38. The himself a liar.i<Tta. Cf. Mk. Schmiedel. abiding Trjpwjj. 9 ttjv ivroXrjv aainXov. as usually. ras trroXds auTou is characteristic of yiypaix/jLeva). rather than the rigid carrying out of its letter.€v] (pvXa^w/j. ct Se rrjpu ras ivToXds. quoted by Schlatter {Sprache u. vi. We 7rapd8o(Tiv) . vii. 4ten Evangeliums). X. is without excuse. icpv\a$a). Eva?igelium Briefe und Offenbarung Johannis." denotes sympathetic obedience to the spirit of a (pbseruare) command. i. or before that date. 4. Tavra irdvTa. 17. ioo a. We learn to iyvuiKa^ev] The tenses are significant. in the First Apocalypse.d. cf. thereby declares There is no room for self-deception. yivuaKoiJLev] yivu&Kufiev rr]pu)/j. ^e'Xcis cts r-qv £(»r]V e. Heitnatdes " When a man keeps the ways of the law. custodire in ver.

. 2 (outos. and i. om. it clearly deals with statements which they have heard. "The whole He who claims knowledge without obedience (Westcott). *)/ev&6fx€8a). 69. S. 8 (eaurous it As compared with the verb suggest that the the man who 6. I K 19. . the perfection of love. aeth ute Clem. kcu] 77] om. and probably with a statement that has been actually made. the Logos is tftds). 29 evrov tu] in Eo boh-codd. declares inexcusableness. For love is greater than knowledge. John. cat. and to which they have shown themselves ready to is listen.5. Contrast the preceding verse. tea! repetition «mV] The antithetical clause is not merely a The " truth " is of the positive statement in a negative form. may perhaps is statement is a revelation of the character of character false" makes it. i8oascr d Kr plu. In the Gospel and Epistles of efTou'ru)] In such an one. 1 closely parallel 8. the highest effort of man's whole nature. v. as previously described. gains the whole prize. 100. 3 6. ute j tj 7 Sy r Q em 33**. The form of expression is more individualized than the conditional It is the direct and definite statement sentences used there. shows that the writer has in view definite few of a is not the "pneumatic" indiKnowledge possession In contrast with the claim of such an one. io. Cf. of the writer conscious of the fact that he is dealing with a real danger. viii. : om. 25. otl S cr who XAB iect 18. o8cr >£•. 98. Perfect obedience precepts. deterioration of character is the is inevitable result. 68. CKLPal. emphasized. 101. by men against whose influence he is trying to guard his If there is no reason to see in it an attack on any partit€kviol cular Gnostic teacher. it always denotes the subject or .a)+Tov deov tf 8. open to all 5. and knowledge gives way to love.11. c yp Lcif. whose viduals. . " has " the sin which he has allowed to If light gain foothold.j om. 25 aeth. It corresponds to It is not concerned with the intellect alone. seen and not followed. conduct shows the falsity of his claim. cf. 27. . : : .] 6 \eywv] NOTES ON The verse is I JOHN to i. 32. Oec. i. 177. 66**. tovtw v/ms oi 7rL(rTeveT€ (one sent by God). Amb. 4>eu'(TTT]s e<xTiV] The falseness of the claim is the point which 7rXavaJ/xcv). os 8' &v Tr\pfi] The statement is made in its most general The difference form. " " Gnostic claims. 56. is set the possibility of obtaining the higher prize. Aug. 27. Again the thought is carried further in the statement of The whole word is substituted for the definite the opposite.4. 38. its At the same time the form of expression chosen Contrast (i. Jn. object. 34. regarded by the writer as an active principle working in a man. i. +avrov 19* +ev avrw igb a\ij9ei. Jn. 192. km A P 13. 6 ff. . 21. 65. when ovtos refers back.

is S. IOO. as in the case of knowledge (ver. which series of acts of "answers to His nature" and which when "communicated to man is effective in him towards the brethren and towards God Himself. is very different from the views expressed in his claim. but the claim to "abide in Him" is said to carry with it the moral obligation to "follow the blessed steps of His most holy life. that the writer feels strongly the need of encouraging his readers with the plea assurance of the reality of their Christian privileges. 3. out the response of man's love for Him. 27." See Findlay. It reaches its full growth only when God's whole plan is welcomed and absorbed. 29. viii. 6. 142 c» cr lect 57 : Trjpt}<rei. ii. 6. The teaching of the God. is needed before Obedience can have her perfect work. dXrjOws] The set true state of the case as contrasted with the up by the man who claims to have knowledge without obedience. The test of union with God is the imitation of His Son. JOHN [II. Certainty is within their grasp if they will use the means which have been Comp. which takes up the airov of the Gnostic's claim." not reserved to the few who think that they auToo Toy yov] The order of the words throws the emphasis on avTov. 5. Jn. whom he claims to know. 3). 5b. p. 66**. a\r?0w$] om. This is not stated directly. Imitation the sign of Union. or our love for God. 15. of the word suggests that it may reasonably be regarded as one of the many signs which are to be found in this Epistle. v. however. love" obedience to so many definite commands. or qualitative . 17. placed at their disposal." Com p. teaching of the author that it is God's love for men which calls "We love Him. rvpv] Typei K 13. or the love which is characteristic of Him. who The " chance o' the prize of learning " know. objective." The second gives the simplest and most natural meaning to the words in their present context. because false He first loved us. is iv o-utw fiiveiv] This form of expression peculiar to the . The love for God of which man is capable is only fully realized in absolute At the same time we must remember that it is the obedience. The evrokai offer adequate tests of the truth But something more or falsehood of any claim to know God. toO 0eoG] The love of God has been interpreted in Tj dydTTT] three ways. The emphatic position. God's love for us.$2 THE EPISTLES OF are willing to obey. I* * 453 (5). The Xoyos is the sum of the ivToXat. 149. 12. iii. / a * 203 (265). iv. 31. w] om. according as the genitive is regarded as subjective. or rather it is the whole Love is not made perfect in a of which they are the parts.

For xi. Or. . 4. 81. the commandment has been interpreted in three different ways. the more it came to be realized that union with Christ under the conditions of earthly existence must be an abiding rather than a short tarrying. (1) With reference to i. cat. Individual. The expressions which follow.. : etcciKos] 1 For the use of iv. 1S0 d scr in 2. ) tile ambulauii. ." Of these the second is the most natural. Bengel points out a climax cognitio (ver. General. and perhaps also xix. Thphyl. 1 Jn. Einleitung. It is the equivalent. . 4.H. and not to his Master. 2 Jn. omission may possibly be due to the similarity of the preceding word. iii. oitws XCKP al. " of which ye were in (a) 7-11. p. ambulare sicut ( + et codd. sahA cop. cf. i. 7. n. 3). Aug. Jn. and from their previous The old commandment is always new in the growexperience. Tisch. to "walk as He walked. iv). but it is not necessary to find a reference to any actual words of the Epistle which have preceded. if it is to be attributed to the author. " " to give proof of walking in light by the confession of sin and the avoiding of everything sinful. The longer the Lord delayed His coming. ii.Teii>] sic boh. ix. 5 ff. 16." and the new. 17 Jn. xix. old and new. viii. 3. cKtivos with reference to . the old commandment being the injunction to " walk as He But assuming walked. Oec] om. aeth. The idea had taken its new shape before the "last hour" was thought to have struck. arm. 7-8. 28. 4) 7C ne * {-) yivuaKO/j. of which it was a very natural modification. 7.Teiv'] om. m p : om. but the evidence against it is very strong. Cyr. 12. pier. 12.fv] cognosce?nus. A B The 3. 6. vg. constantia (6). syr arm. " " " ing light of God's revelation. 7. 6. 65. /cat /cat irepnra. use in the Johannine 35. It is hardly necessary to discuss the interpretations which regard the "old" and the "new" as different commandments. 12-17. vii. 34. a65 c aiTos] post ovrus 7 (317) I . the call to brotherly love. of the Pauline iv Xpiorw thai. 6. 7-17. writings. 11.] NOTES ON I JOHN 33 Johannine writings (Gospel and First Epistle). Cyp. TTcpnmTcii'] 35 (Zahn. cf.-ed. sah. its P 31 : om. cf. Brotherly love. Jn. HP (tf) (?) (cf. 481. ii. ev tovtu] post 6eov 9 f. xii. 6 j 3 Jn. 3. L. Introd. Clem. . 5. 21. in his system of thought. the identity of the old and the new. Christ. communio (5).. Warning against love of the world. {b) 3 . Proof of the ethical thesis from the circumstances which the readers find themselves. ii. irepnra. Walking in light and keeping " the commandments further defined as love of the brethren. ver. Kadws . See note on i. The Commandment. Salv. (2) With reference to the verses immediately preceding.

and the connection with the duty of brotherly love insisted upon in vv. dyaTTT]Tot] The first occurrence of the writer's favourite form of address in these Epistles. that we are almost compelled to interpret the passage in accordance with Jn. as the objects of the love which he inculcates. or men as men. ivroXrjv Kaivrjv StSw/u v/xa?. however. The reading of the received text (dSeA. xiii. is decisive in favour of And. of course. 9 and 10 is so clear. 2. and twice in the Second.34 THE EPISTLES OF S. whether the writer has primarily in view. 7. iv. Cf. Christians as Christians. dir' dpxrjs] The meaning of this expression must. /ca#ws yjyonrrjcra v/xas. ii. The attestation." The remaining instances in the two Epistles have reference to the "old" command. 34. 21.7r dp^s 6 Sid/?oAos Twice in this present chapter (ii." The old commandment. 1. on the whole. iii.') is found in the vocative only once in these Epistles. 8 (a.</>oi. and yet new "in Him and in you. 9. is dAAr.A. it 14) the all the the ." which was already contained in the Mosaic law. meaning of the command. The d8eA</)ot may have been suggested by the language of vv." received a new meaning and application in the light of Christ's teaching and example. Christ is identical with the fulfilment of love " (Westcott). where the rjya7n](ra the new standard required. No conclusion can be drawn from its use as to the 5. Both words are suitable expressions to introduce an appeal to the readers to show their brotherhood in Christ by active brotherly love.7r7]TOL. be determined from the context in each case. " the word which ye heard. if not also to be found in the conscience of those who " having no law. And it had lately acquired a deeper meaning in contrast with the loveless intellectualism. and in the lives of His followers. "Ye have known Him who is from beginning.ous. (3) The expression ivrokr] naivr) recalls so vividly the language of the Gospel. are a law unto themselves. And it gives the most natural meaning to the description of the v/xtv Iva ayairaTe. rather than in the duty of mutual love. 10. In i. it is not only more in accordance aya. " Thou shalt love thy neighbour. is practically identical with "The idea of the imitation of (2). which the writer clearly regarded as one of the worst dangers in the teaching and example of his opponents." possession from the beginning. occurs in the phrase. k<x#ws "newness" to be found in commandment as old. which was In meaning this interpretation recognized in the Jewish law. 7 (ov rjnovaare [d7r' dp^s]) in afxapTixiii) is similar. JOHN [II. Its use in iii. 1 it recalls the use of lv apxv in the first chapter of Genesis and in the Prologue of the Gospel. The repetition of words at the end of ver. 1. 7 . It is used eight times in the First Epistle. 13. 2. with his style. 3 Jn." make such a reference improbable. but suits his appeal better.

vg. consideration of the character of the false teaching combated in The real force of the expression is to heighten these Epistles. rather than a single precept. iii. regarded as a rule of Aug. Thphyl. 27. K L al. Where the phrase is used of the "old" command. seems. ayair7)T0L tf xiii. om. Thou love thy altogether new meaning and scope (i. 29. or to the beginning of the education of each convert to whom the writer is speaking. al. ABCP 5. Long continuance is suggested rather than a definite starting-point. or to the beginning of his life as a Christian. 8.e. They have probably been introduced from the similar phrase in ver. or of their religious consciousness. 13. kcli 0.H. 81.] ade###BOT_TEXT###lt;poL /c 5-299 ( _ ABCPal. 29. tva dyaww/xev dAA^Xous* ov Kaiv k.) becomes new "in shalt Him The " IvtoXtj. 65. 20 cat. is as old as the Law of Moses. ] + cur apxn$ KL d scr j scr vg. cop. 42. who answered prompt ' ? " He is confident that as against the "glozingof some new " shrewd tongue that which was " from the beginning" will prove new to be "of significance and fresh result.t. 8. young. if The command. even the writer did not regard it of Cain and Abel /caucus as implicitly contained in the story 11. longe plur. cat. aeth. aeth utr Oec. sah. whether Jewish or The command to love one's neighbour was Christian or both. 180 syr arm. "Many ' not Jaspar as thyself art John ? Nay. t\ i°] pr. : j e. whereas through age thou mayest forget I Am Antichrists. : habcbamus arm-ed. which (cf. utr 7a7. Thphyl. 34. 7)KovaaTe sah. scr : Did. But it may refer to the life new commandment of Jn." received an in the light of Christ's . syr utr arm. Bed." neighbour. Christ) and in you. 57 lect 58 lect a scr k scr : habemus sah. 24. «Xere] exere 27. or of their The point can be settled only by the more general Christian life. 7. " reference to the teaching of Judaism on the subject of " love on the to the conditions best in each case.] NOTES ON I JOHN 35 Received Text is almost certainly wrong. It is not easy to determine whether the writer is thinking of the beginning of the life of each of his readers. 68. cop.5e###BOT_TEXT###lt;pot fiov ). the contrast of the "newer" teaching which placed knowledge The writer has in view the higher than love. Aug. whole. satisfy But it is probably a mistake to attempt to define the meaning of A the phrase very rigidly." 6 yos ov TjKou'craTe] "The word which ye heard" must be that which was told them by their teachers. common to both. Oec. plur. 6 Xoyos more naturally suggests a whole message rather than one definite command.A. 40. 34. it may refer either to the early days of the Mosaic legislation. 39. 12.

where 7raXtv cannot mean "a second time." clvtu). also Jn." and I Co. no doubt.1v in the N. force of the present tense in Trap6. and the darkness more quickly But though these recent events were the occasion. Ro. JOHN [II. which characterized the conduct and the thought The author rightly saw in recent events how of its supporters. " newness " of the old command which is said to be true is the in Him and in His followers. 104). 1 3. and dispelling the was of God already shining knowledge darkness of exclusiveness by the light of love wheresoever the " overtook it not. darkness iri\i.L tov koct/aov. ii. 21. XV. Jn. " rescued the law of love " from the darkness the Church had which threatened to overwhelm it. Wurm. 7. a special significance in view of the recent victory gained over the false teaching.v] the The word clearly introduces another description of same commandment. which have a far wider reference." The verse had. who argues with great plausibility for the reference to the victory over the false teachers (see esp. 5. 11. The shining of the true light reveals the true on <j>ai'f£i] The cha<acter of that which the darkness hid or obscured. Cf. is fully established. not another command. All is not yet clear and The darkness is known. . hi. 16 . He. or a further thought about quotation the same subject." The order lays the emphasis on evroAr/v Kaivrjv. 37 x. 12. 10. they do not exhaust the meaning of the words. xii.Tai and <£aivei is significant. 20 . The true light was shining more brightly in consequence. the words iv ifuv. xvi. The use of 7raA. apparently Though it affords a fairly adequate explanation of narrowly. 1 Co. iv. but the process has already begun. command had gained " new significance and fresh result. 5. and its depreciation of the law of love. in proof of the same point. i." of His own example shown most clearly in His treatment of Tax-gatherers and Aliens. (?) 2 Co. (?) 6. 5] The antecedent to the neuter relative It is is the clause ivroXrjv that I write " /«uv77v ypdcfxj) u/uv. . and the darkness is past . . xix. passing away. They must be interpreted as presents.ye. x. Who my neighbour is. to introduce another 30. and of the carrying out of His example by His followers in the admission of Gentiles to the full privileges of Christianity on In Christ and in Christians the old equal terms with the Jews. " It has become bright as the sun upon Contrast away. xi. passing " (Book of Enoch lviii 5) earth.36 teaching as to " THE EPISTLES OF S.1v d<f>irjfj. it is unsatisfactory as an explanation of ev The new significance of the law of love in Christ and in The light of the true Christians had a far wider application. 8. . Cf. confines the reference to that incident too p. 28.T. 7raA. ov SiWrai 6 o^OaX/j-b^ ct7reiv rfj x €l P 1 ' • • r) 7raXiv r) Kc<f>akr) tois ttoctlv. a new commandment It unto you.

7all0° (310) aurco] in qua est ueritas. . 29. when once apprehended. or a mere conde- scension to popular Christianity. The claim to have recognized it. 47.] ev tip. 9. as phenomenal. But it had not yet passed. leads to very definite results. 31. Aug.22. . while its completion is a final act . judgment is a process already going on. kou'ijj'] . cat. . had not yet perfect day And all who claimed to have done so could not the light. Bed. its completion is still thought of as "the last day. i^xa-r-q Parousia the regards the difficult wpa io-Tiv. 8. darkness is passing away. eariv aj0es] om. All had not yet recognized dawned. Cf. sch etP txt arm. and therefore the passing away of all that As eternal life "is" now and "shall be" hereis after.9. 76* c S 161 om. especially ver. Thphyl. A H^ CKOTioi] criaa. make good . is false. ev v/Mtv] longe plur. : om. A. syr P 4.H. aeth. The true light." point istic life of expression for the Parousia.7. bob. /* 70 a\r]9es] post avrw A. but is something more than an obsolete conception." and "the day of judgment. boh-ed. syrP (269). Their doubtful if the two conceptions are really inconsistent. NBCKLal. 9.iv z m £ Hier. A differIt is ence of emphasis is not necessarily a change of view. inconsistency would not be felt by a writer of the particular Their meeting the author. K | evriv] fievei H& (C) /* 20W . who in the twinkling of an eye shall destroy It is the consummation of a process the old and set up the new. so the Parousia is the complete The time of manifestation of that which is already at work. the things that are." The true light is already shining. type of thought which characterizes " is his characterwhich of idea in the lies manifestation. fed on Apocalyptic expectation and unable to bear a purely spiritual interpretation. as also for the earthly For him the "Presence" is no sudden unveiling of the Lord. their claim. 18. Oec. because men must show their true nature by their attitude to the Christ. In the Epistle the expectation is more clearly stated and more felt than in the Gospel. darkness was passing away. . alien to the author's real thoughts and sympathy.] NOTES ON I JOHN 37 in the Epistle that the writer as imminent. sah. The present verse throws some light on of the Gospel question of the relation between the teaching and that of the Epistle on the subject of the Parousia. The The The true light was already shining and gaining ground. It is the final manifestation of which is continuously going on. bob-cod. a man from heaven. These results are if not borne out by their presence. vg. and the But He who is coming will come. though in the earlier work the There are many indications obviously idea of "the last day" not only receives definite expression. 34. ev scr tol.

Origen. writer naturally does not deal with the possibility of intermediate states between love and hatred. 9 f. JOHN [II. we In the Epistle. eis aoparov kgli acrw/JLarov <£a>s. statements are absolute. His work is that of the prophet. is deliberate falsehood.iaojv'] earth's surface without The In so far as it is not hatred. Those who put forward such a claim only show that their apprehension of the "light" is not at present so complete as they imagine. To claim spiritual illumination without love may be due to the fact that we are deceiving ourselves. ovofjid^erai 6 peos is. The writer puts presented in sentences similar to w. that which illumines the moral Cf. he that loveth. <£cos o.38 THE EPISTLES OF S. or how the feelings of love and hatred are mingled in them. and ovv tov crw/xaTLKov <£ojtos /xeTa\rj(f)6ei<. In virtue of such " light " it is possible for men to go forward in moral duty and spiritual growth. to have knowledge of God. Prophet and claims. 4). and polemical aims undoubtedly colour the expression of his views. The writer is not now concerned with their applicability to the complex feelings of one man towards another in actual life. recognized the Propitiation for the whole world.). Sia Tqv iv tw <£coTi£av voryTous 6<pBa\/xovs Svyajxtv ovtu) Aeyo/Aeeos. inJoa?in. The Christ of the Fourth Gospel is the Light of the World. 4 and 6. without obeying his commands. iarlv Iws apri) would seem to suggest that there is more rfi o-KOTia excuse for self-deception. he that hateth. The falsity of the claim is At the same time the form of expression (iv sharply stated. Christ is . it is hatred. actually realized in personal experience (yivdjarKeiy). It may be the result of mistaken notions as to the function of the intellect. without any attempt to work out their bearing on actual individual cases. he that saith. The writer has to deal with present circumstances. The "light" spiritual spheres. but the command to love one another is given to those who have His rbv d8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;f>6t> auTou] The full meaning of these verses can be realized only in the light of the revelation of the brotherhood of all men in Christ. Jn.tto stumbling or tripping up (cf. not of the casuist. But this is potential rather than actual. The love. just as the light of the sun makes it possible for them to walk on the Comm. xiii. 23. of course. it is love. In so far as the attitude of any particular man towards his fellow-man is not jm. xi. In spite of the statements which are made to the contrary. before his readers the cases of typical individuals. " for a spiritual knowledge of the Truth To claim (Westcott). It is his custom to make absolute statements. 9. The claimant is not called i/^ctttjs " It is always easy to mistake an intellectual knowledge (v. usually are hardly justified in saying that this universalism is beyond the writer's vision.

except Apoc. 5. Note the emphatic position of cods aprt the light is : he even clearer than here It is of this brotherhood this respect. 46. xii. among Christians. 6 ino? [xeva. viii. ffKOTia] ffKia IOO (mg. is not found elsewhere in the Johannine books. 9. In his letters to individuals this is primarily thinking. shining and he is in darkness still. and perhaps the use of the verb in the . 10. house for ever. 137 arm. is. 14 (ftaXeiv cn<dv8a.). . Cypr." In its light the term "brother" includes both classes. 1. And he is always thinking of the next step which his readers must take. iv rfj o-kotio. and of man to man. Mum comma sahd. He cannot abide in it that a man might attain to the light. He certainly would not contradict to convey the wider truth. The new light had revealed the brotherhood of all enemy. but he cannot abide CTKdi'SaXoi' . Jn. he is nevertheless too much in earnest to lose sight of the practical. as him. The contrast as usual. Om. 10. 10). it. The general usage of the New Testament. euTii'J man puts The word a either in his The stumbling-block may be that which own way. \j/€V(ttt)s X 1 5. though much was still wanting in that is in his own community it is clear that And the usage of (cf. which might neglect the more obvious duties of love lying closer to hand. Mount and the Parable of the Good Samaritan is in no way contradicted by the more limited statements of this Epistle. Vague generalities are not the instruments with which he works. The Lord had summarized the teaching of the Mosaic Law in " Thou shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine the words. A vapid philanthropy. 35. eartv /ecu ev 2°] pr. would find no favour with The wider brotherhood might be a hope for the future.] NOTES ON I JOHN 39 not casuist as he is. or in that of his neighbour. What he enforces is the first step towards its realization. 43. fixivg : Cf. 61. ii. in the eis i/xc. (xtj The slave may learn much. the word aStXcpoi in the New Testament certainly favours this At the same time. vi. The verb is found in Jn.II. 98. men. The language used here lends itself easily to a similar expansion. . aeth. stated in terms which carry it It is possible a stage further. 3 Jn. He neighbours and enemies. fiivetv being substituted for Hvai. But the idea of brotherhood was actually realized it is for us.\ov ivut-iov tujv viiav 'IcrparyA). or a pretentious cosmopolitanism. Iva 7ras 6 tticttcvwv ets tov auova. the wider view of the Sermon on the view. xvi. who now hates his "brother" has not had his mental vision The writer's words can easily be made cleared by the light. whom the Law had separated. without showing that love which the new light has revealed to be the true attitude of Christian to Christian.

Oec. Num. Cf. and spiritual state must affect his conduct. v. pier. 12-14. 8-10 and the close parallel in Jn. ovk earn/.] post syr Lcif. xi. 12-17. He " walks " in that in which he " is. Ro. Is. 35. the writer reminds his readers of what their position is and what is involved He knows that they are harassed by doubts as to the in it . 12. the Possibly iv airw may refer to ev tw <f>wl. K"1 & m (261). e<TTiv~] fievei P. Before passing on to the more direct application of the general principles which he has now stated in outline. It is an overfanciful interpretation which sees in the last words of the verse any reference to the idea that darkness. Grounds of the appeal. tovs CHfrdaXpLovs] post avrov 2° 3. m syr p arm. arKavBaXov iv auru) Cf." For the phrase itself we may compare the Rabbinic 9. Hatred perverts a man's whole action.40 Fourth Gospel. Warning. Warning against love of the World. comp. This may be suggested by what is probably the true form of the text.. abides in the light himself. The occasions of falling are within. The effect of love and hate on requires the other explanation. internal stumbling-block. The man's mental. light there is nothing to cause stumbling. is in favour of the second And interpretation. causing offence within. He may be thinking of xii. Hos. The appeal based on the readers' position and attainments. The sphere of his moral and spiritual progress or decline is regarded as being within himself. 95. there " In is none. The part of this verse repeats verse 9. it THE EPISTLES OF S. iv 17. but is also free from the guilt of But the general context almost causing others to offend. Thphyl. The remainder emphasizes the dangers of the state described. 15-17. 10. however. 57. JOHN fll. IOI. al. the man himself is the subject of the whole passage. and prevents conscious progress toward any The darkness in which he has chosen to satisfactory goal. actually destroys the organs of vision. 15. 42. vg. or want of the oppor- There tunity of using them. moral. abide (/mow) has deprived him of the use of those means which he possesses of directing his course aright. sch scr sah. Jn." He who walks about in darkness can have no idea whither he is going. iT"iri7 r6pn N'osn quoted by Schlatter from Sifre. xi. ev eiTTiv avrw B KL 105 first P j NAC 5. IQtqkcv eavrtS a-KavSaXa. avrov 2°] om. 10-12. Aug. At every moment he is in danger of falling. 11. is no reason to suppose that the writer had this physical truth in view as he wrote. He who loves his neighbour not only gives a possible sense. cat. vL 10.

in rekindling the enthusiasm of earlier days which has now grown cold. the young. true safeguard against their present dangers lies in their in carrying out in life the faith realizing their Christian position. and to use his assurance as the ground of the appeal which writes to them the Epistle which is in course he is making. have a power which stands them in the sin which separates good stead. 27. the writing of which can now be regarded as a simple complete act. 4. The old. to the whole Epistle. 14 (eypa^/a) is the the use of of explanation simplest that the writer turns back in thought to that part of the letter which he has already finished. and use for themselves and for the community the powers of which they are in actual possession.H. In each case the reference may be is used in i. have learned by experience the truth of the Fatherhood of God can confess the forgive. and knowledge which they already possess. ii. and the consequences which would follow their acceptance of the false teaching of the many antichrists whose And the reasons presence shows that the last hour is come. of what he has to say is of the 7rai8ia and as who need and can nature of calling to remembrance that which they already know. in their strength. 13 {bis). They can enjoy fellowship with God who is light. aorist in ver. though where ravra is used it has suggested The to some the probability of a more limited reference. The suggestion that . in fact. and in the communion of that fellowship they can see clearly so as to " walk " without stumbling. The life of the society is safe if the two classes of which it is composed will contribute of their treasure to the common store. because they are already members of the community of light. where the ravra shows that the Those who reference is to the preceding verses) are similar. actually in part. in their experience. 1. Most. and the vigour of youth and early manhood. them from God has been. to that which is in the Ypd4>u] The present naturally refers The present tense course of composition. can be said to them which it would be impossible to address to those outside. He of composition (ypa^w). the letter as a whole. The experience of age. sins which their Father is faithful and just to obtain fatherly discipline and guidance they can go forward in the strength of love. In virtue of what Christ is and has done. 12. which led him to write that part of his letter which has already been penned {lypaxpa. Of the many explanations which have been offered this would seem on the whole to be The the most natural. supply all that is needed to restore health in Christian thought and life. cf. so he of it.] NOTES ON I JOHN 41 hastens to assure them validity of their Christian position. and removed. to avoid the false allurements of the world. potentially altogether. and least unsatisfactory. Thus Much their position as Christians is the ground of his appeal.

That the Canon has preserved but a selection of the Apostolic and sub-Apostolic correspondence is proved by the references contained in the Pauline Epistles. and the slight changes which he introduces into his repetitions are seldom. and with that part of it which has already taken shape. The Gospel was undoubtedly " written for Christians rather than for those who were still of the But its object was to instruct. p. It is. by imparting wider knowledge and clearer understanding of the real meaning of things already known. to increase faith and world. while they fit it admirably with the present Epistle. But it does not his letter as ideally complete. that after aorist. p. 9. quite possible that he had written to them before the present occasion. Paul found on two occasions during correspondence with the Corinthians. it might have been misunderstood and have required further explanation or justification his (cf. to indicate that such a break actually took place. It is still more difficult to suppose that the presents and the The use of the aorists have exactly the same reference. 12. either the significance. the explanation to which preference has been . The reasons given Gospel. On the whole. devoid of reference to a former document. and to persuade them It was because to use their knowledge to meet present dangers. that he could make But for that. and probably in 3 Jn. of course. for having written do not suit the Gospel. he could not have written what he had his appeal. or a lost Epistle. and that. resuming his pen. he naturally caught up his line of thought by repeating his last sentence. Repetition with slight changes not insignificant is a regular feature of the writing as far as the in his author's style. as S. the author wished to vary the monotony of six repetitions of the same word need hardly be taken seriously. JOHN [il. and the strength and achievements in the Christian warfare of the younger among his readers. end of ver." give us a satisfactory explanation of the change from present to Law's suggestion {The Tests of Life. 32). A written. He is afraid neither of monotony nor of repetition.42 THE EPISTLES OF S. or regards is established. And if such a letter had been written." is But again it must be noticed that there is nothing ingenious. A reference to a former Epistle must almost necessarily have been made clearer and more definite. 309)." deepen spiritual life. Karl. "epistolary aorist" by which the author mentally transfers " himself to the position of the recipients of the letter. of the knowledge which all possessed. if ever. 13 "the author was interrupted composition. of the Christian experience of the elder. The aim of the Epistle is to emphasize the important points of what the readers have already grasped. is not probable. But there is nothing in the passage to suggest that this was the case.

12. A in the last degree improbable. and all are 7rai8ia . T€Kvia] The use of the diminutive is confined in the New Testament to the Johannine writings. Paul (Gal. iv. 20. The final warning of the Epistle (v. vocatives reKvia and iraiSia are addressed to the whole community. v. Filioli. literal or metaphorical. 21) against idols. 7. unless we prefer to leave it in the class of problems insoluble without the fuller knowledge of the exact circumstances. the question whether a double or triple division of the readers is In the former case the clauses containing the intended. This is now generally recognized as the most triple division in which fathers satisfactory interpretation. 12. that the writer should But it is first state the two extremes and then add the mean. All the children of the Kingdom share in the forgiveness of sins which Christ has won for them. " Augustine's explanation.II. Throughout the Epistle the word seems to be used as a term of affection for the whole society to which the author writes. with the exception of one passage in S. /a^ 7raiSia yiVeo-#e tous <^peo-tV). The regular usage of the word in the Epistle has an important bearing on the next difficulty which these verses present. for the teaching and exhortation. patres. quia fortes sunt et ualidi. iv. And both terms. which doubtless made the writer's meaning. 18. to use when addressing the members of a Church of whom many were no doubt his "sons in the Faith. have their significance as addressed to the whole body. could hardly be addressed to the children as opposed to the grown-up members of the community. which suggests the need of moral training and guidance (cf. which he has found it necessary to impart to them. as Karl maintains. which is then divided into the two classes of Traripts and veavio-Koi. are the middle term. of them S 1] is The as yet rcAeios. quite clear to those who read his words. 1. iii." and practically all must have Differences of belonged to a younger generation than himself. Its use is comparatively It occurs only once in the Gospel. could only be accepted as a last necessity. quia baptismo neonati sunt. 1 Co. It frequent in the Epistle (ii." fails to justify the relative position of the last two terms. but the word expresses community of nature.] NOTES ON I JOHN 43 given above is the best solution of a difficult problem. tckvio. or Apostle. show that none of them Not even the eldest has finished his Christian education. as contrasted with -H-ouSta. It might be possible. is a natural word for the aged disciple. 21). third difficulty pf the passage is the meaning of . and TrcuSia. xiv. 4. 28. quia Christum patrem et antiquum dierum agnoscunt. adolescentes. meaning must not always be pressed. 19) where the reading is doubtful. and reasons for writing as he did.

47. If any definite name is intended. Shortly summarized it is this. But surely the writer is doing more than this. but for Mine holy name. There is no certain instance in the Epistle " of the use of on after ypac^w in the " declarative sense (cf. on. it is The expression probably the name "Jesus Christ" (cf. and has done what He has done. 21). quoted by Schlatter. and so to justify and enforce the appeal which he is It is because they are in fellowship with God and making. 9. he has He is merely reminding nothing new to tell them as Christians. He adds further that this is not the first time that he has written this to them" (Der erste Brief Johannis. 1)." See Briggs. O house It has. In other words. indeed. The "contents" are generally expressed by an objective accusation (ravra. 23. have real experience of the Fatherhood of God that he can appeal to them with confidence that his appeal will meet with a response. them of what they are. " 81& to oVo/xa auTou] The name " always stands for that which is implied by the name. especially Ezk. meaning certainly gives the better sense. 12. The Messiah of the Apostles. mere equivalent of "because of His position as is not the Paraclete and Propitiation. 475. in all its real earnestness and joyful confidence. and (probably) Jn.44 THE EPISTLES OF S. Cf. ver. It is a question which must be decided by the general meanIn these verses the causal ing of the individual passage. xx. makes " Here out a case for the declarative. 23. ii. 48. " They rebelled "I do not this — but for . The origin of the phrase is probably to be found in the Old Testament doctrine that God continued His kindness to Israel. true relations between God and man have again become possible. 8. Because Christ is what He is. We may " The also compare the Rabbinic parallel. 61 f. however. v. In Jewish thought the name is never merely appellative. xxxvi. xx. for I wrought for My your sakes. The present is used in Matthew and Mark. or the reasons for writing? Usage is probably in favour of the " " causal meaning. in spite of their rebelliousness. acquired a of Israel. 5) in another John gives expression pregnant formula to that which he has to say to them." somewhat different meaning as used by the author. But this is not decisive. name's sake". Does it introduce the contents of what is written. again (as in i. JOHN [il. 22. He does not merely remind them of their Christian He is trying to show them how their positicn as standing. Rothe. Lk.). vii. 20. d^wrrcu] Cf. Christians enables them to meet the dangers to which they are exposed. His name's sake. p. He would have them know that in their case none of the necessary conditions for a complete Christianity are wanting. p. ivroXrjv Kaivrjv).

The phrase. 66**. as well as the astray (ver. seemed to him to be the most serious intellectual danger which threatened the Church of his day. " "better age. though they had not seen Him." sented as the result of an active struggle with a personal foe (tov irovqpov). and to go forward in that belief to closer fellowship. cat. The knowledge which comes of long experience is the characteristic endowment of mature years. the knowledge which had been thus slowly gained was to be found the corrective of the false views which were leading men The knowledge of the fathers." it was also better strive And in should toward both cases the making.] NOTES ON I JOHN 45 }V1?? wise say. 68. scr 99 a k scr sah d . xiv.H. -iraTepes] is The word more to actual age than to length And he writes in full view of maturity of Christian experience. vpiv] v/j-uy L 31. 103. Ex. 29^). ' ' V T • T T ' reKvia] TeKva I. 29. the prize of strength. 68. If it was they were meant to go beyond their original reference. exempt from strife should know." But the tov an apxqs shows that the writer is thinking of length of years as giving the opportunity 13. IO. to the victory which had been gained in the assertion of the But truth. and which led to the withdrawal of the false teachers. 27). which the experience of the elders could guide. 10 sail. To the younger generation belonged the strength. tov car' Apx^s] The Word who was in the beginning with God. 12. naturally taken as referring " of Christian experience. is as characteristic of the earlier years of Christian endeavour as is the fuller knowledge gained through experience The words have probably a primary reference of its later years. 40 : 7rai5ia 27." would have no On the other hand. "The characteristic of youth is veeiKT)KaTe t6v irovqpov] The conquest of evil. Mechilta. or by its individual members. scr j ic6 al. special significance here as applied to God. Jesus Christ was apprehended only very gradually either in the And in society of His followers. on the part of many among whom the writer lived. strength of the young men. For His name's sake He dealt with them (i»K> Dnsy HSPy. the refusal. already trained and tested. And . was needed to meet the difficulties of the time. here reprevictory." youth appeal is made on the ground of what has already been gained. " Him who is from the beginning. Sev. 13. and in whom the "fathers" had come to believe with growing knowledge and fuller conviction as they gained experience. i " c. of whose manifestation in human life the writer and his contemporaries had been witnesses. The full significance of the Person of of the circumstances. to believe that the pre-existent Logos had become truly incarnate in Jesus of Nazareth.

In what he has already said he has treated them as 7raiSi'a. 13. young and old. eypouj/a 3°] scribo. 35 utr cat. vg-ed. perhaps in some cases " had made. the notes on ver. harl. cypavj/a] Text is and not mere incidents in past history. if not to urge." He must not But he could never have ventured shrink from plain language. sah. them.] ypatpu demid. h eyvuKare] eyvuKa/Mtv I 62 161 (498). . 14. The younger in their realization of what the Christ really is. eypa\pa 2°] scribo. arm. both could rely on what had been acquired through past successes in the special efforts which the present and the future demanded from the whole Society. with full confidence of success. In the Jewish Synagogue or in the Christian Church they had all learned to know God as The elders among them had made real progress their Father. results.pxys~\ om. al.4. had it not been for the great progress which they had already made in the things of Christ. The ypa$w of the Received Cf. still in need of discipline and guidance. and permanently active. Or. the thinkers as well as the soldiers of But it was in virtue of their Christian standing that the Society. " necessary to treat them. And this was true of all alike. he could speak to them as he did. 12. 62 161 veviKTjKaTe ] eviKrjcraTe Jh (49S) K*. . to use the language which he had not hesitated to address to them. For the moment the writer's thoughts turn back to what he has already written. by correctors arrangement of these verses. X A B C L P al 'i . syr mul. even though their hands might be slack. must be called quite definitely lies. rov air apxv*] T0 a7r a rov 6eov] om. B sah. and their minds somewhat listless.\pa 2° a. young and old alike. sat. tov Trovrjpov] to wovrjpov X 95- 14. must be sharply and clearly exposed. who failed to grasp the general K eypa\pa i° al. Strength and experience Reproofs could be uttered and appeals made Their Christian faith was sound. eypa. Their faith had not yet grown to maturity. and more active converts had gained the strength which comes of victory over evil. vg-ed. arm cdd Oec. For them victory and knowledge were abiding were really theirs. aeth." to listen to. as not yet grown too were them false which The ready only many among pleas up. JOHN [il. There It was abiding in them. W? s B» .6 THE EPISTLES OF S. The message of the Gospel was a living force within the strife. Statements which they might well make. vg-ed. probably due to an attempt to get a series of three in the right order of age. cop. Perhaps they had rendered conspicuous And their powers had matured in service in the recent crisis. fu. Aug. It had been were flaws in the work which needed mending.

on the ground of their For him the Christian standing. have their origin not in the Father. But there is a tendency to narrow down either to humanity as estranged from God or regardless its The Such all that is opposed to the Christian view.a). sah. 15. vg. or to Only that which falls in with God's will. Dam. used as opportunities for display. "mankind fallen away from God. though in many cases In the view of the is narrowed down to "humanity. or even of The three illustrations of "all that is in the world" are not meant to be exhaustive. 18. crw/xaTos. considered as apart from God and opposed to God. 7rA€Ove£ta Se iv tw . A ' - : . writer appeals to his readers. Oec. cop. 13. or through the sense of vision in particular. In the next verse they are spoken of collectively. utr arm." meaning centre of the writer. apart from Kocr/i. love for the present and finite. 4. 16. The majority of them are in As conparaphrases of particular instances of its use. which is the essential characteristic of "walking in light. either as a whole or in its several of the higher love.6 5. the context shows that its its Maker. Warning against love of the world. Comp. excludes the possibility men as brethren in Christ. (uid. The parallelism to the mediaeval uoluptas.] NOTES ON I JOHN 47 15-17. reality trasted with 6 ovk ea-Tiv"] post irarpos P Aug. at once old and new. but in the world which has broken loose from Him.5 s ect d$cr harl aeth utr Thphyl. 16." Such sense to the phrase ra iv t<3 interpretation leaves no intelligible It is the whole system. to avoid the love of the world. considered in itself. post avru 31. the phrase can be interpretations which have been given of found in Huther and elsewhere. 26.] tov deov tov deov /ecu irarpos 15. of meaning God. syr C 3. 15.ev ev Tats airoXavcreo-i Teas Sia. Aug. cat. $1X77Sovia fj. superbia is by no means exact. world is the whole created system. of permanent value and lasting character. 6 koV/aos is not merely "an ethical conception" in the an Johannine system. The various whole. which excite admiration or love. Ja. iv. tov varpos pier. Or. The evil desires which assail men through the lower part of their nature in general. 36 boh-COd. 43. worldly catalogue of sins. is unsatisfactory.H. 27. or if regarded and through the external good which falls to their lot. Ta eV tw /coo-pi) are the individual objects ko'o-/ao5. The attempt to find in the terms of this verse a complete " " sins." and the observance of which sums up the whole of Christian duty in one command. the But here it is used in its wider sense. is and carries forward His purpose. i. of God and of parts. We may auaritia. : ^BKLPal. And the world and the desires which it fosters are alike transitory. no doubt man is its most important part. compare the sentence quoted by Wettstein from Stobaeus.).

the desire that which appeals to the man as There is no need to narrow down the in The to special forms of desire. Nic. JOHN rdv [il. v Cf. Reuben ii. 2. 12. . flesh.wi/] The desire for all that appeals to as gratifying his sense of vision. or the suggestion. V 17 (17 yap crapf iTriOvfXii Kara tov Trvevpiaros. who quotes Arist. 16. t| eTriOujAia the man more fj. -n-vtifia 6pao-eo>5. 2 Ti. display by is means of chiefly intended aspect. 16. 2. Gal. which the gratifying flesh the feels. are misleading. The "desire of the simplest support Temptation of " is hardly an of natural life The first iiri6vp. xv. 14. Ja. and Dr. The "offer of the " kingdoms of the civilized world is not very closely connected with the "lust of the eyes. KcpScuVeiv. But it is quite in keeping with the author's style. The opposition in this verse is not strictly accurate. Cf. 8oxel 6 a\d(u)v n-poo-itoL-qTiKO'. os av 1x0 ™ tov Koap-ov Lk. Testament of Dan 6 Joseph xvii. 30 . tt}s o-apKos] crap£ denotes human nature as corrupted by sin. There is really nothing in the Epistle to suggest that the grosser forms of immorality were either practised or condoned by the false meaning any further teachers. eVrtv. "The " things that are in the world suggest objects. Btos is always life in its external of supporting life. iii. r}<> yiviTai eVi^vpia (Testament of a\a£ofeta] Cf. All such endeavours to find an ideal completeness in the ad /^statements of a letter.fi. a special form of the general desire already described. genitive is subjective. 7. temptation turned on the wish. iv. vvv 8e Kav^acrOe iv t<us dAa^oi'icu? vfxwv' 7racra Kav^o-is TOtavTrj irovqpa. 17. Mayor's note. viii. £k tou iraTpos] All such desires and feelings are not part of that endowment of humanity which has come from the Father. kou 3.ia -n}? crap/cos. to Se division is 7rvci)/i. <f>i\ooo£ia Sc iv t<3 KaBvirepi^Eiv but it is an illustration of the natural icrwv re kou o/xolwv : tendency to threefold rather than an exact parallel. p.a Kara t?}s o-ap/<os). or the means jStbv : i. iv. They are a perversion of man's true nature as God made him. written to particular people to meet their special needs. to use supernatural powers to gratify a natural want. The substantive is found in Ro." Nor again is the "call to claim an open manifestation of God's protecting power" an obvious instance of the use of gifts for personal ostentation. virap^ovTdiv . Comp. Eth.ei£6vu>v r] Comp.e9* twc 6(f>0aX. Still less successful the attempt to find instances of the three classes in the our Lord. Ivoo^mv ctrai to)V kou prj i. 4). which call out desires or boasting rather than the feelings of desire or pride themselves.48 THE EPISTLES OF S. whether material or not. Love of external possessions would seem to be what here. mrdp^eL. iii.

(3) (4) are sure spirit of Antichrist. Aug. km 2°] om.II. because of their transitory attaches only to such things as correspond to God's plan for the He that fulfils God's destiny for himself world and for men. with the second "lie. past recall Earth changes. (1) Appearance of Antichrists (2) Their relation to the Church (19-21). II.) ship with God." the sign of the end (18). 27). +quemadmodum ille qui est These glosses.] NOTES ON I JOHN order in so far as it 49 has They have their origin in the become estranged from God. "abideth for ever. Latin authorities. l . factory. but thy soul and God stand sure: What entered into thee That was. v. : manet in aeternum Cyp. All such objects of desire must in the end prove unsatisPermanent value character. for evermore . is. 17. which are not uncommon. / 1) - finite « 457 ( eanv I cUi 335). have a special interest in view of the textual phenonema 66** arm zoh Or. minence of the Parousia. 1 3. Content and meaning of their false teachings (22-25). Repeated assurance that the Readers are in possession of the Truth (26. 27. . are to be regarded as so precursors and heralds of Antichrist himself." "In the mind of God. «s rov cuowa] + quomodo Deus manet in aeternum et ipse : A + sicut of ch. 16. ovk ecm. or the embodiments of the of error who inspire them. 7 tt3S2 (231) A*p a 264 q 3 ] om. in whom all the various forces of hostility to Messiah are to be gathered up spirits many . and shall be. time and change cannot touch it" "All that is. The writer passes by a natural transition from the thought of the transitoriness of the world to that of its approaching The many forms of false teaching which have appeared are end. 5. ii. values are facts. 17. i°] (83) /bso-we*. Lasts ever. 7 (233). 18-21. 36 a367 tov Oeov] airrov / (308) 6> . and Whatever has value in God's sight is safe indestructible facts. at all. and therefore of Antichrist had The of the end. Lcif." tol. Belief in Jesus as the Christ the sign of fellowThe truth in contrast (Christological Thesis. a200f tw] om. Cyp. especially in in aeternum sah. avrov] om. 18-27.v] post irarpot 7 a S 180 (1319). Aug. nearness of the coming signs formed part of the Apostolic teaching which had been imparted " His " coming was a recognized sign of the imto them all. It is a matter of dispute whether the false teachers. 29.

He was recalling to their mind what they already ." and still look forward to a " raising up at the last day " without betraying any consciousness of the supposed inconsistency. new truths. And the readers could discover the truth for themselves if they were willing to use and trust the powers of discernment which they possessed. KaOm rjKovcraTe kcu vw is in favour of the latter explanation. to the Christian community. The form of the sentence. of whose present working he was assured. It was necessary for the health of the body that all such should be clearly seen to be no true members of it. The author can speak of " having passed from death unto life. His immediate concern is with the relation of the many false teachers. or whether the many false teachers be thought of as actual manifestations of Antichrist. which a certain type of criticism has found in his method of He would probably have regarded with complete presentation. Those who had "gone out" could never have been really "of" the community which they had not hesitated to leave. convincing proofs that the spirit of Antichrist is already present in the world. prophesied about the Return of Elijah before the great and terrible Day of the Lord in the coming of John Baptist ? And it is in complete harmony with the author's way of thinking. In the Johannine teaching the present working of forces is not always clearly distinguished or sharply separated from their final manifestation. " You have always . .50 for the THE EPISTLES OF to S. There is no reason to suppose that he could not have found room for such a figure in his scheme of expectation. or in true union and fellowship with the Christ. and their action was to the writer clear proof that their connection with that body could never have been more than superficial. who now show forth the spirit of Antichrist. and others. were to find their consummation in the person of a single opponent before the final manifestation of his Lord and his God." Such an interpretation would be natural among the Disciples of the Lord. Had He not taught His Apostles to see the fulfilment of what Malachi. . In their baptism they had received the anointing of the Holy One. was now extended to all. 18. JOHN [n. been taught that Antichrist is to come. They all possessed the gift of knowledge which enabled them to grasp the truth of what Christ had In what he wrote to them the author was not teaching revealed. or not. The prophecy is now being fulfilled in the many Antichrists who have made their appearance. Their true character needed to be disclosed. are one final conflict. They had separated themselves off from the society of Christians. indifference the question of whether the many antichristian forces. even as the Kings and Priests of the old Covenant were anointed with the oil which symbolized What had then been granted to a few the gift of God's Spirit.

which still remained before the final manifestation of the last day. is Cf. The conception of many partial "comings" has a very important place in the elucidation of the permanent value of the New Testament expectations of the Coming of the Christ. 40. xxiv. 32). 7. The use 5 (ev Kaipw cV^arw) . 17/Aepai) Gospel. especially 2 Th. and probably the true fulfilment of the prediction of His coming. xiii. Thucyd.W-) > 2 TL iii. Mt. Cf. xx. Ac. the . 13. Mt. of a final manifestation of the Christ at "the last day. The Johannine teaching. and never without the article. whatever its origin may be. (i) 18. xiii. the writer sees the surest signs of their approach. 15. pression 17 laxo-rr} rjfxipa occurs in the Gospel (seven times). 50. 86. And knowing the truth. 24. xiii.] NOTES ON I JOHN 5 1 knew. xxiv. Lk. used of the opposing general. or one who opposes (cf. vii. 18. The The exphrase is found here only in the New Testament.Te] Cf. 3. The appearance of Antichrists the sign of the end. xii. they knew that no falsehood could have anything to do with it. to the time when they were instructed in the faith. 14. as 3. ii. 44. the last period of the interval between the first and second coming of the Christ. . 42. ii. Christian expectation had inherited from Jewish apocalyptic the doctrine of a period of The "last hour" extreme distress which was immediately to precede the coming of Messiah. Ac. has taught us to spiritualize the New Testament expression of the doctrine of But the writer held firmly to the expectation the last things. The subject formed As in ver. In the prevalence of so many false views about the Person of Jesus. Its use is confined to the Cf. 17 (cu iax. €ctx<£tt] <3pa] The absence of the article emphasizes the character of the period. n .II. 46. Ro. 36 ( = Mk. but it is not to be found in those expectations themselves. TraiSia] He still addresses them by the title which emphasizes their hi. dm'xpioTos] The preposition can denote either one who takes the place of another (cf. I P. xxiv. need of instruction and guidance. I (e'cr^. dvTicrrpaTT7yos. KaOws r|Koucra. iii. Apoc. 30. as he conceived it to be. It suggests no idea of a series of periods of stress which are to precede the several comings of Christ. Jude 18 (iv eV^ara) xpovw). and in which the hostility of the World Powers was to culminate in a single opponent. i. 24. avdv-n-aro^). ver." and he seems to have expected it within the remaining years of his own lifetime. Mk. 6. When he uses the phrase "last hour" he clearly means the short period. and His relation to God. of wpa in connection with the coming of Christ is frequent in the Gospels. and part of the aorist refers general apostolic teaching. and perhaps xxv.

cf. which had nothing to do with its ism. The limits late Christian writers. oQev yivuxTKOfie. 9 . 4. 18. N. of xi. ii. 37. enthusiasm had died out.T. Lk. ix. In the extent of such developments the writer finds clear indication that the process is nearing completion (oOtv ytvwarKOfj. 15. . As the truth of what Christ really was came to be more and more clearly realized in the gradual growth of Christian life and experience. Jn.). and Apocalypse) from the New Testament itself and the apocaThere must have lyptic portions of Daniel and Zechariah. 19. rather than as about to be realized imMt. The word is found in the . 27. or at least Semitic. and delay had brought " How disappointment. to which it is also probable that early Babylonian. writers have drawn independently. Mk. vii.T. had contributed. 12. xxi. really opposes Him and seeks to destroy His work." "have arisen. xi. The author refers to a popular tradition only to spiritualize it. But though the word appears first in these Epistles. 7. vi. nature-myths It is imposible to explain the references to the subject which are found in the New Testament (Synoptic Eschatological discourses. i. the question was often being asked. been some popular airoKaOicrTdvci. The present expresses the fact as the subject teaching. Pauline Epistles. have certainly drawn their material from other sources besides the books of the N. Cf. Ac. epx€T<u] sit uenturus (vg. 35.€v). the idea is undoubtedly taken over from Jewish Apocalyptic thought. 22. only here and in ii. 13. . xi. 3 2 Jn. who may have derived the name from the passages in these Epistles. those who had been attracted to the movement by partial views and external considerations. were necessarily driven into sharper antagonGrowth necessitated the rejection of that which did not contribute to true life. tradition. xii. 14.\v iwv . The Johannine Epistles contribute nothing but the first mention of the name. JOHN [n. mediately. can we know?" "From the fact just stated we come to know. at once definite within certain and varying according to the circumstances of the times. He makes no substantial addition to our knowledge of its content (see additional note). common 9. fore well as in later times for the Propraetor). essential import. iv. the use of 6 cpxo'/xevos. pretending to be the Christ. x. He. 4 (?) 2 Co. The word may theremean one who. . especially 2 Th. Mk. 20." ance was a natural outcome of the growth of Christianity. 3.52 THE EPISTLES OF S. xiii.. xix.T. 'HAeias \*." his readers by which When their first . from which the N.^ on] It is the writer's favourite method to state exposition facts first to make his statement and then of the can assure themselves of its truth. Their appearYeyomo-tv] "have come to be.

19. Epiph. syr . Epiph. c Cypr. 96. yap] Cf. produce by conjecture the exact historical circumstances. e£ rjp. 2 Jn. 3 Jn. members lect arm. not share the inner life. ally The word they drew their had now separated themselves from the community. i°] for Tt) C*. But the whole teaching and aim of his Epistle . k. ouk r###BOT_TEXT###lt;rav e| Tj|xwy] Their connection was purely external.] om. 3 Jn. Ir. if it does not compel us to assume. which was also the practice of his Master. the 7." " " abide in the truth. fi6|i.] iratSia] a8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;poi I* upa. They did ei As a rule.II. d\d] In spite of their external membership. 7.] pr.of true discipleship was to son abideth for ever. ro 142 aeth avrixpLVTos yil>WITKO/J. iv. NOTES ON 17B I JOHN 53 (319). Or. - / a206f 19i "8 N A K L al. or of the exact causes which they were of the community. The severing of the connection showed that such membership had never been any. Or. (2) 19.ei>] S* B : cat Thphyl. Oec. The test . 58 avrixprpTot yil>W<TKW/A€V A. they would have remained with those to whom they (inwardly) belonged. 18. on to state now laid on thing but external. 17. we are ignorant. pier. C 3. It was natural that the authors of theories of predestination should find in this verse confirmation of their doctrine. The the writer. membership was no proof of inward union. teat] 0111. had a special significance for "The slave abideth not in the house for ever. 3. as made known by those who had seen The writer cannot conceive the Lord and been taught by Him. AL pier. the cause. 3 writer uses the more "objective" n . that their "going forth" was their own act. v. The writer follows his usual practice. It suggests.oii'] naturally expresses outward fellowship as distin- guished from inward communion.€CT)K€i(Tai' aV] The word /AeVeiv. though it is here the obvious word to use in any case. and not But it is useless to attempt to redue to excommunication.wk'] The emphasis is They were not ours . (83). e£fjaf] Cf. 5. 100. they had never been true members of the Body. cat. oriKBCKPal. the possibility of those who had ever fully welcomed the truth External breaking their connection with the Christian society. utr aeth. vg. origin indicates (1) that origin" from us. which were too well known to both writer and readers to need further The false teachers had ceased to belong to the elucidation. 20. if ours they had been." (2) that they — led to it. the words i£ ^uwv. of making absolute statements without qualification. community to which they had formerly attached themselves of the manner of their going forth. fieO' rjp.

and ^3 tib. is decisive against such an 7ra? when the negative is separated interpretation of ov . 16 . 18. iv. There is no parallel instance of ov 22. i. Mt. 5 Jn. as qualifying 7ravTes." • is still more awkward if to Iva is continued. xi. iii. ii. to which the verse refers served a wider purpose than the mere unmasking of the individuals conouk curie irdi'Te? e| $\t. i. vii.54 THE EPISTLES OF of those " The S. xviii. 37 . nor a distinction of the Vocati and Electi. that the negative must qualify the verb. x. 20 . 13. 27. Apoc. i. Gal. Apoc. 1 Co. from the 7r£s. xxiv. xiii. xiv. Their unmasking was necessary. 19. 1. " " children that it had its place and purpose in the assures his " A whole I counsels of Him who saith. xxi. tempting to take the negative two words are would be that the incident. 3. . "Their detection had to be brought about j for all members are not true members. according to the usual construcAnd the meaning must tion of ov . 21. who were " possifalling truly perseverantiae. the "Antichrists. "they had to be made manifest" ("Sie sollten offenbar werden. in spite of the fact that the In this case the meaning separated by the verb. . "they had to be made manifest. .uv\ It is cerned. And the meaning The subject is. 14. 6Xk' The result is contemplated as part of the Divine Some such phrase as tovto yeyovev must be supplied. 15. 7ras. 29. and therefore the members of subject here is neither a donum away. Eph. or incidents. 4. ix. 39. 16. xxii. 16. 7ravT£9 where the words But the usage with the singular. "as clear. xiii." bility. 8. vi. of thus obtained is supported by the context." Weiss). . however specious their pretensions. had caused surprise and alarm. therefore. cf. 8. for not all who were external members of the Church really and inwardly be- But the usage of the New Testament in general. and the influence are separated. . it was necessary to show that none of them. Lk. longed to it. Jn. k] For the elliptic use of ha. It showed that external membership is no proof of inward union." suppose (as Weiss) that the sentence It seems <fiavepw9r} had preceded. or the sense may be brought out by a paraphrase. v. course. from the extreme awkwardness of having to break the sentence by taking on in a casual sense. of Hebrew and Aramaic forms of expression on the style of the writer." The author . be. shows that he recognized the danger. . JOHN Christ " [il. and the singular undoubtedly It fact must needs be made clear. 29." The extent of the apostasy. Ac. Cf. . 1 Jn. were truly members of the Body. . and the The writer variety of attack. suggest that the plural should be understood as the must be interpreted. ." who have severed their connection The interpretation given above suffers with the Christian Body. planned. 22 Mk. ii. however much they differed in character or in opinions. purpose. • . and of the author in particular.

however much appearances may seem to indicate He has his own language in which to express the contrary. 15. 22.T. 19. and in a sense corresponding to the use of the cognate accusative." The readers would have detected it themselves. xxix. x. e£i)nwv 3° BC scr 69. If the readers had trusted their own knowledge and Christian experience it would have been unnecessary for the writer to point out the antichristian tendency of the false teachers who had "gone forth.denotes the is act of anointing rather than the oil which It always translates nni'D and not psi\ to used in the action. Clem. Nu. and of furnishing the candidate with the power for xl. om. 69 a!* er utr syr Ir. IflN 25. 397fftf. 20. xv. where it occurs chiefly in Exodus. ix. Optat. instruction. 13. Lv. B). 16. xix. Epiph. 137 a arm. 110* (2 17) /bJSSS /c eiciv] r]ffap (pavepuducriv] (f>avepwdrj 69 syr 7 a64 (328) 7 cl74 A'463 . not the act of anointing. /» 353. tl/xwv (?)] VflUV US? (^).] NOTES ON I JOHN 55 finds comfort and assurance. What he writes is an appeal to their knowledge rather than an attempt to supply its deficiencies by In virtue of the gift of the Holy Spirit which all at baptism. eAcuov xpicrfia ayiov Iotcu (frn* zip nm'K) Jotr). It is used of priests. 1 its 7.a can certainly denote the action of the verb. seh syr etP aeth. 25 (A. KAKLPal. xxxviii. 3. Thus XP^P". See Findlay. 12 . Cypr. The use of the word in the O. for himself and for his readers. 20. but the anointing oil (Salbol. 14. TravTts a ser etP m 2. Anointing was the characteristic ceremony of consecrating an office. regarded as a whole rather than in process. nnren }cc^ Cf. 7 wcTTe etvai auTois xpiVfia UpaTias cis tov (DPiy n3H37 D]"in£>D Dn? n^np) nnt^D ]12V . 1. xl. Weiss). Cyr. It is hardly correct to say that l usual translation of tov xpio~ixaTo<s: (xpio-etos alH>va. administration.II. xl. Eph. A-^ry tov £\aiov xxxv. cat. Oec. the Pauline toIs a. Amb. : fie/xevriKeicrai''] /j. in the thought that whatever happens is included in the one purpose of God.ya7rwaiv tov 6e6v Travra avvcpyel cis dya#oV. 7. Ex. necessary xxix.e/xevriKe<Tai> S 454 174_ (262) sch 7 h 472 / c8M A" 600 nevevrjKacrtv J% 264. 1. Ex. xxxv. pier. vg.. they all had knowledge to deal with the circumstances of the case. : . Or. XXX. Tert. 13 S. had received XpicrfAa] They had be The idea is suggested by the preceding dvTixpio-7-01. the true unction of which the opponents claimed to XpLcrfia according to its form the word must denote. xpicrews B). xvi. iroi-qo~ei<. p. vi. avTO ekaiov xpiV/xa ayiov (CHp rVK'jn). Words ending in -p. 25: of kings. 223. Thphyl. T6 lAatov tov xP^(T xaT0 : is the ' in possession.] post yaav Ir. 16 of prophets^ (15). Did. 19. points in the same way. 1 K.

ii. 12. and Son with absolute clearness. xvi. 6 dyios rov 8eov is used of Christ. or. 41 20: 6 ay. therefore. 2 (A. 20. 3. of the later discourses in S. xvii. And the teaching Jn. 24. from the Father. . books. v.. 3. d-n-o tou dyiou] The evidence is not decisive as to whether the writer meant these words to refer to the Father or to the Son. . 22. lxxvii. clusive. 7. : the new dispensation the special gift. It is immaterial whether the writer speaks of God or of Christ as the immediate source of their holiness. and confined to late 5. they have from the Son. i K. On the other hand. xlv.€. 8. 28 And in virtue of the gift of the Holy Ghost all Ac. 23. JOHN [II. Those who were so consecrated were regarded as thereby endued with the Holy Spirit. and in His name. . Kal oi'&aTe irdVTes] The reading of the Received Text is an It presents a smooth and easy text which obvious correction. in virtue of their The definition of personality which later connection with Him. Hab. i. and with Cf. indeed. and not the extent of their knowledge.T. and not of the knowledge which it conveys (Trdvra). . Cf. 15 (nvptov K). and endued with the powers necessary for that service. 6 aytos 6 dXr^tvos) favours the reference to God. i. is frequently found as a title of God in the O. 22. Is. Is. (iii. 4. xliii. 7. Ps. . At other times he uses language which may be applied indifferently to either. I S.56 THE EPISTLES OF S. lxi. xii. lv. 'Io-. xix. xxxvii. whether he was conscious of the necessity of All things which men receive sharply defining the distinction. vi. ages found to be necessary was apparently not present to the Sometimes he distinguishes Father consciousness of the writer. 16. 7. . lxx. 1). 14. Bar. expio-ev avrbv divine gifts. xlix. John on the subject of the Mission of the Spirit by Christ. The evidence. irvev/Jia Kvpiov iirl AavciS diro t>}s rjfj. 69. is the common possession of all. iii. rov alwviov B) Tob. xxx. 11. The relation of the Son to the Father is not conceived in accordance with ideas of personality which belong to later ages. iii. eKeivrjs I. makes the reference to We may also compare Ac. The absolute use of 6 dyios is rare. Under The true text emphasizes the universality o. if a sharp distinction ought to be made. 15. the possession them of the knowledge which enables them to discern. tov Christ more probable. iv. which in old times was bestowed on the few. The possession by all of have knowledge. in Mk. xli. i. among Christians (o'lSare naures). though not conayiov Kal Sikcuov. By their chrism they were set apart for the service of the Holy One.epa<. v. ov (XvtKtv (|JT) e^pLo-ev fie. The usage of the Apocalypse (iii. 13. lxi. is on the whole in favour of referring the title to Christ. Cf. 16. is the ground of the writer's appeal. 12. 'O aytos toG 'la-parjX. irvtvp-a- Kvpiov Itt ip. Joel ii. Kal icprjXaro Is.

" is for all Christians alike. refers. of which it is the symbol and is the "effective means.t. of the Epistle is to "stir up the gift that is in them. If he can but awaken their knowledge. Oec. (116). 21. oiSctre." ouk eo-Tif] For the construction. as usual. 9 arm. and because no lie has its source in the truth.] NOTES ON I JOHN 57 in reality far less suitable to the context than the reading of The emphasis is on "knowing. B sah. cf. -n-oaw fxaXXov 6 Trarijp 6 ef ovpavov 502 oaxm 7rvei)/xa ayiov T019 alTovatv airov . In the second. 21. they need teaching that the thing is a lie." In the first case. ~ex eTe P ost KCU 2 A' iracres . ver. kcu on it-civ v}/6u8os k. see the notes on •nav And for cV. Did. . Lk. what immediately precedes.] This clause may be either subordinate to the preceding one. " I have written what I have written because you have knowledge." This is the older authorities. a XP«r^a] x a P L(T lJLa 7 /ecu 2 ] om. cop. brought out with greater force and clearness by the omission of the object. . xi. ( 2 66). sah. vav] om. They The whol-e object possess the means. Incidentally also the difference between the old covenant and the new serves to emphasize the more pressing difference between the claims of a select few to have a monopoly of knowledge. Under the new covenant. 16. knowledge is the common The chrism is no longer confined to kings possession of all. not on their need of But for such knowledge it would be useless to make the appeal. Cf. xx. The writer's is discernment instruction. ae:h. their knowledge of the truth enables them to detect at once the character of its opposite. OTC 2°] Oin. ° 500 (?) om. kcu] / b ^368 om. 19. The latter gives the fullest sense. or co-ordinate with it . depending on the verb ouWe.] iravra syr. to what has been already written. if they will only use them. and that which is most in harmony with the context. 19 and Lk. and know that no lie is of the truth. Those who know the truth are in a position to detect at once the true character of that which is opposed to it. and therefore must reject the lie the moment its true character is made manifest " . The gift of the Spirit. C. boh-ed. vv. 5. . the sentence must mean.II. (1) if on is demonstrative the meaning will be. vg. and the Christian view that the gifts of the Spirit are for all. pier. his task is done. and priests. 20. 13. (2) if the on is causal. cypaij/a] and especially to . appeal to his readers to use their power of based on their knowledge. " Because you know the truth. Hesych. X B P ACKL al. /ecu l°] sed vg.X. Thphyl. and they will at once reject it.

22. irpoaOeLvai). which denies that Jesus of Nazareth is the Christ. . claim by rejecting the revelation of Himself which He has given in His Son Jesus Christ. The denial of the Son carries with it the denial of the Father also. It is not easy to determine how far there is any special reference in the phrase.e. but also the Christ according to the wider conception of His office which finds its expression in the Fourth Gospel and in this Epistle. 6 \|»€uo-n]s] The article is not merely generic. It may well include such a reference. We discourse depending on a verb meaning to deny" (cf. v. 'Itjo-ous ouk lorn' 6 Xpioros] The following clause shows that 6 Xpto-To's has come to mean much more than the Jewish Messiah. Falsehood finds its consummation in the one lie. rt's e'cr-riv 6 vikwv . ouk etrnv] For the double negative. to the separation of Jesus from the Christ. The "master-lie" is the denial of the true nature of the Incarnate Christ. without its meaning being thereby exhausted. not merely the Jewish Messiah. destroys the work of the true Christ. or "aeon. p. tis] Cf. 5. affords the only true access to the Father. distinction of the human Jesus from the higher being. expression. § 473). 22. The God whether Jews who claim to worship the same as the Christians after a true fashion. or Gnostic. xx.58 THE EPISTLES OF S. cf. Moods and Tenses. xii. 22 ff. 1 9 {TrapijTrja-avro fxij diriAeyovres dvaoracriv fir] etrai) are hardly justified in seeing any special force " a of redundant ov in a clause of indirect . in the retention He. who descended on Jesus at the Baptism. 27 (ol forfeit their . setting himself up for Christ. JOHN [II. 181. assuming that the many Antichrists. who. The expression is forcible. It includes a special relationship to God which was not a necessary part of Jewish Messianic expectation. iV. i." according to later Gnostic terminology. in whose appearance the writer sees the fulfilment of the saying "Antichrist cometh. Content and meaning of the false teaching. false teachers. et fir) there is no other exact parallel in the N. Cennthianism may be included. but And there is no reason for Cerinthus is not 6 avTi'xpio-ros. according to the Cerinthian. in whom falsehood finds its most complete Cf. It denotes the liar. The confession of the Son. or "Gnostics" who claim a superior and exclusive knowledge of the Father of all. . par excellence.T. Jn. (3) 22-25. 10 (av el 6 SiScurKaAos /). denoting the individual who adequately represents the class. and left Him before the Passion. . Such a denial is the very work of Antichrist. as the writer and his fellow-Christians had come to know Him. No one else stands for falsehood so completely as he who denies that Jesus is the Christ." all taught exactly the same doctrine. in word and in life. Burton. iii. as used here. Lk.T.

xlii. Such an one quae est Deum " super universa. was only one of the ayyeXoi koct/jlottoloi. It is certainly denied not only the Son. ment of the legend. The words would have special force if one of the most prominent of the false teachers had put forward the view that the giver of the Law.] Cf. reference of Cf. as giving the truer account of Cerinthus' teaching. and not the supreme God. liar. 7. et ignorans 1. ofioXoyovvres 'lrjvovv Xpicrrbv iv vapid iXrjXvdoTa. 18. or words to the same like effect. But the writer is He . 1 Jn. 7. as previously described.t. Antichrist finds its fullest expression in the denial of Father and The writer is not specially interested in the literal fulfilSon. 1). 6 dm'xpioros] The writer spiritualizes. 3. or similar teaching. The writer sees in their Christological views the starting-point of their errors. Recent writers Introduction. even if we regard Irenaeus. The 46. 5 . the popular conception. 20." But these words would apply to any teachers who claimed to have special and unique knowledge of the Father. He certainly draws from their Christology the conclusion that they "have not the Father.X. if he does not altoThe spirit of gether depersonalize.) are right in insisting on the importance of this and the following clause in determining the character of the false teaching combated in these Epistles. 1905. who denies the truth of the Incarnation. p. (Iren. xv. not only to those whose views on the subject agreed with the views of the writer. rather than the reconstructed Syntagma of Hippolytus. and differed only 6 dpcou'jxei'os k. 271 ff. St.rj aXrjdii'os otl AvTt'^P'oros ep^erai. 01 fj. ZNTW Wurm (Die in their Christology. is not concerned with the details of a system. 22. vii. but the Father as revealed by the Son. dealing with the general tendency of certain types of And his argument is that since all true knowledge of teaching. ouros in this writer is always to the subject. Iv tovtw 6 Adyos l<n\v 7roAAoi vkdvoi yeyovaaiv. p. I JOHN 59 outos] Jn. or the God of the Jews. although he held the Creator of the World to be " uirtus quaedam ualde separata et distans ab ea principalitate eum qui est super omnia therefore quite possible that a polemic against Cerinthus is included. 2 Jn. v.) and Clemen (in vi. i. 6. viii. There is nothing in the words to exclude a reference to Cerinthus. Irrlehrer Bibl.II. He would probably have met curious questions on the subject with the answer.] NOTES ON The vi. and he points out that these views involve wholly false conceptions of God. 9. 2. xxvi. But the clauses do not compel the conclusion that the false teachers agreed with the writer in their doctrine of God. and debar those who hold them from any true intercourse or conscious communion with the Father.

By repetition. and it will supply the answer to all new difficulties as they arise. (231). 22-24 through the revelation of Him made by Jesus Christ. o (2). I ] 1 ix. Ixei] "As one who enjoys the certain possession of a Cf. 9. Oec. 2 Jn. they may claim to possess. i860). {yxas is Jn. whatever superior knowledge of God. 45. The true message " began " with the beginning of the revelation contained in the Jewish scriptures. + ow ^ plur. because he that denieth the Father denieth also the Son. Jn. / cll4 (335)l b2M o Itjcoi/j] pr. ex« 2°] om. p. It may. 22. cf. 24. And the changed position of an apxrjs editors connect this with ver. &tt dpx^s] Probably refers to the beginning of their life as Christians. that the maker of the Bohairic Version understood the words in a similar sense. KL al. irvevixa. ia###BOT_TEXT###gt; iv 6fjue k.t. 24. It is an indication of the value set upon his words by the authoritative teacher. as the Father of all. Dit interpretation is necessitated by the reading of 1 Some and a colon : ^ Schriften des NT. fff - 42. + 7ap/c288 (56)." (see von Soden. xii. full scope to abide and grow. . before and by means of the Incarnation. 20.60 THE EPISTLES OF S. those who reject this revelation in its fulness can have no conscious communion (€\«v) with the Father whom He revealed. om. 2. cf. It will enable them intuitively to reject all that is not on the line of true development. 23. who knows the vital import Johannine." But the ellipse of the verb would leave us with a very awkward sentence. 7 b 47 /a .] cally The The form of the sentence is is characteristi- on the importance of the teaching. 22. putting a full stop at 6 avrlxpio-Tos " This is the Antichrist. however. include what many of them had heard in the Jewish synagogue. ** (96) l» : iras] "» om. viii. ." 6 ojjloXoywk] For the stress laid on apvelo-Oai and 6/xoXoyeiv. vi.X. 1 living friend. . For the construction. "This is AntiThe same christ. 39. 29. /" & i54 H& (262). He that denieth the at t6v vl6v. thus : Father (denieth) the Son also every one that denieth the Son hath not the Father either. i. God comes rts] «H»m. 17S avTixpwrTos 7" rov irarepa] to viof} + apP€LTai 882. placed in emphatic contrast with the Antichrists whose true position has been made manifest. (312). The readers only need to make sympathetic use of what they already The truth which had always been theirs must be given possess. x. JOHN [II. stress laid of his message for those to whom he delivers it in their present circumstances. It should be noted. s (^J. however. o/xoXoywv ujicis] xvii.

fu. Weiss). and T ne how the danger can be detected and met (18-25). pier. 5.] The apprehension of the truth leads to real As truth is appropriated with God through His Son. syr ev tu via X 4. 26. cat. passages in the Fourth Gospel which clearly imply such a promise. 29. 66**. (195).] NOTES ON I JOHN It 6l reaches emphasizes the approved character of the message. the same.^& m ^ 0# 9^« scr h scr syr sch aeth. to the abiding in the Son and in the Father .Te] axyKoare /ecu X (et 2°) : eav i°] pr. 68. auTrj] has been interpreted as referring either backward. cf. 105. I4 v/tws i° X It was natural al.. 3. Aug. TauTa] What has been said about the false teachers.. The writer has only to call to their remem- . Cf. ABCP KL c airapxvs I°] °m. contain no definite promise by Christ of eternal life Gospels But there are justify the latter interpretation. i. boh-codd. boh-cod. Cf. 27. /cat sch .iv aiuviav B. The words are not aimless. 5. ixeivt)} fj-evr) 7 c651 (216) 95. 24 f. Oec.3^.t. (4) 26. Repeated assurance of the readers' knowledge of the Truth. r)KOv<ra. ev 4 B vg. I 2U8 (307). t)iuv\ vp. eternal life "consists in union with God by that knowledge which would many which is aoTos] Christ. 69. Cyr. Jn. . 25. Aug. or forward. 76. syrP arm. sah d 104 c om. om. cop. 3. 81. In the writer's view. and other passages. reference to the whole section is far more natural than to the exhortation to "abide" only (ver.* 05 cv (? I )] for /cat /a M1 : (96) O49 . It is obvious that to the writer fitvuv means something more " than "standing still." It is the "abiding of the son who grows in the house. whether the promise is of eternal life.X. 27. up communion lect . | 7rarpt] wvev/xart I* 5 605 (31).ev 9 / b82 (498). or of abiding communion with the Father and the Son. And the reference forward is in accordance with the In either case the meaning is much writer's style. had. Thphyl. B 3 1 * am. and in connection with what follows to account for the brevity of his treatment of it. ] + ow that the frequent use of ovv in the Gospel should cause its occasional insertion by later scribes in the Epistle. xvii. 24-26. Cf. iii. +5e K ^ i)Kov<rap. ev 2° X*. om. back to the very beginning. their fellowship with the Divine grows and becomes more real. K a7r apxys 2°] post yjKovaare 2° 3 . sab. to the In favour of the former it has been urged that the eternal life. X tv . 397f . They serve to close the subject.II. Trarpi] ev tw Trarpt . ica! uficts k. avros] sympathy" (Westcott). S7 13. (aKTjKoare) vg. sah.cct a scr vg. etc.

ver. the attempts to lead them astray by efforts on their own part. xii. dir' aoTou] From Christ. irept .62 THE EPISTLES OF S. JOHN faith. through the readers applying to the whole Church what had been said with reference only to the guilty members. 10. auTo's seems to refer to Christ. And though there was need of growth and development. Its teaching is universal. Attempts to find in it any telic force produce altogether forced interpretations. 26. 27. it covers the whole ground where inIt is not the lie which the struction is needed. 29. according to His promise to His disciples Throughout this passage. Jn." TrXat'wrrajv] The danger is present and real. Warning and exhortation are of no avail without their active 27. 14. who is thought of as the source of the anointing. ii. The gift of the Spirit which they received when they were baptized into Christ's name was an abiding gift (cf. if they use the power which has been given to them. 25. 33). xiv. xiv. all that was necessary and true was already contained implicitly in the teaching which they had What they were taught at the first received at the beginning. . xiii. 26. are in possession of all that is necessary for self-defence. except where the context determines otherwise. ver. Antichrists have made of it. Jn. which had been misunderstood. [II. 13. Rev. who had now "gone forth. but the use of the present tense does not determine the extent to which the Cf. usage of the Epistle. in accordance with . The and the grave chrism which They they have received will enable them to do the rest for themselves. Jn.). 30. gave the standard by which all later developments must be measured. 1/yU. The For the nominative absolute. with the probable exception (Jn.as] ne guts uos seducat arm. brance the essential features oi their issues raised own by the antichristian teaching. . cf. i. Their rule of life and thought. no need to suppose (with Karl) that there is a reference to a former Epistle. Xva] One of the many instances of the purely definitive use of Iva. and it is true. xvi. opponent's efforts had met with success. . This is the customary of ver. The clearness of the reference here «ypa\|/a] Cf. There is points to the most probable meaning of that verse. Xpciae £X €Te ] Cf. 9. 6|jL€is] The readers must meet position of v/ms is significant. sch . kcu response. to xpi^iia o cXdPeTe] Cf. xvi. Tavra] + Se X syr irXavovvTuv A. 24. Jn. de eo qui uos seducit boh-cod. and with the infinitive.

never having been altered or superseded (SiSao-Kci 7repi iravroiv. StSao-xet. " They must abide as He taught them. ver. airov) forms only one sentence fxivere iv avrtp d>? The method kol Ka6m eVrtv . It had not been superseded by deeper It was true. 19. : ." would differ from a lie. 1. xii. way " the whole thing as in English is which falls short of it. truths. The preced- 39. so it is true and no lie. the second part of this verse . a\r]6c<> of their abiding is characterized in three ways." .] NOTES ON " I JOHN 63 " which they abide in Christ. "The style. xv. which need not be unlearned. 27. we get a natural sequence. xiv." that it must mean d\V u>s] The reading aXXd is obviously a correction to : simplify a difficult sentence. 29 ." On the other hand. kcu eo7Su£ev. in much the same "the statement is false. is the true teaching of the Spirit. they received gives a teaching which is comprehensive. Kadws cSiSofev). v. ally learning more of It is. 18. jieVcTc] may be either ing fxevii strongly supports the former alternative. (ii. teaches all aX-qdes. (i.. its meaning.." The earliest teaching been not had superseded by a higher and altogether different They needed no message.II. have a similar doubt. or ought to be. though they are. (iii. indicative or imperative. To abide in Christ is to live by the lessons which were first learned. where we Cf. They dwell If this is the writer's (aW <Ls . and the result is a very it is true teaching you have received is not only comprehensive." writer's But the introduction of an apodosis by kcu is not in the weak climax. and true. 28 shows " in Christ. . . which The unction which context and the writer's general thought. and not false. which they received from the first days of their conversion. in accordance with the teaching which they have which is sufficient. And as He taught you from the beginning. \J/e08os] not i^euSe's. . homogeneous.) received. the apodosis to is to airov k. however. Jn.) and permanent. the import of which has grown with the growth of their experience and spiritual intelligence. 27. you abide in Him (or which was taught you from possibly you abide in the teaching You have not to learn a new and better the beginning). "As the unction that Christianity. ground. if /ca#ws is taken as resumpis quite suitable to the tive. The later lessons grow out of the earlier. continua\r]6i<s. What they had received covered the necessary further teaching.. possible to divide the sentence and make kcli in Christ.t. Some Latin texts make iv avro> = iv tw x/diV/xciti ver. true. meaning.) you need to know.\. . as the Gnostics would have it. etc.

xxvi. aeth. v. cat. ) P xs - : + in Aug. 31**. IOI. iii. pier. "* 14 " 2 Xpi<rM a 2 °] XP l<r Atara 7 (231) 8l cop. which is regarded as the necessary deduction from the requirements of present circumstances. plur. : (leivare !* 20M (83). 68 d scr * vg. : Thphyl. 69. 66**. "Since the case is so. 81. Ac. 27. 6 Contrast Jn. Jn. 37. c250 «<rrt»? l°]/ (S6). fxeverw P 6. i°] THE EPISTLES OF x a P l(T lxa 5. 137 a vg. TeKi'ia] The term of affection. . JOHN [n. 258 . These verses are transitional. 21. 28. 68. Jn. 28. xiii.ij. iii. 33 .64 XP<-g[ja. The general use of the phrase seems to be to introduce a statement. 22. Kal vuv] can hardly be taken as temporal. Ath. ni A*. v." "such being the case. a3S2. . eo sah. xxii. 7. 1 Jn. exhortation.) the writer now repeats as an exhortation. Gal. 7. sah. cop. xvii. kcu A eSiSoSf] i//xar t8t5ata. 4scr : out boh.: K ABCP . Aug. aeth. (? 1°) ?7. a7r]7ra/3/ ixevti a!!Wf Thphyl.da<TK7)] didacrKei CKL 13. do not always lend themselves to sharp division. 16. (56). scr d scr 27. : maneat (s. x a P<-<TlJ a 10** nrev/ia N* 25. 5. S. 8. Oec. xi. xx. longe. (spiritual) nature. 38. the exhortation to abide being specially needed in view of the nearness of the Parousia. He would have them continue in that which they have. and it is doubtful be attached to the preceding or the The " aphoristic meditations " of this Epistle following section.ei> a 175 H sah. 12 . Aug. 18. 31. syr? Thphyl. scribat uobis . And their greatest possession is their personal fellowship with their Master. which is expected in the immediate future. especially a prayer. and its reward. xiii. v/ms-i/Atas Za200f (83) etc. 29.] post v/mv 13. 19 . 25. al. : mendax boh. 175 . 34 ( = Ex. The strength of the Society lies in the personal relationship of the members to the Head. - : 8 18u i^as 2°] 77/xas Z/ 257 (33) 7 a7 °- (1319). 17. which has already struck. 28. 10). 1. What (x^€T€ eV auTw] The words are resumptive of ver. Hier. KL al. or command. Did. 29. 27.uas aXX ws] aXXa B 25 al. Hier.uas /cat ?7. cat. \f/ev8os] \pev8es /cai C 7 (uid. ] ?. Cf. ai/rou 2°] avro pi. at the end of the last hour. also Ac. cop.B io**. Oec. vii. :+o e\a/3ere air airrou /" AKL V/tiiv 7 Aug. bring out the meaning most clearly by paraphrase. IOO. (61). iii. a\r)6es] aXijdys N. Cyr. vv. manebit) in uobis arm. tiyitas : didafr H&(*) aeth. Confidence in the presence of the Judge. (83) I° 13. iv. Kaflws] 3 om. whether they should 28. is used to enforce the exhortation. avrul ? ? + ru dew 7° (56). I* A™ pr. 106 20 ° S 355 (-et) a 258 8t. 22. 5 2 Jn. 31. Thphyl./iaj fievcre] nevure K L al. 11. which appeals to their common Cf." would perhapsCf. xvi. . 258 - a (319) 7 longe. Cyr. is there stated as a fact {indie. syr? Oec. The need of constancy.

10). iii. and contrast But the charge involves a slight loss of force. 1 significance. 1. without any hint as to the degree If that happens which.X. [Mk. It is a favourite word of the Lightfoot's note on Col. in 7rapp7]crLa is used especially of freedom or boldness of speech. (Jn. 8. 4. after the Resurrection. Weiss). i. 4. 12 He. 16 (cf. v. alien to the context. ii. 2. as here. 19. and will The use of cpavepuOr). 11. Iva k. 1 Cf. who is responsible for 13 out of the 31 instances of its 5 . As soon as the their Lord the greater the need of constancy. 14. at the Second Coming. iii. Eph. i. 12. The verb is used of the " manifestation " of the works of God " His name. iii. in its true iii. i. 2 Ti.II." introduces a pure possibility. in spite of the difficulties raised by the next verse.] The nearness of the day affords a new motive for The nearer the Parousia of the effort to which they are urged. He. 5. 28. 14.J NOTES ON I JOHN 65 of TrapovcrLa in the next clause.€v 1 ax^F' 61'] ^ was natural that the rather abrupt should have been altered to the more usual ^w/itv (cf. It its the fact of possession. Jn. or capable of being understood. that the writer would naturally emphasize. 3). the Master will appear. 4. 2. Jn. Whether the " is to the eye of the body or of the mind has to "manifestation be determined by the context. 20. reference of «V avrw is to Christ. The signs of the time are clear. acquired the more general meaning of confidence. have shown. ix. iii.T.v of the Receptus introduces a thought It would suggest an uncertainty as to the date of the Coming which is excluded by what has preceded. 17. 31. The oto. Jn. ii. last hour has run its course. c. xxi. vii. Events have shown that it is The form of conditional used {lav. iii. v. and Christ is said to have "manifested It is never used directly of God in the N. irapprio-iay <rxw)U. may in befall them now at any moment.t. they must be a position not to be ashamed. 14 . But it has Cf. not continuance. 15. when the object of their longing expectation is there. (c) Col. is iii. 1 P. writer's. 1 Ti.] xvi. The word would seem generally to carry the suggestion that the appearance is not only seen but understood. 1 P. 4>aK€pw0rj] <pavepov<j6ai and cftavepovv are used of all the manifestations of the Lord. 21. in the flesh. 6). Jn.) the "last hour. The writer would hardly speak. . x. subj. though doubtless he expected that through it men would learn much about God not known before (cf. accordance with its etymological meaning. (b) (a) Jn. of the Second Coming of Christ as a manifestation of the Father. iv. and make it almost certain that the look for ear <j>aeepcj0fj] workmen who need not to be ashamed. as circumstances of its probability. i.

(TTwo-crat.). irappiqcriav Rub. 10. €ito.e. Th. fir) aicrxvthan a passive. xxiv. a<pp(i)V Cf. €Y« Tiva I " made you to ixrj Trapprjcrcav Trapprjo-iaaOrio-r) kvavriov Kvptov. Sir. iv. p.X. arecpavov) 7rapovo-tas 1/?' to provide a crown to be presented and in the Tebtunis Papyri (48. acre/?^)? Be atcrx^Wai Kail back from a drawing ashamed from His presence. Job xxii. or rather paraphrased. the Hebrew. Zvavn avTov . and Job XXU. For . Ps. Sap. i. vii. From "See the thy King cometh unto thee. the corresponding verb.] Cf. vc'o-00). 16. sources of common Greek.T. a-Tro. 28. Pr. is uprightness. xiii. JOHN i-C. a. "boldness" or "confidence" use in the cf. 20. expression for the visit of a King funds were raised by taxation to meet the expenses of such visits. points p. really most prominent. iv. 5 . N. ^yayov tyxas fiera irapprio-ias. i. is confined to Mt.66 use in " publicity THE EPISTLES OF the " S. also Test. LXX. Licht von Osten. on the occasion of the visit there is an interesting description of the village elders in to (sc. Deissmann. but in probably every is . TrpocraiTrov Ka! fit] alcrxu»'0w|Ji€i' K. avOpuyTros Be iroXvireipos ai(r)(yv6r)<TiTai SI ireTraiB(Vfx. 268 out.ov ovk ei^ov aurov. as free men. xxi. re/Wurrjs tou drevio-ai eis axpi to xiii. there is the East the word was the usual In Egypt. xxvi. 22 f.^ but may await His verdict with confidence as an ipydrr]? di/€7rato-^wTos (2 Ti. ei Be ws Xpioriavos. 5. shrinking In this case the word is used as a middle rather sense of guilt Cf.evo<i e£w eis airo otKtav. 274 ff. 1. Cf. ovx U" Trapp-qaiav.. 13 Job xxvii. ttovs p-upov rax^s cltto Trpoaoiirov. 12 . The idea would seem to be that of with- For the phrase. 6. 2.T. 10 . 26." cry. 13 it is used to translate nwpttip. In Greece a new era was reckoned from the visit of Hadrian. 7rarpos p. 26 3 Mac. " will have no cause to shrink away who " abides in eis He Him abashed from the Presence of the Judge. go upright. cf. the earlier Pauline Epistles (1. is In some of these passages the idea of instance that of suggested. connection with the expected of Ptolemy . but in Lv." i..) efforts visit made by the 11. Pr. translated. 7rpoo-€X€T€ u7ro and <pv\dacrecr6(. oiKiav. James and 2 Peter. for As a rule it occurs in renderings which paraphrase xi. its Lv. 15). interesting light has been thrown of irapova-ia by the discoveries of papyrus i.T. xciii. the use of the word with reference to the Second Coming 2 Co. I P.vr)p TrapaKOirrtii 6vpa<. cf. ii. 9 ff. special or Emperor..d. The earliest mention is rightly interpreted by Wilcken (Griechthe Ptolemaic period to the abundant evidence that in ische Ostraka. the use of the word is best interhe As ff. The passages which best illustrate its use here are Job xxvii. 2 on the Christian use documents and other Cf. N. d\ov refer to the collection made . xxvi. preted by Very second century a.). In the iv tt] Trapouo-ia] Here only in the Johannine writings.

Many of the words and titles which Christians loved to use of their Lord had a special significance as protests against the blasphemy of the popular II s Emperor Worship.II. : irappr]<nav~\ + 7rpos avrov I c 258 (56). 226. . Adventus Aug. 4). 26.] NOTES ON I JOHN 7rpos rryr 67 T0 tov kol irpoo-eSpevovTwv Sia tc vvktos xal fjfxipas jJ-^\P l T0 ^ (B. 29.evr]v . used of the appearance of the god Asclepios in his temple rav avrov (Dittenberger. 26. 29. h.p. 40. cop.d. tclv re irapovo-iav in the was used 6 In Adventus 'Ao-KXa-mo^.] ex^/iev 15. pier. (P). Caesar (a. 56 bscr l scr sah. The same usage is found in fiaaiXtws -rrapova-iav ayopav rr. avrov) post avrov 2° N i "'Q 0} iJ. the sure sign. arm. Oec. 803.C. cat. t-tjv tc -rrapovo-iav The word is also i[x<j>avL<rdvTwv tov /3a(n\iw<. makes it possible for those who possess it to learn by . cf. as in Cos. the coins struck to commemorate Nero's visit to Altars were also erected to comCorinth. a«rx air confundamini boh. habeatis boh. (3rd cent. sah. e7r tyey pa p. and His own are those who share His qualities. memorate visits of members of the Imperial family. righteousness and justice. syr aeth. scr 137 a : «r H &> {<&). B.C. syr X* scr L al. whether they thought of the Coming as a first visit. om. the earthly life having been merely a condescension in which He appeared in humility and not as Messiah. The word was in memory of the visit of C.up. Latin. 40. cay ci8t}t€] The intuitive knowledge of what God.iv0v eKTrXrjpwaai ko. 34. 7rp0K. arm-COdd. Doing righteousness. 27. Cf. Those only who are His own can look forward with unclouded confidence. Asia. : reKva 27 162 5." And so the meditation passes over to the next subject on which the writer wishes to dwell. Dittenberger. especially those which characterize and not The doing of justice is the Judge. and their desire to be able to meet Him with confidence and joy. 68 d L al. 29.] orav 36 d ore /*Mttt ( 9 6). Sylloge. 28. 66**. and the only sign. 5Cr axup-ev X Thphyl. 29. sch cop. reKVLa] + nov K. In to have to shrink away abashed from His presence. that they are "born of Him. Sylloge. 13. : K K ABCP Thphyl. 27. rav XA BC P utr C (61). pier.ei>~\ : a?r] trap 69.). "Eirupdvia seems to have been similarly used of the visits of the Emperor. the sure sign of the new this birth. Oec. the is. 113). This naturally raises the thought of the conditions which would make such a meeting possible. or Christ. Trapeve(f>dvi$e same way. the being born of God. Cor. cat. their expectation of the speedy return of their Lord in glory. verse is closely connected with the thought " The ground of the appeal to " abide in Him was preceding. 37.1 ttjv . or as a second visit. 85 f. naturally used by Christians of the advent of their King.-ed. jxevcre] neveire 22.

the present the fact as uncertain. however.T. remember that abrupt changes of subject were natural to Hebrew thought and expression which are almost Their occurrence in the O. filment. 1. who would immediately interpret it as meaning "born of God. No hint is given as to the probability of fulresults follow. 7. i. impossible in Western language. subj. change of reference is impossible. Jn. the expression «'£ avrov yeytvvrjo-Oai may have become stereotyped for the writer and his circle. No other explanation of iav (faavepwOfj and rrapovo-ia is natural. Sikcuo? to Christ." To a mind steeped as the writer's was in the thoughts of God and Christ. does not necessarily If the condition is fulfilled. Our inability to determine his exact meaning was probably not shared either by the writer or his readers. i. more satisfactory to avoid any solution of the difficulty which might seem to presuppose a confusion of thought between God and Christ in the mind of the writer. . auros and ckcZvos had perhaps If. a change of reference in the verse itself is still more difficult. and the language of the Prologue to the Gospel. 12). 18). as in Bede. especially in this Epistle iv. idv] A protasis introduced by idv. 28 and 29 would be very . and avrov in ver. "to be born of Christ. And it is quite possible that is too frequent to need illustration. 9.. "born of Christ" is not antagonistic to the Johannine lines of We thought. c. 28 must refer to Christ. JOHN [II." He does.68 THE EPISTLES OF S. 4. speak of being born of tke Spirit . therefore. 13). or even And these considerations almost compel us to refer possible. a-rr if not impossible and it is really certain that Iv avT<2." who is always thought of as being and giving the life of avrov. On the other hand. a between vv. To be "born of God" is a favourite phrase of the writer's (cf. however. whose minds were full of the truth that Christ is God revealed to man. awkward." To act in accordance with those qualities which correspond to His nature is the only certain sign of true fellowship with God. though the expression is not found elsewhere. v. 29. God which comes It is to men. On the one hand. suggests a sense in which being "born of God" might also be regarded as being "born of Christ. to Christ. whereas he never uses the expression (iii. Sikcuos eoriv] It is subject of this word change of reference is very difficult to determine whether the God or Christ. ZSwKtv olvtois e£oucri'av Tewa deov yevecrOtu (Jn. experience of life (yivwo-Keiv) what are the true signs of being " born of Him. a verse is . the subject of tScDKey being the Logos. must. the whole The conception best referred. at any rate at first sight and Johannine usage is almost decisive in favour of referring c£ avrov yeytwrjTai to God. which is the result of the Divine begetting.

or even from the Bible alone. 177* aScr &'• mult. cop. Asnar and Kisar. mingled their waters. cop. oidare 7b S 507 om. and last Anu. — eiS^re X BC : al. A K L P al. given by Gunkel from the cuneiform inscriptions (Scko/fung und "In the beginning.. which was subdued by the God of creation. the Sea-monster.] tdrjTe .T. and so a certain sign. Oec. /cat B K L al.T. the Epistle itself throws no light on its meaning. but not destroyed. and to his readers as well. syr? arm. and which would again raise its power against the God of heaven in a final conflict before the made in several N. 69*. syr. The more logical order can produce. . tol. by Marduk the son of Ea. This tradition. pier. what was meant. aeth. on historical lines it end of all things. vg. . independent of the N. before heaven and earth Chaos.T. 29. :+Kat vir c 8e woiwv ttjv a/xapTtav of/cert oparai vtt avrov I 325 (2). " He that is born of God doeth righteousness.II. t V v] om. were named. cat. when as yet the Urvater Apsu. The conception cannot be explained from the N. syr utr sah. (The next sentences are ' ' ' ' . or inhabiting. arm. no fate determined. p. Aug. writings. then first the gods came into being. of which use is the name The legend cannot be explained received modifications from time to time in consequence of definite historical events. They were named Lubmu and Lahamu. would have been. was well known among the Hebrews. cat.. Historical events modified the expectations for the future which find expression in its terms.] NOTES ON . Amb. Antichrist occurs first in this Epistle in Though extant literature. (104) 7 ft « 157 7c851 pier. the waters and the darkness. wide-spread myth of a primeval monster. who divided its carcase into two and formed the sea and the heavens. •rras ye-y^c^Tou] The doing of righteousness is the sign of an effect which nothing else the birth from God and its effect. harl. and common to Jewish and Christian apocalyptic expectation. ." . consisting of. aeth. and has left It may be quoted as its traces in several passages of the O. especially in its Babylonian form of the cleaving of Tiamat. no name named. when none of the gods had been created. The researches of Bousset and others have demonstrated the existence of a more or less definite Antichrist legend. mu. and the Urmutter Tiamat. I JOHN 69 become almost proper names the context or the special phrase used would make it perfectly clear to the writer. 21). but Its origin is probably to be traced to the they did not create it. and the experiences But it always had of Jews and Christians at different periods. avrov ADDITIONAL NOTE. Thphyl. /bses^^j^/ciau oparai yeyevvT]Tcu~\ yeyevrjTai P 31.T. an independent existence. am. Aug.

) Then the myth relates how Tiamat. and his son Marduk are also mentioned. Through her opened jaws he sent the hurricane. His word without equal. he broke their weapons. and his dominion shall be universal. together with all the Powers of the Deep. Finally. whom she took for her husband. He cast . then Ea but Anu withdrew. His power shall be the destiny of Marduk is determined. Luhmu and Lahamu the gods." Against this host Ansar sent forth first Anu. He split her head. weapons are bow and quiver. On the other side is Tiamat. Apparently the origin of light described in connection with this rebellion. the present of Anu. Marduk challenges Tiamat to the combat. her helpers . " Come hither." and placed it on his own breast. She created eleven fearful monsters. who accompany him. the mother of the gods. Marduk tore from him the " Then he turned amulet. to be the avenger of the gods if they in full assembly ratify his The assembly is called. Anu. JOHN [EL but to judge from what follows they must have contained the account of the origin of the gods of the Upper World and of the Deep. who has gained over some of the "gods" to her side. he goes forth on his chariot federates. was Next follows the description of the war between Tiamat and On the one side Ansar appears as leader. The only extant part of this is a conversation between Apsu and Tiamat. he made fast the eleven creatures. and a weapon which he receives from the gods as a present. but he will only consent . apparently He has also a net. and all the winds accompany him as conArmed for the fight. and Ea was frightened and turned of back. describing their plan against the gods. he betook himself to Marduk. appear in the background. So. THE EPISTLES OF S. and placed the god Kingu as leader over them.JO destroyed. his helpers. shall have the magic power of calling things into being and And as a sign of this a cloak is causing them to disappear. Kingu met the same fate. which at Marduk's word disappears and The story next tells of Marduk's arming. fearful winds. drawn by terrible animals. and filled her belly with with the crescent sword he cut through her Then her corpse away and stood upon it. represented as a trident. Ea. rebelled against the Upper Gods. to go forth against Apsu and Tiamat. and caused the north wind to Tiamat again. Then body. Marduk overcame the gods. I and thou will fight. the thunderbolt. and cast them into the net. His appears again." When they fought the wise among the gods caught Tiamat in the net. and authority as equal with their own. too. a sickle-shaped sword. and the gods. one Marduk declares that he is prepared the youngest of the gods. and laid on his " breast the amulet. Ea's son. As he approaches Kingu. placed in their midst.

Ps. his fathers.). In Henoch (ch. . The following Then Marduk tablets are lost . Origin" " all was water. presents to the victor. 9 f . Ezk.. and the other planets . xxxii. Is. 7 (especially if the pointing nzicnsn be adopted). against the primeval ocean. 25. there is extant only a small fragment which deals with the creation of animals. Kingu is associated with Tiamat . .). In Babylonian myths. !j Job xl. and with many heads. He divided the body of two parts. that the waters He placed the vault of heaven over should not stream forth. Of the one part he made the vault of heaven. Leviathan and Tannin.] NOTES ON I JOHN The Jl to carry her blood to hidden places. lxxxix. These powers of the deep are in the Babylonian legend opposed to the gods of the Upper World. The common Hebrew name for the monster Rahab may have its parallel in Babylonian myth. and determined the course of the stars and the twelve months. offer the Lord appeased. . These passages suggest that such myths were 3-60. wild animals. Job xxvi. 5. Ix. Then was into Tiamat corresponding to the primeval ocean. all of them. and used by prophets and other writers to illustrate and emphasize their warnings and teaching. Both myths represent the monster as a dragon. among whom Marduk is predominant. Rahab and Nahas Bariah. I s xxvii. he placed the stars of the zodiac. Other similar beings are mentioned. the sun and the moon. popular in Israel. 26. as are Kingu and Tiamat in the Babylonian story. and placed before it bars and watchers. 25. 2-8. li. and built the heavens as a palace. The primeval ocean was personified ally the as a fearful monster.. 7). in which these classes of land animals are distinguished. among whom one is prominent. the "helpers" of the dragon. ioff. Leviathan and Behemoth. gods. and reptiles. Ps. cattle. Even in the Hebrew story the appearance of other gods seems occasionally to be referred to (Job xli. in Hebrew we find Rahab and Tannin. but this is not proved. "as sheep may he tend the gods. though the number of them may have been The most important are perhaps exaggerated by Gunkel. which is always used anarthrously as a proper name. The points of similarity between the Hebrew and Babylonian myths on which Gunkel lays stress are the following (p. Is. 12-19. Behemoth and Leviathan are represented as male and female. xxx. - xxxviii. The Babylonian Tiamat corresponds to the Hebrew Dinn. xl. xli.II. ix. lxxiv. 12 f. 7 . xxix. 112 ff. conceived of as a palace. 13. The myth closes with a hymn in honour of Marduk.T. created the stars. Ps." There are many traces of this or similar myths to be found in the O. to whom are given names which celebrate his power as Lord of all. lxxxix.

sea. The monsters rebel against the Upper Gods. it is "brought to rest. 25. K\ci0pa At any rate.T. God set watchers over he still could be . He lay at the must obey God (Am. This is several times referred to in Hebrew. He comes on a chariot with horses. 10. Thus the starting-point of the legend is probably to be found in the stories of the combat between God and the primeval 1 If Gunkel is right in pointing rV on as a passive participle. 13 we hear of the dividing of the lower waters. Before Marduk's victory. armed with sword and net. u. and in Job xxvi. 12). ix. cf. 8. The corpse of the monster is not buried. story the special trait of the opponents of Jahve is their overruling and rebellious pride. the fight itself the victory The " net " has strength. 13. but overcome. in)." and became His spake God "played" with him (Job 4). In Before the fight there are shrieks of abuse or reproach. His arming is described. is its monster are overthrown." 1 3. so him (Job vii. One particular form in which the myth seems to have been known is of special interest in connection In at least one version the with the legend of Antichrist. land that before was waste is derived from the blood and the The Babylonian myth flesh of the dragon (Gunkel. or reasonably supposed to exist. and claim In the Hebrew the sovereignty of the World for themselves. In the they bow beneath him. paralleled with the breaking of the heads of the dragons. other gods had attempted the fight. xxx. in passages in the O. soft 5 . in both stories the victory ovpavov SeSotKacriv avrov). There is perhaps a similar reference in Job xli. 3). He is put to sleep. placed to prevent his breaking forth (? Job xxvi. Whatever exact parallels may be drawn between the — Babylonian myths and allusions to similar stories which may be found. Babylonian story he "puts them to shame". Out of it the God makes the In some forms of the Hebrew story the fruitfulness of world. p. over the monster is followed by the creation of the world. civ. gained by wisdom rather than by The helpers of the part to play. Ps. Dragon or monster was represented as not destroyed. but he still be dangerous. Job ix. but " waked " Bars were (Job iii. he servant for ever (Job xli. xli. Then Marduk appears. 26). 10). words. or with the terrible weapons of the thunder god. When God captured him.. Ps. He could bottom of the deep. relates that Tiamat was divided in twain into the upper and In Ps. lxxiv. According to Is. there can be little doubt that Hebrew mythology knew of some such fight between the God of their race and the primeval monster of the deep. " 7.72 THE EPISTLES OF S. JOHN [ll. 13 LXX). lxxxix. 13 of the bars of heaven (LXX. xli.

" was written at a time when the Maccabean successes had already driven out the idolatrous Zeus-worship from the Temple. and gathering of the Northern nations. with "eyes like the eyes of a man. 6) in the prophecy of Gog. and the completion of God's work for His people. 2. centre of His kingdom. of the kingdom.-xiv. describes the final oppresthe Lord should come. The opposition of the world as presented in the four — successive empires. ii. and a mouth speaking great If the book a clear reference to Antiochus Epiphanes. naturally led to further development of the idea. 2).] NOTES ON I JOHN . and iron. World-Power is no longer an instrument for punishment in Jahve's hands. t68" or not. " smoke of the heathen of Daniel is to be interpreted as the sacrifice in the Temple.a ti}s iprjfxwo-euy. and points forward to a speedy rescue. Median. xxxix. and Greek is to culminate in the "horn" on the fourth beast's head. the author of the book certainly describes the past and present history of God's kingdom in relation to the World-Powers in the light of the events of that period. and the Lord appears on the Mount of Olives to save His people. but that for their sins they had been given over to the heathen powers and this led to the expectation of a great final struggle with the World-Powers before the perfecting This is clearly seen in Ezk. and later under the imagery of the four beasts coming up from the sea. gathered against Jerusalem (xiv. which is finally shattered by the stone broken off from the mountains without human intervention.II. (Epiphanes God manifest in human form) of Syria to suppress Judaism and to Hellenize the The nation. the doctrine was developed that Israel was indeed the chosen of God.) as a colossal image of gold. — The World-Power is presented first (ch. but not killed and which should once more break forth and rebel against God. brass. the — — writer might easily expect a great victory and extension of the power of the opponent before the Divine intervention. silver. the Chaldaean. but His opponent. Persian. xii. things. of the passages which speak of the quelling of the sea describe also the subduing of the peoples who set themselves against God. the 1. All nations are sion of the people by the hostile powers. ascending from the altar erected there to Zeus in Dec. the prince of Magog. . (xxxviii. to be overthrown in a final victory before the end of all things. when the . In consequence of the sufferings of the people at the hands of their enemies. which was overcome and bound. who goes forth to destroy the Whether the fi8e\vy[x. But it took more definite shape in forms which reflected the Many experiences of the people at the hands of their enemies. The attempt of Antiochus iv. regarded as types of the World-Power from which the final outburst against the people of Zee. 73 monster.

MaYury fx. oh 8' BpKia irt<rr4 reX^ccros. In the Book of Enoch xc. 319. which is still clearer. 19. and they all came together and helped each other to break that horn of the ram. 17 the "Star" which shall come forth out of . there is no single opponent. judgment begins. vii. The Septuagint translation seems to have been coloured by the expectations of Messiah and Antichrist. JOHN [II. the members of the Jewish Church given to the In preserved through the great tribulation and cleansed by it. 652). a ff have v7T£p Twy. Dn. 16 it is predicted that other parts of the Macedonian Empire.e. will "All the eagles gather themselves together against the people. ttoX^/xolo KaKolo. and vultures and ravens and kites assembled together and brought with them all the sheep of the field (apostate Jews). the appearance of Messiah i§ first According to . The Hebrew 33ND was read as JiJD. and dominion was given unto him. But the storm is to burst from many points. that all people should serve him. under the leadership of Greeks. (of a personal Messiah) Jewish apocalyptic varied frequently during the next two centuries. and the Septuagint translation of ver.£<rov od<ra Sieffert. In Nu. and is directed And against God's people and house. 13 we read that one like unto a son of man was brought before the Ancient of days. 7 is significant : . 56 ff. ." i. Gog and Magog are the names of lands : Cf. The Third Book of the Sibyllines (iii. which is generally attributed to the Maccabean period. and a kingdom. Kal av^r)Oi}<T€Tai j3acnXeia avrov.a. and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them . and break down all the sons of tumult must be Jacob noticed. O-eXeucreTat.Tos airou. o0$ fiiv &pa Krelvas. but in xc. t% iracrav yatav iravoet. xxiv. As the idea of a personal Messiah became more prominent. not against the Messiah. and dominion " Saints. x^P a Tory ij5£ Aididiruv irorafiQiv. speaks of the advent of a King who shall make war to cease a : Kal t6t air' ijeXloio Oebs irifji\pei fSavCkv" . AvOpuiros ko. the expectation But on this point of a single personal opponent was developed.1 iic rod <nrtp/j. And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep. Kal Kvpuvaei idvwv ttoXXGiv' vxf/wdrjcreTai 7) Twy i) paaiXeia (eavrov A F).74 THE EPISTLES OF S. Palestinian pre-Christian literature has no personal anti-Messiah. the World-Power is overthrown. alat col. and all the beasts and the birds of heaven fled before their face".

and made petition to him all the time. 27. 37. white bull was born. xii. ff. 4)..] NOTES ON I JOHN " 75 described after the close of the wars. with large horns ." In the Psalms of Solomon (b." In the Apocalypse of Baruch (xl. there was gathered together a multitude of men. and will gather and set before him all the works of his hosts." Thus in the Jewish literature which is unaffected by Christian modifications the development of the idea of Antichrist cannot be very clearly traced . The fiSiXvyfia ep^wcrews of Daniel. In the Fourth Book of Ezra. godless king.c. and they will take him up to Mt. 5. It is easier to trace the development of the subject in Christian literature. even we reject the ing assigned to it by the speaker or by later interpretation. xiii. 1. Cf. 2). to make war against the man that came out of the sea. from the four winds of heaven. who comes out of the sea. But they are at least good evidence of eschatological views held by Christians at a comparatively early date. out of number. 90). and in which the fourth beast of Daniel is clearly identified with Rome. In the eschatological discourses of the Synoptic Gospels it is difficult to distinguish subsequent interpolation and view that they have their origin in a Jewish Apocalypse the contents of which have been put into the mouth of Jesus. " Lo. And speculations about the spread of opposition to God and His Messiah are stripped of their national and political clothing and spiritualized. is connected with the approaching tribulations of the last days and the national sufferings of the Jews. there is no doctrine of a personal Antichrist. and all the beasts of the field and all the birds of the air feared him.irov xi. and generally the whole passage 23-36. Messiah Himself destroys the foes by the word of His mouth. xiii. And afterwards he will put him to death. And I saw that a Cf.. The idea of the growth of self-seeking till it culminates in self-deification finds its natural sphere in Christian thought. xvii. gaining or losing ground in accordance with the perpetually shifting character of Messianic expectations. but the idea is to be found there. and My Messiah will convict him of all his impieties. statements in this passage are taken over to describe the destruction of the last " The last leader of that time will be left alive. a title . (cf. the heathen peoples are overcome by the Messiah. Sion. chs. to which a Flavian date is assigned.II. In Mt. The Son of Man. when the multitude of his hosts will be put to the sword and be bound . xxiv. Is. whatever be the exact meanoriginal if between saying and comment. Cf. dXodpevaai ?dv7] irapdvofia iv y<f) ffrd/xaros a.

the Son of perdition. 4). 8. who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called God. of lawlessness. always found support and protection in the authorities of the Empire of which he was a citizen. These views were taken up into the Apostolic preaching. whether or not we the World. The doctrine of one single opponent. in . though He can train the enthusiasm of such men to the better work of heralding the is kingdom (Mt. a perfectly natural interpretation of all that is said there can be found if it is explained on these lines." choose to see in 6 Kar^oyv an allusion to the name of Claudius his lasts Jewish It opposition the worst hindrance to the spread of the Gospel. v. vii. which seems to be definitely Messianic. 16). which is already working. Paul found 15. and is worshipped. is opposition to the work of Christianity. 23). 1 ff. concentrated as it was in the person of a Till a far later period of his life. not as in Daniel by world-rulers who destroy the Jewish theocracy. Popular the history of the Temptation (iv. but by false prophets and false Messiahs " " Messianism is rejected by Jesus in (Mt. Paul had been the victim in every place where he had proclaimed the Christ since his conversion. Its exact agreement with the circumstances of his time is remarkable or. It was an essential part of been specially virulent at Thessalonica (Ac. vi. zealots (cf. at any rate. 5). S. is represented as about to come on the clouds of heaven (cf. Apparently this Jew. Dn.).) and in the rebuke to He condemns the selfish aspirations of national Peter (xvi. cf. JOHN [II.76 THE EPISTLES OF S. Jn. the Thessalonians is genuine in its present form or not. Paul taught at Thessalonica. at least in the Similitudes Enoch. The "kingdom. He combines them with several traits clearly borrowed from Jewish popular expectation. 1 Th. there can be little doubt that the picture drawn in the 2nd chapter is mainly Pauline. 15. and which had clearly the Jewish The mystery conception of the last things that "So long as Rome lasts." however. At present its working was restrained by the power of the Roman Empire (to Kaxe'xov). Throughout his career. he single ruler ( 6 KaTc^wv). . is clearly seen in his Whether the Second Epistle to conception of the Man of Sin. would reach its climax in the appearance of Antichrist. and the opposition : summated in the appearance of the Man of Sin. and sets up his throne in God's " " Man of Sin is to be an apostate Temple. in whom all that is antichristian culminates. xxiv. x. xvii. The coming of Christ cannot be till the apostasy to the Christ is conis fully developed. x. But the hostile peoples are still conceived of as God's instruments to punish. of which S. 43). 5 ii. and form the basis of what S. This much is certain. is The "Son of man" separated from the national fate of Israel. of opposed.

16). this section of 2 Corinthians. fj-eroTricrdev. the strength of the Roman position. experiences and historical incidents have added new traits to a well-known popular conception. in the guise of Zeus. during the " time of stress which was to precede the " unveiling of the Christ. ii. Paul from the episode of Caligula's attempt to set up his Thus the statue. S. opposition of Judaism. And interpreting the 12th chapter on purely historical lines. the want of connection between the passage and the sections which precede and follow is less pronounced. 14-vii. is it is about the Man at least clear that the passage is of Sin in 2 Thess. Paul Recent Caligula to set up his statue within its precincts. whether he is conceived of as apostate Jew (Ascension of Isaiah) Paul is or Roman Emperor BeXtap rj£ei Samaritan S. most naturally interpreted. And he expected its downfall. which shall once more raise war against the Lord's It is very probable that a Jewish Apocalypse which anointed. is the main factor in the war against the But heathen opposition had to be encountered as well. he still thought of Antichrist as the person in whom Jewish opposition to the faith should find its consummation. But. And both the legend and the events are needed to explain the picture. though heathen contamination is not altogether excluded (ver. Ik Se aefiao-Trjvwi' unless. indeed. 63. developing a popular legend in the light of Christ's teaching about the last things. and the overthrow of all authority and law. It may be worth noticing in this connection that the thought of Jewish opposition and unbelief may help to explain a difficult section of the If S. borrows traits picture of the opponent. Second Epistle there thinking to the Corinthians first (vi. 14) . itself borrowed traits from older mythological traditions to describe . of the evil effect of Jewish companionship. Paul wrote iii. in the Jewish Temple. 1). many of the deiails recall most vividly the legend of the Sea monster. the passage indicates a It is at least probable that when origin of Antichrist).] NOTES ON I JOHN JJ But he was conscious of the weakness as well as (qui claudit). The freaks of Caligula had brought this home to all And in his picture of the Man of Sin. which had lost its opportunity when it crucified the Messiah. and in particular it had proved a serious obstacle at Thessalonica (i Th. and this will account for any heathen traits in the thinking men. his own experiences at the hands of his countrymen. (Sibylline Oracles. The use of the Antichrist legend is equally clear in the Gunkel has clearly shown the impossibility of Apocalypse. Christ. And in later Jewish literature Beliar is the name for Antichrist.H. the episodes of the desecration of the Temple by Antiochus and the attempt of we suppose that S. if however this may be.

emphasize his attempt to deceive by pretending to be the Messiah. has been incorporated by the seer. false teaching which is growing apace the fulfilment of the popular expectation of the coming of the great antagonist who is to lead the last and final opposition of the powers of the world to the In ch. John there is no real use of the legend itself at all. and adapted to the circumstances of Christ and the Church. whether the solution of the riddle of xiii. xiii. and the sufferings of the Neronic persecution. Paul found in the Empire. The writer refers to a popular legend which had formed the basis of Apostolic teaching. 7. the deceiver of the whole world. where the "two horns like unto a lamb" of the beast that came up out of the earth. born in heaven. but does not throw much light on the older myth. But the gathering together of the nations. when the Dragon is cast down. the birth of Messiah. That which is woe for the earth. the consequent war between Michael and the Dragon and their respective hosts. and no longer the restraining and protecting power which S. caught up to the throne of in the wilderness till the appointed time. though here the adaptation of the myth . and the Water cast out as a river to destroy the the Woman. Gog and Magog. or Deissmann's suggestion of Kaicrap 0eos and the Emperor-worship of the time of Domitian. 18 is to be found in the older guess of IDp jYTJ. which offers the clearest indications of the identification of the beast with Rome. the identification of the Dragon with the old serpent. traces have are all reminiscences of popular myths of which been found throughout the O. in order to comfort his God and hidden readers with the thought that their sufferings are really but a stage in the working out of God's purpose for their final triumph. is matter of rejoicing in heaven. the Devil and Satan.T. now regarded by Christians as the great enemy. n. for the war in xx. and elsewhere in sea points the to the circum- the New. as in earlier times the prophets and psalmists had made use of similar mythological ideas to enforce the lessons which they had to teach. JOHN [II. The 17th chapter. recalls the earlier feature of the legend. the borrowed details in many cases being quite unsuitable to their new application. But the The writer finds in the process of spiritualization is complete.78 THE EPISTLES OF S. shows how the mythical figure gains new attributes in consequence of new experiences. 8. is preferred. i the beast coming up out of the same way. stances of Roman history are clear. Perhaps the clearest use of the Antichrist legend is to be found in xiii. The hostility of the Dragon to Messiah. and the first stage in the process of his destruction is accomplished. In the Epistles of S. They contribute nothing but the name to our knowledge of it.

3. 3. genuine brotherly Corresponding exhortation. the rank and title of His children. Those who do it . and make a last attack on the powers of light before the final establishment of the Messianic kingdom. The writer is trying to restore the waning enthusiasm of his He therefore readers. iii. It is not a matter which interests him. and respond to them. sharers in His nature. and to recall them to their first love. 4-6. c£ airov yeyew-qrai. ii. which should once more break its bonds. The doing of righteousness. 28-iii. a more or less definite. of God and yielding to sin. 1. 6. popular tradition which took its start in the old myth of the Sea-monster overcome. 28-iv. love. Second presentation of the two theses. The mystery of lawlessness is already working in those who are inspired by the In this spirits who do not confess Jesus Christ come in flesh. ii. of Divine kinship carries with it 28-iii. It is unnecessary here to trace the further developments of kingdom of the the Antichrist legend in later Jewish and Christian expectation. 1. shown by the and the hope obligation.] NOTES ON I JOHN 79 Christ. 28-iii. It is a meditation on the last words of that verse. thesis. reminds them of their high privilege and position. ethical and Christological. gift The the obligation to self-purification. the two being discussed separately. with the legend itself he has but little to do.in. 24. but realize them. i. And It corresponds to real facts. but continually shifting. but with express reference to their connection. They show B. by the power of God. sign of the Birth from God. especially the true ii. 6. The wide prevalence of antinomianism. I. (a) (6) ii. The and the exhortation to recognize this truth. if they will is no mere title. but only confined and not destroyed. And these facts are the cause of the hostile attitude of the world. God has He has bestowed on them given them proof of His love. Whether this opposition is soon to culminate in the work of a single opponent he leaves uncertain. This verse is closely connected with the preceding. ii. involved in the gift of Divine kinship of its completion. of self-purification. The writer's business is with the reality to which the legend points . " the word " Antichrist cometh is fulfilled. The incompatibility of knowledge 28-iii.

146 f.). so that it is their own. as &y<£m)v] Love. oCto? rjv 6 ct7rwi' Cf. or adapted to the sentence. the true text of Jn. tIkvo. The Latt. ad loc) 257) koI yap d p. 1897). . 6iov emphasizes the community of nature as distinguished from The " being called " includes the the dignity of heirship. II. Mt.). An interesting parallel to this passage is found in Pirqe Aboth. "Beloved are Israel that they are called children of God greater love (was it that it) was made .T. compare and contrast ii. i. though the writer conceives of this relationship as realized in Christ.r)iru> rot tt}s deiSovs £i/covos aX\d The emphasis on the direct relation airov. 2 P. 1. i. (Cohn. II. Philo. yeyovajxzv.ov ep^o/xevos. 2. tva. and also Apoc. 11 Latt. Cf. vii. known said. as in the Receptus. IkolvoI deov Traldes vofxc^ecrOai. — — . 2 Jn. It lays special but it is not synonymous being. (iroTairovs Set VTrdp^etv vpas £v dyicus drao-Tpo<£cus . Cf. 6 TraTrip] suggested by the following reicva Oeov." stress on the dignity of the Christian title and position. 6 . 27. and very often something of an admirable character (qualem. The results of what permanent and abiding. .\\. " with it. vi. tSe In the N. 8t'8ovai Nowhere else they have received are in N. . and becomes in them the source of a divine life. ver. et si'mus. xiii. 39. Lk. koyov rov Upwrdrov. Cf. to We Ye may that they are called children of God. viii.T. rroTairol XCOoi. were. with those share His nature. and is intrinsically superior. Gal. infused into them. xiv. which scribes naturally dropped. Windisch. tva dyawCyfiev. verss. does dydir-qv occur. God did not give His love to men in order that they might be called The greatness of His love to them was manifested in sons. kcu ea/jieV] An awkward parenthesis. 22 (ed. that He allowed Himself to be called their Father. Iva TeVra 0eou K\T)8ai(jLei'] Another instance of the definitive It is difficult to find any "full telic" force here. p. 7. de confusione ling. i&€T€ TTOTcnri] c] and through Cf. this. xxi. JOHN who [m. TroTair6<s having lost its reference to place. of Christians to God is characteristic of the Epistle.80 not THE EPISTLES OF know God have no sympathy S. Taylor. nixpayw Xe'ywv And it 'O diriau) p. 15. generally suggests surprise. verss. (cf. not token of love. 29. According to the general usage of this Epistle and the Fourth Gospel. as But it is in the author's style. i. also them is 1). it "The Divine love is. 7roTair6<. as it are the children of the Lord your God" (Dt. iii. 1 ." SeScoKee] is better supported than the aorist. Mk. avrr) earlv r) dyyeAi'a. iSere tttjXikois v/xlv ypd/Afxaaiv eypafa: and for the combination with 7rora7ros. in the Latin Versions. never use cuj'as. Rev.

Try. " 21. though its manifestation is hindered by the circumstances in which they are placed. knowledge is that. All is not yet made manifest. As usual. Tj/ua?] vfxa.261 /cat efffiev] K ai e<rTiv (61) 7 (96) zoh arm r)/iiv] v/xiv B K* 22." dyairT]Toi] Cf. 7. 100 post vaTijp H 251 TfKva 9eov H : om. eyvwTe ioo al. they have at present justifies their full confidence for the which will bring the complete unfolding of that which even now present. 1. They do not recognize us. The used here.% K* KL P P al. 27 a 5 382 (?)." is as nothing compared with the glory which shall be revealed. Their present dignity to the position of "children of God. 7. 6 .106 . 11." . the closer What they have seen of Christ will be their likeness to Him.XXL 1. of forgetting it. 01 Tas ivToXas tov Xpio-rov a realized fact. and contrast ii. The exact conditions of their future state have not yet been What has already become matter of common made clear. longe plu. k\t]0w/j. Justin seems to kcu ovtcos no! rjfiels airo tov yevvrjcravros 17/xa? tts 6cbv Xpiorou. Thphyl. the referSid touto] Because they knew not God.8.] NOTES ON I JOHN " It is 81 also adds force to the sentence. He is fully divine purpose that they should attain (Westcott). K L al. i. The writer uses the term which reminds his readers of their and his common share in the gift which God has given. plu. nature. though some are in danger have known this verse Dial. in 40 +o Koer/Jios J cl74 (252). the more fully Christ is revealed.205 . c. (ovk lyvw) in creation. in the revelation made by naturally fail to know those who are of like ayairijv] post irarrip H^6 P al. 123 (353 B). not to introduce a new section. 26. : Oec] tSuxev (33). in history. Cf. — <£l>AaO"0"OVT£S. iii. dedwKev N BC KL (4'). pauc. Thphyl. because they did not know God. 31*. future. Those who failed to know God Jesus Christ. It is no mere empty title. is 2. iv. The thought of ri<va 6eov expanded connection with Here and now they have attained the thought of the Parousia. 6eov T€Kva aXrjOti'a KaXovfjaOa kcli cct/acv. 80. ryvw] eyvwKCLTe a. Gn. : AL 13.£v] KXr/dTjre reKva 6v / mi a397 '.VTov] 192 arm-codd. Kat ia/xev of the preceding verse. iv. but they have so learned the Christ that they know that it is "God's task to make the heavenly period Perfect the earthen. but to call attention to a further meditation on what has preceded. ence of tovto is to what follows. those who see Him as He is " will be consummated in the divine likeness to which it was the to the position of God's children. incarnate has raised If them made manifest. Oec. word is What is vvv riKva 0eoG eajieV] Cf.

28 of the preceding chapter. 2 Co. 28 partly suggests this interpretation. where the writer not looking back on a time separated by an interval from that of writing or speaking. in spite of the intervening ovttw €<f>avepw6r]. Col. : . 10 (6 aAAos ovttoi r}###BOT_TEXT###ev). He uses the word . be found to be not less than likeness to God. Cf. 4. xi. " or (2) if He shall be revealed. xvii. the words e'av <t>a. Great as are our privileges now. 2 (ovSeU ovttu UaOia-ev) .€Tap. in the light of the present revelation of the Risen Lord.e6a determines the meaning of the verb.82 THE EPISTLES OF S. xii.vepio6r) could probably have but one meaning. it must also be remembered that the language of soliloquy and meditation has to some extent its own rules. or expressive of what has just happened. Contrast yivwo-Ko/xev (ii.e. ttjv o6£av Kvpt'ou KaTOTTTpL^o/xevoi ttjv avrrjv elxova p. cf. or of those for whose sakes he is giving written form to his meditations. It does not follow that the same is true of the writer. 2. ever yet been a moment at which it could be said i<f>avepw6rj." such as the manifestation of the Risen Lord (Westcott). which suggests so much more than it actually reveals. Very possibly they had often heard him meditate on the theme eav <pavipwOrj. where the aorist would be either timeless. . May mean first is our future condition Christ. I Co. viii.6a airb as grammar concerned. otSafiee] We know enough to justify confidence even if no complete revelation has as yet been made. . Throughout the passage the writer's thoughts are turned to the revelation of Christ in His If He be manifested in His true glory. 18. Mk. iii.e." In favour of (2) is the use of <pav(pw6fj of Christ in ver." The is the It more natural interpretation so far connects the words naturally with the preceding ovtru> i<pavfpw9r). totc kclI And the use of cf>avepova-6at in ii. the open vision of whose glory shall transform us. . JOHN [HI.(. 12 The statement denies that there has (/Sao-iAeiav ou7rca lAa/5ov).op<povjx. 4 (ovttu) /xe^pis tyvw) ai/i. where the tC ia6p. (ti io-ofx-cOa). brav 6 XpurTos <f>avepw6fi So^t/s €ts Sd£av if v/xas crvv avrw cpavepuyOrjcreo-Oe iv 86£rj. 3. iii. 18. Apoc. it will meaning to the words. etc. i. ! : : iav fyavepwQfi] i. is . the vision will change us to His likeness.aros avTLKaTecrTrjTe) . . To us it would have been clearer if the subject had been definitely expressed. either (1) // it shall be revealed. . glory at His Parousia. ouiro) ifyavepMx]] For ovira) with the aorist. 2 (et Tts Sokci ovTTcn He. And it gives an adequate " If our future glory is revealed. To one pondering over the future glory of the Son of God. There is no necessary reference to any occasion "on which the revelation might have been expected. 24. and the general sense of the passage. iii. how far greater then Nothing short of being like God in Christ.) here no progress in knowledge is suggested we are aware of the future likeness.

human life of the glorified Christ. 1 76 B. meant this he surely would have expressed himself differently. selves. no longer veiled by the conditions of earthly life It is possible to take oti k. where such a hope really exists the striving after purity must The Christian hope is incompatible with moral infollow." What men saw oti] of Jesus of Nazareth. when He manifested His glory under the to : Swarov Greg. we shall be like Him. And the purity aimed at is The standard is nothing less than the perfected absolute. (54) A' otdafieu] + 5e KL al.A. 559 (415). human life. as giving the proof of the (olhaixev).] NOTES ON I JOHN 83 eighteen times. xxii. 6. irpocreXOelv t<5 Oew kolI fxeveiv ev avrw. Dam." is raised by it difference. oti (? 2°)] pr. It generally sets aside the claims of some party or other who claimed special privileges or exemptions for them3. knowledge We know that . 13). Kal 6\povTai to TrpocrwTrov airov. And for the ii. . sah d aeth. Plato. Weiss' explanation is too ingenious for its God. rj TeAos o&x erepov ti limitations of 6eov. Or. raised them to the position of reKva in the case of all who received Him (Jn. pier. Sfioioi] Contrast Ph.106 .t. The hope is not stated to be the necessary condition of the It is purity. 2. i. Paneg. 3.eda] o\pwfjieda 31 al. possession of such a hope is the strongest incentive The hope is not really grasped except by those whose striving towards this goal is eager and constant. Apoc. 12.cu. olfj. but the purity is the necessary result of the hope. to elvai l<ra dew. reKva] post deov ri] oti / a2TO P 31. No one. c. " Because we shall see Him as He is. and in twelve Christ is the subject. uidemus..05 . Thaum. to ye irdvTwv KaOapw tw vw e£o ixo iw 8 evr a. in for we know shall see that we is shall see Him and only the pure heart He is visible only to those who share His But if the writer had perceived by like alone. 2scr oipop. He often leaves not a little for his readers to supply. cat. cf. But he demands from them the use of spiritual insight rather than of mental acuteness.01 : : alB8 /cat 7 (395). The to absolute purity. Thphyl. Similes. thought. Like context.III. /cot 7 a397f . not even the " Gnostic. refer to His manifestation in the flesh. iras] The use of 7ra? in this Epistle and in the Gospel is instructive. boh-ed. How ! much greater transforming power shall there be in the vision of Him as He is. quia beati. But not denied that other causes may produce a similar result. c^uy-^ 8e 6/xoiujcrt? t<3 Oew Kcrra <f)avepov<r8ai though most of them in Origenem. syr (96) sch cap. nature. says Bede. above the moral obligations. 4. Theaetetus.

ver. In contrast with those who seek to cleanse themselves from all defilement. 10. rather than introduces a motive. The test of progress is obedience. v. (Westcott). 1 Ti. and Throughout the Epistle ckcivos used absolperhaps xix. KaOapos seems to state the objective fact. 21 Jos. sah. the Jewish feasts were required first to purify themselves from Levitical and ceremonial uncleanness. All sin is law-breaking. not the antinomianism of the "Gnostic. and those who hope to attain likewise will naturally spare no effort to follow the same path. Nu. 5. KaOw's] He has attained. The Vulg. made perfect through the discipline and suffering of earthly life. all falling short of the highest possible is disobedience to God's law There to men. Ex. and of seeing Christ as He is. all dy^ei] Cf. and also Jn. JOHN [ill. {in eo) scr eavrov] avrov 31* o . to work out the best of which their nature is capable. cf. Those who appeared before God at . 10 f. iii. 30. utely refers to Christ. . ttjv «7r d eX7n5a] fidem. reaching as far as See Introduction. which is the law of their being. THE EPISTLES OF S. 1 Es. also 1 Ti. Jn. of course. 3. 39. that fails to do righteousness breaks the law. v. 4. 6 (note). 55. : post eavrov boh-sah. airw] avrov 2. vi. 7 a eir 70 - m (505). . 13. 1 P. necessarily inspires its possessors with the desire of putting away every defilement which clouds the the vision of God. the law of self-realization after the pattern of the Christ. 21. 15. vii. . -n-ds] Cf. and is therefore surely and securely grounded. are breaking the law of God. iv. .84 .. even as human nature of the Christ. Those who fail to do the will of God. err' aurw must. is no special class of illuminate superior to the obligation keep the moral law. commonly dyvos emphasizes the subjective feeling. i. 10. The hope of appearing before the presence of God. Contrast Ac. dyyos] For the difference between dyvo's and Kaflapos. 6 e^wf iif auT(o] The form of expression emphasizes the thought of hope possessed and enjoyed as a sure possession («X £tv eX-rlSa being stronger than the simple verb). xxiv. has castus for dyios. 4. 17 . ev avru 31. But /cantos suggests a pattern. see Westcott's note. are set those who continue to do the sin which defiles and separates from God. ii." The condemnation of that would have for He . cKcicos] For the change of pronoun. but here has sanctus. xix. 3 (note). of course. has even now been exalted to the unveiled presence of the Father. 35. iv. refer to Christ. 25. Cf. viii. p. tx]v &vo\xia###BOT_TEXT###gt;) avojxia here is. cXxi'Sa l^wv cts tov 8e6v. xi. Cf. 5 . and which rests on the Christ. Tavrrjv] om.

translated into Greek in the two cases. 1 Ti. tion.e. destroy. $ipuv the avros avoMret. latter. The Hebrew But used in both senses of taking away and bearing. Christ was manifested to men in His earthly life in order to take away sin. rather than grosser sins of the flesh. perhaps never. which is only binding on the ignorant and the inferior. 3. sinful acts are not Epistle. 4. as here. of course. even the most matters of indifference. e<TTtv] + de H&* K* : (?) om. referred to in this But whatever form they take. or with the addition denotes the many acts in which the sin of humanity is . Kal oiSaTe k. liii.m. the writer can appeal as to part of the normal Christian consciousness. tyavtpwQr)] The word is the writer with reference to Christ's Cf. iii. 3. /ecu 31. stoops to them shows himself thereby to be no true tIkvov 6(ov. 20. as in ver. To these two great incentives to self-cleansing. by first coming. and the power of the Incarnate Christ." But the writer is undoubtedly think'ng of the claim made by the superior "Gnostic.] Not only does he who commits sin break a Divine law. without being under any obligation to the moral law. It is the self-assertion of the finite against the eternal will of Him who has the right to claim absolute obedience. whether he includes himself (otSa/x. but sin in its very nature is a transgression of the law of God.«v) or speaks only of his readers (olSare). NB>3 is it Take away. in the flesh.X. He who intelligent. but he stultifies the whole purpose of the Incarnation. 16 . they are transgressions of a valid law. ver.] The koli adds a clause which carries the Not only is " doing sin " a violation thought a step further.X. 5. using eVelvos and avrds in the same verse with reference to the same subject though. And being sinless Himself. (N). which are hardly. it was in His power to do so. Is. apt)] used more frequently.t. to destroy and remove it. the case where eKetvos stands first is not strictly parallel to those in which it follows the use of : avrds.t. 2°] pr. In the case of all men. is differently Cf. "All dropa is sin. 7 a20° (83). i. tea! rj dfiap-ria k. Ai/aciv expresses the 11. The sins of which the writer is thinking are failures to fulfil the law of love. of law.] NOTES ON I JOHN 85 required the converse of the statement here mnde. The writer apparently sees no difficulty in eKeteos] Cf. 5. former. i. tcxs d/m/mas airwv of 17/Awv." that he is at liberty to follow the leading of his own desires. the purpose of the Incarnation. rt\v l°] 17 om. or manifesta1 P. Tas d/xapTias] whether used absolutely.

86

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[III. 5, 6.

The concrete expression is more forcible than the expressed. absolute (rrjv d/xapTiav). dSi/aa iv avrw ovk d|xapTia iv ciutw ouk carif] cf. Jn. vii. l8, The statement is made of" the whole human life of the Icrnv. In Christ (eo-nv), and is not confined to the earthly part of it. virtue of His sinlessness He can accomplish the purpose of the Incarnation ; and the thought also suggests the means by which it can be accomplished, a thought which is further developed in " In Cf. Augustine, the next verse. quo non est peccatum ipse Nam si esset in illo peccatum, auferenuenit auferre peccatum.

dum

est

illi,

non
98

ipse auferret."
al.

oidare
oiSaficv

ABCKL
40.
tol.

pier.

S

sah. arm.

syr.

ras afiaprias 5. 13. aeth. Tert. Aug. Fulg.]
ev avTio] post eartv

ABP

vg. boh-codd. syr. aeth. Tert. Aug.] boh-ed. Fulg. 27.66**. 81 am. fu. demid. harl. tol. cop.

+ 7/^wf

tt

C

KL

al.

pier.

cat. vg.

sah. syr.

Ath. Thphyl. Oec.

X

sah. cop. aeth.

In so far as union with the Sinless is realized, sin ceases The doing of sin shows that the Christ has never been The statements are made absolutely, seen or known. fully after the writer's wont. They must, of course, be interpreted in the light of i. 8 ff., where the writer makes it clear that he does not mean that those who have realized their union with Christ have actually attained as yet to a state of complete sinWhere sin is, the vision of the Christ has not yet been lessness. made perfect. There is nothing to show that the writer is describing the general character of the Christian, which remains
6.

to be.

unchanged by separate to it and do not affect
absolutely

sinful acts,
it

inasmuch as they are foreign

as a whole.

The statement

is

made

reference to the modifications necessary when it is applied to the individual case. As contrasted with chat, /xe'vav perhaps iv auTw fitVeii'] suggests in this context the necessity of human effort.

without

oox dfxapT(£f€i] Augustine has supplied the necessary modi"In quantum in ipso manet, in tantum non peccat," a sentence which Bede has incorporated in his Commentary (cf. Westcott's note). The vision and the knowledge have cwpcuccf lyfcoKef] their abiding results, bpav is used by the writer of spiritual It cannot be restricted here (as by Weiss) to those who vision.
fication,
.
.

had actually seen the Lord in the flesh, Zyvwxev being added to " meet the case of later disciples. Cf. Bede, Visionem dicit et uita deum uidere in hac etiam iusti cognitionem fidei, qua delectantur, donee ad ipsam speciem apertae visionis eius in futuro preueniant, de qua supra dicitur, Quoniam uidebimus eum sicuti est," a passage which is also based on Augustine's

III. 6, 7.]

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

87

comment,
If the

" est illuminatio per fidem, est illuminatio per speciem."

two words are to be distinguished here, opav lays stress on the object, which appears and is grasped by the mental vision, what is yiv<oo-K«v on the subsequent subjective apprehension of
grasped in the vision, or
was
2°] pr. Kai 38.
it is

unfolded gradually in experience.
scr

Or. Thphyl. Aug. eyrwKev] eyvw /
2.
iii.

(nig.). 95- 96**. 97 (nig.) h c258 (senel) : pr. dto / (56). b3ti5 - 472 7 c208 - 116 A'*559

67

vg. syr. aeth. arm.

(214)

(307)

(479).

7-18. Elucidation of the thesis (ethical), and earnest warning against those who would lead them astray. The (a) 7-10. Further meditation on the Divine Birth. He that sinneth is of the Devil. opposite statement. {b) 10-17. Clearer definition of sin as failure to love the brethren, and of its opposite, love. 7. The views of the false teachers were plausible, and there was imminent danger of some of the faithful being seduced. But the facts were clear. He, and he only, who shows the

Righteousrighteousness in what he does, is righteous. There are no heights of always known by its fruits. knowledge, or superior kinds of nature, for which action is a matter of indifference. Teim'a] If this is the true reading, the appeal is again made There is some authority for to their common (spiritual) nature. the reading iraiSta, which would be equally suitable. The danger would have been less imminent, if they had used their own powers, and shown themselves less dependent on the moral guidance of
fruits of

ness

is

others.
fA-nSels

-rrXamTu] Cf.
It
is,

ii.

tions of
his

no one, however prominent

arguments.

yield to the seducposition or plausible of course, possible that the writer is
26.

They must
his

thinking of
6
-rroiuiv']

some
will

particular opponent. If the Cf. i. 6, iii. 4, etc.

character

is

true,

the

be an expression of it, even as the whole of Christ's life was a continuous expression of the character and person in whom God could be well pleased. Righteousness was fully realized eKeiyos] Cf. vv. 3, 4 (notes). No lower ideal would in Him who set the Christian standard.
whole
life

prove a sufficient incentive to holiness, realization of which the nature of man
reKvia

i.e.

is

the highest selfcapable, who was

created in order to grow into the likeness of God.
27. 29 sch aeth. cat. sah. syr
5.

AC P

NBKL
13.

al. pier. cat.

Thphyl. Oec.

m

arm.

(uid.) cop. syrP

me

vg. syr. Tert. Aug.] watdia Lcif. : +fiov 15. 26. 36. 68

yiojSeis] fir] tis

A.

ttoiuv 6iKauo<Tvv7]t> (? ? cf. v. Soden, p. 1856)] 01/ccuos U S 48 dtKaios (? 2 )] om. (33). '

H

up //S 86 (&).

TT)V

2

om. N*.

88

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[III. 8.

He whose 8. 6 irotaif T>\v &|jiap-Raf] The contrast to lb. whole course of action is the expression of "sin," belongs to the Devil, from whom the life which animates him is derived, as the higher life which issues in righteousness proclaims its possessor
a tIkvov 6eov.

€k tou

Sia^oXou
:

£<tt'i###BOT_TEXT###gt;]

Cf.

Bede,

"

Non

carnis

originem

ducendo ex diabolo sicut Manichaeus impurissime de cunctis sed imitationem uel suggestionem peccandi credit hominibus sumendo ab illo, quomodo et nos filii Abrahae sumus facti,
imitando fidem Abrahae," a suggestive note, though
it ignores the nearer illustrations of the context. dir Apx^s] The meaning of ok dpxfc has been variously It has generally been understood either of (i) the interpreted. " which of sinning," i.e. the Fall of Adam, or events beginning preceded the first sin of man or (2) the beginning of the existence of the Devil. His first act was one of sin. The uncertainty of both these interpretations has led Rothe and others to give
;

"Satan the phrase a logical rather than a temporal meaning. sake of the for author would the say, par principe,' sins, Other sinners sin for the sake of another. In contrast sinning. Whether the actual phrase to him all human sin is derived." can bear such an interpretation or not, the point of view of the
'

The writer must have readers has surely been overlooked. intended a meaning which the words could suggest to them. The phrase must therefore be interpreted in accordance with Gn. i. 1, etc. The attempt to assign a definite Jn. viii. 44, i. 1 "The earliest times spoken of date, so to speak, is a mistake. " would perhaps be the nearest popular paraphrase. in Genesis
;

" It the first would give its meaning with fair accuracy. denotes the earliest events which have any bearing on the point From the very first, long before the first actual sin at issue. of any man, "the devil sinneth," and the course begun from the All human sin, therefore, first has been continued ever since. It comes has its origin in what is external to the man who sins. It is not self-originated or part of from an external source. man's nature. As Westcott has said elsewhere, "There is no view of human nature so inexpressibly sad as that which leaves out the Fall." As also F. D. Maurice has said, "There has

"

From

been no period of the existence of human beings in which they have not been liable to the assaults of this Tempter." There is nothing in the passage to suggest that the writer
held a "dualistic" view of the origin of evil, considering the " " but it is manifest that he an originally evil being Devil Cf. Jn. vii;. 44. believed in a personal Tempter. els touto c^a^pwOrj k.t.X.] All such action is in direct opposition to the purpose of the Incarnation of the Son of God, who
;

HI.

8, 9.]

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

89

" The word generally includes the sugges destroy." of tion destroying, undoing or dissolving, that which forms the bond of cohesion. Cf. Jn. ii. 19, v. 18, vii. 23 (the Lord
Xuo-fl]

Devil,

was manifested in the flesh in order to destroy the works of the i.e. the sins which he has introduced into the lives of men.

"dissolved'' the Jewish sabbatical question the higher principle of the Windisch aptly quotes true self). Gospel, i]X6ov KaraAi'crcu to. epya tyjs
i°]

tradition by applying to the duty of restoring man to his

the Xoyiov of the Egyptian

^Aeta;.
Lcif.

+ 5e

A

25.

68 k scr
:

tol.

boh-ed. arm. aeth.

\vcrr]] Xvcrei

B IOO

Xvdi] P.

9. He who is begotten of God must be in character who begat him. Sin, which is of the Devil, finds no

like

God

place in

him.

Compare and contrast Jn. i. 13, Ik 6(ov Here the writer emphasizes not only the initial act, or the single act, but its permanent results. He d/xapn'av 00 Troiei] Anarthrous and therefore qualitative. does not do that which is sinful in character. But the absence
6
yeyevvr\p.£vo<s]
iyevvrjOrjcrav.

of the article should not be pressed.

the new life in him a permanent and abiding factor. 1 The interpretation which equates <nrtpp.a with the Word of God (" semen " unde dei, id est uerbum dei," Bede, from Augustine, who adds, dicit Apostolus, Per Euangelium ego uos genui, 1 Co. iv. 15) receives some support from 1 P. i. 23; Ja. i. 18, but is hardly in accordance with the Johannine teaching, in which the Spirit is the author of the new birth (cf. Jn. iii.). Wohlenberg in an interesting paper has pleaded for the interpretation which identifies o-ir£pp.a 6eov with God's children collectively (cf. Jn. viii. 33, anrip/xa It has the advantage of referring avrov 'Afipadp.). and iv aura) to the same person (God's children abide in Him), but it makes the following clause, ov Svvarai, yeyeW^rai, very difficult both in grammar and sense. As Law has pointed out, the last clause must then have run (" and they cannot sin, because
oTt
cnre'pfjia]
i.

The seed which produces

(cf.

Jn.

13), as

.

.

.

Still less can be said for Karl's interthey abide in Him"). pretation of the words as referring to Christ. Cf., however, 2 Justin, Apol. i. 32, where we perhaps have an echo of this. ou SuVaTai k.t.X.] The fact that he has been begotten of God excludes the possibility of his committing sin as an expression of his true character, though actual sins may, and do, occur, in so

far as
1

he

fails

from weakness to
Ebriet. 30 (Cohn,
ii.

realize his true character.
p. 176), ra. rod deov a-rripfxara.

Cf.

Cf. Philo,

De

J

ol iri<TTeuoi>Tes

aury tLvOpuirou

iv

oh oUel to

Trapd,

rod deou o-iripfm, &

X670J.

go
Jn.
viii.

THE EPISTLES OF
33, 39.

S.

JOHN

[in.

9, 10.

Every tIkvov must reproduce the works of his In so far as any man is a tUvov 6cov he "cannot" do The writer speaks, however, here as the works of the Devil. elsewhere, in the absolute language of the prophet rather than
father.

of Birth from
xas]

with the circumspection of the casuist. God, see Windisch, p. 118.
pr. 810 ayaTT7]Toi
I

On

the N.T. doctrine

7c258

99. IOO. 177* a106 (33) / (179). toi,(? )] afiapTiav ov 7rwa] non peccat sail. boll. i6 6M (216) O (154). ffirep/xa] pr. to 7° a383 avrov] dei sah. d : om. / (231). 15S a/iapraveiv] a/j.apriav iroirjaat. I* (395).
yeyevvTifievos] yeyevqfj.evos

om.

H^

K

(56).
scr
j

° scr

*!•

P a UC.

oti] ocrns i"

864

(233).

10. iv tou'tw] This may possibly refer to what has preceded, the not-doing or the doing of sin, which are the distinguishing characteristics of the classes into which the writer divides manBut it is more probable, and more in accordance with the kind. writer's usual custom, that the reference is to what follows, the achievement of, or the failure to achieve, righteousness and love For the construction, cf. the note on i. 4. (cf. ii. 3). 4>av£pd] The writer is striving to give his readers a disIt is, of course, to tinguishing test which can be easily applied. the judgment of men, not the judgment of God, that the two

clues

become

manifest.

tIkvo. tou 8ia(3oAou] cf. Acts xiii. 10, vik 8ta(36\ov, and Jn. viii. The teaching of this section of the Epistle can hardly be under-

stood without reference to the 8th chapter of the Gospel, with which it is intimately connected. There are no exceptions on the ground of superior ircis] " " knowledge or pneumatic nature ; cf. notes on vv. 3, 4. Kal 6 jxt] dya-ir-wr] The doing of righteousness might be too vague and general a test. The writer therefore narrows it down to one special form of righteousness which is in fact the basis of the whole, and in the exercise of which the false teachers had apparently shown themselves particularly lacking. Cf. Ro.
xiii. 9, ei Tt?

iripa ivroXr], iv tw

Xoyw

tovto) dva/ce<£aAaioGrai, ev

tiu'

<jov ws aeavrov. dya7r^(T£is tov ttXtjctlov

Toy d8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;j>oy auTou] The writer is obviously thinking of members of the Christian Society, not thereby excluding the wider duty on which the Sermon on the Mount and the Parables insist The object of the Epistle is to suggest practical tests. They must be practical and such as are easily applied. No statement is made to the effect that he wh© confines his love to his Christian brethren has completely fulfilled the law of Christ. The writer has a special object in what he says, and he writes in

III. 10, 11.]

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

91

view of the failure in this respect of showing love to fellowChristians, which was conspicuous in the case of the false teachers, in spite of their claims to intellectual and spiritual

There is nothing inconsistent with the teaching of the Christ in laying special stress on the first stage in obeying it. The experience of a lifetime, and especially of his later years, would seem to have taught the writer the necessity of charity
superiority.

beginning at home.
ev toitw] eK rovrov
Tras] pr.

/a2O0f
aeth.

(83).

km C*

uid

X A B C K L P al. omn uid cat. harl. tol. arm. cop. syr. aeth. Did. Thphyl. Oec] wv St/catos m vg. (am. fu. demid.) sah. syr. SiKaios wv H S 6 {*&). An interesting "Western" Or. Cyp. Lcif. Aug. The context requires the variant, which can hardly claim to be original.
woiuv
5iKaw<rvi>T]v
:

practical test of 8inaio<rwi]v

SBL

"doing."
al.

02
11.

]

om.

/a382

plu.

Dam.]

pr. tt\v

ACKPh

al. fere.

20

Dam.

(231).

avrou]

+ ovk aya wa

tov 6v I*

(505)*

original message of the Gospel, nay, the whole history of God's revelation of Himself to men from the earliest times, is summed up in the command to exercise mutual love. He therefore who does not love his brother shows thereby that

The

he cannot be
auTT]
.
. .

e/c

tov 6eov.

iva]

The

avrrj,

which

refers

to

what

follows,

excludes the possibility of any "telic" force being retained by Iva here ; cf. Jn. xvii. 3, and the close parallels in Jn. xiii. 34, See also 1 Jn. v. 3 ; 2 Jn. 5, xv. 12; 1 Jn. iii. 23, iv. 21, v. 16. The declarative, or definitive, use of Iva 6 ; cf. note on i. 9. to introduce the contents of a command, or the like, is fully
established for S. John.
is

dyyeXia] the basis.
it is

and

The message of the Gospel, of which the law of love The reading lirayytXCa does not suit the context, obviously due to the careless substitution of a commoner
in this passage, dyyeXt'a is
i.

found only once in the the other hand, eVayyeAta occurs 51 times, but only once in the Johannine writings (1 Jn. ii. 25). aTr' r\v TjKouVaTe dpxrjs] The law of love was an essential part It formed part of the of the earliest presentation of the Gospel.
word.

Except

N.T.

(1 Jn.

5).

On

earliest teaching which the readers had received. however, of ver. 12 suggest that in the words

The
d7r'

dp^-r/s

contents, the
earliest
fatal

writer's

thought goes back to

still

earlier times.

The

stories of the beginnings of the race bear witness to the consequences of disobedience to the law of love.
al. plu. cat. Thphyl. Oec vg. scr n scr al. mu. harl. 29. 40. 66**. 69. 99 a syr. d. txt uerbum Oec Lcif. sali Did. aeth. Cyr.

KCP

ayyeXta
27.

ABKL

com

Aug.] er-o^yeXta

sah wl>

cop. arm.
(235).

:

ivo. ayttTTw/xej']

ut diligatis

boh-ed. arm' ,sc

:

iva.

a113 ayaTare /

92

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[in. 12,

12. The story of Cain is the typical example of the "want" of brotherly love. The form of the reference here is conditioned by what the writer has to say about the hatred which Christians must expect from the world. Men's deeds are the natural outcome of their charcater and inclinations. Evil deeds are the expression of a character which takes pleasure in what is evil. Righteousness must always provoke the hostile feeling of those whose delight is in evil. And feelings must sooner or later

express themselves in action.
oo KaOois] Cf. 2 Co.
ISw/cav
vi.
:

viii.

5,

kcu ov Ka#a>s rjXTriaa/xev

aWb. iavTOvs

oi

Jn. xiv. 27, ov /ca#u><> 6 Koo-fxos 8l8wctlv, and especially Jn. 58, outos Icttiv 6 tx/oros 6 t£ ovpavov Kara/?a?, ov KaOws ccpayov 7raT£/3es kcu airidavov, where the construction is irregular, as

The comparison is incomplete in form. It may be " the feelings of Christians for each other must not paraphrased be like, rather they must be the exact opposite of, those of Cain, whose hatred of righteousness led him to the violent murder of
here.
his

brother."
y.P.

Schlatter
*>an^>

aptly quotes

in

illustration

(p.

149),

S)3n*nK ann

1^2

&6.nx nwa,

Pes.

Kah.

16. 126a.

Ik tou TTo^pou r\>] Every man must draw his life and power His deeds show to whom he from one source or the other. The writer never denies the belongs and has attached himself. He only traces things back to individual freedom of choice. what he believes to be their ultimate spiritual sources. In lo-^alcf] The verb always includes the idea of violence. the N.T. o-<f)d£eiv is found only here and in the Apocalypse. Cf. ApoC. vi. 4, Iva aWrjkovs o~cpd£ovariv 9, tos \pv\as twv io~<pay:

tov Aoyov tov Otov xviii. 24, TravrtDV twv €<r<£ay/A£vu)v eVt " It is also used of the Lamb, and of the head " of the rrj<; y^s. beast (xiii. 3). In the its most frequent use is sacrificial (cf. Gn. xxii. 10, of Isaac; Ex. xxix. 11 ; Lv. i. 5 ; Nu. xi. 22, etc) but see also Jg. xii. 6 (A), cr<f>d£ovo-iv ain-ovs eVt ras 8ia/3ao-€is tov 'lophdvov I K. XV. 33, eo~(pa£e HafxovrjX tov 'Ayay ivwiriov
fievtov Sta
:

LXX

;

:

Kuptou

:

I

Mac.

i.

2,

kcu eo-cpa^e /JacnAa?, etc.

deed was only the last expression of which righteousness always calls out in those who make evil the guiding principle of their life. This view, that the cause of the murder of Abel is to be found in the character of Cain as manifested in his actions, is hardly in accord with the narrative of Genesis (iv. 8 ff.), but it is quite in keeping with
X<£piy tiVos]

The

violent

that antipathy

the suggestions read into that narrative by the adherents of the allegorical method of exegesis. may compare Philo's treatment of the subject, who finds indications of Cain's <pt.\avTia. " in the fact that he only offered his sacrifice after several days," and not at once, with the readiness which should distinguish the

We

mu. Did. iTxas] rjfias sah. 13-15. . a8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;poi X ABCD al. where the stress is laid on the character sacrifices offered (7rA€iWa dva-iav). aeth. /ecu Oec. ^aM ( 2 36). The construction with the present imperative is the usual construction in the Johannine writings. The ground of the world's hatred of those who love. vg. 98. 7 (jirj Oav/xda-r]'. 28. always liable to provoke unchristian retaliation. sah. cop.ei'] The appeal is to the Christian conscious- by writers and readers alike. I JOHN 93 service of fruits. tlvos kcu . sahd .t) ABC pr. He who does not love is still in that of life. which that which is good must always call out in that which is evil. only used in the passage quoted above. 18.] NOTES ON . 7a 397 ffff (96) . longe. Every one who does not love his brother is a murderer. shared . and always a temptation to the more "intelligent" to neglect their duty to their weaker brethren. vg. Oec] pier. which the fact dead should hear the voice of the Son of God. or action.III. 12-14. not to the momentary that the hour was coming. 36. cop. where the form of sentence refers to the continuous feeling. xi. the aorist subjunctive being Here it is significant. iii. that no murderer can have the higher life in him as a permanent and abiding principle of action. in Christ. the state of death. /j. (rnxuv) Thphyl. Our love for the brethren assures us that we have already in passed out of the state of hatred and death. where the aorist emphasizes the immediate feeling aroused by a particular thought. also and that he offered of the fruits.). 7 14. and now abide For life is love. aeth. Did. 13-16. Thphyl. in the eyes of all to whom the true issues of things are manifest. Cf. Their experience as Christians has taught them that conscious life is dormant till ness. also Jn. 13. om. Jn. x a P iV d ov] pr.* syr. T|fx€us oiSafj. character general of the on the tov (? i°) om. 46 a 1402 (219) O (154). syr. a8e\(pov aurou] a/?eX SiKaia] dona arm. 191 cat. rather than of all the actions of the two men. rather than the more permanent feeling called out by what is continuous. corr KLal.] + fMov KL al. 4. The hatred of the world was an abiding attitude. K C* P 15. Lcif. God Cf. Abal. Those who can interpret aright the true meaning of the story of Cain and Abel will feel no surprise at the attitude It only expresses the hostility of the world towards Christians. 66**. cat. am. even though he has so far stayed his hand from And your common consciousness as men tells you violence. and the glory of love. fit) eaujid^Tc] cf. when all the surprise. might occasion. Lcif. 29. not of the firstHe. v. which gives life. syr. et sah avrov aeth. | tov] pr. / a284 (233). arm. sah. plu.

not of the murderer of the soul. 29. Cassiod. " 10). : P al. 27. Mt. 5S lect syr.X. even as the Christ is the propitation for the whole world. . 14. v." Hatred . viii. Aug. Non movet manus ad occidendum hominem.] Cf. dv'OpcjTroKToi'os] Cf. 2." Wohlenberg's attempt to connect the word fxivovcrav with the following verse (MeYouo-av lv Toirrw lyvitiKafxev tt)v aydir-qv) is ingenious rather than convincing. called out in active v.. 44. i. i. Grammar of New Testament Greek. 2 Jn. of actual murderer. syr. 33. 1 Jn. vi. and has a wider application than the Christian Society. 15. life 1 Jn. 245 f. Augustine {Trad. " " love not only might be. vol. 24. 10 sah w Did. Jn. and see Moulton's naturally adopt. absolute statements he shows himself fully aware that the duty of love is absolute. (Trad. Oec.T. Thphyl. rous a8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;povs] /XT) a5e\cf)ov CKLP ayairuv + 7]fjiuv X 68. aeth. or at least jrfis ou] The usual the form of expression which a Jew writing Greek would Cf. and it serves to heighten the impossibility of the rejected hypothesis. avoid the use of irony when it suits his purpose. sah. (+avrov rous a5e###BOT_TEXT###lt;povs 15. et iste iam interfector iudicatur. Lcif. JOHN [ill. Though it is not absolutely necessary to the sense. Jn. cop. 14. . . love and fellowship. ii.]+rov sah w cop syr. 14. securus quia transiit a morte ad uitam." The addition of rbv aSekcfaov in the Receptus is natural in But it the light of the preceding clause and of ver. its position is justified by the fxivet of ver. pier. 01 + 5e/ a256 -rras 15. 6 fucrwv k. Such note." 6 fit) dya-nw] The statement is put in its most general form.94 it THE EPISTLES OF is S. though in a practical Epistle he lays most stress on what is first practicable. etc. 38. 21. sah db arm. 16. Cf. display has presented itself and been used. (leVouaa/l Cf. In his more narrows down the writer's meaning unnecessarily. io). of course. p. v. " Hebraistic" expression. used here in its literal sense its use in the N. X AB 13. The word suggests that eternal is ii. 24. Their natural consciousness as men oiSaTe] It is axiomatic. homicida iam tenetur a Domino uiuit ille. 19. Aug. redeat unusquisque ibi inuenerit charitatem fraternam. 27. vg." but is. 23. sit "Nemo : ad cordem suum si interroget hominem . v. the only other instance of It is. will tell them that the higher life cannot be communicated as The writer does not a permanent possession to such an one. " " vernacular usage phrases as x^P^i irdo-rjs v-repOto-eiDS show that .t. is the moving cause.) (24). 32. al. The state in which love has not been called out into conscious Life is the chance of learning how activity is a state of death. whether or not the occasion for its final Cf. both "a con- tinuous power and a communicated life.

1S32 B>BJ D"b> and DE>K B>M D*fe71 (Is. will the words. according to the writer's usual custom. etcelcos such as we uTrep r\j. plu. 15. 13. 16-18. 18. ev : pr. direction. neither writer nor readers feel the need for cKci^og] He further definition by the addition of a name. The true nature of love was manifested in such a way that men could learn to realize it. ovk I*& 505 (69). avrov] eavrov B. He who is unwilling to give of his external possessions. for our brethren. the Christ. xv. . heightened by the order of There are no depths of sacrifice to which true love for us : He The contrast is u auTou IfiTjKey] Neither of the O. if need be even to the last sacrifice. Oec] ( eavru om. 16. Description of true love. .1 NOTES ON r JOHN 95 " under the encouragement of a only needed to be extended But so far as the evidence goes it similar idiom in Hebrew. 37-38. and exhortation to its The essence of love was manifested once for all. 4. has not even begun to cherish practice. cUi otSare] otSaftep I (335) b 370 7raj2°] + o/ « (H49)ev sah wb boh. the Son of God. toC XpiuTov or rov $e8v. determine the exact sense of D^b*. There is no need to supply a genitive. of \SS2 in the one case. ttjk dyd-n-T]v] Absolute. liii. when the Christ gave His life for men. 17. for 3. at expressions of which professed correspond to real feelings of the heart 16. 80 . afford a sufficiently close parallel to suggest an interpretaThe additions. 10). 15.T. There is. phrases.C>v] are. True love proves itself in action. not stoop. TiOrjm ra The latter IfxaTLa." " in the Semitic would seem that there has been " extension is The construction not in found the Gospel. We know what true love really is in the light of that example. avru B K al. The Rabbinic other. lc 116 114 d fi€vov<rav] om. The usage of the Fourth Gospel is a safer guide. and also xiii. with abiding effects on their character and life (iyvwKa/xev). n) all have }D:. true love for It God It cannot stop short it is instrument. 4.in. finally and completely. and D£*N in the tion. And we cannot but recognize our obligation to follow it. especially when a clause with on follows. al. Cf. sah aiwviov] - NALCP ). where need is obvious and well known to him. Cf. Jn. which the tongue is the must show by actual deeds that the words in in his soul. x. Thphyl. iv toutu] The reference is to what follows. xiii. which ttji' 4* are usually quoted. x. the notes on : w. however. n. a simple test by which we can know at once whether we are at least on the road which leads to the possession of true love. xV phrases quoted by Schlatter (on Jn.

harl. The writer is always practical test.iiev~\ eyvu/iev Z (216) rr\v a. or laying down) in the later interpolation of vv. 6851 eyvuKo. a 200 ' T (8^). 27. to need be. of course. Such a koivt} Ivvoia of good men throws the clearest light on the nature of love. as has been pointed out. 18. b 807 487 S virep tuv a. if which all good men recognize. the duty of all disciples to follow it is clear. . 17. is determined by the added 1D33.XT' &VTOV edrinev vwep rjfxwv / b3y8 78 « 507 *i6 » 17S 6U3 «iw] vnuv I* (319) / (69). for others. 16. as felt by " us. Oec. passage suggests the idea of laying aside.ya-Kr)v\ : it has The yivucrKOfj. 78). 26.g6 THE EPISTLES OF S. is in favour of it. where a more homely test extent of a man's failure. and governed by on. Christ. and taken up in a different sense (of giving. 15. occur again in the Johannine Books. where the meaning. P 1M Oiivai NA BCP all 5.] It is not clear whether this clause is added to the first clause. The ledged with reveals the enforcing the truth that philanthropy begins at home. x. 101 7 +-qiLuv /* (335) (40). the advantage of far greater simplicity and directness. i". Phil©.) arm-codd. emphatic 17/^15. as a garment is put off. virep] TTfpt P. and this is reflected in his forms of expression. demid. Vig. But the use of nai in this Epistle is wide. And interpretation is therefore grammatically admissible. Cf. 10. The second The obligation. Grammatically the first is preferable. The writer always thinks as a Hebrew. edriKev] Tedeacev 4. JOHN [ill. But the obligation. but it has perhaps been influenced by the Hebrew phrase. can hardly The phrase does not help us to determine its meaning here. 17. the present verse agrees with the koI rjfiels k. x. pier.t. £Ketvos WqKtv. +eius.5e###BOT_TEXT###lt;puv] post ^vxas /» (209) / « (241) 2* + Tov - boh- + m : V l - - - m A'«200 (922). variant Si'8ajcriv (k D). When once the perfect example has been set. may be part of the means whereby we learn what true love is. Wider obligations may be acknowreadiness in theory." may also be regarded as the consequence of what Christ has done. Ambrst. If the distinction is to be main" later" passage. deov 52 vg. 11. The Latin translation " dat" in derived from the Western is. 29. : ipsius tol. Spitta's suggestions (ZNTIV x. Thphyl. ii. in the sense of risking or staking his life for the sheep. The usage of -ritfcVai in Jn. . or is to be regarded as a consequence of the example set by the n . 68] riBevai - : K 17. [1909] p. 31. is worthy of consideration. sacrifice their lives. avrov 31*. (am. L al. tojv ad(###BOT_TEXT###lt;pwi>] a\r)\wv boh. that the phrase is used rightly in vv. tov kclXov olvov TiO-qa-iv. which agrees well with the use of the phrase in Jn. Jn. Elsewhere the Vulgate uses ponere. (216) 40 : TedrjKev /» 264. . tained.a' Ic lu (335). 18.S D08 (233) : ponit ante ttjv <f>vx. codd. moreover. 15.X.

ex«™ (? I ^o258 dewp-n] dewpei )] KL L (5 6 )- om. .TTT. 18). xpeiak e^orra] Cf.) is not to be found in Hebrew forms of to. xx. 13. 4. 2 . 28. on Ph. aeth. while £01*7 occurs more than a hundred times. avek€rjp.] etc. made. ri Ttcrra. Jn. The word is expression. longe.65 (40) : pr. as usual. Cf. 35 . v. m am. SiavoclcrBai 8t kcu Trpa. Apoc. Cain.) syr. plur. cop. arm. 27. 17. KABCP pr. Much + Moi» Oec. xxi. cf. ii. 45. tou 0£oO] objective. 4.] NOTES ON 86 (Cohn.) io. xii. /a7 13 29. 97 fj. Clem. lxxvi.T. 25 . 2. 6) by lAcos. cnrXdyx^a] Cf.ovs tav yev>?Tcu iv <rol opyfj olvtov . facilitates tnundi. and in Isaiah (xlvii. Bios always denotes life in its external aspects. 44 ( = Lk. Mk.. 18. See Lightfoot's note (xxv. (c\e«T7/] K\e«rei al. /3t'os is rare in the N. ttjv . iv. vg.. i< v€o't?7tos. 453 (2) A' is « 401 (62). and only in this passage is it used to translate D^CIT]. suggests that a barrier has to be raised against the natural human feelings which the contemplation of such a case calls out.) 6. . tou Kocrjiou] Well paraphrased in Augustine's version. which in the Psalms is paraphrased by otKripp-oi (Ps. rfj . fiiuxriv p. Dam. 3. I JOHN yap ocpeXos Acyeiv . Aug. also Dt. corresponds to inward a mere exercise of the tongue.ov Consequently. 40 alP lus M . but see. ru /* 175 - ^ (319). Cf. Ac.26i . 6. «6 (*) 1* lul . The classical distinction between cr7rAay^va and tvrepa (not in N. 1 P. ^5eJ km H syr. and for the use of the phrase absolutely. Cf. syr.TT€iv tol atcr^icrTa croc/ucrraiv ovto<> 6 Tp07TO5. ii. exv] avrov The context determines that the genitive must be Cf. The Practical love is protestation tckvio. 4). to. 17 (rvveiei tovs 0'iKTeipp. also Ac. (lxxvii. air avrov] ev] om. Ac.lv to. xxvi. iv epyu tea! d\T]0€ia] The phrase is contrasted with Aoyw and 18. . ii. xi. . ii. iv. Teim'a] yAuicrcn. 10. aeth. and for the verb. 2 Ti. a-/a7rare ayaTrijip. al 15 truth. ii. /?«'A- De Post. Thphyl.ova. iv. ev cat. 17 aXoZpvia. 8. rov fiiov 1 Ti. Pr. xxiv. sah. Cf. 1 6. 7. Ih 70 « 180 ev > b253£ (505) 7 (1319). The word perhaps ovk airoo-rip^wi tt]v KapStav o-ov. Ps. Eph.T. (4'). : kXcictt)] avrov lv . fieupr)] Behold long enough to appreciate and understand the circumstances of the case. evSe^s . tov i-n-t\oLirov to*' fiiov : lv crapKL /Jiwcrai ^povov. ii. XV. Mk. nf. xii.ev~\ \oyw] 7 H H& (fu. K L al. not merely cast a passing glance. iv. on the ground of appeal the common spiritual nature which they all share. ii. 8k cnrXayxya twv aaefiuv not found in the earlier parts of the Septuagint. demid. i.

" Thus the who is love. 19 f. who are conscious of the relationship to God in which Their security lies in the fact that they stand." The choice of phrase is God is true and God. and He has absolute. Christians. xxi. the more clearly it So the allseen that such love is of the very Being of God. sat. TrdVra for admitting the man to His fellowship. who are conscious of sins knowledge.]deid] + quia sumus ex uerilate sah. ev] om. " If as natural men we shrink from allowing our neighbours to see into our heart. cat. Clem. which is not merely the clearly its true character is recognized. this relationship has been established by one who knows all the There is no fear of alteration in the circumstances of the case. But how can such confidence be said to be derived from the practice of love. NP al. and the kinship.98 Tt) "y\wa<Tt) THE EPISTLES OF ABCKL permu. it is otherwise. He knows that the love is true. much more are we terrified at the thought that the holy God penetrates But in the case of to the depth of our hearts" (Rothe). of the Lord. accepted the love which is real and active as sufficient ground Cf. the Christian can for the all-knowing God is greater than the accusing heart : conscience. Jn. however. al. His He can see the whole. i. d . (rv yivwo-Keis on (ju\w ere. Thphyl.e. arm. of each the Christian faith. that interrupt their fellowship with light of fuller sight the omniscience of God may seem a strange for the confidence of men.9. ah 0180. And the consciousness of this fellowship brings assurance. S. in the sphere in which it is first possible. Knowing all. in The answer is that in such activities they love of the brethren? have learned to know of a love. Oec. 6eov. " knowing were the all-loving too. cat. 18. assures men of their fellowship with "of the truth. in whose " " his still presence no falsehood can stand. notwithstanding the many failures is knowledge which interrupt its complete realization. The accusations of conscience are stilled in the presence of omniscient holiness. Oec. Even before God. They have always been recognized as touching the very heart of The exact interpretation. and is the determining element of the character. in spite of what the conscience has to tell of thoughts and deeds which mar its realization. At ground first God. Dam. 19 f. that they are determined by the Practically it is equivalent to c'vat Ik tov language of ver. a.] om. 17. mu." The surest ground of our confidence is the knowledge that "our help standeth in the name more is general meaning of these verses is fairly plain. plu. JOHN ttj [in. . K al. which is perfect love. other than that based on physical " " cloak of self-seeking . Dam. The consciousness that their love for active.

the asserted theft of the body by the disciples) . 2 Mac. we can nevertheless persuade ourselves that we are really of the truth. cause" have to some extent come under consideration in conBut the relation of the first clause to the nection with ttzIBziv. and gives an adequate Even though our heart (conscience) convicts us of sins which separate us from God. (a) The second on may be regarded as The resumptive. or perhaps we should say in consequence of. difficulties caused by the sequence of two clauses introduced by on have led to the removal of the second on from some texts. appease. because God is greater than our hearts. to be gathered from the context. in knowledge and in love. after so short a clause is not really natural. with the knowledge that God who knows all has admitted us to His fellowship and love. and has recognized our position. . koX iav a. 14. in spite of. 7rpos to 71-acrai can appease our heart. but of our subjective apprehension of it.).s Troi-qcrofx^v (where. there is some authority for the absolute use of TreiBuv in the sense of "still. Cf. But the use of the resumptive on It is possible in either case." resumptive is more natural in the former than in the latter case. " that God is fact may be found in the second clause. The disputed. ." than our objection is hardly Against greater The question valid that the fact is too obvious to be disputed. either in the sense of "that. can . tranquillize.III. that " the consciousness of a sincere love of the brethren does not (/3) The furnish the basis of the conviction of the sovereign greatness of God. (i) If Treiaofiev is taken in its usual sense of "persuade.] is NOTES ON I JOHN 99 The meaning of difficulty. linjyyeiKaTQ xpTj/xaTa .as TruaofXiv /ecu u/xas d/A€pt//. is not of the objective truth of the fact. 17/u. 19 f.t.K0vcr6f) tovto iirl tou ^yeyttovos. and is not in accord still We 45. a fact of which we are assured by the active love for others which His love has kindled in our hearts. the reference may be to the contents of ver. the fact that He knows all. (2) The exact meaning of on in each clause and their mutual The meanings " that " or " berelations are of less moment." assure. though as an explanation of irdo-ofxtv it is less natural than (a). This is perhaps the simplest interpretation. under circumstances which make its realization peculiarly difficult (eav KarayLvwa-Kr) k. the qualms of conscience. and so is qualified to judge. iv." or "because. Dr. however.A. we must unstated. On the other hand. tov ySacrtAea. this the heart. xxviii. as also of the first and second cm." clause a matter of considerable 7rei(ro/A£v is the fact of which we "persuade our heart" may be left If so. Mt. " " that we are of the truth from the preceding verse. supply (a) This grammatically unobjectionable. 13. is sense." (y) If the first suggestion (a) is felt to be unsatisfactory.vcn. second is doubtful. Westcott's objection would seem to hold good.

IOO

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[in. 19f.

with the style of the writer. (/3) The first on may be relative, " Whereinsoever our heart condemns us," the second on being taken in the sense of either "that" or "because." This interpretation relieves the sentence of an awkward and unnecessary resumptive particle, and it may be paralleled by instances of the use of o ti av in the Gospel, which are not indeed identical, but are sufficiently similar to justify its adoption here. Cf. Jn. ii. 5, If we take into consideration the author's habit xiv. 13, xv. 16. of throwing forward for the sake of emphasis a word or words which stand outside the general construction of his sentence, we may feel justified in assuming that he has here made use of an accusatival clause (of respect) in rather loose connection with For the use of o ti av (Zdv), cf. Mk. vi. the rest of the verse. 23 ; Lk. x. 35. In what has been said, it has, of course, been assumed that the omniscience of God is alleged as a ground for confidence not for fear (if our own heart condemn us, the judgment of

omniscient justice must be far more severe). The opposite view has been stoutly maintained by Wohlenberg in the series of
articles
p.

636

Cf.

above (JVeue Kirkliche Zeitschrift, 1902, by Findlay {Expositor, November, 1905). also the comment of the Catena (Cramer, viii. 128), eav,
referred
to
ff.),

and

also

<f>rj(TLV,

Tavovres

afxapTuifxev oi \av6dvofJL€v, ouSe oia(f>ev£6fjL€8a' el yap r-qv KapStav eaurwv \a9eiv (? ins. ov) Svvdpittia,

auap-

dAAa

vvTTop.e8a vtto tov crwciboros, 7rocraj p.dk\ov rov dtov tu)v <pav\o)v (? urj) SvvTjdwaev Xadelv ;
It

irpa.TTOvTf.'i ti

vv. 19 and 20 almost imcan only be done by interposing a thought which is left altogether without expression in the passage. " We shall assure our heart and we shall have great need to do so for if our conscience condemn us, how much more severe " If this must necessarily be the verdict of the omniscient God is what the writer meant, he has severely taxed the powers of And the aim of the whole his readers to follow his argument. passage is surely to give assurance, and not to strike terror into

makes the connection between
to explain.
It

possible

;

!

There is nothing in the passage to indicate that 20 and 21 are intended to meet the circumstances of two different classes of people, the self-confident and the selftheir hearts.
vv.
distrustful.

In the explanation given of this passage it has been assumed that eV tov'to) refers back to the previous verse, which is contrary to the common usage of the wiiter, though perhaps not unparalIt is, however, possible to find the test of knowledge, leled.

and consequent assurance, in the sentence otl fidt,wv irdvra. The thought of God's power and omniscience may give us " We have been accepted of the truth." assurance that we are

HI. 19f., 21

ff.]

NOTES ON
all
is

I

JOHN
In

IOI
view of the

by one who knows
writer's

the

circumstances.

usage there

The

general meaning VVindisch is inclined
. .

to be said for this interpretation. of the passage is not affected by it. to regard the passage as corrupt, and

much

oti lav

we should read oi ireicrofAtv, and cut out the clause Thus KapSia as an interpolation based on ver. 21. amended, the passage would certainly contain a warning to the But self-confident, against which no exception could be taken.
suggests that
.

the best criticism on the suggestion is his own next sentence, " Das beste ist freilich man bleibt bei der Konstatierung der Text is verderbt." The writer knows how to use the irony of the commonplace, but he did not use it here.
:

ev

rovTw

AB
al.
.

HCKLP
scr 137 a

al vg. cop. syr. Clem.] pr. et sab. boh-cod. : om. 40 d a\X longe. plu. cat. syr. aeth. Dam. Thphyl. Oec. Aug.
:

scr

s

«

tovtov 69 a scr

yvuco/jLeda scr cat j
ecrfiev]

HABCP
7 al5S

6. 7.

1

5.

1

8. 22.

27. 29. 33. 36. 40. 66**. 68. 69.
yivu<TKo/j.ev

sah. cop. arm.

Clem. Dam.]

K L al.

pier. vg.

syr.

Thphyl. Oec. Aug.

can

iretcro/JLev] irei<Twfj.ev 5.

ri}v

CKLP

Kapdiav]

A*

(395). 10 scr al. fere. 27. 29. 69 a B 66** sah. boh. syr. aeth.
cat. vg.

al. fere.

omn.

arm.

syr.

Thphyl. Aug.] tos Thphyl. Oec.

icapdias

H As

al. pauc. eav] av (215). KaraytvucrKT) ijfj.uv] post KapSia J 5 KarayivuffKij] KaTaytiswaKei L 13. IOO. 106. 107*. al . cat. L al. oti 2 S B C 13. 33. 34. 63 syr.] om. plu. sab bw cop. arm. aeth. Oec. Aug. non exprimunt).

A

bm

K

A

d5Cr

(vg.

ixeifav] /J.€i£ov 5 459 55 (39I) effTlv] om. /a252-

K.

jb*U

(386).

Oeos] Kvpios C.
i}fj.<j)v

2°]

om. arm-ed.
ain- 106 -

irowo]pr.™/»

as

(i42).

21 ft. If our conscience acquits us, the result is a feeling of joyful confidence in the sight of God, and the consciousness that our prayers are answered, because of our obedience and
willing service.

of the writer's favourite forms dYairr|To£] Cf. ii. 7, iii. 2, one of address, and frequent in this second part of the Epistle, in which the main topic is love (iv. i, 7, n). iav k.t.X.] The clause is most naturally interpreted in its widest sense, regarded neither as an antithesis to ver. 20 nor as It includes all cases in which the verdict a continuation of it. of the conscience is favourable, both those in which there has been no condemnation, and those in which assurance has been gained in spite of the condemnation of the heart, from the thought of the greatness and omniscience of God. Contrast the order of ver. 20. The rj KapSio jjltj KaTayiywaia]] The stress is here laid on the faculty which passes judgment. writer follows his usual custom of stating a principle absolutely,

102

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[III.

21

ff.,

22.

without considering the modifications which become necessary when it is applied to the individual case. In so far as the conscience passes a verdict of acquittal, the results stated necessarily And the statement is made in the most absolute form, follow. "if the heart do not condemn," though r)fjiwv has naturally been
supplied in many texts, after KapSia and again after Ka.Tayivwcr/07. reading of B (Ix^i for exo/xev), which makes the heart the subject of the apodosis as well as of the protasis, is interesting. The form of ver. 20, however, makes it improbable that this is the original text. Boldness and confidence irappTjCTiai'] Cf. ver. 14 and note. are the ideas which the word generally suggests, while here that " " of freedom of intercourse in speaking with God in prayer is The phrase denotes, of course, the boldness and prominent. freedom from restraint with which the children can approach their Father always, rather than the clear conscience and confidence with which they can await the verdict of the Judge on the Last Day.

The

ayairrjToC] a8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;poi N.

eav\ av A.
77

KapSia

AB

al. pier. cat.

L 13. 27. 30. 66**. 113 fu. Or. Dam. Aug.] + rjfxwv N C vg. (am. demid. harl. tol.) arm. syr. sah. cop. aeth. Or. Dam.
cat.

K

Thphyl. Oec.

Cyp. Did. a3iJ7 206* fir,] om. 7 (96) yb S (242)i KarayivwcrKr, B C 68. Or.] KarayivwaKei
:+7}iiwv

aliq.

Dam. Dam. Did.
exo/J-ev]

SAKL
al.

A L
29.

13.

100.

106

al.

Sscr al.

al. pier. cat.

vg. sah. cop. syr. arm. aeth. Or.

exwvev

1

3

pauc.

Dam.

:

e%« B

of the favourable verdict. All requests are granted which can be put forward in the freedom of intercourse which has been described. For the conditions which make it possible are obedience to the Divine commands,
result

22.

The second

We may compare the noble Jewish Will as if it were thine, that He may do thy it were His." The two clauses express the two duties of obedience and willing service. True obedience to the Will of God must become spontaneous before it is made perfect. t& dpeord] The particular things which are pleasing in His sight, in the circumstances with reference to which the prayer is offered. Cf. Jn. viii. 29, ovk acfirJKev /xe p.6vov, on iyw ra dpeora airw 7roia> 7rdvroT€, the only other instance of the use of to. Cf. apea-rd in the New Testament (dpeo-ToV, Ac. xii. 3, vi. 2).
the request
is

active serving in doing whatever is known to be will. Every true prayer is the expression of the desire to obey and to do the will in those matters with which

and

willing

and

according to His

concerned.

"

saying, will as if

Do His

the Pauline cuapecrros, Eph.

y.

IO, SoKifjid^QVTe;

u

eariv cvdpecTTQf

in. 22 24.]
tw Kvpiu* He. xiii.
XpiCTTOV.
:

NOTES ON
iii.

I

JOHN

103

Col.

21,

7roiu)i/

Cf. 20, tovto yap evdpeaTov io~TW iv Kvptuy. iv rjp.lv to evdpecTTOv ivwinov avTOv Sia Itjctov
this

For the general teaching of
prayer, cf. Mk. xi. 24, Kal alTtlo-de, iriorevtTe
xvi. 23, ix. 31. Job xxii. 23-27,
61a.

verse

on the subject of

tovto Xeyta
i\d/3(T€,

vp.lv,

irdvTa oo-a 7rpoo-ev^£o-^c

on

»cat ecrrai

The most

interesting parallel
cf.

fyuv: Jn. xiv. 12, 13, is to be found in

of which the present verse

may

contain
f.

re-

miniscences, as

Holtzmann suggests;

especially ver. 26

en-a

els tov ovpavov JAapws. Trapprjo-iaaOrjarj ivavTiov Kvpiov, avafiXiiJ/as cicraicoucreTcu o~ov, owo-ci 8e 0*01 a7ro€v£ap.£vov Se crov 7rpos aurov

Sowat ras

ei^as.

1100 (45). eav] ort av scr {01/] av B 31. 42. 105 a

A

Dam.
llid

otTW/tiei'

A B C K Lai. omn
Or.

\anPai>ofj.cv] accipiemtis vg.
ojt]

S AB C

aiTiiao/xev 7 ^(i56). sah. syr. Cyp. Lcif. e scr a 8P 68. Dam.] Trap 69. 137 5. 13. 27. 29. 33. 34.
]

aiTUfieOa

H

Or.

:

al73 « 45
-

boh. arm-codd.

KL

al. pier. cat.

Ttipovnev

Dam. Thphyl. Oec. B C L al. plu. Dam.] Trjpu/nev S

AK

40. 98

al.

4
.

fulfilment of which

23, 24. Transition to the other command (of right belief), the is also a sign that our religious standing is verses are clearly transitional, and serve to two These right. emphasize what is essential in the matter of obedience to His commands, and so to lead the way to the second statement of the Christological thesis, the necessity of a true confession and right The commandments are summed up in the One Combelief. mand, of belief and love. The following of the Christ, shown most clearly and characteristically in active love of men, is the And this fellowship is mutual. essential condition of fellowship. We abide in Him. He abides in us. The human side and the

Real Divine are both essential parts of the Christian standing. in Him keeps who abides He in obedience. issues fellowship His commandments, not as a series of literal precepts, but as a And as contrasted with <pv\do-o-eiv). life-giving principle (Trjpelv, we are assured of the reality of the fellowship by the presence of In these transitional verses the Spirit which He has given us. three new points are introduced: (1) The mention of 7rto-TetW, here for the first time used in the Epistle. (2) The emphasis on the Divine side of the fellowship, avros iv rjp.lv. (3) The mention of the Spirit. of "believing" is as abrupt (1) The introduction of the idea here as it is in the partly parallel passage in the Gospel, vi. 29,
touto
io~TL

to tpyov toO Btov Iva

TTLCTTivrjTe €is

bv aireaTeiXev CKetvos,

where the emphasis is on personal trust and devotion (ttlo-tivuv rather than on conviction as to the truth of certain facts ets), about the object of irto-reueiv (ttio-t. c. dat.). The reason of this

104

THE EPISTLES OF
is

S.

JOHN
to the

[ill. 23.

difference of stress

clear.

Thus

far in the Epistle,

emphasis has
of the

been

laid

on the necessity of obedience

commands

The following of the Christ Christ, especially to the law of love. has been shown to be the necessary expression of Christian life, without which it is a "lie" to claim that the life is that of a
But He must be followed because of what He is. Conviction, therefore, as to what He is must necessarily precede No other peasant of Galilee obedience to what He commands. The writer is has the right to command the allegiance of men. anxious to remind his readers of this, since the preceding meditations, which deal rather with practical issues, might tend
Christian.

to obscure
(2)

its

importance.

which helped to introduce the section of the Epistle here brought to its close, emphasized the hummn side of the fellowship of Christians with God (ii. 28, fieverc iv auT<S). But the Divine side is essential, and on this the writer In the second proceeds to lay stress in the following chapter.
transitional verses,

The

part of ver. 24 this

is

made

clear, yiv uxtkoixw

on
it,

ftevet

iv

rjfjuv.

"Fellowship with God, and consciousness of

rest

acknowledgment and appropriation of a divine act

upon the and of the

divine nature of love" (Haupt). (3) Christians are conscious that God "abides in them" because they are conscious of the presence of the Spirit which God has given them. The repetition of this statement in iv. 13 shows that the words must be taken in this sense here. The thought is developed in the next section of the Epistle. God has really given His Spirit to men, though all spiritual influences to which men feel themselves to be subject are not the work of God's Spirit. Men must distinguish between the true and the
false.

23. auTT]]

points

forward
i.

according to the writer's usual
is is

custom.
Epistles
is

Cf. note

on

5.

Xva marcuoxjjxey]

The

Iva
it

and Gospel where

preceded by

definitive, as elsewhere in the The aorist avrr).

probably the true text. As contrasted with the present ttuttwhich was not unnaturally substituted for it, it lays stress, not on the initial act of faith (this is only one of the uses of the aorist, and not the most frequent), but on the whole process conceived as an unity. The conviction is regarded as one fact, not as a continuous process continuously exercising its influence on men. The aorist emphasizes the single fact, without in any way suggesting the length of time occupied in its manifestation. It can quite naturally sum up the action, or actions, of a period " one act at once." or of a lifetime, which it regards as tu ^ofidTi] The construction (c. dai.) expresses conviction of the truth of a statement rather than devotion to a person (us
cvwfxev,

III. 23, 24.]
c.

NOTES ON

I

JOHN

IOf

The expression, therefore, denotes conviction that Christ It would, of that which His name implies Him to be. is course, be a serious misstatement of the facts to state that this xio-toW. Cf. means the writer what of chief the or by all, part, " It is evident, even to a superScott, The Fourth Gospel, p. 267,
acc).
really
is

so constantly insisted on by Pauline of trust 'faith.' and obedience, as the acceptance of a given dogma. To believe is to grant the hypothesis that Jesus was indeed the Christ, the Son of God," a very misleading statement, somewhat modified, But by using this however, by the succeeding paragraphs. in certain cases particular construction (c. dat.) the writer does emphasize this particular meaning. When he defines the "work of God" in Jn. vi. 29, he is careful to use a different expression
ficial

reader, that the

'

'

believing

John

is

something much narrower and poorer than the It implies not so much an inward disposition
'

'

"A compressed creed," the complete revelation of the Father, the man who lived on earth a true human life, the promised Messiah who fulfilled the expectaIt is only in living Cf. Jn. xx. 31. tions of Jews and of all men. out the commands of such an one that men can realize the fulness
of their nature.
koI
dyaiT(u|xei']

(iva TTMTTtvriTe eis ov aTrea-rciXev). too utoO auToG 'ItjctoG Xpierrou]

All His

commands

are

summed up

in the

one

command
KaGws

to love,

obedience to which must begin with those
to love according to a The references 34.

closest to hand.
eSwKei']

The new command was
v/ias,

new

standard, KaOus rfydirrjaa to the discourses of the Upper out these verses.
iri<TTev<rui/xev

Jn.

xiii.

Chamber are
Oec]

very obvious through-

BKL

al.

pier. cat.

iricrrevw/iev

S

AC

al.

25

fere.

(•dofxev 99. 100)

(uid.)

al.

C L al. pier. vg. etc. ] tw ov. avrov it) xw 43 avrov tO x<5 3. 13. 15. 18. 26. 37. 67. 81 d scr al. pauc. aeth. tw ovo/xari] ea to ovo/xa 5. 58 lect a65 (317). irjo-ov] pr. tov kv / 70f eSuKev] post evroX-qv' I* (312). (505) ] b « 206 el74 al7 °- ** (242) 7 evToX-nv] post ri/uv / (252). (303) 7 al. mu. cat. vg. etc. Thphyl. Oec-cod. Lcif.] om. •qixiv K 60 fere. Oec. ed.
tw
. . .
:

Thphyl. Xpiarov X B

K

A

tw

ww

.

hm

ABC

KLh

24. icat 6 -njpaiv k.t.X.] Cf. Jn. xiv. 10, etc., and the latter part The chief point in dispute in this verse is the reference of xvii. At first sight the reference to Christ's comof the pronouns. mand in ver. 23 would suggest that in this verse avTov, etc., must be referred to Christ. But in ver. 22 the evrokai are spoken of as God's commands, and the avrov of ver. 23 must refer to God It is therefore more natural to interpret them in (tov viou avTov). Cf. iv. 13, where the reference must the same way in this verse-

106

THE EPISTLES OF

S.

JOHN

[ill. 24,

IV.

1.

be to God. It is true that in the Last Discourses ^eVciv is generally connected with Christ, but cf. xvii. 21, Iva auroi iv rjfxlv watv. It is in Christ that fellowship with God is realized. TTjpeu'] Cf. the note on ii. 4.
aoTog iv auTw] See the note above the relation is brought out in ch. iv.
iv toutoi]
(2).

The

divine side of

Either (l) eV tw Trjpeiv ras evToXas avrov, in the fact of commands we realize His fellowship with us, or (2) in tov xvcu/AaTos, the gift of the Spirit, of which we are The repetition of conscious, assures us of the fact of fellowship. the verse, in a slightly altered form, in iv. 13 makes it almost necessary to interpret the phrase thus. The genitive is not ou] An ordinary instance of attraction. With the partitive genitive S. John commonly has «/c partitive.

our obedience to His

:

2 Jn.

4

;

Jn.

i.

24,

vii.

40, etc.

of the

In iv. 13 the eSwKCf] emphasizes the fact. gift are brought into prominence.

permanent

effects

kcli 3° X° B C L al. pier. vg. syr. cop. rell.] om. K* 18. 38. 80. 95**. scr al. 2scr sah. Aug. 137 c ev toutu] etc tovtov /c 1 14 (335)ev i)fuv fxevei. /»«180 (1319) 7c551 (216). 22. 25. 31. 34. al. pier. cat. fu. Bas.] post eSwev X r)fj.iv 2° scr alP lusl ° vg. (am. demid. harl. tol.) sah. 38. 42. 57. 68. 69. 80. 137 a cap. syr. arm. Ath. Cyr. Thphyl. Oec. Aug.

A

K

ABCL

K

of

1-6. The Christological thesis. The Spirit which is recognizes Jesus as the Christ come in flesh. 1. iv. 1-3. Content of the Confession. iv. 1-3. In accordance with his usual custom, the writer finds a transition to a new section in the repetition of the last prominent idea. The gift of the Spirit ensures to them knowBut all spiritual activities of the time could not be ledge. The suggestraced back to the Spirit of God as their source. As at tions of every spirit could not be accepted as true.
II. iv.

God

Corinth in the days of
tested.
test

S.

Paul, spiritual

phenomena must be
with

And

the

reader's

experience supplied them

a

by which they could know whether the spirits were of God or not. The surest criterion was the confession of the IncarnaThose who saw in tion, or rather of the Incarnate Christ. Jesus of Nazareth as He appeared on earth in fleshly form the complete revelation of the Father, were of God. Those who Such a refusal was refused to confess Jesus were not of God. the peculiar characteristic of Antichrist, whose coming they had been taught to expect, and whose working they could already
perceive.
1.

dycurTiToi]

Cf.

ii.

7,

etc.

The

writer
all,

common bond

of love which unites

them

appeals to the in order to call

15. cv dAA eav e)Qj tov? rpoirovi Trvev/xaTL 7rpo<£?/T?7S eari'v. vii. 7rpos tous Tremo-TevKOTas avrw 'lovSaiow. They grace to distinguish between the true and the false. compare the preceding sentences (xi. Mt. accept as true.a.TOiv. nio-reveiv with the dative always means to as necessarily true.acravT€S €$ere dpiorcpav.ari common good. Cf. for the danger . " where the " discerning of spirits is one of the recognized kinds I n the earlier generations the spiritual phenomena of x a pL<rf aTa which accompanied the growth of Christianity were a cause of It needed a special grave anxiety to all Christian leaders.rj o~fi£vvvTZ' 7rpo(p7/TCtas prj It would generally have been e£ov6ev€LT€. of yielding to the opposite temptation. if real. This address now n). Compare the passage quoted above from the Didache and. to believe in the truth of statements made by any one. they might be evil. to. 19. €^€\T]Xu'9ao-ii'] fact of their separation 7Ti<rrei/ere] TnarevqTe 31 al. I Th.IV. kou iravra 7rpocprJTr]v XaXovvra iv irvevp. world. it poa ex eT€ °.vpiov. is of periodic reBut the writer reminds his hearers that the grace of currence.€vo? 8€)(6tjto}' eVeiTa 8k oo/ap. fxaiveaOt. Cf. Here 6 Koo-p. airb ovv twv Tpowwv yvwadrjcreTai 6 ^evSoTrpo^T^s xai 6 All spirit-inspired utterances are not to be accepted 7rpo^Tr/?. if Christians were willing to use the \mp i0'lJLa which they possessed. 8. 7). rov] effriv] eunv ft 5 507 . 10. and i(»eu8oTTpo4>TJTcn] irpo<f>r]Twv. Didache. dAAw Se SiaKpums Trvzvp. The which culminated in Montanism.t. Cf. to TTvev/JLa p. discernment was part of the Christian endowment. 2scr . /a « 254 . might be delusions or impostures . l.Travra 8k SoKtpd^cTc.] The clause explains the necessity for the The spirit of evil has sent forth his messengers into the testing. 7. I.X. dX\d 8oKij^d£eTe] Cf. V. cv 6v6p. Trvev/iara] pr. the main topic being love. viii..J NOTES ON I JOHN IO7 out their best efforts for the becomes frequent fit] (1. Here the thought is of their sending forth by the Spirit who inspires them. where the definite from the Body of the Faithful is stated.05 is used in its natural sense of the world of men.aTL KiyHoi) clvtov yvtixrecrOe' crvveaiv yap yap dpapTta acfxOrjcreTai. xii. JI - - far easier to difficulty. and is not specially contrasted with the Christian Body. say. Compare 8e^Lav also /cat 7ras avrrj 8k 6 ep^op. K\ irav irPa H& (*$?). xii. on -nroXXol k. with the iSiwt^s of Corinth. Contrast the tense of ii. and of the effect of their mission in the world. morcueTc] Cf. The plurals here cannot refer to an individual official. I Co.a. wavra (241). 31. Jn.7r0 T ^v *A € ^o- Did. 19—21. 6.Ti ov Treipdaere oi8k SiaKpivciTe' 7racra 8k -f) apapTia ovk acpeOijo-eTai. ov 7ras 8c 6 XaXwv K. their activity is well known. xi. xi. om. irarrl iryev[i.

2. the interchange of (cognoscitur). v. truly incarnate in His man- . Jn. may perhaps serve as indications that the doctrine of the Spirit is not yet clearly defined in precise terms. (2) The form of ver. The vacillation between singular ver. according to the true text. 01 p. (1) 'I-qo-ovv Xpiarov may be the object and iXrjXvOora iv crapKi the predicate. Nowhere 3. cf. ii. In the Christian faith. as it has been taught to them from the beginning.[08 2. lav ns airov ofxoXoyrjoy The construction of 2 Jn. Jn. the customary usige of this Epistle. xii. ii.aTL Co. 9 (ras d/Aapnas). i would seem conclusive as to the interpretation of this verse. and equally Three constructions are possible here. (2) with on. The reading yivwo-Kcrai. be taken either as imperative or use of the imperative in ver. iii. THE EPISTLES OF V toutw] refers S. 2. and to base on it an appeal to them to make use of that which they have. and suits the context better.77 oiioAoyoCrrcs 'Irjo-ovv Xpiarrov. 24. and plural. is needed is that they should use what they already possess. is in favour of regarding 'lyaovv as object and the rest of the words as The error which the writer condemns seems to predicate. 1 Jn. in the Epistle does the imperative follow iv tovtu): 16. 15. The confession of Jesus Christ as one who has come in the Xpicrrbv Zpxopevov iv obscure. they have adequate provision against the All that dangers to which they now find themselves exposed. Paul's ci p. have been the rejection of the identity of the historical man Jesus with the pre-existent Christ. 20. 3 ('Irjcrovv) . 3. But an appeal to his readers' knowledge and experience is more The aim of the whole in accordance with the writer's method. 22. i. 19. I We may hvvarai perhaps compare Kv'pios 'I770-OVS S. cf. (3) with the single accusative. iv. iv. 42. 5. 13. cf. which can hardly be separated unless the context clearly suggests their separation. i. Cf. JOHN according [IV. ouSeis iLTrtlv iv In favour of this construction is the natural connection which it gives of 'Irja-ovv Xpiarov. which has passed into the Vulgate obvious corruption. dyiw. Cf. xii. 29.rj test in Trv€v/j. iv. to to what follows. is parallel to this verse. 7. ojAoXoyel] The verb is used in the Johannine books with the following constructions: (1) absolutely. ix. I Jn. cf. scripts. 3. ii. 23 (tov vlov). rh ir^eufia tou Oeou] Here only in the Johannine books. (4) with the double accusative. flesh is the test proposed. 13. They must trust the powers with which the Christ has endowed them. Epistle is to remind them of what they already possess. and the various genitives connected with rrvtvim. is an &i and e being perhaps the commonest itacism in Greek manu- The direct appeal to his readers is far more congruous with the author's style. Yivwo-KeTc] The word may At first sight the indicative. o-ap/ct. Iktov Trvev/xaros airov.

3 favours this construction. 22 may they are interpreted. grammar and syntax are concerned this separation of *l-qcrovv from Xpicrrov. incarnate. And the confession involved God was made to men by the human form and living a human life. the true text of ver. . a7re^d/i«i'oi iw o-Ka. There is nothing in the Epistle which compels us to suppose that the author is combating pure Docetism. 3 f.v8d\wv koX tw t^cvSaScA^wv kcu twv iv viroKpi<r€t (pepovnov to oVo/xa tov Kvpiov. ad Philipp. and who is also the preAnd existent Christ who manifested God's glory in this form. without anything in the context to necessitate it. and left him before the Passion. though. as the true But so far as text of ver. When Polycarp uses the passage he not infinitive substitutes the for the unnaturally participle.77 6/xoXoyel 'ltjcrovv) shows. form which made it comprehensible to men. ev o-apKi e\if]\u0oTa] The phrase describes the method rather than the fact. revelation of allegiance to the Person of the Revealer could not make the revelation their own. of course. without that men No?i sonando. sed amando (Bede). The Son of God appearing in It was given in a and its effects were abiding (iXrjXvdoTa). if it is not regarded as too awkward.IV. of whom certain propositions are true. of the Incarnation. such teaching would be excluded by the phrases used in these verses. or even to suggest it. 2. vi. And it probably emphasizes most clearly the view on which the writer It is the denial of Jesus as the incarnate wishes to lay stress. who could speak to men as one of themselves. Its whole validity depended on the Revealer being true man. 3 (/u. . The guarantee for its completeness and its intelligibility was destroyed if the Revealer and the man wers not one and the same. but of the Incarnate Christ. perhaps be urged as supporting this interpretation. a man who lived on earth a true human life under the normal conditions of humanity.] NOTES ON I JOHN 109 hood. that in which the whole phrase is regarded as con- The confession needed is of one who is Jesus Christ nected. but the confession of a Person. the confession demanded is not of the truth of certain propositions about a certain person. who is possessed of the nature and It is a confession not of the fact qualities which they define. is difficult. The (Polycarp. as the Aeon Christ. in favour of the view that some higher power. ix.. Christ which he regards as the source of all error. (3) The simplest construction is. therefore. descended upon the man Jesus at the Baptism. reading IX-qkvBivai which is found in some important authorities is a natural correction of a difficult and somewhat awkward phrase. in whatever way The construction of Jn. But whichever construction be adopted.

1 8. (soluit) Ir. vvev/m (? I )] om. : Kvpiov /a 1112. Thdrt. Lcif. Ir. 29. Aug. op. 35 doubtful. Oec. JOHN [IV. ( I37 ) . tol. H boh-ed. Thphyl. the Johannine use of 77877 is to qualify the words Cf. Only the spirits which " of God. The work of Antichrist was already being done in the world. cognoscetis boh-codd.1 10 THE EPISTLES OF S. Lcif. cat. in several Patristic passages must be discussed separately.ev H* 9. lias yap bs av o/xoXoyr) avrt^ptcrrds icrTiv). on 7)877. : harl. of which iv. arm-cod. ii. With these three exceptions. saw . iv. Tert. syr p aeth utr Ir. 8) p ntfe-sos. Cyr. among them.. Irjffovv 'S.oXoyei] Xvei vg. lays the right stress on the danger which threatened the readers of listening to those who undervalued the importance of the human life and personality of Jesus of Nazareth. not acceptance of a doctrinal statement. Polycarp (? ver. 3. syr sch sat. The interesting variant Xvei which is presupposed Irjcrovv The The simple accusative tov variants 'Irjo-ovv is undoubtedly the true Xpicrrov. 50 al. om. fxrj 'Irjcrovv oitiv€? airOTrXavwcri Kevovs avOpwTrovs. vg. : : scr arm. Cyr. 27. 6epicrp. Jn. Lcif. €ittov vpuv is Xivkcll (. .] irjffovv tov x^ li> tov i-qaovv xp l0 T0V L al. 3) iXrjXvOoTa iv (rapid are natural attempts to expand an abrupt phrase from the preceding verse. cognoscemus boh-ed. 7b « 162 (49i)/U77 H™ (33) Z* 70 . Did.65 . 1 Cf. Fulg.vwaKOfj. boh-codd. i7)<tovv AB utr h 13. " coming of Antichrist formed part of common Jewish expectaThe readers had been taught what tion and Christian teaching. fere. cdd. X c A B C L al. Socr.Icriv irpo<. toJto] The denial of Jesus. l°— Trvevfia 2°] om. The beginnings tjotj] 27.172 (505) | (? i°) + a* /» 70 (505) | ixrf] 0/j.pKTTOv'] Xptrov Irjaovv C arm-codd. sah. etc. 80 plus Polyc. syr ( 6264. which follow.] yivwo-iceyi. 2. Or. Kvpiov. aeth. 14*. rjKovcraTe on 'Avrt^ptcrTOS tp\erai. ~\ ( e]\vdora xACKL Cyp. But it True confession is allegiance to a Person and mioses the point. The shorter text emphasizes clearly the personal character of And it the confession (see the notes on the preceding verse). vg. 35. vg. or more probably the special characteristic of Antichrist. 7a S«7-ii9 209 ). and ought to find no difficulty in detecting its " c aKTjicoaTe] Cf. Or. Thdt.] e\r]\vdevai Lcif. mu. Did. tov fu. Or." inspire men to make such a confession are TOVT<J\ yivuxncere tcu K + OVV 7° 258 (56). 3. 69 a 6eov X a + et spirittim erroris sah. Cf. Xpicr7W iv o-apxl eXrjXvOevat. Aug. It is not the only instance of an explanatory gloss which has influenced the text of this Epistle. S464 3 . Ir.6v 77S77. to toG drnxpio-Tou] Either the Spirit which comes from Antichrist. uet. to expect. B 99. 69 a 5cr cdd ~ "' 1 ap.„ w xpio T ov - K al. Socrat. Did. and ix. plu. text.

bob. and Socrates are most naturally explained as proving the existence of such a reading in Greek. 2 ] K o ti X 5.] NOTES ON I JOHN : : III Thyphl. The evidence of Clement of Alexandria was also available The Latin summary of his only through Latin sources. demid. In hoc Omnis spiritus qui confitetur Iesum cognoscite spiritum Dei. + tf trapKi e\T]\veeuai H&* (33) scr Aw (A') Polyc. the He accuses them of making many Only-begotten. Aug.6.oAoyei [non confitetur). 3. om. . non est ex Deo. but it must be noticed that it suits the preceding words of Irenaeus. plus cat. pier. Tert. sed unum credat Iesum Christum uenisse in carne. we must notice first that of Irenaeus. P. His disciple... Gods. qui soluit Iesum. 207). Irenaeus is denouncing dress." may be due to the Latin translator. the Gnostics who distinguish between Jesus. cat." words which do not go far towards proving that Clement knew of the reading \vei in Greek. the Christ. arm-ed. however. it was almost exclusively so. before von der Goltz's discovery. in " Multi seductores exierunt his afore-mentioned Epistle says. The statements of Clement. + ev uapKi (\rj\vdora N K L u " arm. Videte eos. and of dividing up the Son of God. that it is more natural to suppose Irenaeus had in his Greek text either Avei or some equivalent phrase. al. commifiuens autem et per multa diuidens Filium Dei. syr Thphyl. 10 rov] ck] kP/c487 (-). Origen. arm.J3 ) # ( 205 ) TO] om. and Fathers many. ne Multi Et rursus in epistola operati estis (2 Jn. 39." " actual reading. 7. Et omnis spiritus qui The soluit Iesum.IV. sah. 8 (Massuet. "Adstruit in hac epistola perfectionem fidei extra caritatem non esse. 16. sed de Antichristo est. 8). L k al. (uenisse) Cyp. but in the Hypotyposes has no equivalent for this passage summary of the Second Epistle we find. am.I57-) (See. in hunc mundum qui non confitentur Iesum Christum in carne uenisse. Oec. Taking the evidence roughly in chronological order. ex Deo est. et ut nemo diuidat Iesum Christum. Christum in carne uenisse. and John. described below. ( 5)> The evidence for the reading Xvu — soluit in this verse is mainly Latin . a/^/coare] OKrjKoa/te? H& (X) /» ««3-i73 100 : ov H | *6 (^). /»6«>3H. unless his translator has very freely paraphrased the whole passage to bring it into agreement with the text of the Epistle with which he was acquainted. pseudoprophetae exierunt de saeculo. but . 254 A'£364 ( 5 j) T0V 2 o] om> /a S64 ( 2. Tert. perdatis ait : Hie quod est seductor et Antichristus. TovTo — o 2°] hie est Antichrislus quern sah. Westcott. the Saviour. so much better than the common reading /A77 that 6/x. The Lord warns us to beware of such. though it is unfortunately only preserved in a Latin In iii.

4. Ottcds 6 Eip^vcuo? lv tw work. oi Xvoi tov 'lr)o~ovv <x7ro tov XpioTov. HXtjv crr/yxepov insist on the exact statement made. Matthew. The passage has been quoted frequently. though we cannot be certain that Origen read Avei in his Greek text. Zahn's Introduction." thoroughly in Origen's style. N. suae naturam non peregrinatur. JOHN [IV. 14. The passage is an § 65." instances of statements which must be referred to His human " Haec autem dicentes non soluimus nature. not the He adds the caution that in saying this he nor the crw/xcu has no wish to disparage the tyvxv °f Jesus. Origen raises " the difficulty. containing information about Origen's text which von der Goltz has described in Texte und Untersuchimgcn. Origen is to it earlier than Dr. but wishes only to And he adds. e. sed peregrinatur secundum He adds other dispensationem corporis quod suscepit. and then adds.g. In the Latin version of Origen's Commentary on S. F.. 3. cum sit scriptum apud Joannem Omnis spiritus qui soluit Iesum non est ex Deo sed unicuique The whole argument is so substantiae proprietatem seruamus." But a comparison of these two passages in the same Commentary certainly leave the iroXXwv. He will be in their midst?" He finds a solution of the difficulty which he has raised in the distinction between the "Secundum hanc divinitatis Lord's divine and human natures. The matter is determined if the Scholion is correct which is found in the Athos MS. The Scholion. which is quoted on p. when taken the possibility that the two passages in Origen suggest reading was known at Alexandria in Clement's time. How can He be said to go on a journey who promised that where two or three are gathered together in His name. in Irenaeus in. the reading "soluit Jesum" is found. xxiv.s 6 SiyjwpiTCi'S iv tw irtpi Von der Goltz points out that the 8th Book of to£ TToxrxa Xoy<j. 48 of von der Goltz's ii./x/. suscepti corporis hominem. I had noted the passage several years ago. but it is curious that another passage in the part of his Commentary on S. Matthew which is extant in Greek has been generally overlooked. xii. 7. The man who went on explanation of the parable. commenting on the words 8owai tt]v iffvxw o-vtov Mrrpov avrl He notices that the i/o^x 7? is given as the XvTpov.?. irvfvfia impression that the reading Xvei was known to Origen. TpiTw *cara ras atpeVets Adya» kcu ClpiyevrjS iv t<5 rf Topni> twv ets t6v 7rpos Pw/xatovs i^f]yrjTtKuiV /cat KA. dXXa TToWuj TrXeov olSa ev The passage may only be an echo of tTvat 'I-qarovv tov XpiarTov. but have seen no reference In xvi. 8. Mt. Qui autem Iesum separant a Christo. that we should hestitate to attribute ' ' the quotation of the verse in this form to the Translator. is as follows 8 Xvti tov 'Itjo-ovv. a journey being naturally identified with the Lord. : .112 THE EPISTLES OF in connection with S. " such expressions as are found.

avrUa yovv nyvorjaev otl iv rfj KaOoXtKr) Iwaviou yiypairro iv Tots TraXaLOis dvTLypdcpoLS otl irav irvcvp-a b Xvei tov t<2>v Yrjuovv diro tov $eov ovk Ictti. 157). we have now definite evidence that it was found in their Greek text. and in Rufinus' translation (v. v." Later on he has et " The natural exsoluis Iesum et negas in carne uenisse.La<i dlBpwTTOV (3ovfJL€VOL Stb koI ol 7raAaioi ip/Ar]vet<. "adeo ut noueritis quia ad facta retulit omnis spiritus.77j'. E. Lomm. qui autem negat in carne uenisse. Ai'etv 6. w? rr]v 6eoTr]Ta' Ttv€5 etcv pa8iovpyr]0-avT€<. 16. iv." spiritus. vii. 386) the quotation included the third verse with the original Greek Thus. both readings. The only other Greek evidence for the reading is the wellknown passage of Socrates about Nestorius (H.tt6 tov 0(ov tov avdpoiirov c^e'AovTes. 8 . sed est de Antichristi spiritu.IV. though it is not always certain whether this passage or the similar words in the Second Epistle are The most important passage is adv. and there are no good grounds for not doing so. ait. 16. 2 is quoted." planation of his treatment of the pas-age is that in his text the " words "qui soluit Jesum. so p. But this can hardly be called the most natural interpretation of his words.rjvavTO. uenisse. negantes Christum Augustine in a somewhat different manner appears to comment referred to. mundum on explaining the words qui non uenisse" by the suggestion confitetur Iesum Christum that the denial is to be found in the want of love which divides the Church.] NOTES ON I JOHN 1 13 would seem to have contained his exposiOrigen's Commentary tion of Ro. 8). v. 3. p. rr]V e7n." shows that the reading " soluit" was not found in the earliest form of the old Latin text. Scholion. ravT-qv yap ryv Siavoiav ck TOV T>7S 7raAaicov avTiypdcfciov TTCpulXoV 01 YO)pt^€lV a7r6 OLKOlO/J. Marc. de Deo est. avTO tovto iir(. in the three instances where extant Latin evidence suggested that the reading was known to Greek writers. that it is not unlikely that in the 1 Jn. in spite of its presence in all Latin MSS except Codex Frisianus. if we may trust the evidence of the reading Xvct. dicit praecursores Antichristi processisse in "Johannes in carne uenisse et soluentes Iesum. qui soluit Iesum. de Deo non est. 32).crT0A." There are other instances of supplementary glosses in Augustine's The quotation in the Testimonia of Cyprian text of this Epistle. 17-vi. The evidence of Tertullian and Augustine points to the early existence of the phrase in connection with the passages in the Johannine Epistles. he continues. Again this language may be "satisfied by the supposition that he was acquainted with the Latin reading and some Latin commentary" (Westcott. After " in carne 8 .o-qp. "Omnis qui confitetur Iesum Christum in carne spiritus (ii. non est ex Deo" (the addition of in " " " carne uenisse after Iesum in Migne must be an error) followed the clause "qui non confitetur Iesum Christum in carne uenisse.

And the internal evidence points in the same direction. receive the message. who are not of God. and the fruits of the victory are theirs. whom he has instructed in the Faith. And God is greater than the devil who rules in the world. the reading o fit] 6fioXoyei. It was God who fought for them and in them.. etc. which as Christians they the world. own strength. 4-6. belong to the world. 4." than vice versa. but may perhaps be explained in the same way. For like associates with like. appearance in Greek authorities is still obscure. and at that date there could have been no motive for the alteration of Xv« if it had been the original On the other hand. Neither reading can be later than Irenaeus. unless they The victory was not gained in their deliberately forfeit them. they have gained the victory over the false to fear prophets. 3." All that dominates prophets are essentially and action comes from it. the Latin evidence points to the probability that this reading crept into the Latin texts at an early date. Thus from the character of those who welcome their respective messages we learn to recognize and distinguish the spirit of truth and the spirit of falsehood. their lives in learning to know Him better. The false their life " of the world. then. On the whole. It is far easier to explain o \vei as an attempt to emphasize the displaced its history of bearing of the verse on the heretical views of the "Separators. 4-6. JOHN [IV. which subsequently The the reading it was inserted to explain. being first introduced as an explanatory gloss. If they are true to themselves the readers have nothing from the activities of the Antichristian spirits at work in In virtue of the new birth. have experienced. 2.I 14 THE EPISTLES OF S. The writer and his fellow-teachers are conscious that they derive their true And those who are of God. and therefore live life from God. As Wurm has acutely observed. iv. not from the revelation which God has given And so their message is welcomed by tWose who in His Son. which at that time had to be combated. . and so are not learning to know Him. 4. ujieis] The readers. in the gradual assimilation of the revelation of Himself which God is making It is only rejected by those in His Son. could only have been introduced as an explanatory gloss on o Xv€L at a time when the meaning of this But it is certainly found during the phrase had been forgotten. \va would give special point to the passage as a condemnation of a particular form of heresy. Their teaching is derived from its wisdom. Attitude of the Church and the world towards this confession. the correction of /xr) ofiokoyel into reading. " " qui soluit could cause no difficulty period when the reading and was perfectly well understood.

A true note of the Christian. v. the readers from the false teachers.i 68. 28. as the Devil worked and ruled in Vide quis in te vicit (Aug.). 19. Cf. iii. 21. Noli te extollere. 16 By the phrase ttvai ck the writer seems to denote 19." " of the Devil. whether nominally Christian or not. 7 aicovei. contrast with ipeis (ver. Jn.ots Trcpio-TrouSdo-TOus." dependence. a75 7 2°] om. iii. xvii. sphere. 6254 (3^) Tw K0(rMW ] TOV KOffflOV I* 397"" (96) yb «2-«l«l (767). tw yap There was apparently need of encouragement in view of the success which the false Oecumenius. avrov (?) KOffjuoj 7a66 (317). phatically." It suggests primarily spiritual man is said to be " of God. Oecumenius. the world. 4-6.i ecrre] nati estis P-™ (505) pr. draw their guidance from human an ordered whole. from the sources out of which he is said Eivai £K tov Oiov denotes especially the state of those to be. dKOuct] Cf. 5) suggests that the 6. 14. all that dominates and regulates his thought and action. who have experienced the spiritual regeneration which is the . 1 Jn. 19. The false strength from the wider knowledge of the world. pauc. The emphatic pronoun separates i.IV.ov is the state of those who still. They know whence they draw the inspiration of their life and The . €i»c6s yap fievov<>. teachers Ttvas had secured. It was God who worked in them. ko. more than merely " belonging to." using the privileges of age and position when he wishes to speak emCf. of warning or of exhortation. Kai 69 a b62 (498). 18. and who are true to their experience. 7. scr toi'twv /cai : ko. ck toG KOCTfiou teaching drew its ^iv] See the notes on ver. on. 5.] NOTES ON I JOHN 1 1 5 whom he naturally addresses as his "little children. \a\ovw~\ om. 23. by remaining true to the Christianity which they had been taught for apxns. 103 Did. c scr al.. boh-sah. om. of the ck tou K6cr|xou XaXouVif] Their teaching corresponds to their And it is welcomed by the like-minded. 4. on] There was no cause for boasting of their victory. ouot'w to o/aoiov 7rpocrj-0£x«. Tjucls] teachers and not the whole body of Christians are meant. ii. in words either and ii. (394) vfw] tifuv | 161 d : | /a 382. again do-^aXAciv opwvTas CKCtVovs ptv Tots 7roAA. society. truth the essential rejecting or failing to appreciate revelation made in Jesus Christ incarnate. v. rather than by the expulsion of the false prophets (avrov's) from the community. considered as yeyiKTJicaTe] VAteis] pr. ETvai iK tov k6o~ij. viii. iavTovs 8e KaTa<ppovou5ia tovto] pr. / b <"• sahw reKvia] reKva 31 : | vfvucriKaTe] eviKTiffare e„ | Iclu (335) €K | (312) e/c]yf/« Bah . who draws all his inspiration. apart from God. 12. €K toG 6eoG eo-Tc] Cf.

vi. the active falsehood which leads men astray (TrAai^s). It requires a longer process of intelligent observation to determine the character of the reception with which the message meets. with ytvwaKeiv. A C.] X B c36i (137). 12. 177*. Jn. viz. os . But when the writer is mediyiv'wo-KOfj. 6. K0. which is characterized by falsehood. pier.] The Spirit of God. sah. 2°)] Trpa /*2°5-*si ( 5I ). is less obvious. 142. of which the essential characteristic is truth. ALa 3. .116 work. trPa (? 1°. because is the basis of our is God love. os ouk eoriy k. as well as the teachers.t. And . his meditation is apt to pass out into wider spheres.1 . Third presentation of the ethical and Christological theses. Tifiajv 2° K om. and which to test. As compared with lv tovtw it may perhaps suggest a criterion is which which further away from that character of their confession offers an immediate test of the spirits. They are not only shown to be connected (as in B). in neither of which verses the meaning exclusively temporal. eternal be recognized by those who have begun to which consists in knowing God and His (cf. xv. iv. in tou'tou] Cf. but the Love proof of their inseparability is given. and it is more than probable that he now includes in the first person plural the whole body of those whom he is addressing. live the THE EPISTLES OF And they will life S. 12." the knowledge of Him which comes from experience of life in fellowship with Him. because the principles which guide their thoughts are not derived from the truth. 19. 7-v.X. Cf. tating. rather than pursuing a course of logically developed thought. xai J (k toutov] (v tovtu) vg. cop. or of Antichrist. JOHN [IV. o]pr. os] pr. the other only by those who are of the world. t6 TreeujAa tt)s d\if]8€ias k. but it emphasizes one particular messenger 6 point in the continual progress made by those who "are of God. xvii. 3). yivuxTKwv Toy 6e6V] The phrase is used as practically equivalent to dvai Ik tov Oeov. / c258 * (56). Jn. The phrase is not used again in the Epistle. xix.X. The "test" here is the fact that the one message is welcomed by those who are of God and know God. 66. etc.] They cannot know or welcome the truth.ei'] The preceding to refer this to the teachers. with whom he began by associating himself. al. and the spirit of the Devil. vg. or in the Johannine writings. lies it may be used The Jn. r/fxeh and rj/jLwv make it natural and grammatically this is no doubt the more correct interpretation. knowledge of fellowship with God.t.

has been given. the test of our knowledge of God and of our love of faith comprehends it. in order to remove the obstacles which intervened between 7. to use S. iv. tions. It occurs of the writer's favourite words. €K tou 0€oO 1(ttLv] The whole of the Biblical revelat) dya-TT] tion of God emphasizes the fact that man is made in the image of God. under the limitations of finite human existence.IV. who alone can fully reveal it to men. and on that analogy included in our conception of the Deity. for love is the very nature And God's love has been manifested and being of God. this 7. It is his ten times in the Epistles. not as a reward for showed to Him. dya-THi-rot] God and men. Paul's phrase. First meditation on the two thoughts now comLove based on faith in the revelation of Love which bined. as So the two main thoughts of the Epistle. 7-12. of the knowledge of God. iv. an appeal to his "beloved" (a) 7-10. in the Incarnation. nature is reproduced. though not in the Gospel. birth from II. which can most readily be called out among those who are loved or lovable. v. to enable beginning immen to share the higher spiritual life which The nature of true love is maniparts (rva ^t/o-w/acv 8l airov). usual method of address when he wishes to appeal to the better One thoughts and feelings of his readers. i. into That purpose was the world of men with a special purpose. of something . in whom His whole in us. not God in the image of man." It emphasizes the natural grounds of appeal for mutual love. is something which gives itself. Faith as the ground of love. are intertwined in this passage. Love based on the Revelation of Love. neither in return for what has nor in order to get as much again even as God been : He given the love which men had gave His Son. God sent His only-begotten Son. True love fested in those who have begun to share that life. Its presence in men shows thing in the Divine nature itself. 7-21. or. I. God. Faith in Jesus Christ and Love of the Brethren. that they have experienced the new birth from God and share in that higher life which consists in gradually becoming acquainted Where love is absent there has not been even the with God. The writer grounds hearers for mutual love on the true nature of love as manifested True love is not merely a quality of nature. " to open the eyes of their hearts. but as a boon to those who had only manifested their hostility to Him.] NOTES ON God is I JOHN 1 17 manifested in the sending of His Son. which may be divided into two sections. Human love is a reflection of someIt has its origin in God. 1-12. however much our conceptions of God are necessarily conditioned by human limitaIt suggests that whatever is best in man is the reflection. I.

the statement being made. or only begins after that has been experienced and is its consequence. thereby that he has experienced the new birth from God which is the beginning of Christian life." 1 i° om. He also shows that he has entered upon that life which consists in the gradual acquiring of the knowWhether this process of acquiring knowledge ledge of God. aeth. Did. on / cl74 (252): + oW (56).Il8 in THE EPISTLES OF S. begins before. 5. . 8. or He who loves shows of effect and cause. not as the cause of the new birth from God or of The presence of the knowledge of God. " of Fatherhood" insisted upon in Eph. the new birth. but only those It opens the way for an altogether new of Power and Activity. : cf. 7. presentation of religion based on the facts of moral life. eyvwicev fc$° 31 non cogtioscit sah. d p (8) e<rriv] om. the word expresses the highest conception which we can form of that Holtzmann's note is worth quoting. / cll6 (-)- aI75 ayairtov] + rov deov Did. : +fratrem suum. iii. appreciated unless it is recognized that its origin must be We may compare the doctrine sought beyond human nature. 1 — : : fit] '. . A:+fratrem demid. love is the test by which the reality of their presence in any man may be known. Or. it is His very Nature and Being or rather. : . ovk eyvw] om. Fulg. on 6 0e6s dydiTT] eariV] Love is not merely an attribute of God. N* 192 d scr arm-cdd. But when here and that God is light and spirit. realized gnosis in ver. It this is the highest expression of the conception of God. 4 arm. oik eyvv] He shows by his want of love that the process of knowledge never even began in him. ov yivuxTKet A 3. scr j tol. n-dg 6 dycnvcji'] It is generally recognized that love is here presented. 13 al. It does not come within the category of Substance. is not stated. with a slight difference. JOHN [IV. 7. The discussion of the question whether the writer intends to present the relation of the being born of God to the knowledge of God as one of cause and effect. 15. and that its effects are permanent and abiding. and leads to. /tat 1° — omnes qui diligunt se inuicem sah. 8. 180 l scr Dam. passes entirely beyond the limitations of natural religion. yeyevvr)Tcu] yeyevqrat 99. 177*. syr . The question was probably not present to the writer's mind. is perhaps idle. as usual. tow (?/")] om. The negative counterpart of ver. The true nature of love cannot be the nature of God. 16 love is put forward as the truest presentation of God. 7] 070707] post tffTiv / (319). : cf. deov] post eanv syr^* ayanuv ovk eyvuxtv Jf c288 o i°]pr. " Even the false Nature. Lcif. but as their effect. Fulg.

IV. 57 al. CLTrecraXKev] aweoreCkev 0eos] K om. - b (83) / 78 " 157 ( ) : pr. has litator. best.] iv tou'tw] shown. tov deov] eius «u on /a2Wf 254 502 arm-codd. a7re<rreiXev] airecrTa. cop. ness of the revelation of God which He is able to give. 12 10. so It emphasizes the completedivided up among many brethren.\K€i> X290 (83) : (252). God gave His I meant "God's love to us. True love must sins formed a barrier between them and Him. 7C 174 pr. He had have known how to love the Lord. True love is selfless. Aug. " I should not Nature of God. in the fact and the purpose of the Incarnation. Father. God could not give Himself while men's !\curfi6»'] Cf. It gives itself." he would doubtless have used the Greek words which would convey that meaning. except the one that is loved?" ii. 10. tj ayairr}] +tov Oeov H sah. 3. Son was not the answer of was the outcome of the very is person." still less to us. 38. emphasizing the fact that that which It not a mere response. ev i°] pr. Odes of Solomon. The love was maniIv* l^^v] Cf. 4. Aug. y aydtrrj rot Oeov (r)) God. 0. Ath. aiTos] eicftvos vepi] vnep 7" A : pr. not loved me. has propitiatio. tqv fioeoye^] The idea presented by /xovoyev^s in the Johannine books would seem to be that of the one and only Son who completely reproduces the nature and character of His to speak. In the light of such a manifestation of God's love there can . The sending of God's God It to something in man. 12. that men might be enabled to live the life ot " " iv fylv] Not among us. and Lucif. iii. NOTES ON The I JOHN 1 19 true nature of God's love has now been which men can understand and appreciate. 25. God sent His Son that men might live. The manifestation of His love is made in those who have entered upon the life which He sent His Son to give. (b) 11. 18. which is concentrated in one. 15. and is not. 7jyair-q(rafjLfi''i iryairriKaixev B | riyairrio-ev] . sweep away the hindrances to the fulfilment of the law of its While Vulg. if For who is able to distinguish love. Deus sah w om. km 7C 114 (335). plus 100 al. The preposition has its full force. reconciles is a expiator. Love of the Brethren the test of Fellowship. Cf." If the writer ad eis fifjuas. 98. 29. 2. the note on iv $/uc fested in a definite act with a definite object. in a way 9.' arm. Trpwros A'* 384 (51). being. as well as the uniqueness of the gift. aeth. 42.

12. God's love to men is realized most fully in His condescending Cf. ver. a8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;poi / (3O3). cat. Jn. Oec. The loving address is here used for the sixth and last time. so that they can grasp the meaning of what they see (OeaaBai. By means of the Spirit. there we know that God abides in men. 69 a d perfecta erit sali L al. The proper result of divine birth is divine activity. TeTeXfiufievq] pr. kcu *|p. 31. ciutou] There is the usual division of opinion as to whether the genitive is subjective or objective. The context on the whole favours the view that it should be taken as subjective.« 260 (2). deov] pr. tt> tj/j-iv] scr 1 3 post rj/xiv 5. is words 'ay k. syr utr arm.] Cf. outws] Cf.120 THE EPISTLES OF S. aeth. His love for men receives its most perfect expression in His giving Himself to men. "Through our love for each other (as Christians) we build the Temple. results. of which He has . by giving His Son. True knowledge always finds expresThe true nature of God cannot be made visible sion in action.X. The absence of the article throws the emphasis on the nature and character of God. 9. Aug. sah. o<f>ec\o[xei> kcli 77/xas 7 a S*3-n3 ^j_ i. rereXawTat kcu al70 vg.« 152 .] What cannot be seen can be known by is its fruits. post eanv : : . Jn. 16. Qtbv k. pier.t. 11. JOHN [iv. and entering into fellowship with them. cop. His abiding in men is the most complete expression of His love.X. 68. dycunrj-roij Cf. iii. i<pavepw$r) 7] ayd-n-r] tov Otov iv rjfjiiv. Ovtcos defines the way in which God manifested the true nature of love. character of love are under the strongest obligation to carry out. those who have experienced and appropriated Those who have learned the true the revelation of love. Proofs of Fellowship. in such spheres as they can. 1 3. 0eos] post rjfxas /b 253f . The witness of those who actually saw the manifestation of love in the Life of Jesus. or whether the two meanings are to be combined. Thphyl. His presence cannot be seen. 12. or more generally the Christian Family. As He is in His true nature He cannot be made visible to the eyes of men.559 .t. of which this verse seems to be an echo. which merely states the fact). 11. in which God can dwell in and among us" (Rothe). But it is known in its to the eye. the lesson which they have learned. Mutual love 12. contrast the ewpaKtv of the Gospel. A K 13-16a. a sign of the indwelling of God in men. 7. ver.€is] The writer and his readers. 18. be no question about the obligation to mutual love among those who have experienced it. to abide in men. where the order of the first two the same. The gift of the Spirit. the love which comes from God and which He causes to exist in men. Where love is.

5.. the great proof of His love. The writer passes from the facts to Christian consciousWe are assured that fellowship between God ness of the facts. and have seen and understood the meaning of what we saw. <7(or?)pa] Cf.33. +(?) : deos / a ]58 (395). sab. longe. iv. we are conscious that fellowship between Him and us really exists. 6.] eduKev Bas. Cyr. xxv. Thphyl. The confession is stated and the various confessions in the point seems to be the identity of Jesus.34 66**.ev'l testati stwuts sah. which finds "the avTOTrrat of the Province" 1 in each use of the first person plural of the pronoun in the Epistle. (137). 13. 68. The word must here refer to the actual eye-witnesses Tjfieis] The exaggeration of the view of the life of Jesus on earth. Cf. rests on certain witness. 24. the sending of His Son as Saviour of the world. Cf. 98 al. 28. can bear true witness. of the mission was to restore the fellowship which had been gradually forfeited. and the effects of His gifts are permanent. cf. Beside the internal witness of the Spirit. Cyr. is the Son of God. iv. scr Ath. 13-15. Jn. For the general arrangement of the matter. should not be allowed to obscure the natural meaning of certain expressions which it contains cf. 14. i. hi. . 42. therefore. 27. avro<:] + est manet (i54)al. variously . . 2 15. 6 atoTrjp rov Kocrfxov. /b ™-i57 viov] + clvtov Ic36i 2 - M9 (-)£>« (154). Gospel. . but we have beheld His Son. The essential 1 and notes. 12: "God Himself no one has ever yet beheld. aliq. boh. 1. Cyr. 7.. Their vision was complete. 1 Jn. cf. which they bear is sure. and shows in us. All who accept the fact that Jesus of Nazareth. ii. Furthermore. The testimony. 77/ieis 13. cat. Holtzmann on 3 Jn. iv. 13. there external witness of those who saw is also the the great proof of God's love. Ath. 9. fjLaprvpovfj.IV. 1 Jn. cf. and who mould their lives in accordance with this confession. 29 c rus] 4B Trps dedcoKtv NBKL plur. are in true fellowAnd we who saw Him have learned to know ship with God. because He has given us of His Spirit. The verb looks back to ver. and to believe the love which God has for us. who lived on earth as a man among men. Sore rjfjuv e/c tou e\aiov v/jlCjv.1 NOTES ON I JOHN 121 given us. conclusion is reached. The purpose canv a\r]6w<. Mt. ofioXoyrjo-T]] Cf. pier. cat. Tedeaixeda X B 2 9. and us really exists. ovros L al. 396f » ttTreoraX/cei'] awecrreiXev l* (96) K Oec] effeaixa/xeda A 27. We who lived with Him on earth. 2 Jn. and lasting in its results. where the same For the use of the preposition. juevo/xei'] + kcu s.

Love and Faith in relation to Judgment. than for its power of giving assurance to him who makes it. tol. arm-codd. Kat njaovs] ks Cf. on earth a human life. so we abide in it so far as that is possible under the conditions . when growing acquaintance passed into assured faith. in iv T)fuv] The love which it. Thus the test of love can give full assurance It is a with regard to the reality of our fellowship with God. rt]v aycunji'] ex«] eaxev ev ji/up] /u0 H + Dei am. like him. JOHN [iV. Peter. 69. we can look forward with entire confidence to the great day of God's judgment. as seems probable. the first person plural still refers to the writer and other teachers who. Kal Pixels eyyoSicajAej' icai TreiriCTTcuKajJie*'] If. made perfect in us when. is assured Thus the work of the of the truth of his fellowship with God. with the Son of God. who as only-begotten "confession" of those who Such a confession is " mutual love. 15. makes this belief the guiding principle of his life and action." As it as sure a test of Divine fellowship as cannot be true unless it issues in such mutual love. He who confesses this.e.122 the THE EPISTLES OF man who lived S. The growth of knowledge and the growth of faith Jn." Christian community there is external as for it. act and react on each to other. Since God is love. Son of His Father could reveal the Father In the thought of the writer no other conditions could to men. Love has been logical deduction from the very nature of God. | arm. ij/uov /»«« a " (96). 16a. | I* m (40): x* « I* 882 (231): ai/ros] ovtos P- v€7ri(7TevKaixev (209) :+est eyvuKa/xev * s. Contrast the order in the confession of S. But higher life. TreirHTrevKa/xev] Turrewtj/Xf A cop. manet boh. he who abides in love abides in God and God in him. and only when. rather for its value as an objective sign to others. sah. The nature of true love. 16b-21. which had never since been lost. it is difficult The writer probably puts it forward to distinguish the two. assure the validity of the revelation and the possibility of its " " comprehension by man. In the original witnesses is continued in the "have not seen and yet have believed. i. Tert. well as internal assurance to be found by those who look 16a. 1 (*). those OfioXoyija-ti] who respond God has for men whom it issues in is manifested in o/xokoyri S ibl lw A 5 + XP'cro5 B 13 am. perhaps it is safer to regard the preposition as a trace of the influence of Aramaic forms of expression on the writer's style. m. vi. had seen the Lord on earth. knowing that as the exalted Christ abides in the Father's love. &6 arm. he is thinking of his early experiences in Galilee or Jerusalem.

where love is shown to be the 16b. («)—fievei sat. Kai 4°—fievei 2°] om. iv t<5 6ew /teVei ko. 16b. 8. mul. by the Master's mandment is. Cyp. If the sight of his brother does not call out his reach the goal. to reach love.] Cf. For fear has in itself something of the its of activity. go forth to those who any one claims to love God and does not show love active. And the second is this. but reveals a falseness Love will show itself wherever an object of love is of character. once for as far as God. as the necessary condition of fellowship. and he who experiences it has not yet been made perfect in love. vg. and especially on the human side. 'Ev tovto> may recapitulate the clause cV tw 0ew 17. mutual character of the intercourse. its origin God test. ver. sphere nature of punishment.X. 17. | fere. the aura). love place in true not yet Where full confidence is not yet made perfect. Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. the fact shows that he cannot have love enough And for us the matter is determined. 12. ev tou'tw k. or are introduced by on. interpretations of this verse are words refer to what precedes or to as the possible. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God. love ? It has has its origin in something that is above and beyond us. Thphyl." Cf. 6 0e6s to his brethren. is need If But our claim to love can be put to an obvious and must. 6 fieVwc k.] of our NOTES ON existence. has for us. and this is hardly expressed by the words. It is called out in response to the love which in God. not in fellowship generally. Aug.X. if it is real. ver. Cyp. for fear and dread have no It drives them out completely from the love. aeth. Oec.1 6 0«6s By abiding in love. where the writer emphasizes the God's love for men is shown most completely in His Here the emphasis is laid on the willingness to "abide" in us. He who will not take even the first step can never to be found. 2° NB KL al. cat. There is no certain instance of the construction iv tovtw .] Two Love finds its consummation in the /x€v« Kai 6 f?eos iv aiTw.] om. in whatever degree we possess it as yet. He has said. Iva. How then can we say that we have Because our love.] Here it is presented necessary condition of knowledge of God. or orav. is not only false. whenever the sentence contains a clause which allows Such clauses are either added without of such a reference. 4 } om.t.t. Syr sch 5" sah.\. fact that h Christian realizes the divine fellowship. according what follows. idv. command. connecting particle. H S2 A al. And in the general usage of the author iv tovtu refers to what follows. I JOHN 1 23 present is possible. but in perfect fellowship. cop. " The first comall. syrP arm.t. Love it. his claim k. But it would be truer to realization of this mutual fellowship.IV. say that love is made perfect.

he has not eliminated from the sphere of his theological thought the idea of a final "day" of judgment. ecr/xev] lit on simns Sah bw (non xpurews] + wpos tov evavOpwirrjaavTa / c 2 .ipa. xv. Jn. 28. See the note on ii. attained to fellowship share. /a . the character of the Christ. iva napirbv ttoXvv <pipy]Tt). eiTTiv] r]v ev to. Cf. ." But so far as it goes the fellowship is real.wv'] ei> tjij.124 But Jn. 8 : <rxw uei' /* i 78 om. in some degree. . has no place in in its perfection involves complete self-surrender. love. The thought Trappy ji€0' TjfioJi'] is ow] developed further in ver. Those who have K.T. 116. 18. The fellowship is limited by the conditions of earthly life (iv t<3 Koo-pw tovtw). tovtw xv. . xvii. The attempts which have been made to draw a distinction in this respect between the Gospel and the Epistle cannot be said to have been successful. 6. 7. also ii.iv deov 96 alP auc vg cle X- tol. clause introduced by Iva the meaning will be that love is made It has been perfectly realized only by perfect in full confidence. 28. 17. when the processes which are already at work shall reach their final issue and manifestation. d ). those who can look forward with sure confidence to the judgment of the Great Day.] The ground of the assurance. . iv 16. tt\s Kpureus] Cf. eschatology.^ much 77 aya-irq] + tov + « 454 fied rjp. . : eius arm. o-n. can await with confidence the result of His decrees. (794). or even the Synoptic. However y\i. eKcikos] is generally cf. ea/xev] eao/xfOa X.os Kai KaOapos outcjs 7° 3M ( — ). Fear. Outos "emphasizes the idea of transitoriness. as He is in His exalted state. used in this Epistle of the exalted Christ . Kocfxco afiufj. which which is essentially self-centred. "In fulfilling this issue. JOHN [IV.X. 8 should probably be interpreted in this way (iv the i8o^dcrdrj 6 Trarrjp fxov. sah bw — ( ). exw/xev] exo/J-ev ttj] N K al. God works with man" But it is at least equally (Westcott. 18. Those who are like their Judge. 3. ii. 5. 28. the wriier may seek to spiritualize the ordinary Christian. 350 liquet sah (307). in perfect fellowship with the Father. . rj/j.epa] ayain) X. who compares Ac. tt) iii. iyw evaurois kcu <tv iv ifjioi' Iva uxrtv Iv. -°8-n6. e/cetpos] Kaiceivos 1 3 al. ii. iav cpavepwdf). As contrasted with iv fj/xlv (S) it is possible that the phrase may emphasize the co-operation of men in the realization of fellowship. T€Tc\eLu>fxivoi et's Cf. writer's use of the purely definitive Iva is so well established that And If iv tovtw refers to the such a construction causes no difficulty. THE EPISTLES OF S. 23. Such confidence is the sign of perfect love. possible that the usage of the Hebrew preposition DV may have influenced the choice of preposition. 18. 4).

<pof$uo-6ai 8k tois erepois. it is a necessary chastisement." but is in itself of the nature of punishment. the introduction of a connecting particle ovv. avrov." as in sion must mean here more than Hermas. « 157 (547) 7° 174 (252). 6 ft-q yivwo-KiDV #tov kcu Trovr]pev6p.\. <£o/3os (? (popoO/xevos I& t V / b »» (2). ix. We Christians. cf. a part of the KoAacris is used divine discipline. to various modifications of the text.") (Contrast the use of Tip-wpta. avOpwov irepl to ov vopi^ovo-iv.] 4>oj3ou'/jL€»'os Till fear has not been made perfect. requital. 19. 8). . 31. avrov. l^ti KoXacrcv Tiva rfjs irovqpia<.IV. ix. never found in the true text of this Epistle (cf. 72). as in ver. If it fails to find out the nearer object. which has its salutary office. however. 3 Jn. 18. the words offer a far more powerful incentive to the exercise of love than a mere exhortation. Our love is not self-originated. ev r V ] r. 46. 37. S. " Love cannot be mingled with fear" (Seneca.£po<. quoted by Windisch. Jn. 48. and stronger than our own powers. Philo. xxv. ira. Mor. €'£a> pdWei] Cf.w(Ti to dya7rav otKcioYaToi'. dAAd P 2 114 )] (335) : om.6vov Tip.] NOTES ON exist side I JOHN The presence of fear I 25 a The two cannot sign that love is by side. xiii. " suffers punishment. I. and it gives a deeper meaning to the words. Thus interpreted. Love must altogether banish fear from the enclosure in xv.evo<.ev) is to be interpreted as an exhortation (conjunctive) or as a statement of fact (inThe attempt to construe it as a conjunctive has led dicative). Mt. rots pCzv ovv p-rjTt p.9o<. It has a divine origin. Such love which He has called out in us must find an object. The point has been Tjp. 17. 13. It is the response of our nature to the love which God Himself has shown. in the New Testament only here and in Mt. 6. has been "cast outside. which her work 6 Be is done. 18). or the insertion of an object for the verb (tw 0£oV. It is called out in response to what God has given." love quod Deus sit immut. K^Xaaik exei] not only "includes the punishment which it Till anticipates. much . 69 fjir)Tt (Cohn.ei9] disputed whether the verb (dyairwp. 38. v. Ep. and they have their natural place in the writer's thoughts. love is supreme. 18). diOTrpeTrws airo oY avrb p. xii. 34. 18. God is love by the path of love we can enter into His fellowship (16): in our case love is made perfect in proportion as it casts out fear and establishes And it rests on something greater full confidence (17.t. vi. " The expresiv. And both modifications would be natural if the clause is to be taken as hortatory. 2 Mac. ii. k. is not yet perfect. inuicem). xlvii. Cf.. But a further meditation on the nature of love as manifested in us is more suitable to the context. it will never reach the 19.

" and not merely "just. boh-ed. 25. 107. \J/€uctty]s eoriv] He not only states what is false (i/^evSeTat). harl. Jn. 14*. e^eA/cucrTtKOi/ make use yap opacrts Trpos aydir-qv. cat.6<s is probably a true explanation not only better attested. etc. 5. 7]yaTT7]cr€v] 7)yairr)Kev 13. + ow A XBKL . idv 6 \tyo)v (ii. may also have laid claim to a superior love of the Father. Oec. vg. Cf. At same time. longe. sur. 19. Oec. tis etirr]] Cf. syr arm. duty of mutual love makes it clear that their "superior" love the had been more or less conspicuous in its home.126 further (19. 106**. which his position in this world affords him. 34. : Leo. aeth. reading of N B. but reveals by his false claim a real falseness of character. Bed. 34. de Decalogo. cop. 27. ov&l ep. syr B 5. 13. sah. 98. X B K L al. Aug. there the Lord's express command auros] (21). cat. Aug. Thphyl. 69. iv. iav is ct7ru)/x.] Love must express of the itself in action. who claimed to possess a superior knowledge of the true God. cop. tol. ii. pier. demid. Thphyl. The man who rejects the obvious method of giving expression to love in .. obvious opportunities. cannot entertain the highest ov eoipaKCc] Cf.] scr k scr al. same time the latter reading suggests a new point. S. + avrov al. The false claim and the more definite mentioned quite generally.X. A KL Oec. 177** g al. L//. 101. He who refuses love. begin at oaov ovk tw eXa^t'cn-cov. Pelag. 4). 91.t. 20. or to master the import of the Lord's tov'tojv iTTOirjcraTf. and the saying of Philo. 40. Oec scr irpuros] irpurov 5. sch p longe. ijfieis 42. 6 y&P to k. auros + inuicem am.20. arm. 33. it is not improbable that the false teachers. Thphyl. a . it is more in harmony i. Pelag. 296).8. 69. 9. plur. THE EPISTLES OF And besides this.o\ eVoir^raTe. evi /jlictt]] failure to i<f> verdict. aeth. 6. arm. Lto-. harl. The is But auros variant 6 6(. 81. 20). dfxr)x avov 8e (vaefielardaL tov aoparov vtto tujv cts rovs e'yxc^arets kcu e-yyvs orras <X(T€y8ouVT0)V. if the difference between two possible forms of expression is to be pressed. 105." as the God of the Old TestaAnd the emphasis laid throughout the Epistle on the ment. i. with the writer's style. 13. who was "good. Aug.] deos A 5.€v. cat. vg. boh-codd. 66** fu. § 23 (Cohn. 29. sah. 31. 33. 137 a scr c scr d scr vg. irpwTos] Cf. 8.] ayairu/xev sa'mus sail. :+rov 6eov K 13. 8. pauc. Aug. syr. is perhaps more impressagreement with the writer's love of absolute statement than the variant which Westcott condemns as "the ou Sumrai] The in ive and more At the rhetorical phrase of the common text" (irus Bvvarai). plur. JOHN is (IV. 68.

vi. 34. when the writer is of Semitic origin. accepimus sah. Kai 2° avrov II. )] 2 mvrov ZcUi (335). Cf. la. The facts of the 1. syr. as the variant in the Vulgate interprets it. v. shown that love has its origin in the nature of God. vg. Dam. avrov] airo rov Oeov A vg. al. syr. ayairau] ayairijo-ai 13 The duty of love not only follows necessarily from what has done for us. the witness to Jesus as being the Christ. . cat. 1. v. 5-12. (contrast 3. 13. Second presentation of the two main thoughts Faith the ground of love. la. dir' auToo] naturally refers to God. 7 A K L al. it rests on His direct commandment. (395) P" c5M ayawa 7 (216) : rjyairtjKtv H &** (33). v. toL . (? . 29. iv. Aug. am. a7 ° 070x0. The love of God which is the true ground of of the brethren. can be tested.). a change of God person is by no means impossible. though here as elsewhere. direct statement of the The most command is Mk. also Jn.. deov om.4. demid. lb. and is not merely an affection of human nature. om. love Love). 2 . The writer has . where the Lord quotes the command of Dt. 21. The love of a child for its father and for its brother or sister are facts of nature. 34. Iff. Dam. 7. 68. in the language of meditation. ii. the reflex of His love for us. ov Swarcu] S B (29). 27. 1-12.] post deov i° 7 (505) fxicrrj] yutcrei on] om. v. when it was originally spoken. The truth of our claim to love God is shown in our attitude towards the brethren. cop. xii. Faith the sign of the Birth from God (cf. and how we can be sure of the sincerity of our love for others. aeth. 29. He now proceeds to show why this is so. has no way left by which he can attempt the harder task of reaching out to that which is invisible. Thphyl. v. 66**. 157 scr sah. tov 2 B* A* (uid. 20. Oec. 21. even if he had not himself heard the saying which it records. pier. 5. 20). X Aug. yap] om. boh-codd.IV.] NOTES ON I JOHN J the case of those whom he has seen. 25 cat.] ttus Swarai 69 a arm. He has also reminded his readers how their love for God. 29 ff. is the sign of love of the brethren iv. harl. expfiev] air xiii. Every one who loves the father who begat him naturally loves the other children whom his father has begotten. : Kh al. a 158 (bis). Faith. Cyp. Faith the sign of the Birth from God. in its full assurance. 2. Thphyl. The writer no doubt knew the Marcan passage. Lcif. closely combined together. 4.

." and the reality of that love is shown in our active obedience (ttoiwjacv) to His commands. left Him before . he would have been unable to conceive of any true faith stopping short at intellectual conviction of the abstract truth of a statement like that which follows in the clause introduced by on. hath " begotten us again. Where true faith is the new birth is a that they go together. But incidentally the tenses believer has been born of God. in dtov iyevvqOrjaav. aurou . JOHN human [v. Those who are "born of God" must love all His children. the writer is careful to distinguish the two. intellectual processes. The point is not present to his thoughts. not " the consequent of the believing. and has abiding and permanent consequences. as opposed to the theories. The reality. the new birth 6 moreuuy] Ilto-reuetv on expresses belief in the truth of a statement or thesis. which had no effect on He would have regarded the the shaping of a man's conduct. ocroi Se e\a/3ov avrov. as But though possessed of the character which his name implies.] Cf. then prevalent. there has taken place. 6 Xpioros] 'lt]crous iarlv faith is The exact form of this confession of conditioned by the antichrists' denial (cf. spiritual birth are analogous. 22. . " make it clear that the Divine Begetting is the antecedent. that he has experienced the new birth. as it manifests itself in word and deed as well as in intellectual conviction. identity of the man Jesus with the Christ who became incarnate in Him. rots irLo-Tevovcriv tts to Where true faith ovo/xa. in Jesus as God's appointed messenger to men is present. Iras 6 tuotcuW k. Every one that believeth that Jesus is the Christ shows by that belief. is is true of the family If we love the Father who also true of the Divine Society. is a function of the Divine Life as imparted to men" (Law).X. <e8wk€v aureus i^ovaiav t£kvol deov yevccr^ai. which is the of essentially spiritual recognition spiritual truth. The writer does not state whether faith is the cause or the result of the new birth. we may be assured that our love to His other (spiritual) children is real and sincere.128 THE EPISTLES OF What S. ii. 1. belief that Jesus is the Christ as inseparable from faith in Jesus Neither belief nor knowledge are for him purely as Christ. . which the Crucifixion. of the descent of a higher power on Jesus at the Baptism. I 2 f . 1.t. and his argument does not What he wishes to emphasize is the fact require its elucidation. i. . as surely as it is natural that any child should love his father's other children. ot . Jn. The phrase used in the passage quoted above from the Gospel (ttl<tt£v€iv els to oVo/za) suggests complete and voluntary submission to the guidance of a Person." Christian belief. 6 apvov- It lays stress on the iieros oTi 'I^croDs ovk 1<tt\v 6 Xpioros).

2. T€Kva rovdeov] filiu/n Dei arm. to re'Kca too fleoO] The use of this phrase instead of "the " brethren is significant. " of God loveth God. iroiu/j-ep B aeth. TOV 2°) TO 2. tol. 106. which makes iv for His children is real. 150). 66** IOO.). Aug.X. Bed. True love.X.] The child's love for its parent naturally The step in the it love for brothers and sisters. : Dominum aeth. Love of God bears witness to. a7a7ra B 7. 13. Hil. as well as being directly commanded by God.256 - 1402 (69). 34: rripu/j. 31. om. I5 Lcif. to. 64. arm. 42. or a disconnected sentence. a scr d scr g scr vg. . sah. deov 13. 29. al. cop. with the law that love for him who begets has as its necessary consequence love for those whom he has begotten" (p.ev KKLPal. ecrTLV boh. 33.55 "*. otl.V. idv. or as soon aya-rrujv k. Thus the duty of loving the brethren is deduced from the natural law of affection." as Grotius and others have suggested. instead of the usual con- may be determined. aeth. tovtw refer back to the statement immediately preceding (77-as 6 " is perhaps at first sight easier. when we love the children of God. Thdt. As usual a test is added by which the sincerity of the love This is clearly 'Ev tovtw points forward. 69.ev 31* al. pier. syr.TT0S yeyevrp-ai /^ 5 H » 5 *- 7 bfi260f (440). &™*. is not serious. in accordance the children of we also love we love God.t. arm. 33. .] NOTES ON I JOHN 129 ica! iras carries with 6 dyairaJi' k. We are again reminded that we have to deal with the language of meditation.] TOiovfiev 5. Every one who has been born of God must love all those who have been similarly ennobled. sah. and it is probable that iv tovtw should be interpreted as usual. Aug. no need to reduce the verse to the merest repetition of what has " by the transposition of the objects Hereby we know that we love God. demid. pier. orav ay<nrwfx. because the clause to which it points forward is introduced by otolv. syr. 191. iroiwuev— (3) avrov i° 3. harl. is called out by that in its object which is akin to the Divine. But the difficulty structions. 1. . Thphyl. : A 9 . 62 om. but difficulty has been felt in thus explaining it here. . 17. in active Whenever our will. cat. God. vg. Aug. love to God is obedience to His we know by clear. which has its origin in God. | orac] si boh. cav. boh-codd. Thphyl. cat. When. 57 lect .t. IOI. and has witness borne to itself by. Every one that is born over as too obvious to require statement." is passed argument. tol. love of the godlike. the established usage of iv tovtw in the Epistle. Oec. been already said. Cyr. ] + *ccu KAKLP Hil. But the other interpretation is more in accordance with the writer's There is certainly wish to emphasize the Divine origin of love. as. and issues this that our love Weiss' explanation. XP 1. Oec. 2 rripov/j.ev~\ ev tu ayawav tov lect 27.

<f>opTL^€T€ rovs avOpwTTovs <f>opTia 8ucr/?acrTaKTa : : . cf. an-etrai 46. 257. the necessary power has been given to him. : and contrast Mt. leg. Cf. a\Xa ai Siafota.t. yap] om. .«v).t. 4. xi. 299. 3. H** (^) A^ (S) sahw boh-codd. Kal Ta? ti/roXas is clause justifies the addition of the last clause of avrov TroLWfiev. and which must be kept alive and given scope to work. Lk. and yet not burdensome. to (popTiov p. He does not demand what is too hard for men. generally aun) fra] Cf. de spec. koI auTtj k. the only class of ideas whose contents it is used to define. 3.ev is clearly a correction to the more usual In itself the reading of B.. rip^av. i. The definitive Iva. aov 6 #eos ovSev fiapv /ecu ttolklXov t) 8vcrcpyov. in virtue of the new in its most abstract form new which emphasizes the power of the (7ra»/ to yeyew-qp-evov) birth rather than its possession by each individual (was 6 ytytwqp. 3 and 4 as intended to show the possibility of fulfilling the Divine commands.). The statement is made has. 5 . etc.. (2) On man's But this interside. .ov iXacppov eoTiv. is phrase which occurs in ver. irapa. 3. The first ver. y . |3apeicu] Cf. rearm 8' ctrrtv ayairav avrov u>s eveoKal twv el Se p. Jn. (1) On the side of God. " 2 Actual " is the . . xvii. Jn. Sea-fievovaLv 8e (poprta fiapla •njpoip. 4. It emphasizes the active character of the obedience which testifies to the love felt for God and therefore for the brethren. i. airXovv iravv kcu paSiov. if the Christian is possessed of adequate power to fulfil them. p. 30.ivo'i). . which hinder him from loving God.. 2-4. Philo.\. doing But love includes more of obedience than the actual carrying out of definite commands. thing as true love of God which does not issue in obedience.A. Windisch regards vv. It accepts them as the expression of an underlying principle.rj <pofieicr6ai yovv ws ap^ovTa /cat Kvpiov yfTrjv. more forcible. xxiii. The reading Trjpu)p.130 THE EPISTLES OF S. Obedience to His commands There is no such the necessary outcome of love to God.ei'] test of love. in virtue of his Christian standing and love dilige et quod vis fac (Augustine). i. And this power each Christian birth from God. JOHN [V. The word cannot here It suggests the idea of a heavy and mean " difficult to fulfil. and of realizing the Divine ideal for men." The commands may be in themselves oppressive burden. difficult to carry out. which is capable of moulding the whole character. pretation ignores the form of the sentence (on ttSv k.] For the form of expression. Every one who is born of God has within himself a power strong enough to overcome the resistance of all the powers of the world. (7roia>//. 2. This is perhaps introduces an ideal not yet actually attained. xi. Mt. 19. cvtoAwv avrov TT€pLe)(eo-9ai Kal ra St/caia. Contrast ver. .

57. ii. xpioros 13.] NOTES ON I JOHN 131 the faith that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah. The irpwTov phrase to leave no doubt about his meaning. the assertion that the higher Power that was in Him was only temporarily connected with Him during a part of His earthly life. cf. well-known event in the history of the Church or Churches The most natural reference is to the definite withaddressed. KABKPal. 4. tis eon/) Cf. Cyr. 7al402 (2l9). the of God. vg. Oec] tol. etc. fere. pier. AL 5e 66**.X. et arm. or fact. though the writer prob He varies his ably means much the same by both titles. tov koct^ov) which His followers share in virtue of their faith. o iriffTeutop] tijaovs CffTiv] iriffTeivas P.] vpuv L 3. 1 Co. accepted not as an intellectual conviction but as a rule of life. drawing of the false teachers from the fellowship of the Church. pr. 57. fere. and the Passion by which He completed His work of atonement and His coming was not in the water of John's propitiation. 6-9. boh-codd. pier. 18 cat. Baptism alone. demid. qnwv al. 42. 68. He. verse 1. which The aorist (vi/a. thinking either of the conversion of each member of the com" the moment when he cVurreucrev. sah. the pre-existent Son of God. xv. brings out the meaning more clearly. faith. and he alone. in so far as they unite themselves with Him. cop. demid.t. has in himself the power which overcomes the forces of the world which draw men away from God. 69 a scr al. T15 eoTiv 6 \pev(TTr]s €i firj k. 56 : wos] pr. vg.V. He who has realized what appeal is to practical experience. was sent from heaven by God to do His will. 98. overcame in our case the powers of the world. In His fulfilment of it. cav. + Se N(B)KP : 13. 2 2." or else of some munity. syr. The writer must be naturally points to a definite act. arm. Did. i.e. (m zanv B cav.cracra) fight for a different principle of life. 191 20 The 5. cat. iros 7e76J'j'77 uej>os / Our Son /a 17S (156). He came to earth to fulfil His Mission. c268 x* 7 (56). 33. not the Messiah of the Jews. two events are prominent the Baptism by which He was consecrated to His Messianic work. e'yw vwlky]ko. al. om. xvi. Did. that Jesus was {j/tvSos of the false teachers was the denial. The fuller phrase 6 uios tou GeoC] Cf.). 105. aeth. but that He was the complete revelation of the Father. There is no obvious reference to the victory of Christ over the world (cf. t« eanv Thphyl. Jesus of Nazareth really was. 6 xP ta"™s. + Christits arm-codd. tol. it was realized even more fully in the Blood : . 5. Jn. 29.

6 iXdw 81 vSaro? teal aifiaTos. secondly. hardly necessary to point out that any interpretations which refer one of the expressions to a rite instituted by Christ. Of the many interpretations of this passage which have been suggested. The witness-bearers are three : the Spirit. vSwp can be satisfactorily explained of Baptism. for truth is of the He is the truth. which he develops further in the next clause. and the other to of the Gospel. If the writer had intended to refer to the Christian It is Sacraments. the form of the sentence.TI Kal to) 11/xan. after which He was declared to be the Son of God . only three deserve serious consideration: (i) reference to the two Christian Sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist naturally suggested itself to many interpreters of the Epistle. This incident gives a definite fact which l^?j\. And.1 vSwp. is the title which best characterizes His work. (2) The reference to the incident recorded in Jn. almost necessitates a reference to definite historical facts in the life of Christ on earth which could be regarded as peculiarly characteristic of the Mission which He "came" to fulfil. and the atoning death on the Cross). But it is difficult to see how this incident could be regarded as No doubt the characterizing the Lord's Mission as a whole. he must have said 6 e/oxo/Aci'os.g. incident. satisfactory. as the writer had seen it or heard the account of it from a trustworthy and competent witness. would justify the use of the aorist (6 £u>v).132 THE EPISTLES OF S. JOHN " [V. And He was fitted for His office. 6.a /cat v8wp) offers explicable as a . was different. The function of the Spirit It was to bear witness. He was the witnessbearer. They establish the one truth that Jesus is the Christ. If something which happened to Him (as. a!/m is never found in the New Testament as a designation of the Eucharist.6ev alfia ko. be trusted. e. the Christian rite of baptism. considering the stress laid upon it by the author of the Gospel. and the exact language in which he records the result of the piercing of the Lord's side by the soldier's lance. 6. for it is threefold. And the witness may essence of His being. Thus the three witnesses all tend to the same point. whose very nature qualifies Him for the office .. the water of John's Baptism. and the blood shed upon the Cross. the Son of God. are even less See Cambridge Greek Testament. where testimony was again given to the fact that He is the Son of God. ovk iv tw vSoltl povov a\ iv tw V00. xix. It is easily consequence of the writer's desire to throw special emphasis on the aljxa. And the difference no real difficulty. especially in view of the 4th and 6th chapters A But it is open to more than one fatal objection. for His death was not like that of other men. 34 was also natural. " He that came which He shed upon the Cross. had made a deep in order (al//.

aqua lauarentur. it fails to satisfy ths requirements of the case. His "coming" effected. ordinary man. cleansing and life giving. 6. Ioannes scripsit. aquam uidelicet lauacri et sanguinem suae passionis: non . baptismos de uulnere perfossi lateris emisit. As an explanation of the actual words used. not a mere incident in the life of an its consummation. The Death on the Cross was not finished before Calvary. Baptismo. Qui uenit per aquam et sanguinem. Though Tertullian apparently adheres to this interpretation. 34. and many modern commentators. is no doubt conditioned by the special form of erroneous teaching which had made so precise a statement necessary. sanguine electos. specially consecrated for His public work. xix. out clearly. qui aqua lauissent. in which at the beginning of His ministry He was consecrated to His Messianic work and received the gift of the Spirit descending upon Him and abiding on Him. after the Higher Power had left Him. The statement is as precise it. of "blood" and "water" as symbolizing two characteristic But the aspects of the Lord's work. And the whole statement. back on the explanation of (3) We are thus thrown Tertullian. who see in the words a reference to the Baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist. etiam sanguinem potarent. and endowed with the And His work was Spirit which enabled Him to carry it out. which had temporarily united itself with His human personality for the purposes of His mission of teaching. and as article brings this grammar can make Uenerat enim per aquam et sanguinem. recorded in Jn. Tert. and The repetition of both preposition lays emphasis on the latter. 16. and the Death on the Cross by which His work was consummated. Hos duos proinde nos facere aqua uocatos. Theophylact. Cf. sanguine glorificaretur. quatenus qui in de sicut " sanguinem eius crederent. incident itself could hardly be thought of as the means whereby He accomplished His work. The two great events at the beginning and the end of the ministry At the Baptism He was satisfactorily fulfil these conditions. The terms used refer definitely to the historical manifestation of the Son of God. and compel us to look for definite and characteristic events in that history by means of which it could be said that His mission was accomplished.V. ut aqua tingueretur. his mention of it shows the early connection of this passage with the incident at the Crucifixion. The middle clause of the verse distinguishes two facts. 6 iXOuv 8l vSaros /cat ai/xaTos. including what is said about the function of the Spirit as witness-bearer.J NOTES ON I JOHN 1 33 It had suggested to him the significance impression upon him." The combination of the historical and sacramental explanation " is well illustrated by Bede.

historical sense which usually characterizes the Allegorists. unde Sacramenta Ecclesiae manauerunt. iii. especially if we compare his comment on the passage " in the Gospel {Trad. The "coming" of the Son corresponds to the "sending" of It expresses the fulfilment of the Mission which the Father. For this outos] Jesus. His readers could hardly have deduced it from the passage as it stands. ii." where the interpretation illustrates the absence of " haec et lauacrum praestat et potum. i. et aqua quod est regeneratio ac fides. quod est cognitio. or to the whole life regarded as one fact. 1 Jn. in which the Son of God was manifested in flesh. use of oCros to emphasize the character of the subject as previously described. and so discover in the phrase a special inThe idea emphasized dication of the office and work of Messiah. 2. according to the recogBut if this had been intended nized Biblical usage of the terms. ut nobis baptismi sacramentum consecraret ac traderet. the context must have made it plain that this was the meaning which the writer wished to convey. 22. 6 eX^oSf] The article is significant. cuius sacramentis semper refecti nutriremur ad salutem. He is one whose office And or work is rightly characterized by the description given. e. Ille sanguis sine quibus ad uitam quae uera uita est non intratur. It would. 7. 2). life. He who came was both Christ and Son of God. 2 Jn. v8wp and a*fia being used as symbols of two different aspects of the work which He accomplished during that as. 24). It is hardly safe to find in the expression 6 cu>v a distinct reference to the (?) Messianic title 6 epxo'/xevos. cf.g. sua nos passione redimens. ut illic quodammodo uitae ostium panderetur. solum baptizari propter nostram ablutionem dignatus est. be possible to interpret the passage of the whole of the life of Jesus on earth. cxx. quod est uita. 7. " Iste est qui uenit per aquam et sanguinem et iterum "quia tres sunt qui testificantur. Clement. 6. et sanguis. Spiritus." passage was naturally allegorized by the Alexandrian . Aperuit. The incarnation of the Son of God in human nature was not a merely temporary connection during part only of the earthly life of Jesus of Nazareth. this may be taken as probably giving that writer's comment on the passage. see Jn. who is both Christ and Son of God..1 34 THE EPISTLES OF S. As that Mission was Messianic . He was sent to accomplish. uerum etiam sanguinem suum dedit pro nobis. JOHN [V. in this and similar expressions would seem to be generally the course of action taken in obedience to the command of God. in remissionem fusus est peccatorum aqua ilia salutare temperat : poculum The School . the aorist naturally refers to definite historical facts. of course." Considering his usual dependence upon Augustine. 2 (xxi. cleansing and life-giving. cf.

pa/?Scj> iv ayairrj) . of the Mission was characteristically realized. or purpose. hand. 3 (eV fioaxy) 5 J Co. but can hardly be regarded as an event On the other by means of which the coming was fulfilled. The real objection to the latter view is the difficulty of seeing how that incident could be regarded as characteristic means by which the "coming" was accomplished. . 7. the Baptism and the Crucifixion were both important factors in the carrying out of the Mission which He came to fulfil. Lv. the critical note. . Kal to TTkeGua k.aTos left doubtful. of the coming iv t<2 alfxari. . a point which the earlier phrase St vSa-ros k<u ai)u. may be thought of as spheres in which the work. It may well have suggested to the writer the peculiar significance of two aspects of the coming. 21 (iv of expression. 34 (i$fjk6ev ai/xa Kal v8wp).V. The use of the article is natural. water and blood. Messianic ideas may often be suggested by the " He who accomplished the phrase. xix. rj tl<TT]ev). in the attempts to modify the text. but they are secondary.] NOTES ON I JOHN 135 in character. or elements by which it was characterized. It is not merely . phrase should express means by which the "coming" was acCf.Te2v. The events may be regarded as instruments by which the Mission was accomplished or. or at least the supreme importance. any primary reference to the Christian sacraments. the order of the ning of the verse). (ctcrepxcTcu tv atfxan aWorpiw). The difference in meaning between the two prepositions used is not very clear.X. But the influence of Semitic forms of expression may have gone far towards obliterating any difference in meaning between the two forms Cf. xvi. is necessary to It is clear that make his meaning clear and unmistakhe has to deal with a form of teaching which denied the reality. The repetition of both article and preposition certainly suggests that two different events are referred to. or rather the realities which they symbolize. . ix.t. even if vSwp and ai/Lta could be used to indicate them (see note at the beginAs has been pointed out. words is not in itself decisive against such a reference or against a reference to the incident recorded in Jn. v. Mission entrusted to Him by God" seems to be the meaning of the word. The tense of eXOwv excludes 2 Co. 12 (Sia tou iStov atuaTos . iv. ouk cV tw uSa-ri fiocof] The writer evidently feels that further precision able. 6. and in this light they stand out more prominently than any other two recorded events of the Ministry. SV oScrros Kal a'fxaTos] The difficulty of the phrase is reflected The Cf. as 6 ektwv does of outos. where the reference is to what has been mentioned before. 81a 71-t'crTCtos 7repnra. complished.] To /xapTvpovv expresses the characteristic office of to 7rvev/xa. on the other hand. 25 . He. .

cop. 104 Cyr. i7)<rovs cliholtos] pr. 30. 25. (cat Trvevfiaroi 5. the Spirit. Both bore witness to the character of His Mission. : kcli wveva 158 472 _ ) c«299 7 om. also Jn. 8-10. Perhaps. xvi. to #eA. important. 13. tol. Cf. 103. 80. 36. 83 arm. This function the Spirit can perform perfectly. xl. and came to do. plan.?//xa crov. S A B L (45). 33. us tov al. syr p Kai aifxaros B K L 6v 7c258 (56). which is truth. 98." is in itself the best witness to its own nature. 8). sah. But this is alien to the context. 7 He. xv. By very nature of the Spirit is truth. the sequence of thought in the passage as a whole may be brought out more clearly by a simpler interpretation. cav. 34. plu. Jn. 81 " xP i0 r °s / alM ( ) A™ al. 68. S. 29. 26. The special function of the Spirit is to bear witness to what the X. perhaps. The best explanation of the author's meaning is to be found in the account of the function of the Paraclete in Jn. see a parallel instance in the description of the proper function of the Baptist contained in the Prologue of the Gospel. ToVe (Tttov Ihov tjkco. eXew] pr. 26. fu. Ambr. 26. but It cannot deny itself. had. It is not improbable that in the teaching which is here combated.]: pr. 33. It fulfils the requirements of legally valid If we recognize the proper place and function of attestation. iv KetpaXiSi /?i/3A. demid. Cyr.pl i/xov tot) TroLrjcrai. The emphasis is on the function of witnessing. Thphyl.) syr Cyr. as. however. witness is threefold. very nature it is not only capable of bearing true witness. The its it Cf.oi). Tliphyl. : Cyr. we gain assurance which cannot be shaken. equivalent to fiaprvpovv. pauc. plu. xlix). Introduction. ( Mcn-os 54. is also constrained to do so. tov 7raTpos e KTropeveTai. The present tense excludes the need of any definite historical reference in the case of the Spirit. xiv.iou yiypairTai Tre. 18. both by water and by blood. / /b6M6i. 28). 39. a totally different function had been assigned to the Spirit (cf. (am. which does not exclude a secondary " He " came reference to the ideas which have been suggested. To the Baptist also some had assigned a different and a higher function. or the Voice which spake from heaven shortly before the Passion (Jn. (ow/c tjv eKetvo? to (/>ais) aXX Iva piapTvprjcrr] 7T€pl tov <£o)tos. to 7rv€Vfia tt}? dA^eias. vg. Oec. : xP l<rT0 * . xii. ( 49 g) (56) + koi Trvevfiaros 6. 39) a scr al. JOHN fulfiller [v. Christ was the of the Divine (Ps. 137 ( + 07101. 15. arm. 69. because the Spirit is the truth. 6. the Voice at the Baptism.136 THE EPISTLES OF Cf. and more And so the The Spirit is the witness-bearer. 6 #€os. 7. p. We may. sch . c/ceivos Christ was false p-apTvprjo-a Trepl ip. 101. Oec Tert. But there was other witness. on] Either declarative or causal. 66**. 13-15. The former gives a possible meaning. xv. for instance. aeth. The Spirit "carries with it immediately the consciousness of its truth and reality. o izapa. 34.

X. 100. . the Son of God. P . uix. sah. aeth.Tpds fj. 6 .] ir)<Tovs NOTES ON P : I JOHN arm-codd. ff& (*)• kcu to v8up post aifia arm-codd. Cf.apTiav rjv av ap. viii.ti . 162 . 21. 7 a70 (5O5). v5o. testimony of men when it satisfies the conditions of evidence required by the law. flOVOv] /J. much more are we bound to accept the witness which we possess in this case. Oec comr : 1 37 K Ambr. 34. 17. h 15. v8o>p. 13. comn p tycrovs o xp^tos minusc. 36.1 paprvpeL irepl e/xov 6 irep. the establishing of the truth that Jesus is the Christ. 6 3°] om. / (29). Oec. H& # vSari . ko.pl ip. 33. . .ov tolvtol fiapTvpel Tre. xix. b157 eunv] om. : it is known is to every one that we do on auTr] k. for it is witness borne by God Himself.] on The 8v6 /JLCLpTVpWV KCU £7Tl OTO/ACITOS Tpi£)V [JLapTVpWV Cf. ttcLv prjfxa. 80 ev 3 cat. tui 2 ] om. 118 scr j plu.a.Ti tov 7ra. of legally valid witness. Cyr. is trustworthy. T0 4°]om. wev/xaTi 66**. witness to the fact that Jesus is the It fulfils the conditions Christ. €is fxapTvprjcrat Kara avdpunrov Kara Tracrau dSi/a'av kcu Kara irav ap. vg.€ TraTr'jp. (*). and the opening and closing scenes of the Ministry as interpreted by the Spirit. exist for the same object.a 2°] om. . 18. Trvev/xari + et k scr spiritit cav. to H& (*) /alB8 (395). bear similar witness to the Christ. 56. A 3 1*. The Spirit.C7ri gtto^citos Tpets k. els to iv ticnv] Are for the one thing.] A B L P 4. ev to : : . and therefore more . X K al. viii. Tw3°]om. Thphyl. Jn. 66**. 50 xP'Ctos 34 vg. 41.103 (6i). 18. Cyr. Dt.ov. 16 . 22.X.aprr]p. the Son of God. It is obvi- ous that the same interpretation must be given to irvevfia. Jn.t.aprj]. 36. v.OVU) B. xviii. auiccn] ei> tu> autart ev tu eujuart 21.X. 39. tu epya a iyw 7roiw ev tw 6v6p. multi.V. the el indicate any doubt accept such testimony. . om.] Such witness greater. 25. accomplished His Mission are subsidiary witnesses to its character. tol. arm" : irvev/j. 41 Cyr. 2 Co. 80. as laid down in Dt.a kcu Kara iracrav ap. and the Spirit bore witness to Him and The witness of the Spirit is supported by the to His Mission. also Jn. . 33.[xevcl pdpTv. 6-8. 15. tend in the same direction. 11 does p. They all work towards the same result.t. The Christ "came" by water and by blood.t.\pa<: and X.Tat. 40. The means by which He witness of the water and the blood. ovk ip. xiii. <TTT](Te. syr Thphyl . yi-aeozffff (522). 83. 192 cat. And the witnesses agree. and al/m here as in the preceding verse. . Mt. fiaprvpovi'Tes'] fxaprvpovcriv H& {&) / cll4f (335)* kcu *ccu i°]om. ev toj vdari . 17. / a397 »(96). el rr]v fiapTupiac k. If we accept the 8. boh-cod. Neither here nor in iv. xvii. 83 arm. 1 . KaiTo]<m to 7.] Cf. 5.

it may to the truth that Jesus is the Christ.138 THE EPISTLES OF S. natural and in accordance with the author's rj Style (cf. 32. i. be adopted. qui arm-ed. avrrj Se eo-riv K/auris He has given it concerning His There can be no more trustworthy witness. armCOdd. so far as competence to speak is concerned. etc. et nos testimonium perhibemus. ii.pi is very frequent (i. than that which a father Son. Thphyl. pier. alone is a\r]6ivrj in the full sense of the term. is the witness.aAai vjjZv. rr]v apxV ° Tl KaL A. 8-10. In the Gospel. God has borne In this case the Divine witness witness concerning His Son. because deals with a subject it Divine witness. the witness already described.efiapTu'pT]Kev] fjv. Aug. 31. worthy of our acceptance. If of the Textus Receptus. 25. the avrr) must refer back to the witness already described. By laying the stress on the verb pafiapTvpt}K€v it is perhaps possible to make sense of the passage in historical facts. 25.] tj^KLP al. that to regard the on declarative. though perhaps we should compare In the present context Jn. Oec. This use of o n in the Johannine writings concerning His Son.t. for God really has borne witness to His Son. elsewhere irt.X. 66** vg. : this way. arm-codd. JOHN is [v. is not certainly established. 27. Divine and legally valid. though other kinds of witness may be true so far as they go. quoniam uidimus eum. | 77 rov Otov (?l fiaprvpia 2°] post deov 2° /* | )] tuv aVuv /bjeoa (522) | om. on to <pw<. the Spirit. Cyr. 10. cop. 29. his He who own become trusts himself to the guidance of t'ie Son has in experience the witness which God bore to Him. But such an interpretation is very harsh.) iii. It fully concerns His Son. Jn. who interprets the evidence of the The witness meant must be the witness borne If on is accepted. and the blood. rwv avBpurwp] rov 6eov X* on 1° K arm. or by the reading the one witness. viii. it would be intolerably harsh. that borne by the three witnesses. and God alone. [xaprvpeiv the testimony of God to His Son. 6. the water. | on : | : testimonium perhibuit in terra script uras perfuiens . (3) It is far more 19. 7repi rov viov avrov] de filio sua Iesu Et filius Christo arm-COdd. 8. that which He has borne (2) o n. This is the witness. In this case avrrj must be taken in three ways (1) Causal. 34. et annunciamus nobis ut credatis et ideo tol. competent to speak. the Spirit.). as witness consists in this. cat. and not in conformity with the author's style. very rare. it has He who does not accept the witness part of himself. k. 2° S A B 5. i. v. The reading on is undoubtedly right. 7. . 13. sah. on p. and is on which God. iXrjXvOev The value of the The essence of the witness is that it is bears to his own son.e.e. +quem misit saluatorem super terram. 15. Such refer to what has preceded.

231.t. He has spoken and acted deliberately. as usually. The choice has been made. Grk. The tense suggests a definite choice of which the effects abide. and were ready to follow Him as Messiah. 12. The witness must therefore either be accepted v|/eu'<mn'] Cf. There is conception.T. God did not will that Cf. till they discovered how different His conception of the Messianic office was from theirs). x. in a case where His word alone can be final. 10.e. 9 are repeated for emphasis each point is dwelt upon. In the writer's view there can be no excuse for refusing to accept evidence which is " If so clear and satisfactory.] . Gr. The witness has been It has borne. as (iavTw). ii. believed on Jesus as Messiah. and ou TreTrto-TeuKev els its consequences are manifest. and its effects are inevitable. jiapTupia/j tJ|i» The nearest parallel to this expression is Jn. Jesu Christo. for he has set aside as false the witness which God has borne concerning His own Son. in the Johannine See J.) is not so forcible. 23 (ttoXXoI eVi'o-Tercrav eis to ovo/xa avrov. once for all . p. it cannot be ignored or set aside. i. The phrases of ver. A general class is described by its significant characteristic.) expresses. writings only Jn. It emphasis on the character rather than the fact of nonbelief. of N. been borne by God Himself. or at least to the idea which is expressed in that witness. ascribe this intention to Him in His ordering of the world. dat. i.X. fje u. acceptance of the statement rather than surrender to the person. The variants tw vl<2. To reject the witness or rejected. Rothe. It seems to denote devotion to a person possessed of those qualities which the witness borne to him announces. The rejection has been made. H. But in N. i. He led men into a terrible temptaSo if we would keep our conception of God pure. The things were not done in a corner. The aorist (ovk eVicn-cuo-ev.] NOTES ON I JOHN 1 39 as true has not only missed the truth." 6 lays fiT) moreuW] The subjective negative is rightly used. iv auTw] in himself.Eg. The is made clear in the paraphrase of K passage must describe the "testimonium spiritus internum. and with absolute clearness. ireiroiT)K€i'] It cannot be ignored or explained away. A. tw 0ew] This construction (c.apTupT)K6v k. Moulton. etc. as being that which His name implied. ou TTe7rtoTeuK€i'] The negative emphasizes the actual fact rather than its character (contrast 6 ait) TTKiTivwv). The testimony has been borne. miss the point of the verse.T. men should believe on Jesus. we must tion.V. no room for ignorance or misis to deny the truthfulness of God. as it concerns His own Son. oi with the participle is rare. We . 10. but has made God a liar .

Trappy)<TLa on to <£ws lav axou'ei rj/j-wv. ought first to answer satisfactorily the question. a striking comment. 19 (avrrj 8e eoriv av-rq lariv r/ 17 k/diVis.* auTov] deum arm. and then we should rest assured " that Christianity is non sine numine . / Thphyl. Cyr. Jn. 27. cat. even if it can hardly be said to be called out by the exact expressions of the text.]+Tou deov vg. eyw ^A#ov Iva fa-qv l^wo-tv xal TrepurcTov Son on a mission. how it could be possible that this Faith should so widely permeate humanity before we investi- We gate the force of our doubts. longe. borne by a father to his son. cat. ovk ov ireivuFTevKev N B eirioTevxev N sah.] 56 sah. Vig. the Christ. totum comma /»897HH (g5) NBKLP K | | al. 13 tw 66** vlu A al. am. and that those who believe on the son have it in themselves.o)X]v aluvLov] The quality. oti] . 12 al. mu Cyr. 34 d 0(os 4 d scr j scr vg.) Tt ah(i)fxc6a . ep. t. was the witness borne by God to the nature and character of «?Xwo-iv. . +eius m. 29. . codd. Oec. Iesu Christo om. by sending His Son that men might have life in Him. John. syr. 14. 33. V. boh-codd. the Son of God. .A. ovk eirurrevcrev etc. A : | ABKLP | | : : m : m A I — K LP | : I | | 11. Oec. X. The witness which God bore consisted in the fact that He gave life to men. — auTT] . Cf. generally put forward prominently whatever tells against Faith. and with the nominative. The sending of the Jesus of Nazareth. Cyr. The life. Tjv'] Deo qui arm-cod. So far the writer has only taught his readers that it is Divine witness. God bore witness to His Son when states in what it consists. sah. fere.] scr eis 2° om. . IXrjXvOtv k. oti . cop. plus vg. Thphyl. rvpiav om. that higher spiritual life which they can realize and make their own only in so far as they unite themselves to Jesus. Vig. bon-ed. syr. Aug. Tt\v /xaplonge. but leave on one side what speaks for it. are rather common in S.140 THE EPISTLES OF S. Cyr. aeth. At last the witness. Oec. ru uiw rot' 6i> 5. JOHN [v. Cf. uid al. a 175 64 cat. IO. arm. plur. Thphyl. aeth. some of the essential characteristics of which have been already described. truly characterized by the Water of the Baptism and the Blood shed on the Cross. He gave life to men. The constructions with iva. I iii. filio eius aeth. yu-r?] om. is actually defined. plus ai/rw Aug." gift anarthrous phrase emphasizes character or was something which is best described as the fact. . Jn.] eai/rw Si al. syr. plur. The tense emphasizes The reference is to the apart from its conse- historic fact of the mission of Him who came by Water and by Blood. T0V g €0V ] om# arm-cod. "spiritual ISukcv'] quences. Aug. . Jn. {319) ru 0ew K B L al.aprvpr)Kev N 5. as a possession which Now he definitely experience has made part of themselves. 10.t. . 11. and of which the object was to implant a new life in men.

" The witness not an additional statement made about the life. Aug. God We (see Jn.X. demid. even though actual possession . " Let it be. B arm. statement the emphasis was laid on the actual possession (l^ei have here another close parallel with the Gospel rr]v £. is the gift of a life which is in the Son.X. the thing we asked The Almighty Sovereign has said.V. further doubt about the matter. 12. Whatever else the man may have in the way of higher endowIn the positive ments. | 38. I JOHN life is 141 a witness only where We The gift of has been received. 34'.t.] In the negative statement there are two changes which have their significance: (1) The addition God is the source of life. found that they gained from Him a new power which transformed their life into a new and higher life. though they had not actually companied with Him during His life on earth.] t)|ai/] it NOTES ON Christians. spiritual life is not within his grasp. avn)] + e<?Ttv A | om. al. in order that you might feel assurance as to the possession of true life. He hears our prayer. scr 99 a l scr | o 6eos syr. And if we are thus conscious that God has heard. 6 p) eywv k." there is no for. iii. rov deov vg. (2) The position of tt/v £o»yv. you who believe in Jesus who is the Son of God. rr\v far)v I ] top viov 31 : fw7/j» aiwviov 7 a ^ 45a (489) + avrov V46 (154) J c3Si (137) om. Those who lived with Christ on earth the reader's experience. in anticipation. eSw/cev] post i)iuv fffTlV XAKLP Sedwicev 69. 31. and thus becomes more emphatic. we already possess. 12. 36). 13-17. 25. I have written thus about belief in Jesus as the Son of God. which is placed before the verb. vg.] This clause is part of the "witness. rov viov I°] + tou Oeov 8. 11. rrjv $ut)v 2°] post | : | | eX ei 2° J b « 370 (1 149) :+avTov O iS I Q s64 .u>y]v). ) arm-codd. Tert. whenever we ask anything of God according to His will. and the witness of the Spirit. 100. This verse explains more fully the last clause of the It is probably of the nature of an appeal to preceding verse. class of men is described who are distinguished by this A characteristic.t. in knowing by experience that. 6 jxt] zyjav] The negative (to?) generalizes the statement. source cannot find it. slight He that cannot gain it from that alone can give it to men. And the later generations had similar experience by which to judge. 69 ascr boh-COdd. Such confidence is realized in prayer. The Son of of tov 6eov to tov viov. cat. kcu aurr] f\ Jut) k. and the witness of God. which consists in the life which He gave to men through Jesus Christ. (am. scr 137 h syrP] A pier.

xxi.X. Receptus. JOHN is [v. if persisted in.wr}v.t. 01 7rioTewovTes. upe k. on the assumption that the reading of B (ifiiv Iva ciStJtc 6Vt £wr)v is original. Thus. . But in any case there is For all unrighteousness is sin. Here it would seem most natural to refer the words to the preceding section of the Epistle (v.7] 7rpo5 OdvaTov. in which the writer has put forward his view of Faith in Jesus..] For the separation of the explanatory clause (rots TrLcrTevova-iv k. eoWev clvtols i£ovcriav TtKva Otov yweadai.apT<ivovcriv where the change in number creates a still p. makes the reference to the whole of this section almost certain. ver. from iplv has led to several attempts to improve the text: (1) The clause tois 6eov has been added immediately after i/uv in the n-LOTfvovo-iv (2) This clause has been retained in its proper place. . tois TTKTTevovaiv cis to ovo/xa avrov. and full scope for intercession. cf.t. 12. also ii. ii. preceding section about the False Teachers. the genesis of the €\(T€ alwvLov tois Tn(rTivov(TLv k. There is sin which must lead. 14.A. If any man see his fellow-Christian sinning. 26. Swcrei avrw £.X. xx. immediately after vpuv. believe in the name of the Son of God.A. .. that reference is determined by the preceding words (a ovk €(ttlv yeypafxfxeva iv tu /3i/3Aia> tovtw). where the reference is clearly to the Cf.I42 THE EPISTLES OF for long years. and Jn. so long as his sinning is not such as leads inevitably to final separation from Christ and the life which God gives in Him. even if it be long delayed. This separation of tois irio-revovo-Lv k. or {b) a second final clause.).) The parallels quoted other variants can be easily explained. 16. /cai fva Tna-Tevrjre. 31) which immediately precedes the appendix (ch. TauTa eypavj/a] Cf. and which again is the real witness of God to the nature and character The following explanation of vp.. The present verse does not really present an exact parallel to the conclusion of the Gospel (Jn. The nominative (2a) is found with and without the insertion of a . Even if the reference is to the whole Gospel and not to the arj/xela recorded in ch. i. clearly seen in may be delayed This more intercession for the brethren. he will naturally intercede for him. but for tois TTKTTivovcnv has been substituted (a) the nominative. as the necessary condition of the realization of that spiritual life which God has given to men through Jesus Christ. clause. tois ap. the Christ. greater strangeness of expression. the sphere of Christian intercession.t. 1-12). which the triple lypaxpa probably refers to that part of the Epistle which had already been written. and will gain life for him.t. to I do not say that this comes within final exclusion from life. there is such a thing as sin which does not necessarily lead to final exclusion from life. etc. in the case of all whose sin is not unto death. S.). tois -ma-Tevova-Lv.lv as those who of His Son. xx. the Son of God. 13.

denotes that which "goes out towards.] 60 rots post aiwviov X K L P al. 13. complete. harmony with 24. om. arm. r\v exc-fiey irpos aoToV] which we have and enjoy in realized In describing relations. Thphyl. vi. /cat 57 arm-codd. arm. 17). Kal aurr|] The object of the preceding section was to produce assurance in the readers that they were in possession of the new life. 21 and here). irioreuouCTii' eis to 6Vo|xa] Cf. Oec.dpTrjT€. ii. with perhaps special reference to the It is original meaning of the word. cop. ver. 142. I. Thphyl. and fellowship. 126 | ex eTe | KL Ph al. Iva firj dfj. 7rpo's generally fellowship with God. or eV tovtw. The knowledge follows as a matter of course where the self-surrender is that they are in possession of life. iv. 14.] koli iva iriarev-qTe : K A B al. vg. 66**. sat. The phrase must imply devotion to a person possessed of the qualities which his name denotes.V. : (mcTTcvcniTe h 37. 142. or some such expression refers.2." a relation realized in .] + Toit L P al. Oec. 13." The knowledge which they need must be intuitive. pier. on] One of the common constructions used by the writer to introduce the description of that to which avrr). and the relation in which they stand to Him. ace. cop. tovtw There are many signs Christian faith in the Epistle of the writer's consciousness that his readers' loss of their zeal for the enthusiasm and had led to their feeling uncertain They lacked "assurance. Mk. active intercourse e'urlv . cat. 6. i. cat.) in the same passage Here the full force of the construcin exactly the same sense. 14. yivwo-KOfiev.as . it is realized in true prayer. presents a text completely in ii. which always brings with it the consciousness that it is heard. 28. 57 syr. living our life). mu. This assurance is now described as Trapprjcria. . plus Thphyl. with God is based . Cf. ). It is unlikely that tuo-tcuW is used with the two constructions (c. sah. 29. rov viov tov deov | \ o2B8 H& A Oec. 81. Our irapprfa-ia. absolute freedom of speech. pier. boldness or confidence. eis e. Cassiod. If they realize who and what the Christ is. iv Iva ciorJTe] Cf. tion with et? is needed to bring out the sense. . and twice in relation to prayer (iii. and first iii. 162 vg. 6. 81. aeth.iv (56) {<&) uid I3 29. they will at once " perceive and know " ciStjtc] about their position. 162. 23.. 3 (ovk w8e 7rp6s 17/i. said to consist in the fact that God hears them whenever they ask anything according to His will. syr p Cassiod.] NOTES ON it I JOHN I43 above show that the writer's style. vurrevowriv ets to ovoiia. aeth. c ot mtrrevovTes X A 5. dat. ravra] pr. 66**. X* B vg. :+t<hs TTiffrevovcriv iriaTevovffiv : habemus arxn-codd. cat. i. syr. Jn.e. This is the fourth mention of the Christian's confidence we have it twice in relation to the Judgment (ii. koi / v/xiv X eypa\pa] post vfj. 1. 10 and Jn. B h 5.

H. 24. 31. 13. sah. aiTeiTe to 0€\ir]|i. subject it is not in opposition to the Divine will. 26 (ovk alrcZcrOe) idv ti k. Cf. 15. 20. 168. the will of God in the matter with which the prayer is concerned. arm. which is the expression of the supplicant's own wish on any subject. xvi. 14.ee] idv crr^K(T€. In the certainty of anticipation there is a kind of possession of that which has been granted. r) rovrcv axovei Jn. . . ecu' (jiaLverai. which we have asked not without effect (rJTijKa/jLev). Our consciousness the that we are heard in whatsoever we ask. . are in a sense This is perhaps the most natural explanation of already ours. where among others the following instances from papyri are quoted.a ev t<3 ovo/xaTi /xov aiTTjcrtaOe). al. idv 8' ettrtV. to 6i\r}jxa He The hears whatsoever necessary condition of the hearing . fact THE EPISTLES OF that S. xvi. except in so far as it is identical with the will of God on He may therefore have thought of true prayer as that subject.] to this condition. av alr-qarjre iv t<5 aurou] Cf. for delayed. 1 Th. rather than as a statement of the supplicant's wish.T.) 6. : '. is trying to find expression for a view of prayer which gives a more literal meaning to the words In the preceding verse he has laid stress on exo/xev to. . the fact that what he has to say applies only to such prayers as This excludes any prayer are offered KaTa. iii. brings with it a consciousness of possession. cf. 191. idv oTSev. Mt.144 on the avrov. (236)/ | A : K A : A | | 15. For the indicative after idv.] ore exupev eav 13 arm. xi. . The word naturally includes the idea of (xvii. : including only requests for knowledge of.) sah.X. Jn. ix. JOHN we ask koto [v. Jn. that . xiv. p. though our actual entering upon possession may be indefinitely God has heard the petition the things asked for. aKOuei ^jAwe] Cf. 5S lect a £ 60 a55 aeth. the verse. the hearing is assured whatever the petition may be. Greek. XX. 22 (alrovaa Jn. . Ps. . aiTUfjieda] airwfiev y (522) fleA^a] ovopu avrov] tov 6v / b2u9f -( 3 86). oiSa/xev otl 6 #eos dfxafyTUi\u>v ovk idv T19 6eoo-efii]<. boh. . . and J. pier. while meditating after his wont on the subject of prayer. on eav ti X B L P al.t. But it is doubtful whether any definite and clear difference in meaning between the middle and the active can be pressed. aW . .(uid. syr. . pauc. and acquiescence in. tuTwfieOa] The more subjective form of expression is chosen. hearing favourably. fJLOV T0VT0 TTOirjO'iii. to 6e\y]/xa avrov. But it is possible that the writer. cdi' 018ap. necessary condition not being repeated. 8. 68. r]TrjcraT€ kcito. idv Set. 4 1 f. on av on eav 31*. . on OVOfXaTL aKovei. am^ara. Moulton's Grammar of N.

iv. is in opposition In the case of such prayers the supplicant can enter into immediate and conscious possession of the thing asked for. Lv. while the usage of the Gospel has apparently influenced the later text. 24. Jn. xxiii. aiTr|fjiaTa] Here only in the Johannine writings. Intercession naturally finds its most obvious sphere in the new society itself. 16. sah b ) air S B 5. c om. . In the Gospel 7rapd is the commoner Thus the reading of N B is truer to the style of the Epistle. ii. Cf..€v. however. 15. But all injustice. Mk. (209) 7. If any member of the body sees that his brother is committing sin.pta. sat. in every case where the sin is of the character described. so long as it be not of such a character as must inevitably lead to final separation from the life of God. is sin.vovra. 5. 20. a\i. £7reKpivev yevecrflai to atrrjfia avrwv : Ph. There is such a thing as sin unto death. 7repi 7-775 a.aprl. The writer therefore goes on to state its possibilities and its limitations. xi. Cf. 6. 0] on 7*5457-110. 13 al. 24. 24. 21 . iv. d-rr' The voice and tense emphasize the objective fact auToO] The Received Text Cf. every failure to maintain in our action right relations with God or with man. So there is plenty of scope left for the exercise of brotherly intercession. 70. xviii.apTicn'] cf. whether the answer to his own formulated or felt wish be yes or no.V. For such an one it may be that prayer can only be offered as for one who has forfeited his Christian privileges. which tends to final separation from God. (g^ ^6) /b78ff (__) ( VTVKafjLet expl. kcli I . it goes without saying that he will exercise his power of intercession for him. Ta alrrjfjLaTa ifjiwv yvwpL^ecrOiJ) 7rp6s rbv 6tov. | A AKL | 16. succeeds 10 (/at) It does not strengthen the verb. . om. alr-Qfxara t)(Ofj. The accusative is added here because of the qualifying clause which 7rpos Bavarov). 27. mu. And such is the power of intercession that he will be able to gain for him life. aw avrov} a Domino sah. Did. TJ-r^Kafie/j and its results. Lk. 5 ] irap P al. usage in similar contexts. I vg. pier. Jn 7.p.s rjjxaprtv. r]fj. 4353 airw^eda] aiT7i<ru/ie6a (X) /a (999 ?) J exwfiev a 175 64 * P 2o atT7)naTa] + r)/jiwv 7 (319) sah ^njffo/tw /a200f.a.wv K* A 19*. eov 1° 96* oidafxev I ] idufiev X eav 2°] al. dp. «<63 / a « 353 I mABK | &&*•& | I | .a<i Ezk. and which if persisted in must inevitably lead to that result. i. It is not clear that in such a case appeal can be made to the Common Father on behalf of a fellow-Christian. The statement may be literally true ol8a/xev on ra God's will. cat. Oec. 6.] NOTES ON I JOHN it I45 if it accompanied by a readiness to to give up. There is sin which is not of the fatal and final character described above. has altered 1 this into the commoner 3 irap avrov. . V. 17. iv Tats dpaprtuts avrov ais rjfxaprev : avrov t.

perhaps indicates seeing the sinner iTravrofywpu. dpapTia The phrase is nm : _ : Deliberate and wilful transgression as opposed to sins committed " from unwittingly. " There is such a thing as sin which leads to death. probably suggested by the Old Testament conception of sins TtCH T2 (Nu.. any of the people who came near to the Tabernacle of the Congregation would be guilty of sin and is his people." If persisted in it must lead to final separation from the Divine life. . denote a tendency in the direction of death. The make is ju. the note on ver. ." said that after We may also compare Nu. 17. .. 22. The present participle. of course. ea-Tiv and (ver. Q&varov] cf. And rbv and power the Christian may be said to "give" life. "Ja . "sinning a sin" (RV. 20) Cf. it can the judgment subjective. The form of expression would seem to indicate that the author is not thinking of one particular sin.146 THE EPISTLES OF S. xviii.. fir] irpds Q6. though this is against the meaning and There may therefore be a direct pointing of the Hebrew text. Cf.. were punished by the cutting off of the sinner among it the setting apart of the Levites for the service of the Tabernacle. 1 . ver. 13. niy which is translated in the LXX.vo. . v. nxcb t 1 ann nab ? nyio • i" . where die. probable that in Rabbinic thought the words moi' Kttn were taken closely together. connection between the verse and the words in Nu.(pray t \ v v t ::•:'* i t t •.).-r : 1 ^nir^K burW T .-:v -: vv-rrpos . Ja. In the author's view any sin which involves a deliberate rejection of the claims of the Christ may be described as " unto death. definite though unnamed. ScicTci] The subject of the verb man who intercedes. cf.tov\ hardly be pressed to TIS. idv ti$ i8t)] The subjunctive with lav simply states the possibility.. . may be either God. or The abrupt change of subject which is the the former view would require in virtue of his intercession perhaps decisive against its it. owci tois djiapTd^ouaric] For the construction. .77 is naturally used after lav . 16. The whole phrase thus with which It is . 15. xv.'.) Tmzh min X^3^. ^ cu^t) tt}s 7ri<n-€<os trioo-ei ij/vxrjv avTOv Ik davdrov. and not an attained result." Such a state of sin may find expression in different acts. KajjLvovra. 22. may be compared the Targum (Onk. kcu ov -rrpoo-eXevaovTai ttipn&i :• in 01 viol : 1 :» 'Io-par)\ cts Ttjv o-kt]V7]v roil fxaprvpiov Xa/Selv afiapTiav 6avaTq<p6pov. IIpo? Odvarov must. 30. . or because it is assumed as a matter of course that the brother will intercede for the brother.. that of the oitt)o-€i] The future used either for the imperative. JOHN [v. 31 Kinn c'D2n nmaai va -ietk eteam ntryn aij5D . xviii.

a 250£ 1 aiT-queC] + tov 6v 7 ( 33 ) avrw] post X5 . Tert. any clear proof of such a connection." is out of the question where brotherhood has been practically renounced. § xl.e] + cop. xii.] NOTES ON (if I JOHN I47 " " kind of suggests a sinning rather than any definite act of sin. xii.v 7* (217) dwcris H* Cf.-codd. sah. The distinction drawn by Dr. (823) ] rr. P - . petal pro eo et dabit Sowet] dabunt boh fw?. eternam boh. meaning and usage between ainiv and ipwrav is not very clear. petit am. 16. is very doubtful. I | om. P't>' : m : | I | : : . the words contain their own justification. outside the normal sphere of Christian intercession.apTt. of course." hesitate is perhaps more naturally applicable here.apravovffiv tdrj] eidr) ffavra. does not help much in settling the question. Deliberate rejection of Christ and His claims was probably most prominent in the writer's thought. . the phrase may be allowed) which leads inevitably in a if it is certain direction. deus tol. Synonyms. " to request a person to do (rarely give) something. while it shows clearly that ipoiTOiv was the natural word to use in invitations.] The writer does not forbid such intercesHe merely abstains from commanding it." and epwrav.apravovTa] afxaprif10 5M fjLTj aiT-qoei nai Buffet] cutt/ctis km. addressed to the Common Father. Aug.apTavovffiv /xtj vpos 6a. which emphasizes not that which the petitioner has in common with him to whom he makes his request. but rather with those on whose behalf he prays. | | | afj. entreat We may on behalf of one who has But the difference in practically renounced his allegiance. It is. 10).t. the seeking of the inferior from the superior." is to be pressed. . Ezra Abbott between alrelv. Hil. ij : : A tol. the emphasis being thus on the person reoffers quested. "to ask for something to be given (not done). to God to act oi8ev I* 115 (319) 13 vg.) et dabitur vg.va. upon a likeness of position. "the request which is based upon fellowship. ouircpl exci^s k. 32 Lk. iii. rots a\x.). They must be left to God alone. which is said to imply a certain equality or familiarity between the parties (see Trench. But this interpretation. and to that extent supports the former of the two distinctions which have been maintained. must be spiritual death. If the meaning often attributed to ipwrav as distinguished from alretv.X. is far from being certainly established. as such.398 *> s 116 (?? avTui) (307) tou OavaTov afiapravovTi I c 36i (137) afiapTia] pr. Zwriv 7* 50 - davaTov 2°] wpos sed non his peccanti non ad uilum vg.V. and ipwrav. .TOv] rots fxr) ap. persisted in. possible that in connection with what he has said in the earlier part of this chapter about the witness of the Spirit. But nothing in this passage 29 (Mt. . | . Such cases lay sion. petal (pelet fu. harl. And the distinction itself between curetv. the emphasis being on the thing asked. a/j. he may have had in view the saying of the Lord recorded in Mk. . And the evidence of the papyri. Its only possible issue.av fxyj Trpos davarov qui ust/ite ad mortem peccant b3s6f (116) 7 Tio fir. Prayer of "brother for brother.

1. Tert. 9. 67**." a rendering which may have been influenced by the similar passage in iii. Or. oioaiAey] Cf. from by Schottgen from Rabbinic writers. the meaning must be that he who has once for all experienced the new birth keeps himself from the evil in virtue of the power which the new birth places within his reach. however. a "5 & apa / o«-*(794) aSt/cta] post a/iapria 1° om. Tcavra [?irao-a] pr. 43. aeth. irao-a dSiKia] sin. 57'"' pr. | | H 18. 14. I epUTi]<xrj] (Jscr V g S y r> t Clem. 18. Following his usual custom. ''sed generatio Dei conseruat eum. It is found in Greek . section as well as the early part of the Epistle sufficiently shows that he recognized the actual fact of sin in Christians. of B and the original hand of A (airov) . in Windisch spite of certain necessary limitations of its sphere." realized they exclude the possibility of sin. Voma 50. 98. ov 13. arm. nrVD fity 13 K*. The perfect expresses iras 6 yeyeckrifx^os k. In the first clause of the verse the permanent consequences of the initial act are emphasized here the stress is laid on the act itself. The reading. JOHN [v. syr. The most natural interpretation of the verse is that which sees in it a statement of the wide scope which exists for the exercise of Christian intercession. the paraphrase of the Vulgate. and of the life which He has given to men. Tert. rat 13. is not convincing (nrrvb t6i km *ri3«i nsttn nrvc6 n^m mot? nxan). The fact of the new birth enables him to keep himself free from the This sense is not badly expressed in attacks of the evil one. (^) : in iustitia arm-ed. 17 before 1 6c (Icttlv a/xapria 71-pos ddvarov). iii. 9. Ktu iartv AjxapTia 00 irpos 0c£eaTo/] The fact is stated objectThe distinction bet veen sins " unto death " and " not " is unto death illustrated His first quotation.148 7» 173 THE EPISTLES OF (I56) ov I S. 26. ov] pr. without stating the modifications which become necessary as it is The preceding applied to individual cases in actual experience. " the abiding results of the In so far as they are begetting. suggests that the difficulty might be removed by placing ver.t. The expression in Sota 48. e* tov Oeov a/inprtay ov ttoui. 17.X. on (T7r€p/xa avrov iy airw fjbevci. The knowledge is intuitive. tis 15. 17. the writer states the truth absolutely. however. 2. That which is stated follows immediately from the very nature of God. as nx^n seems to refer to the animal offered or set apart as a sin-offering (see Goldschmid). Unrighteousness is one manifestation of lawlessness is another. 6 yeerr|0€ls Ik tou 0«ou] If the reading kavrov be adopted. offers a more satisfactory parallel. 1. 36. 58 10 1 le lect I c384 TTf/x] i^7re/)/ (i37) : tporrijaei K*: epuiTijarji Xc arm. vg. 7ras 6 yeytvv q/Atvo<.] Cf. (17 yivvrjo-Ls:) in two cursives. just as ively (ov). sah. iii.

e'yw ctt^ovv avrovs e'v 7-77/3770775 T(3 ovojxari crov w SeSw/cas p-oi kol e'c^vAa^a /cai ou8e<s i£ a&rwv aTruiXero. 18. noticed that T^petv is never used in the Johannine with the accusative of the reflex pronoun.). 27. Jos. iii." With an accusative of the person r-qpfiv always has the sense in the N. tovto iXijXvBa ctq tov koct/aov. it can hardly be explained. which refers 6 yei v^eis i< tov 6eov It is true that the Christ deserves serious consideration. i. or in the Cf. 9. which has to represent the true text in Lk iii. Jude 2 1. better to read avrov (cf. expression yewqOfjvat €K tov 6eov is not used elsewhere in the Johannine writings of Christ. interpretation. xxvi suggests the idea of laying hold . 37. ao-mXov kavrov r-qpeiv An interesting article in support of the reference to Christ was contributed by Wohlenberg to the Neue Kirchliche Zeitung in It may be writings : : 1902 (p. xi. o"€avTOV dyvov rrfpei Ja.e. and ver. supported mission of the text. unless the Western variant in Jn. i. unless. cf. Jer. see why eavrov should ever have been altered into avrov. is to be regarded as may also compare Jn. 13. i. 2 Co. 15. therefore. which keeps him who has experienced it. V. as it now is by two Greek cursives. ovk eVio-Tevev avro'v). T^pct avrov cannot mean "observes His commandments. the change was due to accidental carelessness at a very early stage in the transAnd the evidence of the Latin. hi 6eov iyevvrjBr).. Ka. of watching It would be far or guarding. "va avrovs (K tow Tvovrjpov. xvii. in a friendly or hostile spirit. indeed.T. is of considerable importance in favour of this reading {generatio Dei conseruat eum vg. 25 (19). N.cpov yeyevvrjKa. iv.. afiapr) cuavTOv trrjpTjara: I Ti. Gn. a-irreTai] The word probably Cf. by referring the phrase 6 yewrjOtls ck tuv 6eov "directly to the fact of the begetting from God. x\iii. 233 if. cyw cts tovto original. But no explanation of the change from the perfect to the aorist participle is altogether satisfactory.yu> o-e ryp^cru) e/c tt}s wpa? tov some claim 7rttpao-/jtov.T.V. 24. with such an accusative absolutely. as Karl does (Der aus Gott gezeugte halt ihn {seine Gebote). for which there is interesting Patristic evidence in the second century. It is still more unnatural to refer avrov to God. os . as Weiss suggests. if both are referred to the same person.] NOTES ON I JOHN 149 It is difficult to has strong claims to be regarded as original. Apoc. 22. n .. of in order to harm. ii. Jn. Cf. If avrov is original. eyoj 0-yp. natiuitas Dei custodit ilium Chromatius). the man who has experienced the new birth. and the language yeyiwrjfxaL /cat cis to The We of the Messianic Psalm." This would be a very strained expedient. Thus interpreted the passage has a fairly close parallel in Jn. 22. 12. which is apparently far more difficult. o-e. ix. eavrov? iv ayaTrr) 6tov Trjprjo-are. IO.

the construction. vi. 26. Oec. (7rSs 6 yeycvr^/xeVo? k. as Rothe suggests. has fulfilled His mission. the state which is the consequence of the yevvrjdrjvai Ik 19. 247. Jn. iv. civ. elsewhere in the Johanor discerning. 6 koctjaos o\os] The world as a whole. and vous occurs only twice xiii. Son of God. 42. Iva arTavpu>o~ov(Tiv (v. 10. 9). Ps. between the power which dominates their life and that which controls absolutely the life. 20. or at least the short o. 47 . cat. iva yivwo-Kovo-i receives A 33). Mk. the true text has KapoVas not oWouxs).v01." iv to ironipu)] The this is preceding 6 ttov^oo's determines that For masculine and not neuter. The word is not found The faculty of knowing. (cv. the still. epeio-oi: xx. with whom the writer identifies himself (oi8o/x€v). seems to It is worth noting that yvwo-is also is be what it expresses. The Christ. Cf. 1 Jn. if the expression is to be distinguished from oAov tov k6o~/xov (ii. S. "the Cf. 7a397 (96) + Se 7 b37° (353) n4 - | yeyevripievos | 99 yevvr)dei? j%iu eavrov yevvijffU /° /c 174 ( 2 j2) K Acon K L o?8a|j. C.X. I.) : Lk. The whole world.) 15. nine writings. of the world of men so far as they rXd/jLove. Dna V T ittfrn T T ps*. Iva . i£r}ov kou y/kw. JOHN [v. . boh-cod. and not as subordinate to the on. '• 5cr j | oidafiev] oiSa e/c] 7. xiv. xvii. Soph. Eph. 18.e. is well supported here.150 10 to . xvii. and in that case the considerable support (A (Rev.) is now tov Oeov. viii. oi. of the world. viii.av. 2). iva .] T-Tjpet] fxaprvpei P al. cf. is probably to be regarded as added indeclause kch] pendently. i.da/iey'i + Se scr boh-ed. 10. as elsewhere in the Johannine writings. Iva yitwKoiJice] The indicative. iaKOTio-fxivoi 777 Siavoia (in Eph. immediately and intuitively. 116 (335): | | What has been stated to the readers applied generally themselves. DGLY A form can hardly be regarded as a "corrupt pronunciation" of the subjunctive. ii. 104 c | oXos] om. 4-6. He has done the work which is characterized by His name. remain estranged from God. i. x. i. O.t. Eirat e/c tov 6eov denotes. xv. cf. Sidfoiay] Cf. and the effects of it are with us 1 8. 3 .. 13. iv ifuv ws 6ew xeL/xcda of the difference Christians are conscious. 10. pier. 18-20. THE EPISTLES OF 4 Mac. erj f] crotyia ei5 tt?v 81d. 4 . I Eph. For Iva with the future indicative. P. 18. the notes on ver. as in Jn. . 20. quoted by Holtzmann. TJKei] Cf. 7 b 5602 (522) aurov A* B 105 vg. j«fa -• : Schlatter quotes from Siphre Nu. Thphyl.e/j 1 yevvrjdeii] yeyei'i/rj/xevos genera/ io vg. Jn. iv. absent from the Johannine writings. in its entirety. intellectual and moral. 18. | ev] eirt 31. Or. Tas 6cr<pt'as tt}s Siavoias ifxwv : Pr.

tva I P. Ir/crovv X/hcttov : ov a7rc<TT£tXas iv aureus Kat really no iv Ijxoi.l.) ApOC.wv tt)v kXt/ctiv *at iK\oyrjv 7roteto-^e. Xva. that the Fourth Gospel is " ein echtes Volksbuch" (Beitrdge zur Weiterentwicklung der Religion. SuvaTat (v. Kal €CTfA€v iv to dXif]0ivw] dXr/^tvo? must reference here as in the preceding clause. 15. . tva i>/A€ts iv. 14. tva KavOr'jcrojxaL (v. 5 . NOTES ON : I JOHN 151 : Swcrovaiv avrw . xiil. 5. tva SoWct: ix." in whom the idea is completely sponds to His realized. Swcrei {v.] . (3aaai'L(r$-qcrovTai ix. : : : Apoc 10 the reading is found in some MSS. vii. 20. 3. It God. TOf d\T)6iv6/] i. On the whole. in spite of the support which it receives from Bengel. ill. tva . dence is less clear. tva t/£ou<t-iv : (T(j>a. Eph. I. 3. *at TrpoaKvvqtrovaiv : xiii.) Gal. 1 1. . ix. xvii. tra crw<£povt£oua-t (v. i. 131).l. . tva Gal. tva wcrtv TCTcXetw/Ae'vot ets Iv. 1 2. 15.) clvtols : tva kol 01 fxa6r]Tai crov Oeup-qaovo-iv Ac. vi. 6. tva /at./ T ° v 7raTeV a should use the words «Tvai iv to . . dStKjycroucri crovrat xxii. iv. tva 24. .l. There difficulty in supposing that a writer who makes use crii of the phrase «x €t. 4. Cf. OTrovSdcraTe tva old tujv KaXtov vp. drjcnn ii. 2 Tr. 3) Jn. tva £vpr]crovTaL Gal. Deissmann's view. Preuschen quotes Barn.€T€ (v. tva . in the last verse of the Epistle.): viii.) /at/ tk . tva Trpoaxvvrjcrovcrii' xiv. 3.) . tva aXX?/Xous tva dva7rai'crovTai (v. Tit. 12. tva avTOvs ^r/Xovre 4. p. k. tva Icrrat : 1 : 3. The God who "fulfils the highest conception" of Godhead can only be known through the faculty of discernment given to explains. as in most cases there are variant readings. tva /at) StwKovTat (v. 1. 2. viii. : : 20. the One who alone completely corre- men by His own Son. not on ScScokcv. 4. : : : . . ii. tva {v.. 20.) : v.): xxi. tva dva7raT/ix. tva t//aSs : KaraSouXtocroucrtv ApOC. tva yivaicrKOua'iv ere rbv jxovov aXrjOivov Oebv kcu 2 2 f. God.l. .wv epywv /?€^8atav vp.V.l. iv.£ov<Tiv vi. The same uncertainty is found in subApostolic writers. i-trio-Kida-u : 2 1. xvii. tva aicriv ev Ka#d>s T//A€t9 ev. hardly needs serious refutation. Ign. and to interpret t6v dXrj6tv6v of Christ. : (?) ix. 1.t. /at/Sc Siepxouai (v. : dveu Xoyou Kephydrjcr ovtcii vi. by means of His historic appearance on The writer is already mentally contrasting the true with the false conceptions of God against which he warns his readers earth.). iii. xii. tva K(pSavC) 1 Co. tva ckci Tp€<povcriv avTrjv xiii. The found in Jn. p. iyw is have the same can only refer to nearest parallel to the language of this verse is to be XVli. . . 3.) : (v. in 2 P. v. notwithstanding the preceding tjku. 17.l. which it " Name. 18. Jn.X.] The clause is dependent on Stdvotav. 2 (Ha?idw'6rterbuch. 4. : tva 6avfxat. . the evidence seems to point to traces of the occasional use of a vulgarism There is much to be said for Professor subsequently corrected.e. 530). The attempt to make God the subject of Se'SwKev. vi. 9. I. (besides Jn. tva /at) For its use with the present indicative the evitrpoa-Kwrjcravcriv. I. 17. .

that He is 6 dAv^ivos 0eos. no doubt. et parj di He 6 Traryp 6 n-fpjpas also Says (xiv. io-Tt. these words must also refer to Him.Xr)9ivu with which should be compared the reading of some MSS of the Bohairic (see the critical note). p.i. by the following clause. ii. Gospel and Epistles is not used merely to avoid the repetition name. outos ia-TLv o /3a7TTi£<Di/. . he who denies that Jesus is the Christ v.] The difficulty of regarding these words : as being in apposition to iv ra dX-r]6tv(o.X. ouro's eamv 6 avTixpioros. . Jn. ovros rjXdev ek i. 47.ov. iii. earlier times they were usually so interpreted. 1 Jn. of a made known in Jesus Christ. added so as to make it clear who is meant by that phrase. 22. the ruler of the Jews iv.) a description of the method in which union with God is realized. iv tw utw au-rou *|. i. 7. 20.\r\Qivbs 6e6s] If to> aX-qOivu be taken as And in referring to Christ. 2. ovtos ijXOev 7rpos avTov. 3.rj eXKva-7) avrov. appended in order to leave no doubt as to the change of reference in t<2 aKriOivw. outo's . But it is outos hardly true to say that this interpretation is logically an absolute It might. the man sent contrasted with the Divine Logos this For the Logos . the Spirit descended and remained . The grammatical difficulty of such an explanation is also very great. It seems often to refer to the previous subject. be mere necessity (Weiss).v 6 6. KOivoivia Se rj rjp. cf.apTvp(. 33. xal that Christians realize their fellowship with God. i.ripa fxera tov rj irarpos /cat fiera. who can be described as Oeos i. Avrov naturally refers to the immediately preceding tu> dXrjdtvw.152 THE EPISTLES OF S. tautology to But outos in the say of the a\r)0Lv6<. Cf. is far less natural than to find in these words (eV tu vlu k. To pass over the natural antecedent and make it refer to tov aXyjdivov. and their fellowship with r Him. is It extremely harsh. He on whom . is in virtue of their relation to Christ. which is not even the subject of the principal sentence. the words supply a needed explanation. This interpretation is supported dA^ivcS with reference to God. has been already stated so far as it affects the meaning of 6 dA^&vo's in this verse. X. If the Christ of S. against which the readers are warned in the next verse. The Thebaic (Sahidic) version has "in the Life "for ev t<3 d. JOHN [V. as contrasted with all false conceptions of God. the /Sao-tAtKo's whose son was sick. Interpreted naturally. ovSeU tpverat tov -n-arepa ep. tov 'lrjo-ov vlov avrov XpurTov. ovtos rjv iv apxfi Trpos tov Oeov. Jn. use of ouros. The God who completely fulfils the highest conception of Godhead is the God who has been revealed in Jesus Christ. 6. as Here God has been described as truly previously described.t. ovSets SuVarcn iXOeiv 7rpos fxe eav p. To interpret the words iv to vlQ avrov 'Irjcrov Xpio-Tu) as being in apposition to iv tw dXijOtvw.av. fie 44). 6). 2. John says 77-pos (vi.

] yiaxTKw/j. 56. 69*. u'a ywwo-KO/xev tov akrjdivov . 162 a scr * vg. syr. (+in ipso Faustin. Pelag. syr. . 7 as proof that in the Johannine writings ou-ro? may refer to the subject of the preceding sentence rather than to the name which has immediately preceded (iroAXot TrXavoi . syr. Bas. 99. Did.1 6 dvTi^ptcrros). o. SeSw/cej'] eduKev A 5. Vig. L P al. Hil. in nita et haec uita erat boh-codd. /cat . €»c ia/xly It is been begotten to that 20 al.1 7r\dvo<.e)> al. Cyr. Faustin. 470 8e 7° ct passus est et T]K€i\ + et camem indtiit nostri causa (229) 7 tol. Did.V. 01 fxr) oyxoAoyovfrt? I. 137. ovrd? Icttlv 6 Jesus the Son of God the representative of the class of deceivers who deny "Jesus Christ coming in flesh. 45. Vig. aliq. 98™^ 99. Cyr. 69. Ath. : oida/nev LPal. 27. Aug. pier. kou ecfj. aeth.." Kal £wt] aiamos] This addition has often been held to render the reference of oStos to Christ necessary.a' B K al. 81. 34. mu. Cyr. fw?7 7) tj ^utj 15 cat. H AB m 8 am. A 162 vg. in ue>bo om. Hil. xiv.. Did. ev to aKrjdivu}'] in uita sah. 180 a al. The reference is naturally ovtos ccrnv d 7rAaVos ko. ij | K 13. 69.). God — the true One — of whom we have — of whom we are— whom Jesus Christ came men could enter into fellowship with Him. 34. 66**. 105.vo). 40.] NOTES ON I JOHN . om. Vig. 180 c 7ifwo7co. this plain: 7r£s 6 yeyevvT^eVos e/c tov deov . 26. Holtzmann aptly quotes 2 Jn. sah. 31. Hil. 40. 66"*. 13. : om. 7. . 10 : L & Trapex^v {ty) far} Did. harl. mu. 68. sah. Hil. arm. it remains true that he who hath not the Son hath not the Father. 1 53 2 Jn. oiSantv Se X B 7 9 vg. Thphyl. 106 a scr d scr al. . 104 a scr scr * 3 B* A L P 101. Cyr. Oec. Cyr. 18 vg. 6. am. fu. v. 191 al. 20. Cyr. m I m concarnatus est propter vos et passus est. o wos] X070J scr Did c scr al.ue" S 98. 105. ko. Ath. tov ah7)divov N C al. arm usc aeth Ath. Pelag. Did. . Aug. Ath. 8. Facund. et | I I | BKL . Cyr.] : H | a P 5. life. which He has imparted to men The writer would remind his readers that in spite in His Son. restirrexit a mnrtuis . et simus m 7 vg. . atw^toj] fariv cuaviov al. cp^d/xevov iv crapKi. ir}<rov xpio-Tw N B 0eos cop. 6 (Ivrixptcrro?. 6 Trar^p tv/ 1 fayv eV Zavrw. adsumpsit nos Cf. Oec] km oida/j. Did.] om. eum qui uerus est m 7 Cf. sat. it being regarded as not accidental that in the Gospel it is only of Christ that it is said But the language of Jn. Euthal. 57. plur. Bas. : | : | : : : m | | K m om. 6). Fulg. Hil. 25. Did. 8 resurrectio nostra m .] to pier. Thphyl. Cyr. The God whom Jesus Christ revealed is the true source of ecmv 6 €u>v. 126. X. Hil. Ath. scr | fwr. arm. of the claims to higher knowledge put forward by some. tol. the true source of spiritual life. aeth. et resurgens de mortuis assumsit nos et dedit nobis intellectum optimum ut etc. Cyr. quod Alius dei uenit K A cat. 7 boh-ed.J + tfeoi' A 5.\-qdivov N* sah. demid. justifies the expression here used if it He is in the Johannine writings represented as refers to God. and the contents of the preceding verses introduced by the triple olSa/xev make tov dcov cv tcS a\rjdi. cat. 13. 17. aiuvios] + et 38. make known — so icrfxiv . 7. ev tw 2° 33. Thphyl. m 7 Did. arm. Cyr.ev'] nai w/xev 34 Bas. 8 Bas. to the subject uppermost in the writer's thoughts. g Cyr. that He is life (xi. boh-ed. cop. Faustin. 80. fere.

also Windisch. The expression embraces all false concepIt is not exhausted by the particular conceptions tions of God. ] + a/x-qv al. finding in the d-Tro tw n). 34. harl. v. 29. made for verse an indication of the character of the readers to whom the If any limited Epistle is addressed (cf. And it is not probable that the writer intends only actual objects of pagan worship. 9.cv to) ovpavw o rraTijp o Xoyos xai to ayiov 7rvev/ia Kai ouroi Tpets (v (ktl /cat Tpeis €t(riv 01 p. clSwXuf] All the false images of God which men have themselves instead of accepting the true revelation of Him given in His Son. 8. It needs all the effort which they can make to guard against it. Oec. pier. sah. T€im'a] THE EPISTLES OF The writer's favourite S. JOHN [V. v. as Zahn suggests. demid.a.odai ffS (33) ravra //S 6 (4'): eavrovs S c A K P al. where it is confined to the In the earliest form in which the words appear in Prologue. 65. can be regarded as " emphasizing the duty of personal effort.154 21. ruv] pr. The threefold the text. " " heavenly witnesses destroy the natural sequence of the passage. and also of the Gospel. 68 d scr am. Its style and want of conformity to the context would be sufficient to condemn it. vi. 13.aprvpovvT€<. syr. even if it had considerable support from trustworthy authorities for Without it the passage runs clearly. ia eavra X* B L h 23. which satisfies the requirements of the law . reference is necessary. Thphyl. 7. and after the witness which is legally valid among men. navruv //& 6 (Sk) etdwXuv X A B I. €v ttq yrj s'. Greek. boh. The danger is great. i^dpare (i Co. the absence of articles and copulae. vg. cat. tol. 15 ] <t>vko. where Greek would require their presence. | | | KLP SEPARATE NOTE. ad loc). arm. which is precisely defined in ver. form of address to introduce an appeal.t. of the (Gnostic) false teachers against whose views the Epistle is directed. 13). pier." it is significant. and eVriva^aTc 4>u\d|aTe JauTd] If the use of the active with the reflexive (Mk. betrays at once their derivation from Latin. HcipTupoufTes] 4. 31 c scr 58 lect al. 66**. 27. is given the "greater witness" of God. 29. And the personal use of 6 Xdyos is wholly alien to the style of the Epistle. fere. it must be found in the untrue mental images fashioned by the false teachers. It is not necessary now to prove at any great length the spurious- ness of this interesting but unfortunate gloss. The Text of i Jn. With the peremptory aorist imperative. cf. 21. The though the exact meaning of the words is doubtful. aeth. . witness is first given. fu.

: The well-known . Tischendorf. 8 was "dicit Dominus interpreted of the Three Persons of the Trinity Ego et pater unum sumus et iterum de Patre et Filio et Spiritu 1 See von Soden. de Catholicae ecclesiae unitate. alterum ex altero." Unfortunately there is no direct quotation of the passage in Cyprian though the citation and interpretation of 1 Jn. v. 280. in the "Theodulfian are placed before the heavenly. non ad numeri singularitatem. Cyprian. Das comma Joanneum auf some seine Herkunft untersucht. N. p." on the authority of which Erasmus in fulfilment of his rash promise introduced the clause into the text of his Third Edition. . and in the that the margin of a third. The history of the gloss itself naturally begins much earlier than the history of its introduction into the actual text of the Epistle. et isti tres (in) 1 unum sunt. " recension. and Westcott. 6. spiritus et aqua et : : sanguis." passage in Cyprian. from the Vulgate as issued by Jerome. in Afrika. Das Lat. Et spiritus est qui testimonium perhibet. 1905). which has no trace of the heavenly wit" nesses. which has often been quoted as containing an allusion to the verse.NOTES ON It is I JOHN 155 enough to recapitulate the well-known and often stated facts words are not found (as part of the Johannine text) (1) in any Greek manuscript with the exception of two very late MSS. according to the testimony of the Codices Amiatinus and Fuldensis and from Alcuin's revision . de rebaptismate. ad substantiae unitatem. (2) in any independent Greek writer. and interesting suggestions as to the origin of the celebrated "Codex Britannicus. c. the marginal note being in a seventeenth century hand. and Augustine . obviously modified by the text of the Latin Vulgate. quia spiritus est ueritas quia tres testimonium perhibent. the earthly witnesses Vulgate. 25). shows how easily the language of 1 Jn. from whose work the accounts in most commentaries are obviously derived. c. by Dr. where it is absent from the older forms of the old Latin as found in Tertullian. Praxeam. v. qui tres unum sunt. (Codex The history of the gloss has been well told by Wettstein. The passage in Tertullian (adv. witnesses to the early Latin text. 6-8 in the pseudo-Cyprianic tract. is really " ita connexus proof that he knew no such reading in the Epistle : patris in filio et filii in paraclito tres efficit cohaerentes. non unus. c. Rendel Harris in his History oj the Leicester Codex. And even when it first appears in the Vallicellianus). New light has been thrown on the subject in the interesting monograph of Kiinstle. (3) in any Latin writer earlier than Priscillian (4) in any ancient version except in the Latin. quomodo dictum est Ego et pater unum sumus. 15. T.

and blood. 6) x.-ix. Augustine's interesting interpretation {Contra Afaximinum.d. who. JOHN In favour of this. Salerno). ii.).-xii. **. . Cauensis viii. Leg.) : while to quote from Berger's Histoire de la the passage which he has there collected. Lib. B. Bible Gothicus Legionensis. sancto scriptum est Et tres unum sunt. 31) ix. (Madrid Univ. . 321. The words and letters in italics are conjecturally supplied by the Editor. after giving the same interpretation of the Spirit and the " water and the blood. 8." which is the natural interpretation of Cyprian's words.N. 1 Leg. a. 485). uel spiritus) et tria hec unum sunt et tria sunt qui testimonium dicunt in celo Pater Verbum et Spiritus et hec tria unum sunt in Christo Jhesu. Incidentally it shows also. Isidio. . 3. being illegible in the MS. in the form "Tres sunt testes. of course. viii. 22) of 1 Jn. Libr." Group of Toletanus." shows that this et aqua spiritus interpretation was traditional in his time. pro defensione trium capit. i. Leon). xiii. "Quia tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terris. Quod tamen Ioannis apostoli testimonium patre et filio epistola siue libro quern Cyprianus. adds. that the heavenly witnesses formed no part of his text. (Madrid Archaeol." b. Madrid Univ. Compl. Osc. in de unitate sanctae ecclesiae scripsit. which he quotes et sanguis et tres unum sunt. is the reference to him in Facundus. Carthaginiensis antistes et martyr." " Quia tres sunt qui testi(Cathedral of Leon. si testimonium homitium 1 Compl. It may be worth the Vulgate evidence from (vii. water. dem. of Huesca xii. Mus. formerly Cloister of La Cana. - Cod 1 Demidorianus xiii. et in terra monium dant aqua et sanguis et tria haec Spiritus unum sunt et tria sunt sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo Pater Verbum et Spiritus et hii tres unum sunt in Christo Ihesu. (Madrid B. 2 3 x. de et spiritu sancto dictum intelligit. which are different in substance. 2 (Rom.N. Paris. and not to the symbols. v.156 THE EPISTLES OF S. aqua sanguis et caro (mg. Codices 32-34. Leon Palimpsest et sps est testi 1 monium tres sunt qui quia sps est ueritas quoniam testimonium dant in terra 8 7 sps et aqua et sanguis et tres sunt aicunt in caelo pa testimonium qui ter et uerbum et sps scs et 9 hi tres unum sunt in xpo ihu accip . 960 (S. so that he can assume that the writer of the Epistle intended the "unum" to refer to the three persons symbolized by the Spirit.

Berger adds) is substantially the text of the first hand of Bible of Theodulf. et hi tres unum sunt. ras. ! + sanctus. cpl. . cpl. 321. . and x. adds " Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra Spiritus aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo : Verbum et Spiritus sanctum et hi tres unum [sunt]. ix. : " Quoniam * Berne University Lib." B. 3 321. from Corbie: " l Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant spiritus aqua et Pater sanguis et tres unum sunt et tres sunt qui Pater verbum et spiritus et tres unum sunt. xii. + et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus et hii tres unum sunt sec. (Vienne au Dauphin^) tres sunt qui testimonium dant 1 spiritus aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt. cpl. a.N. 1 1532 (Lothaire 11. dicunt. man. sec." 2 2 + in terra sec. man. (inc. A. tol.N. xi. First hand gives ver. B." quia. testificantur 3 + in terra sec. 2328. 3 dant. 1190." A second hand. dem. 321*.-xiii. sup. ix. tol. 7 Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant in caelo Pater Verbum et Spiritus et tres unum sunt et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra sanguis aqua et caro. om. Codex Lemouicensis "Quia tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in terra spiritus aqua et sanguis et hi et tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent Verbum tres unum sunt et spiritus et tres unum sunt in Christo Ihesu. om.* 6 ' om. ix. 5 et sanguis et hi 4 tres 9 tres sunt 7 qui testimonium dicunt 8 in caelo Pater uerbum et aqua unum Spiritus 1 et hii tres unum sunt.N. dem. 2. dicunt in caelo man. dem. 13 1 74. Si testimonium. cpl.N. is added. cpl 3 321 dem. . "Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in terra aqua sanguis et caro et tres in nobis sunt et tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in caelo Pater Verbum et spiritus et hi tres unum sunt. osc." .d. cpl. : : 2 Paris B. 855-869).): "Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium : : : : dant spiritus aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt.). (fin. " v. 4 and 4 ix. quoniam. 4 7 10 2 3 om. 315. 8 In a second nearly contemporary hand without interpolation. 8 2 ' om. osc. et tres sunt. m." B. 2 de caelo p. 321**.N. Saec. Imp." This (M." x 2 . man.S. viii. 9. "Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra caro aqua et sanguis et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra Pater Verbum et S. almost contemporary. (given by Chapter of Puy to Colbert in 1681) addition in nearly contemporary hand to 1 Jn. ora.NOTES ON "Quia 10 I JOHN 157 3 1 tres sunt qui testimonium dant 2 in terra Spiritus et Et 6 sunt in Christo Ihesu. Paris B." etc. 8 testimonium Vienna Bibl.

Compl. s. Vienna Corpus* xviii. et tria : : : . 9380) " : Quia tres qui testimonium dant in terra spiritus aqua et sanguis ettres unum sunt et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in celo Pater et Filius et Spiritus sanctus et hi tres unum sunt. in connecting the words in Christo Lesu with the heavenly witnesses. Representing an (Berger.. 'Tres sunt qui dicunt testimonium in caelo pater . Leg. Gall. S." : : : Herzog-Hauck. (x. 16. 1 .-xi.N. and claimed by Kiinstle for the Spaniard Idacius Clarus (cf.). p. "Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dant in caelo Pater Verbum et Spiritus et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra caro sanguis et aqua et hi tres in nobis unum sunt.158 THE EPISTLES OF this : S.v. et haec tria unum sunt in Christo Iesu. Geneve 1. uerbum et spiritus ." in caelo Pater Verbum et Spiritus ix. sunt quae testimonium dicunt in caelo pater.d. 907. The two latter MSS give some support to the peculiarities of Priscillian's text." Mazarine 7 With With these must be compared the quotation in the treatise "Contra Varimadum" attributed by Chifflet in his edition of 1664 to Vigilius of Thapsus. if Berger has rightly restored the text of the Palimpsest. 140 ff. given to the Chapter of S.) "Quia tres sunt qui testimonium et aqua et et tres sanguis et tres unum sunt : Peter by the Italian text : dant spiritus testimonium tres perhibent sunt. Vigilius von Thapsus). published by Caspari from 101 sup. Schepps. " Sicut Ioannes ait Tria sunt quae testimonium dicunt in 1889) terra aqua caro et sanguis et haec tria in unum sunt. the use of the neuter (tria) and the substitution of caro for spiritus. Bishop Frederic (1031-1073). In the hand of " Winitharius. : . Part of the MSS of Hartmut (841-872): " Quia tres sunt qui testimonium dant spiritus et aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt sicut in caelo tres sunt Pater Verbum et Spiritus et tres unum sunt. 380) of Priscillian (ed. 83. 642. which is almost identical with the reading of the second hand of the Vienna MS. Kiinstle." The earliest certain instance of the gloss being quoted as part of the actual text of the Epistle is in the Liber Apologeticus (? a." With this must be compared the readings of the Leon Palimpsest. " Quia tres sunt qui testimonium dant spiritus et aqua et sanguis et tres unum sunt sicut in celo tres sunt Pater Verbum et Spiritus et tres unum sunt. JOHN may be compared the reading found in Bibl. of course.) which contained the Muratorian (i. is also important: "Sicut euangelista testatur quia scriptum est." S. The evidence the Ambrosian MS of the Expositio Fidei. fragment." viii. 20. et unum sunt Theodulfian recension (B. 1 all of which agree. placed. after the earthly witnesses. Gall.

Kiinstle regards Isaac the Jew and the times of Damasus (372). may. spiritus aqua et sanguis et hii tres unum sunt in Christo Iesu. If Dom Morin is But the view right. connection with the earthly witnesses than at the end of the second clause. originally containing an interpretation. Complexiones in Ioannis Epist. after witnesses." if originally referring to the earthly have become attached to the second verse (heavenly witnesses) by the mechanical process of the insertion of a marginal gloss. regards the creed as African. Their common source cannot be And intrinsically their reading has the appearof recent date. " . at least earlier than the Priscillian The words in Christo Iesu are far more natural in form. that Priscillian is attacked in it is a satisfactory explanation of that it which is concerned with the Comma Joanneum. quod estcognitio. quod est regeneratio ac fides.'" of this with Priscillian's quotation is Unfortunately. The form in which it quotes our It occurs in c. close agreement evident. is possibly support for the addition "in Christo Iesu" to the clause about the unity of the earthly witnesses in the Latin translation of " of Clement Alexandria's Adumbrationes on the Epistle. quae in in caelo autem pater et filius et Spiritus passione domini leguntur impleti sanctus et hi tres unus est deus. .' sunt virtutes salutiferae.. its early date gives it a special importance. of Dom Morin would attribute it to the fifth or sixth century. uerbum et spiritus : et hii tres unum sunt. the value of its evidence is difficult to determine." of this with the group of MSS quoted above from Berger is at once evident. quod est uita. ii. suggests phrases "hi tres unum sunt in Christo Iesu." . its editor. pater. et uita ipsa in ipso fiho eius exsistit." Even if this is so. of its connection with Spain and the orthodox opponents of Priscillian. it The as clearly anti-Priscillianist and Spanish.NOTES ON uerbum et Non tamen I JOHN 159 Iesu. ad Parthos : 3 1 De There Cui rei testificantur in terra tria mysteria aqua sanguis et spiritus. et In Saluatore quippe istae sanguis. Weihrich. et aqua. Quia tres sunt qui testificantur Spiritus. called Speculum is uncertain. however. 2 The form of text found in the Leon palimpsest. be doubted whether later authorities do not The date of the sopreserve an earlier form of the interpolation. Probably it is not later than the part of It Kiinstle brings forward some century. 'et his tres unum sunt. et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt first half of the fifth indications : : in caelo. Vienna Corpus xii. we are uncertain how much to refer to Clement and how much to his abbreviator. Cf. and runs as follows Quoniam (quia C) tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in terra. spiritus': et haec tria unum sunt in Christo dixit 'Unus est in Christo Iesu. " where there is no clause " et hii tres unum sunt after the earthly of the how the connection witnesses. The agreement ance of being. if not original. of which passage is of considerable interest. Caspari. the heading is De distitidione personarum patris et filii et spiritus l " sancti. might divinis Scripturis suie Speculum. Cassiodorus. ed.

while his opponents accepted his text and used it against him by means of a different interpretation. He points out the great difficulties Appendix. en plusieurs textes. again. which met Kiinstle's suggestion that the insertion of the comma into the text of the Epistle is due to Priscillian himself: (1) His opponents never accuse him of having falsified the text of a Canonical Book. 163). (3) Such a falsification could hardly have been accepted by all Catholic theologians. ed. 273). Petschenig. vii." Unfortunately the whole passage is not quoted. and. adds. the reading was universally accepted in the ninth century. verses suited admirably his peculiar view as to the distinction of 1 If the Speculum is anti-Priscillianist. Vienna Corpus. perhaps. Ioannis euangelistae testimonio comprobatur . (2) To quote his own interpolation in his Apology would have been an inconceivable act of audacity. qu'il les distingue mal et a raison de qu'il tend. He " On parlor de panckristisme (p. 3. Whether he is justified in doing so or not must be left to the The quotation has not the variant specialist to determine. The confession of faith presented by the Catholic bishops of Africa to the vandal king Hunnerich in 484 (Victor Vitensis. certain that the gloss was accepted by Fulgentius of 1 M. Its acceptance must therefore have been almost immediate by Priscillian's enemies. a slight alteration. 1909). and. John's Epistle is to be explained by the supposition that it had already found its way into some copies of the Epistles at an earlier date. opponents found the gloss that both Priscillian and his the text of their Bibles. (4) The verse is found in several orthodox works of the fifth century. 46 ff. Paris. Babut in his Priscillien et le Priscillianisme (Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des hautes Etudes. JOHN The form in which Priscillian quotes the the word sanguis. is far more probable that the common use of the clause about the heavenly witnesses as part of the text of S. as Kiinstle has shown. p. It is supposed by Berger to be Spanish (p. It is far in : : more probable dicunt. 169. Sciences historiques et philologiques. claims a Spanish source for the whole confession. . and therefore the quotation throws litttle light on the history of the gloss.). Historia Persecutions. ait namque Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent (dant cod) in caelo pater uerbum et spiritus sanctus et hi tres unum sunt.l6o THE EPISTLES OF S. it persons in the Trinity. This point has been well discussed by M. than that Priscillian is first responsible for its insertion. is proof of the presence of the insertion in the Johannine text towards the end of the fifth century " Et ut adhuc luce clarius unius diuinitatis esse cum patre et filio spiritum sanctum doceamus. Babut rejects Kiinstle's statement that Priscillian denied the distinc" mais il est vrai tion as too absolute. a les fondre en une seule. 267 ff. iv. Kiinstle.

B. Mazarine. The variants in brackets are from the De Trinitate. . ubi de unitate trinitatis in prima Iohannisepistula P. cf. however. Bibl. positum legimus. which is not by Vigilius. 1190." Kiinstle would again find a Spanish origin for this prologue. 1. Pintam is not recognized as his work. the connection with Spanish types of text is far more certain than any possible connection with Africa or Vigilius. Geneva. attributing it to Peregrinus. Here. Fabian. p. et patris uerbique ac spiritus testimonium omittentes. The . II . trium tantummodo uocabula. 1 See. Here. which differs in may be worth stood to the rest of the passage in while to add the exact the two quotations. also." The form of text contains Spanish affinities even if Kiinstle is not right in claiming a Spanish origin for the twelve books de Trinitate. The pseudo-Hieronymian prologue to the Catholic Epistles." Cf. hoc est aquae sanguinis et spiritus in ipsa sua editione ponentes. perhibent in caelo pater verbum et Spiritus et ii tres unum sunt. in spiritus sancti quo maxime et fides catholica roboratur et patris et filii et una diuinitatis substantia comprobatur. but on what grounds he does not say. 1190. though that MS does not contain ver. We do not know the relation in which It it his text of the Epistle. Vienna et (hi) tres unum sunt. the orthodox sponsor of Priscillianist writings . who refers to C. The been supposed evidence for the African use of the passage which has to be derived from Vigilius of Thapsus (490) is too uncertain to afford much help. it is only the gloss which is quoted. has an interesting text. Vienna B. 359) is still more interesting "Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent in terra aqua sanguis et Et tres sunt qui testimonium caro et tres in nobis sunt. 5. affords additional evidence of the prevalence of the gloss in the sixth and probably in the fifth century. Migne. Lemonicensis. lxii. Varimadum (c. in qua ab infidelibus translatoribus multum erratum esse fidei ueritate comperimus. : . Though the treatise De fide Catholica adv. again. 194. Westcott." For perhibent. L. 243). "Tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent (dicunt) in caelo pater et spiritus : uerbum Cod.I. lxii. L. The quotation in the First Book de Trinitate (Migne.I. 7 in its text of the Epistle. "Tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo pater uerbum et Spiritus et in Christo Iesu unum sunt. fragm. which is found in the Codex Fuldensis (546). " Non ita est ordo illo apud Graecos qui integre sapiunt praecipue loco. text. quotation in the treatise c. P. the quotations in his 1 Responsio contra Arianos and De Trinitate determine the matter.NOTES ON I JOHN l6l Ruspe (f 533).

however. of the text of this we have again imof of with that Ruspe. qui testificantur QM TR es sunt IN TERRA • SPs ET AQUA ET SAnguis et tres sunt qui tes TIFICANTUR IN CAELO PaTER scs et hi Et uerbum . passage runs as follows : evidence of Ziegler's Freisingen fragment. date. and that a more accurate restoration of the illegible parts would re1 This agreement includes. Berger has pointed fragment. now in the The must be considered next. it is possible certainly attested by both is very close indeed. et sps TRES UNUM SUNT • SI TEST . there are differences between his text and that of this And M. (The legible letters are given in capitals.) If Ziegler is right in his identification be 1 Leon Palimpsest.1 62 THE EPISTLES OF S. If the text of the quotation which has been given above for Fulgentius is correct. out the similarity between the text of the Leon Palimpsest and The the Freisingen fragment in these verses {Histoire. Ziegler. and the fragment cannot be earlier than that. in the veal even closer resemblance. Fulgentius fragment in Africa at an early portant evidence of the existence of the gloss This is. 9). JOHN The Staatsbibliothek at Munich. . p. already attested for the sixth century. at any rate in this passage. closeness of similarity between the two texts is seen in the note which gives a comparison of their readings where the two can It will be seen that their agreement in readings tested. .

that the words in Christo Iesu were first connected with the passage by Priscillian. In one first introduction. with regard to the earthly witnesses. 3). " 13. They differ in their translations of iJ. the priority of the earthly witnesses. the absence of the clause affirming the unity of the earthly witnesses. the readings hoc (hie) est illius Antichristi (iv. either as part of the text or as an ex- his planation. indeed. is an undoubted fact. with regard to the addition in Christo sunt in ver. Iesu after unum probably.NOTES ON I JOHN I63 small space under consideration.apTvpe. their absence from later texts may have affected the manuscript We are again transmission of the text of early quotations. certainly known as part of the text of the Its acceptance as part in the fifth century. text of the Bible. 8. and probably in this place. . The gloss was The influence of his work and writings on the I^atin 380). reading. A large proportion of the earlier evidence for the gloss can be very plausibly traced to Spanish influences. suggest the probability that Priscillian was not responsible for its But these reasons are not conclusive. unless the Speculum can be definitely connected It would certainly be rash to assume an early with Africa. or even that this first took place in Spain. Theodulfian Recension of the Vulgate that the gloss first gained anything like wide acceptance. all point Priscillian has preserved the true reading against (?) Latin authorities. Thus the importance of the name of But Priscillian in the history of the insertion is fully established. which passed over into orthodox circles through (? It is through the Peregrinus and others. It is a possible explanation of the textual facts in unum sunt. brought to the conclusion that the relation between early African texts and Spanish needs further investigation. Africa in Epistle of the text cannot be proved in any country except Spain in There it was undoubtedly used by Priscillian the fourth century. African form of the text from which these words were absent as had opposed to the early Spanish form which undoubtedly It is always possible that them. of the form in which the gloss is found in Priscillian. 14. Their first connection with aeternam habetis habetis aeternam quoAcunque scimus quidquid siscim u s. testificari should be and supplied in the doubtful places of the Leon Palimpsest). which cannot be certainly claimed for the African text.lv (unless. as we should naturally expect in such early texts. In the place which he assigns to them they support Panchristismus" admirably. 15. At least it may be said that the evidence of Spanish manuscripts. John's Epistle. and of its use by his opponents. Kiinstle has not proved his point that Priscillian was the first who introduced the words into the text of S.

930-935) perhaps hardly does justice to the strength of Kiinstle's position. 1905. interesting review of Kiinstle's work (Gottingen pp. the Spirit. 'Who witnesses that Christ is the For there are three who witness in heaven. which did not form part of the text of Augustine. and the three are one and there are three who witness on earth. the three are one. indebted for the translation to my friend and colleague Mr. old and new. of the gloss is now faced by great. If And although there was also another more ancient of men. The note has been somewhat curtailed by paraphrase. nevertheless it plainly appeared that the first writing had been erased. 430. " Oscan here as in many other places altered the Armenian text from the Latin. and the Blood. Water.' etc. In view of the clear evidence that Priscillian in 380 knew. JOHN the earthly witnesses may be due to their removal by Peregrinus or some orthodox opponent of Priscillian to a place where they did not give such clear support to Priscillian's views. though it rightly calls attention to some inaccuracies in his quotations and defects in his methods of Ziegler's theory of the African origin presenting the evidence. and these three are one. Spirit. the Word. N. and the longer All our MSS. except under the influence of the Vulgate. as well as : .d.d. the Father. it is difficult to maintain an African origin for the gloss. The following note in Zohrab's edition of the Armenian I am Bible is of sufficient interest to deserve quotation in full. copy which contained a similar text. are the three who testify in heaven. Tutor and Lecturer of Christ's College. ten years before the edition There of Oscan. thus puts the text 'That the Spirit is truth. and If of men. Though its acceptance as part of the text of the Epistle cannot be proved for any locality except Spain in the fourth century. one only from the new. and And there are three the Holy Spirit. it does not necessarily follow that it is of Spanish origin. But the subject needs further investigation by competent Latin : scholars. difficulties. Cambridge. and the Holy Spirit. the Water. and two Catholic interpreters in addition. who testify on earth. There is no trace of the presence of the gloss in any Oriental version or in Greek writers. Truth. 1656. adding. who died a. text adjusted to its space by another writer. McLean. the Word. or made the words part of his text.1 64 THE EPISTLES OF S. and Blood. At present we cannot say more than that the insertion was The connection certainly known in Africa in the fifth century. whether of the whole Scriptures or of missals. the Father. But of eighteen of our MSS. if not insuperable. between the Spanish and African texts still requires investigation. On this point Julicher's Anzeigen.' etc. written in a.

Monttort 34. Chark. 162 (xv. provincial master of the order in England.a). except that /ecu before v8wp. betrays the use of the Vulgate. Dobbin pro"a transcript with arbitrary and fanciful to be " variations Lincoln 39. Its first of the N.). and does not remove the clause kol t6 Iv etVtv. MS MS Britannicus (Dublin. outoi 01 Tpci?. Rendel Harris in his "Leicester Codex.e. on rpcis €io"iv ol LiaprvpovvTCS oltto tov ovpavov irarrjp Aoyos kol irvev/xa xai ol Tpct? ets to Iv elcri' *ceu rpeZs el<rlv ol /xaprvpThe Codtx ouvTe? eVt ttjs yrj<i to irvev/xa to vSwp kcll to aXfia. immediately from the Vulgate. He editions. 46-53 of the "Leicester Codex. which Dr." They are plausible. has been further inof the Oxford vestigated by Dr. even if they do not compel assent. if not taken Polyglott in 15 14. According to Westcott. the true text without the gloss). fulfilled his follows the he inserts cis ol Tpeis had been "provided" exactly. will be found on pp. history of the Montfort Codex. xvi.NOTES ON numerous Greek older been compelled to edit I JOHN I65 copies. have only the text which we have {i. Trvevfxa vdwp kcu alp.. Before the appearance of Erasmus's third edition in 1522 the gloss had already been printed in Greek in the Complutensian The text is obviously derived." 1889. He has at least proved that the MS was in the hands of Franciscans at a date very near to that of its actual MS production. which rightly had a place in his earlier that MS promise to the letter in his third edition. actually forged by a Franciscan of the name of Roy (or Froy). saec. . though the supply of the necessary articles and copulas to make the sentences Greek has partially concealed its close dependence upon the Latin." The in the Greek close parallel to the history of the insertion of the gloss text is of some interest. the Graeco-Latin appearance in a Greek Vatican Ottobon. The nounced MS Both MSS were at one time in the possession of the same His reasons for suggesting that the was owner. it first appears in Greek in a Greek version of the Acts of the Lateran Council in 12 15.T. perhaps at the instignation of Henry Standish.) is even more slavish Erasmus (iv tu ovpavw.

and Egypt has been discussed by Deissmann. the Islands. 235 ff. or indirectly from those who had companied with the elders. Irenaeus uses similar language. in Preuschen's ZJVTIV. 3. p.e. Hauschildt. fragment of his Introduction. 1903. and Deissmann.. to denote those who had companied with Apostles. and in connection with the Temples. which Eusebius quotes. "Quemadmodum presbyteri meminerunt qui Iohannem : discipulum Domini uiderunt audisse se ab eo quemadmodum de " in. bear trustworthy witness as to what The use NBS It is natural to suppose that throughout the Apostles taught. Licht vom Osten. 7). This interpretation is supported by the comments of Eusebius on the passage (H. Papias uses the expression 7rpea/3vT€po<s in the same sense. as well as in other connecThe evidence of tions. tous twv dirocrToXwv Xoyovs irapa twc are the avTols iraprjKoXovdrjKOTWv opioXoyeL TrapeiXrjcpevai. and had perhaps been placed in office by them . at any rate. 60 ff. v. Introduction 6 irpetrPuTcpos] official title in Asia 1. obtaining his information either directly from the elders themselves. i. The elders men from whom he has himself well learnt and well remembered the illustrative matter for which he finds a place in his book beside his interpretations of the Lord's words. and salutation. p. or whose statements as to what the Apostles said he had learnt by inquiry whenever he met those who had companied with them. xxxvi. adv. Cf. he learnt from elders who had companied with Apostles the words of the Apostles. 153 ff. Bibel Studien. as Papias speaks - 166 . who could. also H. xxxiii.NOTES ON •«- 2 JOHN. is well established at an early date. Papias and Irenaeus points to a prevalent Christian usage of the word. iii. 39. E. Its use in Egypt as a title. Haer. 1-3. of Trpeo-ftvTepos as a more or less Minor. 25. o>s 01 temporibus illis docebat Dominus et dicebat irpecrfivTepot Xeyouctv Tore kol 61 pxv Kara^iwOevres t?}s iv ovpav<Z> Siarpifirj^ eVcto-e x<»PW 0V(nv Any individual member of such a class might naturally be styled 6 7rpeo-/3vre/3os.. 1. especially in Asia.

who sees in it more naturally a title of Perhaps it would be better to regard its use as rather courtesy. adduced in any case does not go far towards proving that 2 John is addressed to an individual. yXvKVTaTrjv /xov dvyarzpa. in this designation the name of an individual have explained it differently according as the first. and EuseblUS {H. and (p. the Elder John whom Papias so carefully The usage of the word is most distinguishes from the Apostle.wv kclt ovopa : cf. noticed a similar use of ScWoiva in one of the letters which he (dcr7ra£o/i. 15 avTiypa\f/ov p. 300 He might have 301). or whether it is a conclusion drawn from the title IIpos HdpOovs by which the First Epistle was known This view has been (cf. But the evidence playful. who so describes himself. Cf. written by a father tjjv tov<. E. Peter on the part of either Clement or his excerptor and translator. Electa is a proper name is first found in Clement of Alexandria. or 6 7rpccr/3uT€pos. Rendel Harris. though the possibility of other solutions is by no means excluded. Kvpia are thus proved to have been used as titles of affection. r]p. or not to be taken too seriously. who in an article in the Expositor (1901) to which reference has been made in the Introduction. John whom he elsewhere describes as John the Elder.ov pvqrepav v/jlwv kou oXovs same letter.oi. or both are treated as descriptive (i. 39.01 . The absolute iii. 14) of tov irpeafivTepov Iwdvvov -rrapaSoaeis. " It is Scripta est ad Babyloniam quandam Electam nomine. ckXckttj Kupia] The interpretation of these words has been Those who have seen discussed generally in the Introduction. Sea-n-ord iv Ta^€i).] NOTES ON 2 JOHN 167 of 6 7rp«r/3irr€pos 'Icoawijs. kolv w?. or both words are regarded as proper names. supported in recent years by Dr. The circle is in all three cases It is natural to suppose that Papias is referring to the Asiatic. And it is equally natural to see in the author of these two Epistles. Fayum Papyri. J. Oxyrh. 'IvSi/07 ©aeiawn rrj Kvpta ^aipeiv.ai tt)v quotes the p. the title of Augustine's Tractates)." " " uncertain whether Babyloniam is due to some confusion with the First Epistle of S. Pap. The usage of individual address would necessarily be followed by a writer who wishes to personify a community to whom he writes. MaKKapiav koX hidTTOivrjv p. the actual name not being given. or the second. use of the phrase in Papias (k«u tov0' 6 -nptcrftvTepos tkeyc) and in 2 and 3 John makes it the distinctive title of some member of the circle to whom the words are addressed. naturally explained if he is the last survivor of the group. in to his son. ii.) The view that adjectives. collected several instances of the use of Kvpios and Kvpia by near relatives in letters contained in the Oxyrhynchus. And the language of ver. has been justly criticized by Professor Ramsay in a subsequent article in the same periodical. His view that Kvpios.1. or at least of one who is well known to them.

if not inevitable. As stated in the Introduction. 'Pov<£ov tov e/cAeKTOV Iv Kvpi<a Philem. " Whom I and all who know the truth love language of vv. 444) Corp. and Other instances.) The view. difficulty of assuming it a proper name. a. 138. p. xvi. (2) The interchange of singular and plural points to the same con- . A supposed play on the meaning of Martha was No serious arguments equally attractive to an earlier generation. has often been held by those who think that her name has not been (iii. recorded. Zahn. I.. ckXckt^) is almost fatal to the supposition here used as a proper name. 1127. xi. tr. The Wolfe Expedition. According to Holtzmann it is a common name for women. Inscr. Tatw Tut ayaTrr)Tu) Ro. at an earlier date. ^iX^ovi tw dya^-ru Oxyrh. because of the truth that abideth in us. makes it very unlikely that both words are to be regarded as proper names. The former suggestion was natural. subjects with which it deals are such as affect a community rather than an individual or a family. but he does not cite instances. 117. 383. 13 which has been already quoted. though much of its contents might be regarded as advice needed by the leading member of a Church on whom the duty mainly fell of entertaining the We must also notice (1) that the strangers who visited it. have been suggested. the salutation in ver. pp. : : Cf. But the general character of the Epistle is almost decisive The against the view that it is addressed to an individual.) a8e\cprj<. (iv." suits a community far This is also true of the language of better than an individual. Qivnnro% /cat t) yvvr) avrov Kvpia. when the general historical setting of the Epistle was less carefully considered or understood than in recent times. 389. and of Martha. n. 1-3. (7-77? that Electa iii. Eng. that an individual is addressed. xix. The language of ver. Cf. Kyria as a proper name is found occasionally. the name of Mary the Mother of the Lord. it is certainly better to assume that the name is not given. however. in view of Jn. But on grammatical grounds this explanation is certainly expect the article with ckXckt^. The combination of terms is a natural expression of Christian courtesy. vol. 13. 13.. : We should who refers to Sterrett. If the name is given at all it must be found in (ii ) Kyria and not in Electa. The anarthrous ckAc/ct^ makes very improbable. improbable. If the theory of individual address is maintained. Introd. JOHN [l. 27 and the supposed residence of the Blessed Virgin in Asia. 3 Jn. Pap. and even in Asia Minor. Liicke quotes (p. can be brought forward in favour of either conjecture.1 68 a8e\cf>f)s THE EPISTLES OF crov t?}? is S. ®£u)v ®£<x)vi t<5 These passages that Kvpia is illustrate the grammatical irarpl ^aipeiv. Gruter.o-ira&Tai <re tol riKva r>/s aov rrjs iK\tKTr/<. Xaipeas Atovucriw tw Kvpiu) abeXcpw : 1 1 9. p.

Bar. The "children" of 12 is clearly the "Elect Lady" must certainly have reached the age of manhood. 517 ff. tion has been adopted by most modern commentators. its clear reference to the Lord's "new commandment" given to His disciples. 123. This explanae/<\eKT7/v Kvp'iav Xiyu Trjv iv nvl T07ra) iKKX-qcriav.. tion to the similar found in Is. her her the transference of the prophetic language with regard to Jerusalem and its inhabitants to a Christian Church and its members. lv.. which includes .. una est matris lacerant Ad quam scribit idem suae. Tc/cva a7r6 rjXiov ovcrptov . 10). p. Mr. vi.] NOTES ON 2 JOHN (ver. . electa genetrici suae (Cant. which often lays stress on the dignity of heirBut it is not always safe ship.£7r£T€ crov cavroi'? (ver. in both cases We may also Jerome. iv.. 13. pp." Cf. iv. tekkois irapaKaXearei rrj t/ ere aurqs] Cf. Senior Electae dominae et filiis eius. ov\ w? IvtoXtjv ypdcpwi' Kcuvnv} dAAd rjv €L^ap. (3) The language of ver. iporru) <re 169 (ver. 10.) that the reference rj is the same. as contrasted with the Pauline uios. Ep.ev air dp^s. suggests a Church and not an individual. . The use of TtKva. 8). paper in the Expositor (series 6. evprjKa Ik tu>v reKvoiv /?A. Se^apev^ tovs vlovs crov. dapcrti. Iohannes epistolam. liv. which emphasizes the idea of community of nature of those who have experienced the new spiritual birth. £i tis Ip^erai 7rpos vpds (ver.-iii. though he apparently regards Electa as a proper name. . SaAaia 5> tSe crov crvvrjypiiva rrj tov deov pvcia. Gal. iv Ba(3vkwvL crvveKXeKTTQ. v. 8). 357 ff. v/xtv (ver. SovAevei to press the distinction. croi with The substance of what not addressed to children. The more general term.oet'Aatat at 7rdAets als eSovXevcrav rd reKva to. 1904. 12. tva ayaTrwficv oWtJXow. (5) The nearest parallel in the N. do-7ra£eTat ere (ver. . 5. 12). 5). Gibbins 1902. "significat autem electionem ecclesiae sanctae. The reference to the whole Church is already suggested by Clement. Kvpia. (4) is said in vv. v. 8. perhaps also compare the language in which the Seer addresses the same Churches in the Apocalypse (i. ^atpovTas crov. the Church of Rome being addressed..1. "Una .. in an interesting are 232) has drawn atten- changes between singular and plural which and Bar. where the City and inhabitants are addressed under the image of a woman and These parallels show clearly how natural was children.). is characteristic of the author. though we may hesitate to assume with Dom Chapman (JTS.T. pcrd twv te'/cvwv avTTjs. 30-32. 13). is to be found in 1 P. perfecta mea. . 25. 6. fpwTw ere. elusion. 'lepov- Sa'Aaioi oi ae KaxoxrayTCS kcu £7ri^ap€vTes crrj TTTwcrei. tois Kai craX-qp.. iv. V. 4). The reference to a local Church is found in the Scholiast.. ecclesia parens omnium Christianorum praue haeretici in plures ecclesias Una est columba mea.. 6 ovopderas are. Ad Ageruchiam." where the reference to the Church is clear.

27.iv] The author includes the Church to whom he is in the numbers of those writing. while he is fully conscious of the existence of divisions and of strenuous opposition to himself and his teaching.] evoiKovcrav A: scr Kai . 68." It covers all spheres of life. in favour of the view that a Church is addressed. 66** 77/itv] v/xiv 22. though individual members may fall away." ica! fxeO' T)|i. oiis ttclXlv (iStVw. 65 d etc. unfolded and the Christ.wy ecrrai] An expression of sure confidence rather The truth must always "abide" in the Society. aeth. which Cf. iv r)\i. 2. i. The phrase is not " merely adverbial. syr p arm. iv. 1. and is not confined to the sphere of the intellect alone. iva Tewa Oeov KX-qOwpev. iii. cf. reKva (v.170 THE EPISTLES OF S. has already been As addressed to members of a Church in which pointed out. as revealed t^v d\r|0€icu'] Cf. 2.7™ 7a (395) 8e owe 6701 bodI sah. pier. 104 a scr c scr j dm K LP ovw 7a : | I | | ((ttiv 31 syr bodl et p : eo-rw 200f (83). which are based on the use of the masculine relaIn any case it would be the natural tive are very precarious. Gal. 1 9. 104 c scr j scr eorat al. For the parenthetical than of a wish. /* 170 (303) I eyvwKores] ayairuvTes 7a 5 157 (547). 3 Jn. or at least its faithful members. 68.xt | ko. But the emphatic language of the rest of the verse suggests " that the author is in truth. vg.l. . tj/xuiv] v/iuij 22. aiwva] quia et uobiscum erit et nos in aetcmum IOO. Cassiod. 089 eyw dyaTroi] Cf. . applies only to sons. Arguments. ttj 181 17 | avfnrpecrfivTcpos T-q 158 93 | : 73 Kvpia] pr.t. TCKvt'a) fiov. b 62< /» 65 3 1 7 ous] 01s / | ( ) (498) I ev a\T]deia 0. 66**. by the Spirit. cop. cf. I Jn. 31 avTt)s] aurois (cat | Johannes senior tol. Thphyl. may be characteristic of the writer's style. o 7rpf(r/3iTe/505] effXe/cr?. . conduct in which everything is regulated by Kai ouk iyut k.70. 8id ttji' dX^Geiai'] The possession of the "truth" as an abiding force which dominates the whole life calls out the love of all who share the possession. For the use of eyw. who " know the truth. " truth. strictly speaking. the Elder can confidently reckon on faithful support. B fievovaav rrjv a\ri6eiav] oni.] The unsuitability of this language. if ad- members of a single family. who is gradually by "Truth. 106* fu." iv a\r]6eia. . would in many cases naturally be preferred to mos. It construction Kara owco-iv. where the word is again anarthrous. syrP scr om.\. they offer no difficulty dressed to the and have their special significance. 3 Jn." a periphrasis for " truly. + Se L Kat 3 ] : | N B K | om. i.1 ia-fxiv. JOHN [l.] owe eyw A 73 syr P al. 13. which. uobiscum eritis arm." It suggests a love which is exercised in the highest sphere." thinking of those who do not love. and love iv d\T)0€t'a] Cf. the whole family. 1 Jn. The truth. construction. 29. 6 (note). I.] pr. ioo. 7repLTraT€Lv corresponds to the truest conception of love.

We may compare also St. ij/jlup K 6 L P al. .] pr. Paul's use of <. . ctprj^] This exact form of salutation is found It is a natural expansion elsewhere in the Epistles to Timothy. arm. The aorist is probably not epistolary. iy&p(\v Xi'ai'] Cf. tov i°] (808) *C tv (33) / & (*•) /c 114 (335) tov 2°] pr. N* 99 f a 6 2<)S ".pi<TT&v in the opening verses of eight It is part of the usual order of of his Epistles. pier. The wish expressed in ordinary salutations here "passes into assurance. | » | I | | : H Hm fr? ^ I H I | : | (214). . 32. (ecrr. boh-ed. the contrast of vvv in ver. and who as man (Irjaov) can make Him to men. 15. eXeos. Jude 2. 31. tol. Clement.X. A | ecrratJ + Se | cat. arm. boh. 36 com Oec com ] v/jlwv K al.ed t}/xwv~] om. 5 makes it almost certain that it refers to past time. Col. phrase brings into prominence the the views on which the author throughout lays most stress Fatherhood of God. post ayairi) arm. 40. cat. 486 2se . syr. . of b 260 116.t. They are the keynotes of the Epistle. 7 a S. 68. 18. fxed Vft. Compare the repetition of aXrjOua in the preceding verse.] 3. /ecu l°)om.-codd. mu. 2 Co. Thphyl. Oec. & (^) a7a7r». ) ' : | I I . cop. avrov S* ayainj Kai a\i)6eta I c (60) om. syr bodl ) aeth. epistolary composition to strike first the note of praise or thankfulness. demid. cotou NOTES ON |ie0' r\j>uv] is 2 JOHN 171 The taking up of the language of the prethoroughly in accord with the writer's habit. Thphyl plu. sab. 19. I. 2 Th. reveal known author's creed.3. kC irapa 2°] om. Gal. as revealed by one who being His Son can impd 'ItjctoG k. " Counsel and warning.vya. sah. nor the cognate verb occurs elsewhere in the Johannine writings. euprjKa] The connection of this word with ix^PW shows that . of the commoner x"P ts KaL e ipv vr) which in some sense comand it fits bines the Greek and Hebrew forms of salutation Neither IXeos in well with the general tone of later Epistles. scr A natural correction to the more common 57." Perhaps in view of their circumstances the need of assurance was specially felt by writer and recipients as well. vg. Jn. Ti. Cf. iijaov xP L<rrov ] pr. Cf. the possession of the highest knowledge and its expression in action. 4. 8. Ro. Polycarp has irapd (deov Oeov (? ver. Philem. Apoc.. xx.) salutations (44°) + "/"»" Kai I" ( x<xpts] x a P a ^ eVWV] c a20uf /ecu 7 K A B L P al. pier. 98. Ph. Eph. ceding verse . am.. 3)] om. tv /»6 20S (808) epa*ij / b866 Kai 070^77] ayarrrjTTj ecrai fj. sat. 105. Iva 7ria-T(vr]Te otl 'I770-0VS eo-riv 6 The words used contain implicitly the X/ko-tos 6 vlo's tov Oeov. 126 c usage of salutations.l92 tol..] airo X* II. boll. . Kai /" (24) scr K L P al. 4-11. (et. Phil. 3 Jn. iv akt)Qeia Kal dyd-rcn] The two vital elements of the Christian Faith. and the Letter of the Smyrnaeans. xxiii. Xtipis. IXeos Kal elprjvq Kal ayairrj TrXrjQvvdwq. ..54 (?) I c4S6 (-)\ narpos (? I )] pr. harl. 3 Lk. . fu." 4. 2. (83) irapa pr.] The whole — the Father. cf. eXeos i/uv koI dpr/vr). 1. \ ad . am. IXeos Vfxiv Kal ^Ipiqvr] Kal dyaTTT) irX-qOvvdzir] Polycarp. syr p An obvious correction to the more usual 2nd pers.

Bartlet has shown. 1 Jn." If "many" had not themselves gone out into the world as deceivers (ver. ver. 3 suggests that the information which caused his joy came to the Elder through travelling brethren who.e 6 TTdT-qp apto avTijv. Men could hardly be said to continue in the exercise of the The command referred "remarkable virtue" of martyrdom. IOI. to~yr\Ka. cf. Am Xiau] om. TrepnraTovvTas). z.T.avrov. Xll. " truth " corresponds to perfection in every sphere of being. (505) quod arm.T. 67. or the icrriv 'Itjctov commandment yj to faith and love . eu>pai<a. participle (TrepnraTovvTas) could not be used in such a sense. (ixdprjv) To distinguish in this verse between the initial it moment continues is precarious. It seems probable that even the majority had been led astray. 44. ^k iw t4kvq>v o-ou] He cannot praise the whole Church without distinction. Moods and in the N. phrase kvToXrjv Xafielv is used elsewhere Dom Chapman's 15. ip. 40. (119) 7* I 8 s80 ffov] ixov 2"* 65 (440) + fieyaXw T" (317) eup-rjKa] evpov T** 46 T* 70 (505) 7Tfpt7rarowras] post. 1 Jn. 21). still and the ground of which TrcpnraToun-as iv dX^fleia] Cf. of an earlier visit of his own to the Church to which he is now In that case he would probably have used the aorist. 5 best. iv. we have here one of the N. 180 l 70 An eXa^opLtv] eXa/Sov K 13. 1 Jn. tou ircrrpos] Cf. iv. 1. 7). The xadus tovto etroXTji' p. Tenses^ p. aAA eytn TWrjp.ei' -irapd ay ana otl c£oucriav l^io diivai avrr/v. iva TrdAiv oudeis rjpev avrrjv air epov. yeyova. elkrjtpa. on a point of grammar.172 THE EPISTLES OF S.ov. 69.T. Jn. 10. cf. and 3 Jn. though the process has not yet gone so far as is often maintained. 18) irapa] euro 73 tov] om. JOHN [4. Burton. xvii. The in the N. writing.. B. breaks down. ingenious suggestion. 1 7 f.. Sid iyu) TiBrjpu rrjv \j/v)(Tqv fjiov. iva irio~Tevo~u}p.i avrqv air e\d(3op. avTrjv. elprjKa. the whole the latter suits the whole context better. xal avnj vlov avrov On (?) XpicrTOU Kol ayairu)p.T. instances. many had listened to the seductive teaching of such deceivers. x.a/?ov irapa tov irarpos p. perhaps from time to time (cf. iii.ev tu ovo/zan tov 23. /cat e$ovcriav l^a> iraXiv \aj3dv Cf. 23.ev dAA^Aous. that the meaning of this verse should be determined by the passage quoted from Jn. as The present Prof. There is no suggestion brought him news of the sister Church. | | | | A | . X. which prove that in certain words the perfect is in this period beginning to lose its special force. . Cf. aK-qdeia O (154) : [ : I 6cr *ca0ws evroXrjv] secundum mandatutn irepnraTovvTa. All the members of the community had not remained faithful to the "truth. Col. (caucus cSiokcv ivroXrjv ^fuv. 28. Ac. A comparison of 3 Jn. 49 . cvtoXtj avTov. to here must be either the "new commandment" to love as Christ loved (cf. 4. Jn. Ka0ws] + Kai 7* accidental error (? from Jn. which perhaps suits ver. iii. of which there are several in the N. who regards the usage as confined to a few forms. ravTTjv rrjv ivToXrjv IA.

The immediate context (ZVa dya7r<2>/i. aoi Trcpl tovtov. aXXa] + €vto\t]v X + ci>to\t]i> iraKaiav syr p Ktui'Tje] L P al. I LP ypcupuv croi Kaivrjv B scr ypcupwv aoi N A 5. 68 d scr * al. Iva dycnT-wfiey no need to to those who dW^Xous] These words should probably be taken. aXX 7 a S 254 (?). 6. iii. b inc. Iva] Cf. pier. which all precepts are summed up.). 66. 20 eixa-p-ev K A] eixofJ-ev B epwrw] epwup-ev / Thphyl. If. on the words ofy to <I>s command merely grounds a personal request. arm.] 5. 6. even if he is thinking particularly of a special Here it is left undefined. sah. | K Oec] | KaivTjv : K | : - I tva] pr. then Kvpia is the emphatic word. Cf. kclI 'Ep/Aiav rby all is Christians among There the recipients of the command. cat. ver. The clearest expression of love is obedience to the will of God. the special meaning of cporrav is to be found in the emphasis which it lays on the person addressed. 65. The writer includes himself and ctxajiei'] to use. I a101 7f - (40) boh-COd. so far as He has revealed His will in definite It is quite in the writer's style to make the more precepts.€v dAA^Aous) suggests that the writer is thinking especially of The highest expression of this love is Christian brotherly love. however. as opposed to the thing asked He can ask in full (alrelv). vuv] The adverb is temporal. ii. Lcif. lays stress on 17 ivroX-q. 106 d vg. 31. ex ^" 3 1 3%. order of the words. auTt) r\ en-oXt) itrnv] The This true text. 292. pleading for the fulfilment of the old commandment laid on But ipwrav was the natural word her and on all by the Lord. 4. pier. is the one if this is the in command . NOTES ON 2 JOHN 173 Cf.<pwv~\ ypcupaj 64. the emphasis is laid The Elder who has the right ivToXrfv. mu. on the old command laid on both alike by the Master. 13. ypwr-qo-a 8k a&eXcpbv 81a ypaTTTov avr)yei<r6ai. The instances of the purely definitive tva have been collected before. auTT] ccttii' ." Wsct.5. not as dependent on epamo. . Oxyrh. epwTw ae Kupia] If epwrav has the special force of suggesting some sort of in concerned (" equality of position the exercise of the between the two parties full privilege of Christian fellowship. 23.68 ascr al. . cop. fere. application. as between equals. is Epistle the love which His commandments is 1 In the first Jn. ixaprjv. ypa. found in obedience to all the commands (however variously expressed) which God has enjoined in regulation of the relations between brethren. " " Elect confidence of the Lady that which is no new command. al. v. Pap. absolute statement. " said to Consist in the " keeping of more clearly defined as the love of God. limit his application of the first person plural originally heard the command given. but as defining the ivroXij. uix. aeth. 3. Sah.

mandate). 73. If this is the must be on possible. JOHN [6. ii. to "abide" in what they have always known. the precepts. that their teaching. The omission of Iva certainly appears to be an attempt at simplification. aeth. TrepLTrareiv emphasis The command which sums up all which men show their love in obeying. cop. according to a possible interpretation of that verse. cf. for the the to refer it the subject of the sentence The one command aXrfiaa (ver. ev avrij] vg. aliq. cop. rrja-qre X Lcif. . cat. Cf. and /ca#ws rjKova-are. and the contents of this verse point to a different interpretation of ver. km mus . sah. Thphyl. demid. Many have joined the world. 7. In order to avoid the appearance of tautoaydirrj. on] gives the reason for the preceding ha is likely to prove destructive to the exercise of mutual love or (2) among Christians. 13. i Jn. o. evToXrj] post ecrTiv X (+avrov) harl. and their power to lead astray is great. the Iva must be resumptive. natural reference is to the command. boh-ed. mu. iv airfj irepiIf this refers to love. tol. which throws the namely. as thrown forward irepnra-riJTe] logy most commentators interpret iv airrj as referring to main subject of the verse. In either case the clause must be taken with what and regarded Xva . | al. is the command to active obedience to God's will as it has been revealed from the beginning of the Christian life. follows. Cf. cat. a-yair-q] 7] om. ug cle et. is that we should walk in truth as we have heard it from the This would suit the following verse. pier.) arm. and the accusation brought against the Lord by some of the crowd in Jn. 6. in denying the reality of the Incarnation. . in hoc quod aurfiuistis antiquitus aeth. 26. cuts away the whole foundation of Christian love as called out by the great act of love in which God expressed His love for the world. the reason given must be' either (1) that the presence of such false teachers as are here described 7. Oec. irXdvoiJ Cf. sah. al. forces which make against obedience will be too strong. K 13 al. vg. Oec ] pr. (uid. . 4). pier. om. 20. and to let it regulate their whole conduct and life. . 1 Jn. mu.incedamus arm-codd. vii. that. But the more beginning. sah. syr bodl et p Thphyl. tov oxkov : . The command to mutual love grounded on true faith must be obeyed so as to find Otherwise the expression in action and conduct (irepnTaTilv). iva 2 ] om. 12. The irkavq. Lcif. Thphyl. arm. 31. But both these interpretations are forced. 7 al 5 (319) TrepnraTTiTf] TrepiirareiTe L 13 al.174 KaGws THE EPISTLES OF tjk°°W £ ] iv avrrj S. the Vulgate rendering in eo (sc. . emphasis on the word TrepnraTwfxcv. boh. also Justin Martyr's AaoTrAavov. . It would be tempting to sake of emphasis. KaOus . wepnra. rwv TrXavwvTuiv vpas. iii.vtov\tov dv I*™ {$o$) LP \ avrr/ 2 ] pr. which precedes If the reading iva K a8w<s is correct. irepnraT-riT^tttinceda- iwKAK | | | ' I : : Tra-rrJTe. | Kadus B L P al. arm. et arm. I boh-ed.

ii rj/Awv i$rjav). It was the permanent guarantee of the possibility of fellowship. is not so clear. iv. The chief difference is in the tense of the By the use of ipxop-evov instead of iXrjXvOora the participle. writer regards not only an event in the writer's view that christ is fulfilled in the sum-total of all work and influence of those who refuse the evil tendencies in the " to confess Jesus Christ come in flesh. and the chief means by which it is brought about. esp. ii. It suggests the idea that these deceivers 19. is They naturally used are dis- by their refusal to confess the truth of the Incarnation. He thus spiritualizes the popular idea. 1 The coming of Antiootos k. Here the is as a continuous fact.] NOTES ON 2 JOHN 175 substantive does not occur in the Johannine writings except in this verse." But it is clear that he regarded it as a completely new revelation of what human nature was capable of becoming. Barnabas vi. I. confession is taken out of all connection with time and made In the First Epistle stress was laid on the historical timeless. The Incarnation It is an abiding truth. ii. the notes on the earlier passage. par excellence. tinguished y I \r\(rouv Xpioroy ipy^6p. iv.X. Jn. of which the present passage is almost certainly a reminiscence . All creation was "life in Him.o\oyti 'Irja-ovv Xpio-rov iv (rapid iXrjXvOora. known as Antichrist in As in the First Epistle. history. elrjXQcu'] Cf. cf. in whose power 11 the whole world lieth. Cf. His view as to the exact difference in the relation of the Logos to the world and to mankind. The Incarnation was more than a mere incident. 22 and 18. term as the convenient expression of the evil tendencies of his time. 6 6p. 7roAAoi [f/evSoTrpo(f>rJTat. There ipxifJ-evov. It is humanity has been taken up into the Deity. The verb is fairly common in the Apocalypse. 1 Jn. but he nowhere throws any light on the general character or the details of the much to be said for the simpler explanation of is. 2 ff. fact it and its permanent consequences." Kocr/xoi/. the writer uses the popular expectation. I Jn.. 1 .t. however. which was brought about by the Incarnation." Before the Incarnation "He came to His own. which refers it to the future manifestation of the Parousia. have received their mission from the Evil One.] Cf. and more than a temporary and partial connection between the Logos and human nature.7. The ol when p) ojioXovoO^Tcs] The subjective negative a class is described and characterized. and as establishing the possibility for all future time of a more real union between God and man. i$e\r)\v6aaiv (Is roe verb probably does not refer to the excommunication or withdrawal of the false teachers (contrast i Jn. The union is permanent and abiding." 6 irXd^os] The deceiver.evov iv <mpia] Cf. iXirlaare iirl rbv iv <rapKl /iiWovra tpavepovaGai i/juv'Irjffovv. 9.

f5dvovTt<i 7rpQcro(peL\r)T(u . "The use of the active with the reflexive pronoun . v. : hi stint seductores et antichristi m . quotes the Targum. 2 7> avTip. bears witness to the difficulties felt by those who did not easily understand the drift of his language.t.] The aTro\dfir)Te. popular legend. etc. epyacriav crov' yivono 7rpo9 bv rjXOiS virb Tas TTTipvyas avrov. — Xva |i.) A'01 S 359 (17) ovtos . Oec. 12 is to be found in Wettstein. ttjv /Jpukrii/ rrjv iv.. Perhaps these passages offer a more probable source for the ideas of this verse than the quota- tion from o p.X. Ru. harl.t) diroXe'crnTe Yipyao-d/xeda — k. crapKi] I + ei rts ovk ofioXoyet. 298 (p.en-€T€ Iva dcpo/Jcos yivrjrat 7rpos vyu. m 8 tol. demid.176 THE EPISTLES OF S. Lcif. ^kcs av irXrjprj tpeptov rbv pucrdov. Bed. plus (et. . <W O a-Trupoiv bp. . 15 cat. : and eavrovs I Co. 28. . and a widow. fu. who has provided or anticipated far more of the best illustrative parallels than the acknowledgments of his work in Wettstein also later Commentaries would lead us to suppose. progressi sunt) sah.evovev aapKi / 8 .Trokap. Pap. . pier. ii. The use of the plural in some Latin and Syriac authorities. i. . Ir. v[X€L<.as ./xi/^. prodierunt. Mk.{3dveiv. Rendel Harris has elaborated his ingenious suggestion that the Lady to whom the Epistle is addressed was "a proselyte. . . 1 Jn. xiii.eo-9e . Chr. aTroXto-rjrc almost certainly the true text.7 70 c258 P « : ovtoi eurtv 01 nXavoi /cat ot avrixp^Toi J* sy r (505) 7 (56). a Gentile Holtzmann's criticism of this suggestion Christian. cf. emphasizes the duty of personal effort. Exp. : Oxyrh. Jn. supported by one or two cursives. Thphyl. thought of the reward. Cyr. 299). . t%rfkdov (-Oav A) X A B al. 1 2." reading of B." " as "allzu scharfsinnig is not unmerited. for the form : of expression. For a. for the vi. 7rapd Kupiou Ocov 'laparjX. 1787. vii. 36. \v X? ' m 8. The form found in A is probably original 01 firj K o | o/xoXoyovvres] jb20»t (386) I fjuj opLoXoyui* !* 200t (83) | tpxofjiepov] om. <pv\d£are eavra. ipyd£. /3Ae7r£T€ 10. 6 0€pL^U)V fJLMT$bv XafJij3dv€t. 7T€7roi#eVai . lav Se Tt aAAo . Jn. is T|pYaad|i.i(r8iav rjv I8« ." and also Xen. 21. am. avTixpivros] kit : ( fallaces et antechristi sunt isti sunt fallaces et antichristi Lcif. syr bodIet P arm. crov ii. Ro.e0a] fievovcrav : and Cf. €u#eu>s a7roXr.ov x a £pv Kai ° Oepu^oyv. out of which Dr. 9. 8. ] tiarjkOov L P al. "retribuat tibi Deus retributionem bonam operum tuorum in hoc seculo et erit merces tua perfecta in seculo futuro a Deo Israelis. JOHN [7. /a 68* (236) b 396-398 ep\of). by using either the first or the second person throughout. aTro\ap. xvi. /3A. Ps. It may be of interest to notice that the reference to Ru. pX^TreTt eauTOus] Cf. KCU CTVvdyei KdpTTOV €19 £toj)v O.IWVIOV. 27. vg. The other variants are easily explained as attempts to reduce this reading to uniformity. Clearly a correction caused by the ets which follows. diroTi<rai Kvpto? ttjv Tr\i]pr)<.L<r66<. ii.

Dam. 16 NOTES ON H A B P Dam. cop. . 7rcpi rr}s SiSa^s airTOv: Jn. 1 ii. Tr\ypy~\ ir\vpV* (223) seem that what is probably the According to Teschendorf's note it would m See note above. vii.). 68. 68. Jn. but it begins in the work of Christ Himself. Isid. ii. In the view of the writer all true teaching is but the application " He did not regard Paul or any other of " o Xo'yos 6 c/lio's characteristic of the Apostle as the inventor of most of what was ApOC " Christian Faith as he knew it. iv. progress is not condemned. 14 5 (twv NiKoAaiTaiv). rjpwrrjcrav avrov indicate. Lcif. xx. plu.r] 8i8a^ ovk lariv ip. The sarcastic reference of irpoayw to the claims of false teachers to the possession of a higher knowledge and more progressive intelligence was naturally misunderstood. or of teaching similar to that which it conlight of that passage. 16.] avrovs airo\e<rr)Te. iavrov. . o-o^os iv Ao'yois 7rpoafe<. ii. Ps. He who rejects the truth about Christ cannot enjoy the fellowship with God w hich Christ has made possible for men. is signifinon-repetition of the article before p. 0eov ouk 2x ei ] Cf. arm . | etc. the writer meaning by the phrase "the apostolical teaching about Christ. Isid. . 137 d»" f arm.evwv " " but only such progress All cant.8. i. sah. 32. sition to the absolute use of the word which is found in this verse. 14). (<x7roXi. a passage of which this verse It is hardly intelligible except in the is probably a summary. 1 Jn. If this were the true text. 9. syrP e only. r 12 . 22 f. Dam. Ac. Ps.rj p. airoXapw/xev ] Thphyl Oec txt eipyaaa/xeOa B (77/57-) 31 al.r) d\Xa tov Trip-xf/avTOS where there is the same tranp.-Chr. is obvious.<r0e 2 JOHN KL Dam. aet h. eipya(ra/j. 73. Lk." Such an interpretation would seem to be the outcome of preconceived notions of what the author ought to have meant rather than of what his words Cf. 5. Ir. Lcif.T. 66**. 27. 17 ip. awoXafaTe N K*) AB utr com Oec com airoXeawixev. o' Windisch quotes Sir. The 7rapay3atVwv of the Receptus was the inevitable result. also Mt.€ yvwaeTai irepl t^s o'loax'*??. 2. cop. al. vg. fere. 6 Trpodycov ica! p) \l4vuv iv tt] 8i8axfj] The phrase should be taken as a whole. . tains. true text is supported by B sah. Jn. What was not understood had to be corrected into an intelligible commonplace. " teaching no doubt includes the continuation of Christ's work by His Apostles. KLP | KLP plu. (tt/v StSaxV BaXaa/x. .eda KaXa A' ls6 ^M 66**. 31 sah. to suggest that tov Xpiarov should be regarded as an objective genitive. syt scr scr j 13 40. Ir. cat. The ii. 28. 19.] eavrovs al. -Chr. 73. aeth. vii. iv. 13. The true revelation of God was given in Jesus Christ. 40. .. Cf. : 9. Thphyl com Oec com L Dam. " as does not fulfil the added condition of abiding in the teaching. 137 d 5Cr cat. (? cf. txt I Oec""] eip-yacaade syr bodi et P txt N A 5. syrP f j me Thphyl txt Thphyl vg. Ir. Mk. xviii. we should have to supply as object ttjv the originality of irpodyuv S^axyv from the following iv tt) StSaxfj." tou XpioroG] There is nothing in the context or iv tt) The SiSaxfj the usage of the N. 177 Lcif. But For the use of irpodyeiv. 42.

But clearly the ac/ecu ravr-qv ttjv SiSaxrjv oi cpepei. fu. aeth. 7rpoetprjpiva &€$acr6e avrov' cay 8e avros o 8lSol(tko)v aTpa<p€i<. in the writer's opinion. In his view their conduct has made that impossible. Did lat /xevuv qui recedit vg bS6S *ev rr) I ] efifjievwv rrj 31 didaxv I ] ayatrrj 13 rov SiSclxv 2°] om. and to Jewish opponents who shared with their Christian antagonists the belief in the God of Israel. (?2 )] irapaixevwv P> « (440) 5t5ax7? 2° N t!Ct arm. harl. and notes. 29.j3ciK€T€ els oiKiac] otxoi Be Zkafiov avrov: vi. 3).X. 10. 66**. The form of the conditional sentence used presents the case as more than a mere possibility. 2 i 4 ) /c 353. the words can refer equally well to Gnostic claims to a superior knowledge of the Father. rov 2°). /» 1100 (310) 98 s am. companying condition. avTou There " is that this verse Epistle. or of the Elder It is dangerous to paying a formal visit (3 Jn.17$ THE EPISTLES OF S. out in the Introduction and also in the notes on that passage. Xa/?ttv avrbv cts to 7rXotov : xiii.] Cf. Oec. /cat rov viov] post ex et 7 208-116 $260 /a (?) /c £xel 2 o] pr# 0VK /b ( 44Q ) # (3 o 7 ) | boh. syrP + rov xP l(rT0V L P al. harl. Eph. Did " Fu\g. sah. sah. 1. i.] o Trapapaivwv cle arm. Did. syr bodlet P aeth. 21. 20. 10. pier. 31 (om. p. The context excludes the idea that the writer is thinking of "casual visits of strangers. were destroy- nothing in the Epistle itself to indicate purpose of the whole clearly to encourage those to whom it ing the work of Christ by their teaching. tol. 606 (jg) ( om. Oec. or of the brethren visiting another Church (3 Jn. 8tSacj/c77 dXA7)v SiSa^r/v ets to KaTaXScrai.a. 12. cpxeTcu irpos up. Didache xi. . ii. J260f T0V xpL(rTOV ] T0V O /ft 65 (^g) yb J370 (j . cat. /*> 157 (29) ex«] nouit arm. Jn. Lcif.^1 Xau. pevuiv ev 7-77 2 ] e/xfievuv rr) 100 fievuv 260 ev 2°] om.[xj3avtDV av Tiva rrifixpui ifie Aa/t/JdVei.] /cat rov iiv /cat rov irpa 13. rather as something not unlikely to happen.t.] + eius S y r bodiet P L c if. Fulg. vg cle sah. demid. pier. // S 6 (*) B 13. syr bodlet P {qui transgreditur) aeth." is at last discloses the special Its purpose is addressed to continue in the active exercise of the faith and love which they had learned from Christ and His Apostles. cat. tol. but who. As was pointed outos tea! k.P' en cat boli-ed. Thphyl. 174.t. /at) d/cou'crriTe. 1 Jn. arm. 49 ) . JOHN [9. 23 ff. and to have a "teaching" to communicate to the members of the Church. or Antichrist.] Cf. limits the reference to those who claim to come as Christians.as] The usage of (. ci tis IpxeTai k. For the use of the verb. KL AB : | — | | J I | | | | A 1 K I - KBKLP | A J Si8a£r) fyias 10. even to the point of refusing hospitality to those who claimed to come in Christ's name. m ras (?7ras)] om. irpoayuv X P al. demid. 68 am. : 27. cf. 6 \. cop." Those to whom he would refuse recognition claim to be received as brethren by fellow-Christians.px*v9ai in the Johannine Epistles is confined to the "coming" of Christ. fu. edv Zkdw). Thphyl. / 356*. : (?)+tou 0D yai«9 (125) /cat rov warepa /cat roy wop] al. read a special sense into common words. os av ovv iXduv ravra TravTa to.X. Lcif. 68 vg. 2.

23. (219) (?)] om. al402 (S) \eyuv] post yap K L P al. 11. iv. yeveudai. in the . 13. ov p./3pdva<. We may perhaps compare Lk. 22 . 2 | K K I | : . 1 is chosen which lays ii. 3 . x a ^P uv ls on ly jit] Xc'yeTc] greeting at the beginning of Epistles (Ac. and 2 Co. cat. Ja. The writer of these Epistles is clearly well acquainted with the circumstances of those whom he addresses. the similar phrase The kcu Ka\dp. of the epistolary aorist. Tebtunis Pap. 13.) 23. iii.T.] Xcu'peiv . 1 P. ufiii'] The position of the pronoun is perhaps emphatic. 7 25 al.aTL. 421).10-12.. ii. 2.e\avL dAAa 7rvcL'p. ev I* 1U e«repx 6TCU P m (60) Tavr-qv'] post Sidaxrjv 31 | own] (335). used the context to decide the question. 63 + ecce praedixi nobis tit in diem in diem Domini condemnemini m Domini nostri Jesu Christi non confundamini vg six Such additions are not uncommon in the text of the Speculum. Cf. 1).r}T€ tovt(o. d/xa to) \aj3tiv at raDrd p. ouk i$o\i\r\§t\v\ One of the more certain instances in the N. Cf. Conclusion. 298 (p. v. 3. irovripois] + ecce praedixi nobis ne Thphyl. 8. X. 12. These passages throw no light on the question whether the welcome at meeting or the farewell greeting There is really nothing in the usage of the word or in is meant. xvi. /xe'Xavos Xap-rou Kal fxeWos] Cf. xxiii.T. iv. of course. 5. (xxxvi. It never denotes a intercourse. 7. Ir. cts tjv olv tl<T(. this in meaning between it word and the more usual iXOelv into which has been altered " the Textus JReceptus. 12. NOTES ON 2 JOHN 179 Elsewhere in the N. 13. Oec. The intercourse which the coming makes possible is emphasized But cf. 11. material denoted is. 26. in 3 Jn. Jn. . pier. the usual material for correspondence and for the cheaper kinds of books. Jn. This verse gives the grounds on which the injunctions of The welcome and greeting conthe preceding verse are based. airrw] om. iva ac£o/3a>s yivrp-ai 7rpos v[acL<. i. In the LXX on olniav Trpwrov \eyer€" Y.). | « Tts epxerai] pr. Contrast Cf.€p. i.ov ra ypd/j-fxara ytvov . p-dXio-Ta Tas p. I Co. papyrus. ii. ye^aBai] If there is any difference of Jer xliii. templated are clearly such as express approval of the character and work of those who claim such reception. c^c'Anrev 7ras 6 ^aprTjs eis to irvp. 13. tois iroyYipois] The greatest stress on the form of expression adjective. 2 Ti.ov.lprjvq tw olkw the use of \aLpeiv in this sense is confined to the letters contained in the Books of the Maccabees. x. IO. 1 Ti. Koiiwei] always expresses a participation realized in active mere passing sharing. 3. Oec. xv. rather than the actual fact of coming. seems rather to mean to pay a visit" (cf.

THE EPISTLES OF and irpos S. and other passages in the Fourth Gospel and also in the Synoptists. riicya is undoubtedly mother with her children. 61. 13. demid. aeth. Ro. 27. 4 . 29. cat. cat. 3 scr vpuv] post ypa^eiv 99 al. Oec] e\mfa 10 scr al. tol. JOHN r»}s yr}s). i. oroua tra irpbs Trp6<T(j)Trov t| : oroua] Cf. 27. Cf. 65. There is The difficulty in inventing hypotheses to account in other ways for the change between the singular and plural (cf. and the absence of any greeting " from the " elect sister herself. cop. 1. Cf. 68. 137. v. 21 (lyivera liil 25 ttotc <o8« yeyoyas . omn uid cat. 21. : eXirifav 29. 56. tol. fu.] ex w *** A* 27. 101. aeth. fu. Windisch. 69. 180 d vg.) that which identifies the natural explanation of are and to. Cf. aXXa ou/c] pr. : meum Nestle retains ijfjuav in his Greek text. also Jn. But is it worth while in view of the fact that so much simpler an explanation lies ready to hand ? " Die Griisse (nicht der Neffen unci Nichten. bodlet P al. (TTo/xa Kara oro/xa (i"|Q . cat. vg. 12. tre] salnta syr r-qs a6e###BOT_TEXT###lt;pr)s] matris boh-cod.i Kn A 73 g eXTrifw NBKLP : 2 exuv N° A B 180 o scr «xoc 1 7. xvi. I | | | 5.180 7rpos fie. ypa<peiv] tteXai-os kcu xaprou San. 77 harl. 13. dAA' cyw i$e\€$dfj. om. 66**. 27. Syr bodlet P arm. 33. xiii. Oec. ver. which suggests that in both cases the writer is using his than copying those of another. with the individual members of which it is composed. plur. : + an-qv al. + gratia et carilas /j.>X HD). 73 d al. com p P al.r]v v/xas. pier. 65. 3 Jn." The word does not occur elsewhere Tfjs ^KXcK-rfjs] Cf. (irapaytvecrOai)] eeiv syr Thphyl. 64. it is perfectly natural in the light of Jn. c 66**.t. plur.] visit is the same The object of the Jn. in the Johannine writings except in the Apocalypse (xvii. 29. S yr Thphyl. am. bodlet P arm. 68 yeveadat N A B I vg. 7) ir€ir\t]piofxa'r] K (rjv K*) B vg. \o\r\aai\ XaXTjcro/xev /b396 P al. pier. closest parallels in the Johannine writings are given some slightly different turn in different circumstances. 13. xii. especially the vuSs of the preceding verse). (17) arm. syr : uidere boh-ed. and 1 Cor. no a<nral~(Tai | | rr\% : : KL Oec.X. 104 5. Thphyl. Oec sah. . A K L P al. p txt aeth. cop. ol But the writer's use of /xtT clvtov kXtjtoI kou ckAcktoi kcu Trio-Tot). sondern) der Glaubensgewissen am Orte des Schreibers. sah. vg. 8. 1 P. : om.] 13. 13. cat.e0 vp. 6. sed arm. 66**. 13. : 68. arm.uv 69. cat. aeth. etc. al. Oec bodl txt arm. syr bodl %t p aeth pp Thphyl. 14. longe. vi. longe. as that which the writer had in view in It is generally to be noticed that the writing the First Epistle. 7. 13. [l2. 14. 37. KLP scr | yap A 5. the Church. xv. but it is sah. probably a correction into conformity with the common reading in the scr KL | I KL A First Epistle | 7T£v\Tjpw/xei'i] Thphyl. 1 xapa proposed k. irpocrunrov Nu. 103 (tiera aov) syr uobiscum aeth. 4. 73 ttis ev e^etrw 1 14 : + 77 x aP l * exXeKTTjs] T7/s eKKXtjatas 1 5. pier. own favourite expressions rather ypa\]/a. 26 fu. 16. 3 Jn. 19. Oec] v/xuv B ^tiaw N (-) 8 scr 68. (et. 73.

But perhaps it is not necessary now to spend time in dealing with the theory that the two smaller Johannine Epistles owe their origin to the desire of " the " great unknown to gain credence for the view that his really the (i. Taios 6 £eVos /xov /ecu 0A. Taiw] (i) Three persons of this name are mentioned in the N. 1 Co. x. i note. 4) as a pillar apostle whom S. whom he had baptized himself.<Tias mentions as the only Corinthians. Comm. They are described as Macedonians. Paul's opponents threatened to invite to Corinth to overthrow his authority. sane traditione maiorum quod hie Chapman's ingenious attempt to connect the Epistle with Thessalonica on this ground is not Coenen (ZlVTh. attempted to show that Gaius of Corinth is intended in the "fictitious" address of this Epistle. 264 ff. 6 irpco-puTcpoq] Cf./0S (2 Co.) fur Fiktion zu erklaren. " xi. on the ground of the similarity of the conditions prevailing here and at Corinth. 23. who is mentioned together with in xix. whom S. : Of this Gaius. Stephanas. 41. Coenen's interpretation of 6 tpx°V €. p. i. Paul £K*c. Paul. besides the household of Aristarchus Ephesus (Ac.. Kpio-n-ov kcu Tatov. Origen says that according to tradition he was the first Bishop " Fertur of Thessalonica. 181 and First Epistle) were As Windisch says. (2) Gaius of Derbe. xvi. 14. in Ro. " III. Gaius the Macedonian. Origen.17S ttj<% Corinth. Paul's companions on his last journey to Jerusalem. 3 Jn. (3) Gaius of Cf.NOTES ON 1.) has convincing (see Introd. 3 JOHN. more important forgeries work of the son (the Gospel of Zebedee. Ro.e. one of S. fellow travellers of S." is certainly not helped by the statement in our Epistle of the Elder's intention of paying a visit to the Church of Gaius. 2 Jn. general a character either to compel identification or even to make it probable. as Thessalonicensis eee/esiae." Dom Gaius primus episcopus fuerit The similarities are of too testified by the Pauline Epistles.T.). widerspricht alien gesunden . Cf. connection with the tumult in the theatre at 29). 1872.

d\T]0eia] Cf. Truer scholarship is seen in Harnack's less interesting judgment. is 46. 2. 14. Philem. dyiaifen'] i. 2. Apostol. heres. XV. 9. Sim. 1. xvi. 2 Jn. 1 Co. 77736s Ta c'/cros vyUidv tc refer- ence Kai ia\vv. Pap. cf. i. receives no title of honour. [l. 777365 15). anxiety but letters it certainly AiSv/xt? does not Cf. p. name may have been Euodias. prays for the prosperity of Gaius in all respects. 2. Col. so. . "/xct' elp-qvrjs Tpa</>a's" (Gn. Hore ovv tovto /cat orav cvoStj fjikv tvTTopLav ei8o$iav.aro<. to whom (the Epistle) is addressed. The word may his possibly suggest that Gaius' health .eio-rd ^at'peiv /cat Sid 7raKTo[5] vyiaivtiv.1 82 THE EPISTLES OF The statement in first S. 65). Ro. 5. ^uxt] Cf. . Philo is commenting on <rv(xf3ri<TeTa. Quis rer. compare Ro. | k<x0ws] + kcu /oS6 * (137). Gospel. 670*] om. had caused necessarily friends Its (p. KaOws . than relative probability. Oxyrh.). that Gaius was the of too slight historical value to guide our conjectures as to the recipient of this Epistle {vid. 514 (Wend. boh-codd. though it is not found in the For its use in salutations. That he occupied a prominent position in his Church is clear from what follows. Cf. ircpl TrdfTwy] must be taken with cvo8ovo-6ai." Const. 3.L . in which it occurs ten times. div. p. 10 . 8k 7rdvTu>v vyiutVeiv o~e cu^OyUui d/Jaovcavrcos rd apiara 7rpa<raoiv. land. evoSrj Be Ta i/'v^tJs 77736s airoXavcriv aptTwv. ov . iii.. The writer 2. 7. xvi. vi." tw dyainiTw] A favourite word of the writer of these Epistles. is again outside the sphere of commentary. But all such attempts at identification of the Church or the individual addressed are mere speculation. 8. the rule should be remembered that Bishop of Pergamus. Philo. Aiovixrios dSeA^r} 7rA.T. keep silence. Bartlet's suggestion of Thyatira does not claim more Introd. 1 (notes). The word is part of the common and conventional cooSouctOcu] Bartlet's ingenious conjecture that the other of Gaius For its use in the N. and especially There is no need to alter -n-epl 77-dvTwv in the matter of health. 292 (p. into the conventional 77730 irdvrwv of epistolary introductions. JOHN vii. 9. if not in peri" there is a time to odicals. rrj do ii. use in is conventional. " Gaius. iv. . and ii. 12 . i. 71730 293 293). also Hermas." In Commentaries. . boh-cod. Sinnen. Where our knowledge is inadequate the building up of hypothesis is of the nature of pastime rather than of serious work. 2 Ti. is to be found in Wettstein. Kat vytaiveiv] The om. 292). language of Epistles. cuoStj Sc rd crdip. 5. The converse change would be far more likely to have taken place.

. boh-ed. dyaTrriTe] Cf. the reference of the words to a single occasion. 73 d al. aeth. p. (154) 10 s« bodl 66**. A 37. . 3. and over which he exercised his supervision.3-5. 25. 6.] NOTES ON . Epistle should not be overlooked. 10. Bibel Studie?i. Jn. ) | exapijv yap A B C K L P al. i. ovk exu>] : | | h 78 " 157 - Xapav C 31. 100 d scr vg. /xeyio-ToYaTos. " truth ctou ttj d\T]0€i'a] As always Those covers every sphere of life. 6. iv. who 15. 2. cx^prii'] Cf. 56.d tc'kki] Those over whom he exercises his fatherly supervision. boh-ed. Kal fiapTupouVruv] The tense almost precludes epXOfA^uc . 69 vg. They suggest rather the means by which the Elder kept himself in touch with the Churches for whose welfare he regarded himself as responsible. 1898. . om. <sv] pr. i. 142. al. pvciXoWpae] Cf. 2 Jn. 8 . irepnraTeis] Cf.) rt\ aXrjfleia] t V ahyBetav I" 158 no° (395): (j-oi caritati boh-cod. 68. The TooTWf] explained by the clause introduced by Iva. 13. | aKov<ru /» 2165355 (301) 5. tci ep. is used instead of the singular.. T€K p a ] . 2 . 98 arm-codd. (uid. 1 ravTTjs aydTrrjv ouSets £X € '» J/a Tts TT )V actually found in one Greek cursive. ^XW to i. If this explanation of the plural is correct there is no need to correct the text by supplying r\ before Iva. a scribe. For xa P"-> Jn 12 Philem. . p. note on 1 Jn. " (JLti^ova. arm. al X apav // tovtuv ovk «x w ] post fiei^orepav] fxeifoTepov I ( fieifava 137 ) a605 J92 46 (69) O (33) / tovtwv] tcu/ttjs 27. pier. Cf. 4 . cat. - Oec] I | : 4. fere. quatn ul) vid. eAa^to-rorepw. 31. cop. boh-codd. (uid. " in the Johannine writings. 7. 13. syr Dam. In his interesting note on the Epistle he does not offer any explanation of tovtwv. 1.] x a P Lt B 7. who quotes Pap. iii. iva] pr. tol. 3 JOHN 1 83 4 Ph. 2 Cor. sup. and their evidence should not be so interpreted in attempts to discover the historical setting of the Epistles. W. sah. 40. S yr bodlet P om. 69. 29. om. airrov 0-rj. /ecu 22. pier. who visited Ephesus had from time to time borne witness that Gaius' whole life corresponded to the highest standard of life and conduct. spiritual. XV. The bearing of this phrase on the meaning of rwra in the Second Jn. as the writer is thinking of more than one occasion on which he had experienced the joy of which he speaks. aov] 7a64 (328) sah. Deissmann. sah. intellectual. i> Thphyl. ma-Toe -rroiels] either (1) "thou doest a faithful thing. The f/ is xapdy] The variant x°-P LV l% probably due substituted a commoner phrase. Lond." an action corresponding to the faith that is in thee. 35 vg. | | ovk] | | CKLP 17 | post ' | [maiorem horum c u* airXayxva / (335). 531). 130. whether actually his "children in the faith" or not. 80. Cf. which is the . Eph. cf. sah. moral. 5. 68 aeth. 65. yap K 4. /c3M (137) exw B* x^pav X A arm. as plural Wilamowitz suggests (Hermes.

. 97. Cf. X°-P LTL Its use in The recognition of the duty of <pi\o£evia 1 among xiii. 13.t. vire. 1 Ti. .1 tovto ovk i£ Ro. Oec. 33. 9. airos {sc. uenim et boh-cod. ot omn uid A | N& (319) 6 j epyaa-q | KB KLP Thphyl.] The dydirr) to which they bore witness was clearly manifested in the hospitable reception of those who were strangers to him.1 84 THE EPISTLES OF S.apTopr|o-av k. ko. and the future benefits. 2. OLTlves TjSeWi CIS TOUS OIKOVS eavrwv TrdvTOTf. 10. Cf. or more than one if the witness is to be regarded as a single fact. «k 81 tov opovs tov Btxarov. vi. Justin. as also the special duties of the leaders in this respect. if we consider the general usage of the writer. 68. SABC 6. 01 7rio-T€ixrai'T€s . Sim. 6. cf. Jn.oi<i overt £eVois. i." thou doest that which shall not "fail of its true issue. 8. the The o iav ipydo-y covers both the present tense being used.u>v. 6 Trpotorws) eViKOupei . 17.] (83) (om. bfxrjpovs SoTeov. . Christians is fully testified. 27.uuf scr kcu ravra I* kcu : ets tous al.' ko. verse as referring to one of the occasions mentioned in ver. though there is no exact parallel. He. to which the recipients of Gaius' hospitality have borne public witness before the Ephesian Church. 1 Co. cat. 8.kv Se'17 ravra ttouIv mend. 66**.eVot Sia tti<tt€w<.8i^avTo tows SouAous tov Oeov aYep vTroKpiaew. syr cop. 2 Tit. 35. 19. T0101T06 ilCTLV' €7riCTK07TOt (plAo^fVOl. It is a coniroirjo-cis Trpoire'fjuJ/as] . . & iav cpydo-rj] The judgment is expressed absolutely. The reading 7rotrjaa<. meaning of the word. d aeth. letters. 6. . also Herm. ev crvvaytoyrj ko. . (S^) m bodIet P sah. some of whom must subseIt is natural to interpret this quently have visited Ephesus. !p. xiii. iv. I26 e vg. ovtoi ovv 7rajTes o-K€Trao~9r}0-ovTau vtto tov Kvpiov Sia7ravTOS. kcu tovto dirb 6eov : I : Co. Trj yap £OT€ 0-eo-wo-p. 59. vp. pier. iP. ix. CKLP inaTou] pr. kcu touto |eVous] For xai touto. 81. i. Ti.] epyafi) toi>s] om." shall receive its due reward. ii. The anarthrous phrase denotes a meeting of the Church at which the witness was borne. aSeXcpov K/uverai. . i. xiv.1 iv Tip lepco : : Ka\d>s probably a correction. tous) cat. 27. Apol. arm. v. 28. 11 is rather different. past action. natural Cf.1 touto irrl diricTTOiv bfiwv 8e crwTT/pt'a?. eewTuo*' eKK\r)ai'as] The absence of the article is significant. ev cK/cA^ona also vi. : ttiotw I* 175 kcu tovto etc. 3. xii. Eph. though including a series of acts. ov rjcrav SeVSpa crKeird(ovTa rrpofiaTd Tira. Xen. 29. Ph. .X. iraptTTL8r)p. (quoted by Wettstein) av fj. 7rpo7rep. nai tovs . dSeA<£os /xcra tv8ei$i<. al. or (2) "thou makest sure whatsoever thou mayest do. JOHN [5. xvili. 67. iii. 20. Ro. which the Elder feels confident that Gaius will confer at his request.t/'€is is KaAws 7rou/o-«s is a common phrase in and no special stress should be laid on it.

also Ph. oi>s] ou B* iron]<Teis irpoire/j. xvi. i. KaXm ovv iroi-qo-eis *<ai tt)s r}p.6. which is found in the passage quoted from Acts (cf. | 162 K <jov] (rot / a M (328): om. 14. dvTi<pooi>r}o-ao-d irep. 294 (p. .A. 175 ( 505 ) I a^tovs a£iws] vg. d£iws tou 0eou] Cf. aio-xweo-0to) is 1 5. 46. We was enough to procure condemp.01 on CKopiVov 7rot7.\J/ei<. 7. Se XpicrTiavd?. I Th. el oveiSL^eo-Qe iv ovopari Xpicrrov <us . 6eox> tou KaAowTos upas k. As Bartlet has pointed out. o-7rovSaicos 7rp6irep. (iroieis eorum boh-ed. 27. P.01 eKK \ v <rtas] pr.). 300). 294). following genitives twv dyiW (Ro.-Aristias. . 301). 27).] NOTES ON 3 JOHN 1 85 In many papyrus letters the double future ventional expression. . iv. /caAuis ovv iroirjo-r]<.c fieri Cf.ev Tots 6eot<. KaXws ovv d7roAucras avrovs : TrapdixfMDvi.a.\pov Iva prjSti' auTois kd-n-Q. i^v^ds 7roAAds TrpwTOV p. virep tov 6v6p. pot Il6 (p. 5. It is also found ii.t. : 12. 2 Co.aTos] such help. KaXws eVoo70-€s ovk airevr])(i<. 39.r) nation (povevs I .„ aymnp' 77 (6l) oc] 46 n5< . is also to be found in Ignatius (ad Eph. p. cf. elwOaaiv dvopa 7reptcpepeiv aX\a Ttva TrpaacrovTCS " : clearly that of Christ. el yap tivcs SdAa) irovr]pu> to : dvd£ia 6eov ad Phi/ad. (deducts) T0V 0eov ] T0) 0Q /a70f (505) £46 (j^) om# /a55 (336). Tit. cf. avrov. (benefaciens deduces) arm. v. demid. boh-sah. tov gives the reason Ac. 41. TrpOTr^(JnJ/as] Cf. may also drdpaTos aTip.x 68. it might be possible if the phrase used were Sid to dVop. ii. tol. 9). " withdrawal from the interpretation of the phrase as hinting at scene of persecution. occurs. The fact that their having gone out x. For the phrase. Pap. eh to Trepnrarelv vpds d^tw? tou is The adverb also found with the 1). ScuVepoi' : Oxyrh. a solecism to the author. *aAu>s irmaKLwv Sid 299 (p. p.7. such attributing Tebtunis Pap. Epistles (Ro. KaAws 7rotr/cr€is ttoitjo-cis ypdi/^eis aura?: 300 (p. ) am. Karr]$iu)6r]0-av For the phrase.aro<. tou Kvpiov (Col. iii.acr6^vai. ti. 13. also ps. " is on . €i iv.erepa<. ii. i. yap kclI oVSepat ev tw dvdpaTi vii. ev ovv Troi^o-is ypdi//as pot avTicpwiTjcnv 297 (p. x atP 0VT£S why they deserve on • • . fu. . 2)." or even banishment. 7 b 63»9 (35) „. at a time when the mere fact of being a Christian (cf. .creis : : '. 7rpocrrdta?. Dom Chapman's compare Ro. 119. p. . u-irep yap tou virep 6i/6u. KaAws iroirjo-ei<. tou euayycAiou tou Xpio-rov (Ph. : . so common that a schoolboy uses it sarcasticrov eis ttoAiv.t. 182). tt}s kA^'o-€ws (Eph. KaAios ovv Troi^o-eis cr7rou8^s d^tto? eViAe^dpevos dvopas It is cally. Many letter writers would have written miXws ttoojWs But the textual evidence does not justify our •n-poTre'/xi/'as. 18. i. 167.s 7* . i. The absolute use of t6 dVopa.A. in Acts and the earlier Pauline 1. ii.^/as tol. al. /at) w? wholly un: natural. /caAws ovV 7rotryo-ai'T£S 8o't€ i. evxapicrrijVai (5c o-akrai 57> P. k. 29. 298). 56. 68 demid.] TroiTjcras 7.00 7 c36i i 37 (154): ecdesiarum (S3) <9 etc. The name So£do-ai to dVopa). iii. 10). I - ( ) 1 | | NABKLP \ irpoire/ji^eis C /a 70.

Th. "eiecti erant propter \a//.ev eis v/xas to cuayyeAiov tov fj. minusa mu. al. am.8. V. lav Se dpyvpiov olIttj xj/evSohardly necessary to deal at length with the interpretation which connects igyXOav with d-n-d twv 16vikwv. 14. ovvi koll ol idviKol to avrd 7roio£io-tv . nihilque secum apportauerunt (Carpzov quoted by Poggel).wv fxovov. am. put forward as the reason why they deserve certainly does not carry with it the necessity of Missionaries no regarding the "name" as that of "brother. "from some Church well known to the Apostle and Gaius. airo] wapa 5. xii. 13. OTroXap." is alone completely justified by the facts known to us from the Epistle and by the language used. and the Jn. a custom which emphasized the character of their work.1 86 THE EPISTLES OF name is S.] edvuv KLP longe. idv do-n-do-qo-Qe toi'S dSeAc/>ous vp. aeth. €^w iXdeiv {i/tas : iXd^ere. lo-riv. Bed. . Supedv 2 Co. p]8e> XanPdkOkTes] The form of the sentence (/^8eV) states more than the bare fact. It was their custom. ouk] In whom i 6<|>€i\ofX€t'] Cf. Commission to the Twelve (Mt. 25. cat.r) Oeov. the heathen to view of their policy of refusing support from they minister. plu. 8.fi dvovo-w riX-q . syrP txt armbodlet P armThphyl. diro TtVwv Xap. Tjfiets boh-codd. c£epxo/*evos Se 6 d7roo-ToAos p.pdken'] must be merely word is sense of receiving or getting. x. 9. we Christians are under a special obligation to do what we can to forward their work. 5 I edviKuv ABC al. It is religionem ab extraneis. demid. sah.rj8ev 7rpo<pr)T-q<. demid. to carry out the spirit of the Sore). They had therefore a special claim on the hospitality and help of the Churches in places through which they had to pass. custom of refusing support from those amongst whom they were working as Missionaries. and for the contrast between Christians " and iOvLKoi. 16. or getting back what aTroka/xfidvetv a scribe's error . I | d scr al. cop. ecus ov avXiaOr)." doubt proclaimed the brotherhood of believers. cf. cf. : 1 '- fu. €TOt/xa>s 7rpos v/aSs. 6. though Dr. 8. (gentilibus) boh-ed.wv iK7]pv£ap. Swpedv and the tradition established by Paul (cf.^3a^€Tw €t fit] dprov. sah. iii. There is an interesting parallel to the sentence in the Didache xi. Oec. fu. plu. syr b 157 cod. JOHN [7. and bases their claim to help on the fact that they had been expelled from their home because of their faith. 29. c^XOav] probably from Ephesus. ii. They carried out as their rule of mission work the Pauline I ii. 11. tol. Westcott's more cautious statement.J + auToi. 6. Tt Trepurcrov ttouItc 47. al. behalf of the hospitality. iv. xiii. /cat ov KaravapKi]o-(a ov yap £r)Tu> rd vfiwv dXX' vuktos kcu ^/xepas ipya^ofxevoL 7rpos to £7Tt/?ap^crat Tiva vp. but their first duty was to proclaim the name of Christ. the The of Textus Receptus always used in the is due (cf. 14. 118 (29) \anPavovTes] Xa/3ofres / rov ovonaros KABCKLP X ed. Mt. diro twv eOkiKWf] For Aa/x/3dveiv with d7rd. gentibus vg. Jn. xvii. vg. . Mt.

s. In spite of the close resemblance in form between the . and especially of supporting. In view of this usage. . (326) yevo>fj. Cf. : fj. 653. Cf. is usual construction being with the genitive.T. 3 JOHN 187 iTroXa/xfiaveiv occurs elsethe Lucan writings. or with a preposition.eda] post a\r]6eia / A : K : I K cat. Cf. Es. f) 77-i<rns o-vvijpyei tois epyots : crwcpyovvres Tots Trpccr/^urc'pot? tcov 'I. the second is more probably the correct interpretation. other Greek it is often used in the sense of receiving with Jn. 27.pav€iv C (316) post toiovtovs 7 10 a251 42. or at any ti] rate not accepted. It must be taken as something great (Gal. 23.) and strictly suggests neither (i. Ja. 1 8. rfj d\i]0£ia] The word may mean either (i) become fellow-workers with them in the cause of the truth. and 1 Mac. pier.tQa C 100 | aX-rjOeia] eKKKijata X* A. which he often almost personifies. Cf. 46. Ac. ver. tous toiou'tous] Cf. 69. i. suppose. 6 /caipos airy awepyel. xvi. It tviropoi tous eVSeeis vTro\ap.Tro\d(3r)Te). ovTot no Col. the 2 Co. only in LXX hospitality. p.(3dvovcrtv. t<Sv Sokovvtwv etvat ti) nor something insignificant. Strabo. II. fiLcr6bv TrX-qp-q u. cat. aTro\a/j. etc. 105 al. receive (ve^e'Ar. ii. Paul's usage in his earlier Epistles the usage of the Apocalypse (1. I Co. B C* 13.I 7TCIVTI T<3 (TVVtpyOVVTL. vtrtXafiev avrbv airo twv But in is similar.8. vii. quoted iv. 2 Co. 2. 01 suggests support as well as welcome. avrov. 16. and Ver. 1. 20. the supposed reference to the Second Epistle was unknown. or In support of (i) are (2) become fellow-workers with the Truth. Thphyl. 4. or cou'd have It must have been added at a tim* when failed in its object. eypcuj/a] The addition of ay is clearly an attempt to remove the (supposed) difficulty of admitting that a letter written by an Apostle has not been preserved. 22. Thphyl : yi. 9. .. €7rtyiV(JCT/CCT€ ovv tovs toiovtovs. in the various senses of answer. 9). There IS (jvvtpyoi €ts ttjv /3a<ri/\€iav other example of awepyos with the dative in the N.a. Its omission in the Textus Receptus is probably due to error. 12. koivwvos e/xos kcu eis vpas crvvepyos tov deov. 6. Cf. ii. fere. air avrrj<i rrjs a]6ei. aiTovad. where in the N. 66**. Iva kcu v/xexs xnrordcro-qo-Ot TOIS TOlOUTOtS KO. 9. 1.vofj.eda yivufj. also I Cf. xx. S. the writer's use of dhqBua. All who act on such principles have a claim on our help and support. owepyo! yiv.6101 or the work. i.] 2 NOTES ON 8. either of the person But the dative with o-wepyeiv not uncommon. 73. 29. 16.T. viii. indefinite. It n our avrov. xii. 2 Th. The usage of the 6<f>6a\nwv. The local Church of which Gaius and Diotrephes rfj cKKXrjo-ia] were members. I26 me Oec cod ] VTroXafifiaveiv X a56 017 L P al. 68.). Mt. Gal. ii.

and the exhortation to welcome the true brethren in the Third reference is convincingly Epistle. which reference is made in the intermediate verse. he has not already done so. must have contained some reference to the question of the hospitable If we add to this the totally reception of these brethren. 192. The letter to ary brethren is the subject of both these verses.)' aim of the two letters. a member of the Church on different : The Second Epistle. and which the writer fears that Diotrephes will suppress or persuade his Church to neglect. the Mission8 and 10. be admitted that Diotrephes probably favoured. 9 must be read as it stands. 596 D. Introduction. it fails altogether to correspond to that d\V] The letter had been written. which certainly favours the view that they are companion Epistles. but who had forfeited whose them by their false teaching. indeed. warning not to receive false brethren in the Second. between verses a member. The cognate (piAoVpajTos and <ptAo7rpa>T«'a are both Of the passages quoted by Wettstein in illustration of found. lxxxiii. or the refusal to receive.I 6vT<av koX p.1 88 THE EPISTLES OF S. whether that spite of what Harnack has said. 162) explains it as equivalent to 6 i<pap7rd^wv ra. except A scholion in this passage. Alcibiad. from derived it is where ings. Matthaei irpwTiia. but the writer feared would fail to secure the carrying out of his wishes. the requirements of the case. or at least condoned. Second and Third Epistles. (Cf. on which Harnack rightly lays the stress. a reference to the It Second Epistle. must. the case against the supposed The most natural interpretation of the words is that strong. <pvW Se ttoWuv tov KO. JOHN [9. 9 makes it almost impossible to see in the words typauf/d n 177 iKKX-qa-Lo. (piAovctKoVaTos ydp KaX TTOVTa 7TpWT€U€lV /?OvAop. (p. and the many points of to which. exhorting them Demetrius and the brethren whom he commends to their care but knowing the power of Diotrephes to oppose his wishes he wrote a private letter to Gaius. or to similarity in the circumstances of the Churches members of which. the Gnostic or other teaching And in which the writer condemns in the Second Epistle. loyalty he could thoroughly depend. with its sharply expressed prohibition of any intercourse with those who claimed the rights of brethren. p. it is doubtful the sins of DiotreEpistle "must have contained a reference to if it had been addressed to the Church of which he was phes But ver. the Elder wrote to the Church a letter of similar content to the to show hospitality to private letter to Gaius. the word two will suffice: Plutarch.eyd\wv Traduv iv aurtu to (f>iveu<ov 10-xvpoTawv koX to <pi\o7rptoTov Agesil. the context of ver. they are addressed. if. of course. 8vflO(L8(<TTaTO<i Iv T019 VCOIS r\v : ." The reception. in Patristic writ4>i\oTrpwreuW] not found elsewhere.€VOS.

K L P al.9. vg. . vg. 26. 66**. .t. pier. Pap.X. X. Diotrephes refuses to recognize the Cf. KartXafSero YlroXefxaiSa kcu iircSi^avTO avrov kcu ifSacri- ook emSe'xtTai rjp. They are equally well explained by the expectation expressed in ver. (esp. and the lengths to which us in consequence. the Church to which 2 Jn. 1 Co. e7riSe'xo/mi puo-Owo-ao-Oai). ovra. a\] quia Sah. S yr bodlet p n X bodIet P aeth. . rrj a\r]0fia I* 173 (156) Atorpf^s] a264 162 ® (*) AioTpo<pi]s 7 (233) boh-cod. arm. etc. Ta ?PY a ] Cf. cop. + av X 13. 43. a. 68 sah. 81A touto] Because of his refusal to recognize in our authority. : .as] except Xevcrev ckci : xii. The writer is confident that the conduct of Diotrephes will not stand the light of truth. tpya). S yr Thphyl. For the construction. of a xiv.] NOTES ON 3 JOHN 1 89 The word expresses ambition. 6iro|ini<7u] lyoi. B C 7. 14 The writer perhaps speaks somewhat less conof this letter. c eypaxpa] eypa\pas B sah. and that the Church will recognize the fact. 23. 10 lease. Aiarpecprjs (61) orp«pt]s a397f (61) (96). the desire to have the first place It should not be pressed either to prove or dis" " prove the possession by Diotrephes of an episcopal position.] Two accusations are brought against Diotrephes his boastful opposition to the Elder and his friends.. where it is used in a somewhat different sense. rjyia. 29. eViScxeo-flai is not found in the N. i. 8t£ap. 33**. rfj cK/cA^ca'a tov in everything. 10. viroiAvrjcrei vp. 29." auTwi'] The members of the Church to which the Elder had written. cannot be pressed.crfj. The Elder Jn. 26. Oec. toiv yovewv fiov : (p. we may compare Oxyrh.cvo is eV Xptcrrw lrjcrov. cf. airov iva <j>avepn)9f) airov to. xiv. fidently (lav) of his coming than he does of the arrival of false to ver. . iii. eVcSe^aTO .€vrj ii. 6eov . 0] otl 7al06 8a7 (179) avrwv] pr. . . 36.T. Xoyois ii-okr]pois k. It certainly does not suggest "aspiring to a place not already obtained. 19 ff. here and in the following verse. 15. .lv will recall to them the whole conduct of their leader and show it in its true light. (tva p. is addressed (e? tis But the difference between the two constructions Cf. and his harsh action in the matter of the Missionaries. 2. I Mac. tov avSpa . 272).] om. In papyri it is used for "accepting" the terms. 49.r) IXey^Ofj to. Jn.as tto-vto. 18.tv ovv imoiKrjTr]pia Xctrov TravreXt>)<. 8. 40. 9 refers naturally see in these words a reference 12 of that Epistle (cA7ri£ci) yeviaOai irp6% vynas). 66**. cay «X0w] Those who find in the to he has gone opposing letter Second Epistle the which ver. 73. For its use in ver. 281 avrov eis to. iyu p. 180 d scr cat. . ttirov vp. *VSo£<os : xii. ow] ou5e aroStyerai 7 I A | - I I I Bm : H | j H I 10. I. . authority of the Elder and those who side with him. tpya. teachers in IpXtTai).

succeed in forcing his will on the community. however. not found elsewhere in the N. is. 6KK\T]o-tas exPdXXei] Jn. I Ti.a. KaKoXoywv. This refusal Cf. XaXovcrat ra p. is rightly quoted in . 11. ov jxovov 8e apyal OecuirepUpyoi. The word is not It emphasizes the emptiness of found elsewhere in the N. Vg. when Diotrephes refused to receive them in spite of the commendatory letter which they But the present indicates a general practice brought with them. probably has special reference to some former visit of the Missionaries.do"aj/Tes airrov yvuxrecrOe. to be given to those who went from place to place lirep tov o^o/xaros was an important one at the time. THE EPISTLES OF I S. will not recognize as true Christians the brethren who He will recognize neither the Presbyter side with the Presbyter. v. . Jn. reference to Diotrephes' former ill-treatment of those whom the The question of the welcome Elder now commends to Gaius. The words used express action possible decide his position. iv. . (uerbosae.-q oVovra. hindrance in the way of their carrying out their wishes. vi. 8. Ti. ovk apKto-OtU Se toutois KdTtToXto Upov elcreXdciv. V.190 <£Xuapu>y] Cf. Didache xii. note on ver.(6a 5. ovtc avrX-qp-a e^cis /cat to <f>peap ecrriv (3a0v. 7rSs 8e d ipxo/xevo? eTrioe'xcTat tous doe\(J>ous] to receive the brethren iv ovop. menius interprets avrl tov XotSopuv.evoi rots irapovo-iv. " " monarchical bishop. ck rfjs tense should also be noticed Again a policy or practice is described (kcu i£e(3aXoi> airov t£a>).) /cat the many He. 13. a. rather than a particular incident. Te'/x7ropos ecTTti'" et 8' ov OiXet. .7ro Se oo/ciju. But the difference in ix. It is better. perhaps. The words. " already obtained the "monarchical position he could not have inflicted the penalty of excommunication without the concurrence And a leading presbyter might well of the whole Church. or he The description of his action does not actually prevents them. xpio-twv toiovtwv. and probably for some time afterwards. Cf. ovtw -jroutv. 9. . is charges which Diotrephes brings against the Elder in so words.1 [lO. 15. Even if he had determine the exact position of Diotrephes. not to exclude the nor his followers.T. : jit] xiii. 2 Mac. § 5. The construction with kirt The nearest parallel to this passage out€ purjcrcv cis . 1.Ti Kupiov otxdrjTu oreiTa esp. cpXvapoi. The words may simply mean that D. and the whole chapter. only indicate the position of power to which he had illustration. therefore. JOHN dXXd kci.T. or of an influential either in the case of a Trpoae^ere and self-willed leader. toutois apK€0'6r]0'6fj. €7ri8e^€o-^at. dptcccrdels eirl toutois] Cf. His custom is to put every tous PouXofxeVous] sc. apKovp. kcxi] For the construction. cf. 34 f. And the words cannot be used to rather than a single incident.

and to help forward a right decision by showing the true character of the Viewed rightly. He. 19. 7. iii. supported are not convincing: (1) Diotrephes could not have expelled those whose only offence was the desire to show hospitality to the Missionaries .] attained. 98. does shows similarly that he has not made even the first step towards union with God cf. If two special examples are intended. 43. points of connection between 2 and 3 John and 1 Peter have . even if 6 ciVwv is the true reading in Jn. Oec] mg armA eKK\t]<Tias 4 p I « e7ri5exoM e " ol s C 5. pier. 10. He who " 6 &Ya9oTroicje etc too 0eou eortv] Cf. 7 . . the expression of the truest wisdom cf. iv. vi.10. am. 27. 5. e/cySaAAct.ov is xviii. And the arguments by which it is hardly goes so far as this. For the use of dya#o7roieu/. but k<lk6v It is not 23 (el KaKw? eAaA-^cra fxapTiprjcrov Trepl tov kclkov). 1 Jn. Mk. X 2. syrP scr 36. Several 17. necessary to limit the writer's meaning to the examples of evil and good afforded by Diotrephes and Demetrius. I why should he go further? | viro/j. Thphyl. parenthesis. or in any other case. i. iv. He who ewpaxev avrov (Dr. 20. ii. Sy r bodi et eXey£w O (154) -rrovrjpois Xoyois 162 158 eiBa i/yuas Z/ Vims] pr. involves a conThe writer's love of struction which is intolerably harsh. 15. revived by Poggel. 15. Westcott's note) Jn. either in the case of those who wished to receive the Missionaries to whom reference is made in this Epistle. 9. 3.vrjaui] j*tw (56) I ( accipit aeth. sah. 25. Thphyl. 29.T] note on ver. 1 P. 2 Th. «s C vg. and cognate words. There are times when the simplest platitude in the mouth of authority is = Lk. 12. 3. 15. 6. 6. jxifiou to kokoV] Cf. iii. 9). 11. 95*. NOTES ON 3 JOHN 191 And they do not determine whether the sentence of excommunication had been actually carried out. Oec] om. iii. iii. 4 ( . The suggestion of Carpzov. cf. 15. + $usc ifere boh. " " does good shows by his conduct that the inspiration which dominates his life and work comes from God. tol. 26. fu. it is simply a point at issue in all its simplicity. (61) /» (395) 7^. is The found use of in Jn. But the writer's object is rather to set two courses of action in the sharpest possible contrast. 100 b h scr . ' I cop. sah. (2) if he succeeded in preventing them from carrying out 46 their wishes. cat. iii. 77-as 6 afxaprdvuv oix evil " . 66** vg. 99. &yairr]Te] Cf. demid. and that of Gaius and his friends who wished to show hospitality. <£a9A. 2. 9. I Jn. 14. 11. more frequent in this writer. especially as the conduct of the latter would seem to have needed apology. matter of refusing the evil and choosing the good. iii. - I3 i 9 ) : 1 : I | j3ov\o/Aevovs .(498) / 162 208 " 4 eTal /° om. €K — e/c/3aXXa] eKJ3a\ei kcu kuXvcittjs B C K L P al. to make toiis dScA^ou? the object of Ik rfjs iKK)aia<. // {Tri8ex -] vn-odextTcu e7Ti] (6l) (307) + uos neque txt X A B K L P al. they must be the action of Diotrephes. xiii. iii. w epya] + ma/a boh-COd. KaKcnroeLv. plu. ii. p. 7.

personified. d\?70eias. iii. Oec. 9). 14. E. even if we cannot follow the ingenious attempts of Weiss to show that he must have been the leader of the Church to whom under the special circumstances of the case the Elder had sent his letter to the Church (ver. But already attempted to do in a letter written to the Church. mu. Air' ai>Tr\s rfjg dXir]0eias] Cf. Mr. which were not altogether unwarranted. his object had been frustrated by the machinations of Diotrephes. as Dom Chapman. and the less improbable suggestion of his identity with the Ephesian silversmith whose opposition to S. Church of Gaius and Diotrephes. air avTrj<. Paul is recorded in Ac. syr ] aeth. 21 ff. bob-codd. The tendency in the Johannine 39.eva<i T77S to personify the Truth is clearly marked The relation of the Truth. Thphyl. p. TrapayLvofj. as thus writings. 12. Papias' quotation of the words of We the Elder (Eus. . however. though the grounds for such suspicion are altogether unknown. iv. Philem.) It is possible to regard him as ways. 10). arm. and 2 Ti.. Bartlet and others have seen. sah. The main object of the letter is to commend them to This the Elder had the hospitality of the Church of Gaius.192 been noticed by THE EPISTLES OF S. iv. plu. On the whole. as he stood between the two parties (Weiss. H. to Christ and to the Spirit is not so clearly denned. The conjecture that he should he identified with the Demas mentioned in the Pauline Epistles (Col. cannot. JOHN on the [ll. 24. cat. say more than that of several possible hypotheses this is the most probable. With greater probability he has been regarded as the (ii. who had succeeded in forcing his will upon the Church. d vg. the hypothesis which best suits the facts of the case which are known to us is that he was one of the Missionaries. perhaps their leader. 12. tol. o2°KABCKP + de L scr 31 a al. historical Dom Chapman h al.). 3). xix. in his articles setting of these Epistles. Probably Diotrephes had found his task the easier because of suspicions felt about Demetrius. by the supposition that Demetrius had fallen under suspicion. the mention of Demetrius here may be interpreted in different a member of the (i. Wilamowitz and others are probably right in finding in this Epistle a commendatory letter on behalf of Demetrius and his companions. 210). whose conduct had somehow or other given cause for suspicion. have been referred to in the Introduction. Dam. bob-ed. 12 is most easily explained.) bearer of the Epistle (3 Jn. and of whose attitude Gaius was uncertain. The special emphasis of ver. Purely conjectural But identification is hardly a branch of serious historical study. p longe. Did. At)(itjtpiw] Nothing is known of Demetrius except what can be gathered from the Epistle itself.

6v' /cat vyxets Se papTvpeiT€ 0Y1 air dp^5 /act' ip." At any rate. And his further suggestion is appropriate. but a description of the Holy Spirit. Jn. . most of whose lives have passed into the unseen. that he "abides in the truth. a fact which his critics are never tired of But there are several passages in which the writer to mean by ^/xcts himself and all who can speak with authority as to the truth of Christianity and the would certainly seem teaching of Christ. that the expression avrr) rj aXr/deta is not merely a personification of Truth." or all who might be expected to do the thing spoken of. ov KO. 26 f. suggests." is common in all language. tis to vtt6 ttolvtwv ko. 13). and the statement of 1 Jn. however. . and is best left irdvTaiv. modern conceptions of personality as applied to the Godhead. or of the more precise definitions which were the result of the His function is rather to provide the Trinitarian controversies. kch TjfAeis o£] For the construction. and also his comparison of S." It is not altogether fanciful to suppose that the words of Jn. there is much to be said in favour of Trvtvfjt.J3ol Sid to TrepiXTfTTTiKOv tov 7ras fJ. The writer does not think in the terms of (cf. and where he is. that the purpose. exaggerated by the attempt to discover one meaning which it f — must have throughout. he means something more than " I and those who are like-minded with me. Probably it is in so far as his life and conduct show tho^e who know him that the ideal of Christianity has been realized in him. cf. must be set the language of Jn." u-jto iravruv] If of IttI Oecumenius twv will serve any qualification of the words is necessary. it an expression for the as Dr. v.12.d Huther's view. material out of which later thought developed clearer definition. xvi. and also for the combination of the witness of men with the higher witness.] NOTES ON 3 JOHN 193 In view of the language of the Farewell discourses in the Gospel especially Jn. to explain itself. 26 f.1 aTTLCTTWv €kXo. twv tt)v dA^eiav cxoVtwv.ov lark. e'ycu dpi ally compare the difficulty which is so often found in the First Epistle of determining whether the writer is speaking of the Father or the Son. €K€tvos paprvprjcrei irepl ip. are in his mind as he 13 . 6. xiv. .i><i>v cpwpaOeir). 6. on to io-Tiv y) ak-qOna. xv. perhaps.opiov. XV. Against this. With this want of clearness we naturr) dA^eta. In what manner the "Truth" is said to bear witness to Demetrius is a different question. It is certainly unsatisfactory to find in airo-m-ai of the Province of Asia as often Zahn emphasizing.KOJS ouros vTro\a(xf3a. The meaning of rjfxeis in these Epistles a difficulty which is unnecessarily is often difficult to determine. thinking primarily " of a company. d use of the matter this But the natural exaggeration of where the meaning practically is " all whom " may concern. Paul's irdvTa Trdo-Lv apiarKixi.

] ypcupeiv c «. 24. 31. avrov r) uaprvpta coriV.a<. avT??s] om. iofiiv] possibly suggest that . Cf. The • close of the Epistle. tj/jl. cop. Oec. is obvious. pier. yp<£*I«" • — is correct. TtOtiKO. though The use of the tenses are found. eA. otSas] The plural of the Textus Receptus and the personal appeal to Gaius is more natural. 24. however. \ 180 al. 27. There is very little to determine which should be regarded as the echo of the other. The writer apparently makes his appeal to Gaius' knowledge of himself.ovs. boh-COdd. sah. Possibly the correction is due to the influence of the plural in J n. 31 aeth.ekavos koL rot's KaAdp. : boh-ed. plus bodl et P cat. teal oiSaju. syr aeth. Oxyrh. 2 Jn. ^b167 syr ( 2 9) : : | SABC : 10 bodl et p : — | | KL | : 14. and perhaps of others in other places. cat. THE EPISTLES OF S. s scr C syr bodlet P m s 20 al. Jn. of Demetrius. 105] ypafriv coi A 73 <roi ypafat P al. 38. The "much" which he has to aorist being used. 93. In the present verse. (om. /ecu /ecu H& oiSa/xev 14*. the variants ypdcpeiv ypdif/ai 13.€v ort a\r]6r]<. place ii. <roi ypatpeiv S B C 5. (<&) t\ rj-eariv] a\t]9-qs Tjfiuv ecriv (ear. longe. Thphyl. 33. 5ia KaXapLov] per chartam et atramentum arm. ttjs €KK\rj<rias /ecu A* kcu oiSas | KABC plur. that he is thinking of Gaius' general. Ps. KaXdfiou] al.eit'] This is probably the true text. cat.] The close connection of this clause with Jn. however. d KLP : eixov] v 0^°" vg.. fi£Wos] Cf.7ri£a> yevicrOai Trpos vp. Oec.194 writes. xiv. 1-775 e/cK\??<nasKcu arm. The evOtw may nearer than when crisis. boh. xxi. naprvpia C 68 : a7#7is eariv fiapr. arm. 104. : Thphyl. 13-15. {nobis codd. 326 (p. sah. communicate is But he The reed. Thphyl.. 306) rrapa(xlv. sah. <rot 4. Pap. (— ) ou 6e\w] ovk e/SouX^Tjv avyypa^ai 7 A ovk TjdeXov 27 volui vg. which would help him to judge of the knowledge truth of the Elder's witness in this particular case. d vg. 16 arm. the intended journey is The action of Diotrephes.t. habens boh-ed(?) ypafai 001 arm. is not well supported. Oec.ovp. there is nothing to who are personally suggest that he means more than "we acquainted with Demetrius. naturally regarded as a whole. 12 (notes). orojxa Trpos aTOfia] Cf. 2 John was written.) 1.9tf al.evrj to /3poY/ov rov p.] : oiSare KLPal. rjfj. the pen of the ancients." otSas k. avr-qs) : | tii? a)0ftas] pr. . • YP ci 4. 2 Jn. elpTJKTj aoi] 27) takes the . here takes the Cf. om. 12. JOHN [12-14. pier. eXiri^w . and the trustworthy character of his witness in It is possible. the does not wish to go on using pen and ink (ypd<petv). 68) -i\ om. the of writing material mentioned in 2 Jn. ascr om. KaAa/xos ypa/t/xdVcws.) aeth. The Christian wish (cf. xxi. xliv. rrj fx. 12.r)Tpl <piX.X. may have brought matters to a 2 Jn.

nenire ad \a\r)cra.] I i8eiv ere N KLP : al.8e###BOT_TEXT###lt;f>oi vg.0-Tra^op.65.p.wv Kal oAous tous rjp. syr p + aov (^): + : d bodl KLP A | H&-W arm. pier. Compare the greetings in the letter of Amon the soldier to his father (Berlin Museum Deissmann.wva kcu 'ApLariav Kal tous evoucous 7rdvTas (car' oVoyua. 41. 123. eiprjvt] aoi\ om. p.i lAAav Kal tous <pi'Aous fxov 15.t ovofia as a proof of the scanty following left to the Elder in it. 15.a] + afxrjv L 15. Thphyl.a] These forms of greeting stock of epistolary correspondence.T7jv fjiov Ovyarepa Ma/CKapiai/.ov Kal TfjV : ^. Pap. paqripav vp.14. cop.'ov] aairaacu. - iai 22. 26 vg.£)V Kar ovop.epairdp. 67 d syrP a<nrat.ov Kal to. 13). Licht von Oste?l. 99 Thphyl. | | 01 <pi\oi XBC al. cop. kot 5Vop. Il8). d vg. 7a 17° (303) | aoi] nobis txt arm-codd.ai rrjv yvvaLKav p. . 0. Oec] 01 a. sah. 7raiSia p. scr m s aeth utr rout 33.i Hm te sah. ii. dcr7rd£o/xat 2epr. cat. Thphyl. daTTd^ocTai] In the private letter the private greetings are given instead of the general greeting of the members of the Church in the more formal Epistle (2 Jn. 81. acnracraL Ka7rtTcova 7roAAd Kal tous dSeAc^ous jxov Kal and Oxyrh. or tppuxxOai ordinary correspondence. Oec. 422). mss. It is especially misleading to interpret ko. 31. ii. d<rn-d£ou tous 4>iXous are part of the common : : yXvKVTO. 26.] NOTES ON 3 JOHN ere I95 ev^o/xat of place of the usual Zppaxjo. syr syrP 3.2U0f (25) 7 (505) loqui tibi arm. Xak-qao/xev} \a\rjcrwpiev a7 °. 160 boll-cod. N 40 tous a5e\(povs 33. K pier. 33. | /car ovop. ere i8etv ABC : : 5. arm. and should not be pressed as evidence about the state of parties in the Church of Gaius. Kal ri]V 6ecnroti'7]v ptov or Tebtunis Pap. 73. l 3- 31 - 0t\ow] nostros arm.a 299 (p.

.

No quotations have been included from works not available in that edition. 321. in the text contained in Augustine's Tractates on the Epistles (Aug. 8 in hoc.. and in the quotations from Latin writers whose works have been published in the Vienna Corpus. i. 197 . 20 . M. No. For the first eight verses Augustine's text has been given till the Fleury Palimpsest begins (i. Berger in 1889. Nat.APPENDIX. the Freisingen Fragments. of these Epistles is known or can be recovered. In the following pages an attempt has been made to show to what extent the Old Latin Version. 8-iii. v. i. Lat. 5. Buchanan in Old Latin Biblical Texts.). THE OLD LATIN VERSION. Berger's text has been used. 8 -rimus quoniam). 1 This text is followed by an apparatus which the attempt is made to give the variants from which are found in the Vulgate (Vg. Where Mr. except in the case of Tertullian where Oehler has been used for treatises not yet published in the new edition. This is followed till iii. 8 (apparuit filius) to the end of the Epistle. The Tractates of Augustine give us a complete text as far as 1 Jn. With the exception of the first eight verses of i Jn. and more recently by Mr. contain 1 Jn. letters which both editors treat as legible. Buchanan differs from M. which are only cited when they differ from the Tractates. iii.). Paris Bibl. The Fleury Palimpsest. Berger the readings of the former are added intra tineas.. contains 1 Jn. Palimpsest. and Irenaeus (Stieren). edited by Ziegler in 1876. The readings of the Perpignan MS. quotations from other works of Augustine. 3. after which Ziegler's In the case of the Fleury Freisingen Fragment is used. edited by M. the whole of the First Epistle is contained in MSS which are predominantly Old Latin in character. are quoted as Aug. or Versions. which criticus in this text 1 This refers to words and wholly or in part.

in the First Epistle of S. noticed ii. reduces the bulk in the case of those writers whose text is largely Old Latin in character. +si in ipso perfecti fuerimus. v. . Prise. S. 17.. And the general agreement between Augustine and the 241 f. 48 (July 191 1). The amount of Patristic support for Old Latin readings would. however. Aug. 7 f. though their texts are by no means identical. Buchanan in the Journal of The agreements of Theological Studies. The use of an approximately Old Latin text as a basis. The growth of that gloss can be traced back at least as early as The following instances of this tendency should be Cyprian. p. The independence of the version used The by Lucifer of Cagliari is also very clearly marked. The form in which it gives the text of 1 Jn. Spec. iii. 23. nee filium nee patrem. Cyp. JOHN from the Old Latin text printed here and which are not Vulgate readings. evidence adduced also confirms the view that the tendency to add interpretative is and explanatory glosses to the text of the In both widespread and dates back to early times. Aug. Freisingen Fragment can be clearly seen. The differences between h and Cyprian are noticeable. 7. odit] + homicida 16. as the Vulgate readings are always given where they differ from the text printed. 8 is very close to that of one of the this MS quotations in the Speculum. E. (Luc). John with Augustine and with the Speculum are of considerable interest. 5. have been shown more clearly by the use of a Vulgate A table of Greek words and their renderings text as a basis. which ensures the presentation of variants which have a claim to be regarded as Old Latin. show that the Freisingen text is closer to that of Augustine than is the Fleury MS.198 differ THE EPISTLES OF S. of course. Cyp. : et filium et patrem. this fact is not without interest. 9. but they do not invalidate von Soden's judgment as to the African character of the text of the Fleury Palimpsest (von Soden. Cyp. ex concupiscentia saeculi. be noticed that the twelve verses of ch. published by the Rev. Cyp. though the verses offer very little evidence that is decisive. +quomodo et ipse (Deus) Luc. est et. xii. It may.). has not led to any very definite results.. manet in aeternum. have been added (under the symbol "p") in the Critical Notes from the text of the Catholic Epistles. has been added which may serve to call attention to the more The work is tentative in character and interesting renderings. Epistle view of the importance of the gloss which found its way into so many texts of 1 Jn. v. where we have the guidance of both MSS. Aug.

Cyp. et Iesu Christo. Tert. . . Where the "supplies" agree. propter hoc eum 7. omnis qui soluit Iesum Christum et negat eum in came 1 uenisse. in lumine ambulamus. erat apud Patrem. 2 esedudmus Buch. +et carnem aeterna] in ipso est et ipse in deo. societatem eius. habemus cum inuicem. induit nostri causa et passus est et resurrexit a mortuis adsumpsit nos. 3. Spec. in Ep. 16. I. et uidimus et testes sumus. /3 Mace. ut gaudium uestrum sit plenum. iv. (?) et mundus non cognoscit nos quia non cognoscit nos non cognoscit mundus. et non facimus ueritatem. [si dixe] Rimus quoniam peccatum n habemus 2 ipsos nos dea'fiimus et ueritas in nobis non est 9. Berger. sicut et ipse est in lumine. et societas nostra sit cum Deo Patre. mentimur. 1 JN. 7. deus 20. Et haec scribimus uobis. quod audiuimus. et sanguis Iesu Christi. + et resurrectio nostra. haec est annuntiatio quam audiuimus ab eo. ut uos societatem habeatis nobiscum. 2. filii purgabit nos ab omni delicto. 1889. 1 1 Jn. et et Quae uidimus et audiuimus nuntiamus uobis. et 5. 8. Ioann. 3. + sicut 10. cod. quae manifestata est in nobis. Spec. Aug. Si connteamur peccata nostra fidelh et iustus ut remittam nobis peccata et purget nos ex omni iniquitate 1 M. Quodsi Fleury Palimpsest. i. adv. scilicet in deo creatore. 6. v.APPENDIX iii. filio eius. Paris. Sed est de antichristi spiritu. where the two editions "supply" different words. patrem suum] patrem suum aut matrem suam. Cyp. Comm. Et annuntiamus uobis. Augustine. cf. 1. ed. 4. Spec. et manus nostrae tractauerunt de uerbo uitae. et quod uidimus oculis nostris. et ille iustus est. et annuntiamus nobis uitam aeternam. et in tenebris ambulamus. quia Deus lux est et tenebrae in illo non sunt ullae. Berger's text is followed Italics are used where the MS is illegible. v. negantes Christum in carne uenisse et soluentes Iesum. Aug. 1. Quodsi dixerimus quia societatem habemus cum eo. Et ipsa uita manifestata est. Quod erat ab initio. italics are used only for what is regarded as illegible by both editors. 199 1.

JOHN peccauimus dixerimus quod non mendacem faciemus ii. scribo uobis eius filio/z quoniam remittuntur uobis peccata ab propter nomen 13. adbuc 10. qui quia tenebrae iam transeunt et lumen uerum iam luce/ dicit se in lumine esse et fratrem suum hodit in fratrem tenebm est usq.as di peritcta est 5. iam 12. audistis erit um l iterum nobis mandatum nouum iscribo uobis quod est uere in ipso et in uobis 9. nolite diligere seculum nee ea quae sunt in saeculo si quis saeculum non 16. . in suum in lumine permanet tenebris te \ et eo non est est qui tenebris autem hodit fratrem suum in ambulat et non scit ubi eat quia fili et in nebxae obscoe- cauerunt oculos eius mei quia. nam qui diligit scanda\um 11. THE EPISTLES OF quod si S. quoniam est caritas patris in eo omne quod est in seculo concupiscentia carnis saeculi est et rt?ncupiscentia oculorum et superbia uitae est quae non est ck ex patre sed de seculo est 1 ue (sic) Buch. eum si mandata dax in eum et mandata eius non seruat mennon est us in hoc zax\. et in hoc iscimus quoniam cognouimus eius seruemus 4. Scribo uobis qui pueri est quoniam cognouistis patrem quod ab initio cognouistis eum scribo uobis adulescentes et uicistis quoniam fortes malignum diligit estis et uerbum di in uobis permanet 15. qui dicit se in ipso manere debet quemadmodum ille qui dicit se noscere est in hoc ueritas 7. eum fili et uerbum eius non est in nobis i. ambulauit et ipse awzbulare Carissimi non noaum mandatum scribo uobis sed mandatum od uetus quern habuistis ab initio mandatum uetus est uerbum quod 8. scribo uobis patres quoniam cognouistis quod erat initio scribo uobis iuuenes quoniam uicistis malignum quia 14. et mei haec iscribo uobis ne peccetis et si quis aduocatum abemus aput patrem ihu xpm iustuw ipse est exoratio pro peccatis nostris non pro nostm autem tantum sed et pro totius saeculi 3. peccauerit 2.200 10. nam qui custodit uerbum hoc isceimus quoniam in eo sumus 6.

sunt unde cognosziruus Ex nobis exierunt sed non erat ex nobis et nam si fuisset fiat ex nobis permansissent forsitan nobiscum sed ut praesto quoniam non sunt omnes ex nobis 20. seducunt uos. omnis qui negat filium habet filium et patrem 24.APPENDIX transiet 201 17. quis est mendax nisi is qui negat quia is est xps hie est non antixps qui negat patrem et filium 1 Nee patrem habet qui confitetur 23. et 21. si scitnus quoniam iustus est scitote ueritatem de eo natus quoniam omnis qui pater ut dei facit institiam ex ipso natus est iii. uos quod audistis ab initio permaneat in uobis quod si in uobis permanserit quod ab initio audistis et uos in filio et patre | permanebitis uobis 25. uos unctionem accepistis a sto et nostis otnnia earn et non scripsi uobis quasi ignorantib ueritate sed scien tibus quoniam omnem mendacium ex ueritate non est 22. Haec scripsi uobis de eis qui mznete sicut docuit 28. et saeculum transit bit et concupiscentia. ecce qualem et caritatew dedit uobis filii egnorat uocaremur sumus propter^ 1 seculutn nos inhonorzt habet negat filium] n filium »ci (sic) Buch. 1. et haec est promissio quam ipse poKxzitus est nobis ese uitam aeternam. . et uos untionem quam accepistis ab eo permaneat in uobis et necesse non habe//V ut aliquis doceat uos sed sicut untio eius docet uos de omnib et uerum est et non est mendum 2 et 26. qui autem facit uoluntatem di permanet in aetemum 18. et uos permanete in i eo habearx\us et si nunc u\o manete in eo ut cum uenerit x###BOT_TEXT###amp;uciam non confundamur ab eo In praesentia eius nostis eum qui fidelis est 29. 27. * mendum (sic) Buch. Pueri nouissima hora est e et sicut audistis ^woniam _ e _ facti antixps uenit nunc antixpi multi quoniam nouissima hora est produit 19.

so that for 8-20 we have both the Fleury and the Freisingen text. omnis qui in eo perma«^/ non peccat omnis qui peccat non uidit 7. omnis qui facit peccatum et iniquitatem facit et peccatum est iniquitas quoniam ille apparuit ut peccata tolleret et 5. the Freisingen Fragment. . suum eum et occidit fratrem quia opera eius maligna nos hie mundux Nos scimus quoniam transimus de morte ad uitam quia diligimus fratres qui non diligit permanet in mortem 15. III. qui autem habuerit substantiam huius mundi et uiderit et nolite mirari fratres si odit The MS continues as far as ver. apparuit filius di ut soluat opera diaboli Omnis qui natus est semen 10. Non sicut cain qui ex maligno erat et cuius rei gratia occidit erant fratris autem eius iusta 13. 14. et <9wnis qui habet spem hanc in eo castificat se sicut et est qui futuri ille castus est 4. the text being taken from 1 vv. 8. 20 (ds corck nostro et). JOHN filii di sumus et nonduw manifestatum sumus scimus quoniam cum apparuerit similes erimus ei quoniam uidebimus eum sic«// est 3. et scitis peccatum in illo non est 6. 1 1 JN. qui autem fa cit \ feccaXum de diabolo est quia ab <\fabo\us peccat in hoc. in hoc cognoscimus caritatem quia ille pro nobis animam suam posuit et nos debemus pro fratribus animas ponere.202 2. The variations of the Fleury Palimpsest are henceforward noted. 17. THE EPISTLES OF Carissimi nunc S. eius in ipso manet et ex Do peccatum non facit quia non potest peccare quoniam de Do filzV natus est Ex hoc manifesti sunt di et et filii diaboli omnis qui fratrem initio ut non facit iustitiam non est est de do qui non diligit suum 11. omnis qui odit fratrem suum homicida est et scitis quia omnis homicida non habet uitam aeternam in se manentem 16. Freisingen Fragment. Quoniam hoc mandatum quod audistis ab diligamus imuice 12. 9. filioli eum nee cognouit eum nemo nos seducat omnis qui fa qui facit iustitiam iustus est initio 8.

si nm non nos reprehendat fiduciam habemus aput eius dm quidquid petierimus accipiemus ab eo qm mandata seruamus et quae sunt placita in conspectu eius faciwus nomini filii e'xus 23. 11. dm nemo uidit umquam quodsi diligamus imuicem ds in nobis manet et caritas eius perfecta est in nobis . kmi diligamus inuicem qm caritas ex do est_et omnis qui fratrem suum ex do natus est et cognoscit dm qui in non diligit ignorat dm quia ds caritas est hoc apparuit caritas di in nobis qm filium suum unicum misit ds in saeculo ut 10. et qui seruat mandatum eius in illo manebit 22. non confitetur IHM ex do non est et 3. saeculum audit eos 6. in hoc est ipse dilexit nos et misit filium uiuamus per eum caritas non quod nos dilexerimus dm sed qm suum nos propitiatorem pro peccatis et nostris. Kmi nolite omni spu credere sed probate sps si ex do sunt qm multi pseudoprophetae prodierunt in hoc saeculo 2. kmi imuicem si sic ds dilexit nos debemus diligere 12.APPENDIX fratrem 18. qm kmi si reprehendat nos cor nostrum maior est ds cordi cor nostro et nouit omnia 21. nos ex do sumus qui cognoscit dm aud it nos qui no n est ex d~o non nos audit hinc cognoscimus spm ueritatis et spm erroris 7. et in hoc cognoscimur suademus cordi nostro qm ex ueritate sumus et coram 20. diligit 8. 1. et omnis sps qui hoc est illius antixpisti quem audistis quia uenturus est et nunc et in hoc scimus qm in saeculo est 4. et hoc est mandatum eius ut credamus IHU XPI et diligamus inuicem sicut dedit nobis mandatum et ipse in eo 24. hinc cognoscitur sps di omnis sps qui confitetur IHM XPM in came uenisse ex do est. 203 suum egere et clauserit uiscera sua ab eo quomodo caritas di manet in eo non diligamus tantum uerbo neque lingua sed filioli operae ipso et ueritate 19. iam uos ex do estis filioli et uicistis eos qm maior est qui in uobis est quam hie qui in saeculo est hii de saeculo sunt propterea de saeculo locuntur et 5. 9. et permanet in nobis de spu quern dedit nobis iv.

qm ' txes 9. hinc cognoscimus qm diligimus filios di' cum diligimus dm uidet et mandata 3. mundo 18. enim cartas grauia non sunt ut mandate eius seruemus et quia omne quod natum quae est ex do uincit saeculum et haec est uictoria 5. nos ergo diligamus si quis dixerit diligo qm ipse prior dilexit nos dm et fratrem suum odit mendax est qui enim non diligit fratrem suum quern uide/ dm quern non quomodo potest diligere 21. et hoc manddXwm habemus a do ut qui diligit dm diligat et fratrem. timor non est in raritate sed perfecta caritas foras mittit timore qm timor in caritatem poenam ha^et qui autem timet non est perfectus 20. 19. in hoc perfecta est habemus in diem iudicii quia sicut ille est et nos sumus in hoc 15. suum v. hie est qui uenit per aquam et sanguinem IHS XPS et non tantum in aqua sed in aqua et sanguine et sps est testimonium quia sps est ueritas sunt qui testificantur in terra sps et aqua et et uerbum et sanguis et tres sunt qui totificantur in caelo pater sunt sps scs et hi tres unum 7. JOHN nob/s qm 14. in THE EPISTLES OF S. si testim0/w'#/« hominum acc'ip'imus testimonium di maius est est de filio suo quia hoc est testimonium di quia testificatus 10. . eius facimus est haec «'us mandate 4. qui credit in filio di habet testimonium di in se qui non credit in do mendacem facit eum quia non credit in testimonium eius quod testificator est ds de filio suo .204 13. manet et ipse in . et hoc cognoscimus qum in ipso manemus et ipse in de spu suo dedit nobis nos uidimus e/ testamur qm pater misit filium suum saluatorem saeculi quicumque confessus fuerit qm ihs est Alius di ds in eo do 16. 1. . omnis qui credit quia IH* est xps ex do natus est et omnis qui diligit genxtoxem diligit eum qui genitus est ex eo 2. uincit saceu/um fides nostra uincit quis est autem qui saeculww nisi qui credit quia IHS est Alius di 6. Et nos cognouimus et credidimus in caritate quam habet ds in nobis ds caritas est et qui manet in caritate in do permanet et ds in eo manet Karitas in nobis jfcduciam 17.

1HU XPO hie . 1 /8 oculis nostris] pr. /a quod 2° nostris] quae uidimus oculis nostris et auribus audiuimus | — — I Mur. s et 2°] + quod Ambcodd. Fr. : paruit Ambuita Amb. as a rule. INCPEIUSDEM ' II.APPENDIX 11. Cass. quod 2° uitae] quod uidimus quod audiuimus oculis nostris uidimus et manus nostrae contrectauerunt de sermone uitae 2 Tert. scim' qm ex do sumus et totus mundus in maligno positus 20.: CCLXXIIII. erat] fuit Vg. quod 3 ] om. | I : | | J . I. et est scimus qm Alius di uenit et dedit nobis inte/iectum ut fiXxo eius sciamus quod est ueru et simus in uero est uerus ds et vita aeterna 21. et Amb-codd. Amb-cod. /s 2 manifestata est i°] apparuit Amb. where different readings have been noted in this way. haec scribo uob\s ut sciatis quia uitam habetis a. -/3 -ed. 1 1 om. Amb-ed. except for the Tractates (Aug. Amb. et 205 hoc est testimonium n7/<? qm uitam aetexnaxn dedit nobis ds et haec uita in eius est 12. Vg. Ys :+quod /3 quod Amb-codd. Cass. palpauerunt Mur. and the text found An attempt has been in Augustine's Tractates on the Epistle. si quis scit fiaXxtm suum peccare peccatum no ad mortem postulabit et dabit ei uitam his qui peccat non usque ad mortem enim peccatum usque ad mortem non pro illo dico ut postu/et 17. Fr.eter nam qui rraiitis in ne fili di 14. qui habet filium di uitam habet qui non //abet filium di uitam non habet 13. 2 : . as sometimes happens. Augustine. . when. Cass. omn'xs iniustitia peccatum est et est peccatum ad mortem 18. ipsa] /3 2 uitam aeternam] de sumus] testamur Vg. Amb. Spec. been noted except for the Vulgate. In the following critical notes differences of order have not. manifestata est 2 ] apparuit Vg. /a testificamur p. perscrutatae sunt Amb. /s pr. Vg. made to indicate by fractions the proportion which the evidence for any particular variant in any writer bears to the whole evidence on the point in question to be found in his quotations This has not been attempted in the case of of the passage. filioli custodite uos ab idolis. in] om. Cass. Cass. Cass. Amb.). Vg. . | | | : : : ~'/ | : : I scrutatae sunt Amb. et haec est fiducia quam ^^mus ad eum quia quidquid petierimus secundum aoluntatem eius audit nos 15. 5/j testes 2. more than one rendering is found in the text. . Cass. perspeximus Vg. cod. scimus qm omnis qui natus est ex do non peccat sed natiuitas di conseruat eum et walignus non tangit eum 19. + perspeximus Amb. et i°] om. V3 tractauerunt] contrectauerunt Vg. et si scimus quia audit nos quidquid petierimus scimus qm est Ziabemus petitiones quas petiuimus ab eo 16. i. J /3 om.

si] quod confessi fuerimus Aug. Gel-Ep. | | : : I | | | | : | : | apud] ad Aug. cod. nobis cum — — | | | I | | I | : — | | | | | : : I : I | Vg. (ita-cod. dimittat Tert. iniquitate] iniustitia Tert. fitemur Tert.Vit. Vg. peccatis] delictis Tert. /2 eum] dm p. Vg. THE EPISTLES OF quae] quod ergo | S. 2. (quis codd. Aug. ut] qui Cyp. Aug. Vict. Cyp. cognoscimus Aug. Gel-Ep. dixerimus] dicamus Tert. /3 Tert. 73 om. 2 / 2 Vict. Aug. purgabit] emundat Vg. Faust. (nouit cod. Gel-Ep. uobis] pr. Gel-Ep. 7. Cass. saeculo] mundi Aug. (uid. 73 Faust. ne] ut non et] pr. 2/ 2 om. Gel-Ep. Gel-Ep. 3 seducimus nosmet ipsos nos ipsos decipimus Cyp.: deprecatio Cyp. se + noscere] Vg. Vg. nos societatem habere p. sicut societatem] comlamus] incedamus Tert. 8. quia nouit Ambr. | | : | | Hier. JOHN et 3 | p. Iesu eius] cum filio eius Iesu Christo Vg. Cyp-codd. Gel-Ep.) aduocatum] paracletum deliqueritis Tert. Hil. Gel-Ep. Aug. Vit. /2 Cass-ed. | — eius] ut | communio sit cum deo patre] sit] est p. Luc. peccata i°] delicta Tert. mei] filioli mei Cyp. et 2°) etiam Vg. J /3 quoniam] quod Aug-codd. quia] quoniam Vg. societatem] communionem Tert. confiteamur] con9. Aug. 7s et] quia Gelipsi nos decipimus Cass-ed. seruat] custodit Vg. Vg. cum deo p. qui] qui cognouit Aug. si uero lumine i°. 7s Aug.) quoniam cognoui Cyp-cod. iustus] -fest dominus tidelis] + est Vg. scribimus] scripsimus Mur. 3. : | Ep.) non habere Tert. : propitiator Aug. peccatis] sed Gel-Ep. 1 10. Vg. pro 3 ] iscimus] intellegimus Cyp. quod si] si Tert.) scribo] scripsi Tert. 72 Spec. Aug. quia 2 s Cass. patre et filio eius Iesu Christo Tert. Aug. : qui autem seruauerit Aug. delinquatis Tert. 2/ 3 -codd. est] erit Gel-Ep. Luc. Faust. quod] quoniam Aug. Faust. Paul-Nol. 6. 73 Spec. 7 2 -codd. 4. quodsi] si Vg. patrem] pr. Cyp. (uid. Aug. 73 -ed. deum Tert. | | — : | | | : | : I | I | | | | | | | : . iustum] suffragatorem Cyp-cod. nos seducimus Vg. obseruemus Vg. . quia] quoniam 5. deum Cass-cod. mandata] praecepta cognoscimus] om. nostra 2 delicta nobis peccata] ea nobis Tert. cum eo Tert.206 3. l ex] ab Tert. Aug. Cass. et] om. Cyp. Vict. Spec. Gel-Ep. Faust. Luc. Tert. Cyp-cod.Vit-cod. | annunciamus Vg. gaudeatis et Vg. Aug.) gaudium] pr. (uid.) I peccatorum nostrorum non tantum non tantum] om. : mundet Aug. | | pro — tantum] | : placatio Tert. 73 (cf. / 2 Cass. Spec. | : satisfactio etplacatio ad-Vig. Gel-Ep. quia societatem habemus] Vg. delicto] peccato — | : I % I | : : ) : : | si Aug. 73 I ueritas] : uerbum eius Cass. dixerimus] dicamus Tert. Tert. in] ex Luc. p*. quoniam habemus] nos delictum (peccatum Gel. Cyp-cod. Gel-Ep. uestrum] nostrum p. quia cognouit Aug. Gel-Ep. ut gaudeatis p. haec] ista Cyp.Vit-ed. quia cognoui Aug 2 quoniam cognouit Cyp.Vit. uerbum] sermo Tert. / 2 Vg. se nosse autem Luc. Luc. 5. 2/2 ilium Tert. + nostra peccata purget] emundet Tert. Vict. I. Faust nos ipsi ipsos decipimus] Spec. + autem p. quoniam] quia Cyp. Gel-Ep. Cyp. Gel-Ep. Cyp. / 3 -ed. Aug. + est Spec. quod si] si autem Vg. exoratio] propitiatio Vg. quod non peccauimus] 2nos non deliquisse Tert. eumj quia Aug. p. Aug. 7a Vict. munionem Tert. 2/2 in hoc in hoc] et in eo Luc. lumine 2 ] om. ] Aug. 72= om. filii eius] domini nostri Tert. ver. I Faust. 10). l U nos ipsos seducimus Aug. ueritatem non facimus Vg. ad-Vigil (dnm Iesum Christum) om. Vg. apud patrem Spec. Vg. Aug. 2 /2 ueritas (5) hoc l°] ueritas] et ueritas in illo Cyp. Spec. fratres fili ii. Gel-Ep. custodiamus seruauerimus Juoniam Aug. — | I I : | | | : : I : | : : : : | I | — | | | om. Aug. mandata] praecepta Ambr. 2 ] luce Vg. 73 (decepimus cod. Aug. mundat p. nam qui custodit] qui autem custodit Vg. Iesum ad-Vig. Spec. 4. filioli Tert. Vict. ambulamus] incedamus Tert. »/. quis peccauerit] qui deliquerit Cyp. Fr. Gel-Ep.): om. /a Opt. nostrorum Aug. sed Vg. Aug. yp. : facimus Tert. dimittat nobis ut peccata peccata 2°] qui Cyp. cum inuicem] ad inuicem Vg. peccata Paul-Oros.) Christum Aug. illo] eo Vg.Vit. Vg. ambuTert. remittam] remittat Vg. seruemus] Cyp.

Aug. Nolite quaerere 15. Faust. concupiscentia 1 ambitio mundi Cyp-codd. Faust. quoniam] quia Aug. Prise. omne seculo] omnia 16. Vg. + humanae Faust. | iam] : om. transit] transibit Cyp. de Aug-codd. Euch. Luc. 73 De d.) / 4 Aug. V. quem] ) | | | l | habebatis Aug. de saeculo] ex mundo Vg. + autem p. Prise. 1 /3 non eo] dilectio patris non est in ipso Aug. Paul-Nol. . quoniam i°] quia Aug. Faust. Aug. om. : 8. mandatum nouum Aug. iuuenes] quoniam 2 ] quia Aug. concupiscentia i°] pr. /4 Gel-Ep. Luc. Aug. Faust. 2 207 : . Aug. Cass. in ipso] in Christo Cyp. 2 2 /s | diligit] dilexerit Aug. Cyp. Faust. Aug. Cyp. Faust. V4 Faust. a /s GelFaust. (eo Aug-cod. : sicut Vg. Cass. 9. /6 (om. quod] scribo iuuenes adulescentes] Vg. Luc. Luc. est et Aug. 1 / 3 -ed. Cyp. scribo 1° quoniam i°] quia eum qui ab initio est Vg. 4 /4 Gel-Ep. Vg. Luc. siquis]quisquis Aug-ed. saeculum] mundus Vg. et. Cyp. Cass. /4 -ed. Faust. Prise. 2/2 Cass. eo] illo Aug. '/4 _c °d. Aug. Vg. Cass. I odit] + homicida : Cyp-cod. 1 1 ex concupiscentia mundi Cyp. p. Cyp. Aug. I in uobis | | | | | : : : I | s Cyp. pr. transierunt Vg. eo] ipso Vg. ex] a Aug. Aug. Faust. nobis est ab initio] a principio est Aug. V2 I i°] pr. /4 concupiscentiacarnisest]desiderium Ep. quo uadit Faust. Aug. '/2 tiere 2 apud Aug. Cyp. eum qui a principio est | — | quoniam] quia : Aug. Cyp. . perfecta] consummata Luc. Ep. — initio] Aug. quoniam] quia Aug. Aug. 1 /4 ambitio humanae Cyp. qui autem] nam qui Aug. Euch. perit Cass. | — | | | | | | permanet] manet in uobis Vg. est ] lucem ambulat : nam qui] qui autem Spec. V2 Spec-cod. /2 10. Luc. l Cyp-cod. 17. | | | : | | : | 12. /4 Hier. lumen uerum] uerum lumen Vg. filioli mundum Vg. Cass. Cass. /2 Cass. Aug. /3 -ed. dei] domini Gel-Ep. 13. in cod. Faust. 7. v. Aug. quemadmodumj 4 2 quomodo Cyp. diligit] amat permanet] manet Vg. /i ) 2 | : : : | : | | : | I : : : | Sod. aeternum] + B 2 quomodo et ipse manet in aeternum p. est Prise.) caritas] 3 dilectio Aug. 1 / 4 -cod. Vs-cod. Luc. nolite] pr. Vg. lux uera Aug. Cyp. uere ab eis Luc. B desideria eius Aug. | | | | 6. excaecauerunt Aug. permanet] manet Aug. Cyp. Aug. quod initio] om. manebit -ed. facit] fecerit Aug. : om. permanet] manet Vg. : sunt Cyp-ed. s / 4 -ed. in est 2 ] om. sumus] + si in ipso perfecti fuerimus p. Cyp. : : I : I | | | i : | . /3 De duod-abus. | Hier. Spec. est 3 ] om. Aug.APPENDIX Luc. /2 I /3 Cyp-cod. l /4 (a hoc mundo Prise. patris] Dei Cass. Aug. 1 /4 Faust. cod. uitae Prise. /3 -ed. Faust. seculum i°] quae in hoc mundo sunt 3 Paul-Nol. de ex concupiscentia saeculi Cyp. Aug. Prise. Cyp. Cass. Aug. /4 -ed. Aug. 1 / 4 -ed. Faust. /3 Aug. ubi eat] quo eat Vg. /2 et] pr. Cyp-cod. nescit Vg. /6 ) Aug. quoniam 2 ] quia p. / 5 Gel-Ep. 4 Prise. aut Aug-cod. Aug. est uere] erit I uerum h a uerum est | Vg. Cass. qui enim Faust. l om. Aug. /3 Cass. scribo] dico Prise. quae in mundo sunt Aug. / 4 quae] et ubique Aug-cod. initio] om. Aug. est in saeculo] est in mundo Vg. Nolite diligere mundum neque ambitum eius Claud. Cyp. 2/2 11. quis] qui Cyp. Aug. Faust est carnis Aug. : | 1 — I | | | — | | : | | | | 2 ] uoluntas Prise. Aug. (sicut) Cyp. / 4 Aug. oculos] cor Luc. /2 in 2°] iscimus] cognoscimus Aug. 225. /4 */4 {out. nam Vg. /3 saeculum 2 ] mundum Vg. :+enim Aug-cod. carissimi] dilectissimi a quod h Vg. Cyp. hunc mundum Cyp-cod. /4 est 5 ] sunt pro ex cod. Cyp-cod. obscoecauerunt] obscurauerunt Luc. Vg. esse in lumine Aug. Cyp. sic Salv. V4 Gel-Ep. 1 3 Luc. quia] quoniam Aug. adolescentes Vg. | Luc. 1 /2 2 Cyp. 2/5 -ed. quod | Aug. | quia] qm 2 p. praeterit Prise. Cyp. | propter] per | Aug. */4 Gel-Ep. Gel4 mundo est Aug. Cyp. (-iit codd. Cyp-cod. | l /2 | lumine] luce Vg. Prise. Aug. 1 /3 Vg. patres quia p. Prise. 14. l5 Vs-coci. saeculo] mundo 2 2 hoc mundo Cyp-cod. pueri] infantes Vg. Euch. Faust. l / 4 cf. /2 superbia uiiae] ambitio saeculi Aug. 4 ] sunt Aug. /2 I m hoc I I illos Luc.uere Vg. caritas] dilectio : . concupiscentia) + eius Vg. Euch. non scit] est-tenebris 2 ] om. a.

Aug. Luc. quia is] quod Iesus Aug. ex] de Spec-ed. nam nobis 3 ] si enim ex nobis essent Amb. quoniam] quod Aug. omnes Iren. Opt. Spec. : | I : | — : | | : | : : | I | J : | : : I | : I | | manifesti est sites Aug. et nunc] Cyp. nee] pr. nee filium Aug. /2 : | quia Vg. Y2 manifestatum est] apparuit Vg. :+autemp. Luc. 2 ex 3 ] de Pet-ap-Aug. JOHN Luc. a et filium Cyp. | | % 2 I — | | I I | | : | | | | | : | | | | : | 26. mendum] Vg. multi] om. et nondum] necdum Hier. Cyp. unctionem habetis 27. quia 2 Cyp. I. Cyp. : quoniam | I quod Aug. | + autem Aug. praesto fiat] manifesti sint Vg. Aug. Cyp. om. | | seducunt uos] uos seducunt ut sciatis quia : I | | | : I | | | | : I | : | | | | I | | r : : | | : | | : : I : I . p. a/s -td. /s Iren. Iren. Cyp. habetis necessitatem Aug. om. ffquomodo et ipse] sicut et deus Aug. Cyp-ed. promissio] repromissio Vg. uos unctionem] unctio Aug. Aug. eigo Aug. i°] : : I pueri] : pr. habeamus fiduciam in conaduentu eius ut Aug. mansissent nobiscum nostri. Au*. 19. von Soden. nescimus Ilier. confiietur] credit in Luc. Aug. Iren. l/a ora. si enim Cyp. Luc. uos] pr. permaneat] maneat necesse non habetis] non necesse habetis Vg. ab initio audistis Aug. quoniam 2°] quod Vg. manete Vg. omnis] pr. permansissent] mansissent Cyp. /a Prise. (et ipsum ignorabat pro non nouit eum) propter hoc mundus non cognoscit nos quia non cognouit eum et nos non cognoscit mundus Aug. Cyp-cod. Amb. quia exierunt] prodierunt Vg. nam si] quod si Aug. Iren. Aug. /2 nouissima hora Vg. Aug. 18. deus Cyp-cod. '/„ Amb. quasi Vg. Y2 qui futuri sumus] quid erimus Vg. Ys manet] manebit y. quod | | Aug. iii. / 5 Iren. omne Aug. 20. praesentia] Vg. permanserit] manserit Aug. manifestarentur Aug. eius] a uerax mendacium h mendax uerum] Aug. audistis ab initio Aug. cf. et h. 7a facti] scimus cognoscimus] Vg. uos doceat Aug. Aug. et nostis omnia] ut ipsi accepistis] habetis Vg. hora est] sit hora Aug. sunt omnes] omnes erant Aug. VJl- V6 -cod. / s -ed. /6 forsitan] utique Vg. negat filium] non filium (+habet h ) h. spectu 29. p. scimus] scitis Vg. quoniam i°. Spec. Tert. Aug. eis] his Vg. in uobis maneat Aug. pollicitatio Aug. et] Aug. 2 ] quia Aug. mansisset Cyp-cod. quia] quoniam Vg. manebitis Vg.) 23. a om. quoniam] quia Aug. Vg. 21. scientibus] pr. sed sicut] quia Aug. quod si] si Vg. qui autem negat Im estPrisc. 5 /s ex 2 ] de Pet-ap-Aug. fuerunt Tert. qui 2 ] pr. Tert Cyp-ed. nm. Aug. nam si nostri essent. fiduciam habeamus] habeamus fiduciam Vg. Luc. et Aug. | filioli 2 Vg. Ys-cod. appellamur Aug. (Buch. et] sed Vg. non erant Cf. sed quia nostis Aug. non uobis] nobis Aug. Aug. non p. Aug. et ipse] et deus p. | uenit] uenturus Vg. Aug. uocemur Aug.208 THE EPISTLES OF | S. Ve Aug. accepimus Aug. et] om. Tert. in uobis] in uobis permaneat Vg. Euch. :+uero Luc. Iren. ecce] uidete Vg. Aug. «/6 Iren. essent fuisset] fuissent Vg. 76 -cod. Spec-ed. et 3 ] om. uocaremur] nominemur V g. permaneat 24. 28. Pet-ap-Aug. sunt Petilianus ap. — | | | | | | Xm | hie Iren. ipsius Aug. carissimi] dilectissimi Aug. Prise. caritatem] dilectionem Aug. (Buch. filioli Vg. est natus Aug. filium nee qui patrem habet qui autem habet filium et patrem habet Cass. Y2 omnis] ? om. Amb. et Cyp-codd. Aug. Iren. eo 2 ] ipsa Aug.. est ] pr. Aug. Aug. cf. 2. + autem p. Aug. Cognoscite ergo quoniam omne mendacium extraneum est et non non i° scientibus] scribo uobis non quod nescieritis de ueritate Iren. filium] om. manifestatus fuerit uenerit] apparuerit Vg. 4/g-cod. is] om. nunc] om. non est ex ueritate Aug. erat] erant Vg. Cyp.) non habet cf. Pet-ap-Aug. sumus] simus Vg. | sicut] quemadmodum sit | Iren. et Vg. 72 Aug. revelatum est Amb. Cyp-ed. 8 s si Tert. 25. Aug. Aug. :+et filium Luc. Amb. et patrem] pr. Cf. J in carnem (-ne / 2 ) uenisse hie antechristus 22. 225 negat] non crediderit in Luc. propterea— inhonorat] propter hoc mundus non nouit nos quia non nouit eum Vg.

| nos] uos Vg. h. Aug. Tert. i 2 1 Luc. | ille] ipse Aug. (Buch. Luc. omnis] apparent Cyp. /. et Vg. Tert. 8/j qui] + enim 15. si : Hier. quoniam] quia Vg. et 2° | — | : | est] om. | /2 Aug. | se] semet ipsum | Aug. Luc. Cass. Tert. | I Aug. Ziegler) 2 solueret Luc. eius] ipsius Vg. quia] Tert. Amb. Cyp. et 2 om. Spec. omnis l°] ? om. Spec. omnis qui peccat non est de deo sed de diabolo est et scitis quoniam ideo uenturus est ut perdat filios diaboli De aleat. 12. quoniam Vg. Aug. ) Aug. Aug.) apparuerit] ei erimus Aug. p. hoc quod] haec est annunciatio quam Vg. /a de] ex Vg. diligimus] amamus Luc. 2/ 2 autem] uero Aug. illo Tert. 1 J /j Spec. — | | I I Luc. manifesti sunt] Vg. /2 mortem] morte h. : : manet in eo manet Vg. et] om. quoniam] quia Aug. 2 I I | | : I | : I | Aug-codd. omnis 2 ] pr. J /2 | | | occidit i°] interfecit Luc. Tert. sui Luc. non 2 ] neque Tert. (Ber. de] ex Vg. Vg. opera] operas Luc-cod. transitum fecimus s]umus h. / 2 : ipsius Luc. Aug. ille iustus est Vg. Aug. ei] illi 1 Aug-codd. Aug. /2 ad] /2 de] /2 quia] quoniam Vg. Tert. habet spem Vg. saeculum Luc /2 transimus] 14. / 2 2 occidit2°] interfecit Luc. Cf. peccatum i°] delictum Aug. sed quoniam] quia Aug. non]pr. Luc. Tert. dei Tert. Aug. : | : | | : I | I fratrem suum] patrem suum aut matrem suam Cyp. Aug. 2 /2 diligit] amat Luc. haec est (om. Aug. Aug.). 10. | 209 l | qui] quid Tert. est] + sicut et 7. ] /a : ad hoc enim manifestatus Luc. om. | Aug. p. V2 :+enirn Tert. quia] quoniam Vg. Cyp. peccare] delinquere ipso] eo h. 2/2 permanet] manet 2 Vg. declaratus est Luc. h.) Vg. / i hanc istam in illo habet Tert. Tert. /2 Spec. Spec. ille reuelatus fuerit Hier. quia] quoniam h. et Spec. eo] ipso | | : — . ex] de h. ab peccat] diabolus a primordio delinquit ab initio] origine Luc. quoniam] quia Aug. Luc. eius 2 ] ipsius Aug-cod. Luc. Aug. / 2 in eo permanet] | | in illo Tert. Tert. Tert. 6. a initio] origine Luc 7a diligamus] amemus Luc. 2 /a- 2 2 qui] om. manifestati sunt Aug. reuelatum fuerit Amb. 2 I — | | | | | | | I | I . eius i°]illiusLuc. / 2 eum] om. Cass-cod. facit iustitiam] est iustus Vg. (-ibi-) Aug. | — | facit] | j : I | | : | | I | hinc Spec. qui] + autem Luc. Tert. Aug. | p. hie | : . Luc. peccatum] delictum Tert. '/a ipso Aug. /2 13. 2/a : om. est l/s) repromissio quam Luc. 2 audiuimus Aug. : (uid.APPENDIX erimus Aug. Aug.* fueruntAug. 9. 11. {om. / 2 erat] fuit Luc. peccatum] delictum Tert. 5. semen] sensus Spec-codd. cett. (sit) apparuit] manifestatus est Aug. et filii] bis scr. et 2 | 4. seducat] fallat Luc qui] pr. Cod-Freis. Luc. Hier. Tert. Aug-ed.cod. Luc. Cass. /a q» a es Hier. peccatum non non peccat Aug. omnis Tert. Tert. idcirco Luc. | spem | | | castificat] sanctificat ] Vg. | sicut] quia Tert. Cyp. peccata tolleret] auferat delicta Tert. eius Tert. tolleret] auferat Aug. eum i°] om. Luc 2/2 2 2 a Aug. in hoc] pr. est Aug.) 2 2 Luc. translati : : | [translati : Luc. (manifestatus fuerit cod. | Amb. Tert. Spec-ed. peccatum peccata] + nostra Vg. Spec. transiuimus p. /2 2 sei cuius gratia] /2 propter quid Vg. h. Tert. I natus i° do i°] ex deo nascitur Tert. Aug. diligit] amat Luc. in ipso manet Aug. I : eum Aug. Aug. peccat 2 ] peccat i°] delinquit Tert. quoniam uidebimus] uidebimus enim Hier. uidit] uidet p. ) | illo] eo Vg. Spec. apparuit] inc. sumus Vg. Amb. Aug. peccatum 2 ] delictum Tert. de] ex Vg. delinquit Tert. Aug. hie Vg. Tert. ] om. eo] 3. Vg. Tert. 2/2 qui mortem] omnis qui fratrem suum non diligit manebit in morte Faust. castus] sanctus Vg. 2 /2 Spec. et cod. manet] est Cass. filii Luc. ex hoc] in hoc | h. 7a scimus] pr. quoniam] quia h. I | et i°] om. autem] om. / 2 soluat] dissoluat Vg. : nouimus autem Hier. 2 mundus] om. Spec-cod. omnis qui] quicunque Hier. / 2 erant]erat h. Luc. Vg. cum : | | l apparuerit] manifestauerit Tert. (Buch. et Luc. /a inuicem] alterutrum Vg. 8. | | | I | | | I — | | | | : | : | : : I . 1 fratres] om. : a Luc. (ed. a in h.

pro 2°] de h.] antichristus Vg. uenturus est] uenit Vg. et] expl. Kmi] dilectissimi Aug. 7s hoc est antichristi Cass. Ya (uid. cognoscitur sps] cognoscite Christum Iesum Prise. corda nostra Vg. Luc. de saeculo Iren. Cyp-cod. hinc] in hoc Vg. reprehenderit nos Vg. I | | | : | : : : ex hoc Luc. (om. pro quia] quoniam Vg. quia] quoniam Vg. 19. neque] et hp. (+aliquid cod.) 73 omnis sps qui] quicunque sps Amb. Va ed.) 2/2 ab eo] om. nunc] + iam Vg. Cass. permanet] manet Vg. Ya | IHM] Cyp. Cyp. 21. Cyp-cod. : et christus est Tert. Cass. animas] animam h. 2 3 /3 I Cf. 15) omnis spiritus qui soluit Christum in carne uenisse non est ex deo Aug. 2/3 carnem : | : | | | | | ex. habeamus Luc. Cass. reprehendit Cyp-codd.): destruit Luc. si] + non p. 7s * n . : : | | : | | | | : | I | | : : | | | dei caritas] manet] poterit caritas (dilectio Aug. /t Tert. Prise 2/2 et 2° antixpisti] et hie antise d de antichristo est Iren. + ipsius Spec. prodierunt] in hoc saeculo] in mundum Vg. 7a1 6. /a dei] om. accipiamus Cyp-cod. nomini] in nomine Vg. Tert. Spec-ed. Aug-cod. | eos] eum Vg. Vg. 7a - Vg. Aug. I | et uicistis eos] uincite illos •/. et] om. 7a 2 permanet h. : quod Cass. 2. Ya p » sc . Aug.210 Cyp-cod. mundum Aug. et codd. qui] quicunque Spec. Vg. Vg. JOHN quoniam h. qui soluit Iesum Christum et negat eum omnis qui Amb. credamus] om. Cyp. 22. cler. /2 Spec. post uerbo p. Iren.Vit. saeculo] mundo Vg. et i° inuicem] alterutrum Vg. 73. Ya P f isc Cass-cod. sint Vg.) Vg. suadebimus h. illus antixpisti p. ea Vg. Vg. hoc Luc. corde h. [est] h. Y2 (cf. Prise. | in ante conspectum eius Luc. 2/3 IHM] intellegite spiritum Luc. est I Aug. Cyp. :+nostris Spec-ed. Iren. diligamus] amemus nos Luc. (Buch.) dei manere Aug. Vg. esurientem Aug. iam] om. Cyp-cod. Cyp. Luc. /a Spec-ed. om. nos] om. caritatem] + Dei Vg. desiderantem Cyp. 7a in non deo carne uenisse est ex Aug. /2 : om aeternum Luc. Spec. * uerba h 18.) egere] necessitatem habere Vg. mandatum nobis Vg. Prise. reprehenderit Vg. de Cyp. manentem] om. spiritum Iren om. eo] illo Cyp. 17. 2 substantiam] autem] om. Qui autem negat in carne uenisse de deo non est sed est de antiet omnis christi spiritu (antichristus cod. Paul-Nol. Prise. quidquid] quodcunque p. ex] de Amb. Aug. 73 hoc] hie p. (Buch. Spec. 7a Cass. fratribus] post animas Aug. iv. Luc. Vg. 1 l2 -ed.) Cyp. sunt] spiritum qui ex deo est sps 1° : I | : | | I | | I | | | | | | : | | : | : | | | | — I : | | | | | | | — | Aug. in came uenisse] om. eius om. ad Vg. Ya (uid. Spec. Cass. Ep-Sev-ad-Claud. /2 2 suum egere] cui opus facultates Aug. i°] seruamus] custodiimus p. Y2 x agape Cyp-cod. Aug. etiam Epist.7a Amb. qm] quia Aug. qm] quia Aug. Prise. Ep-Sev. cognoscimus h. 2 I THE EPISTLES OF quia] S. apud] habemus] habebimus Aug-cod.) 4 non confitetur] soluit p.) Iren. 7s XPM] om. Aug. sunt placita] ei placent Luc. coram ipso] in conspectu eius Vg. Luc. filioli] + mei Vg. Ya (uid. CypI — | | cod. Aug. Amb. Ya Caritas | h. h. 3. Ep-Sev. Vg. illius] quod est Luc. /s Amb. 2/a non ( om< Iesum) | — | : I | | | | | | I 4. 1 | Iesum Christum in carne uenisse est ex do Aug. Vg. suam nobis] post Vg. faciamus Luc. Cass. Aug. | De sing. ipsius Luc. huius] om. 7a uitam se] in se uitam Cypse] semet ipso Vg. manet manebit] 24. in hoc] et quia ex hoc Spec. 7a ex 3 a Spec-codd. Ya dilectio Cyp-cod. Vg. /4 Prise. 2/3 -ed. + nostras Luc. pro propter nos Luc. Luc. 20. 2/ 2 Spec. quaecunque Aug. 1. eius 2°] 23. mandata Vg. in hunc mundum p. Aug. conspectu eius] coram eo Vg. : : : J I */4 : negat Tert. (cf. h. Vict. Aug. quern] de quo Vg. tantum] om.) cognoscimus] cognouimus dilectionem Aug. in istum exierunt Vg. custodimus Luc. quae] pr. maior] potior Paul-Nol. Cyp.

I 10. / s qui in hoc mundo Cyp. saeculum audit eos] mundus eos Vg. cod.) De rebap. nos 7. inuicem] pr. Luc. Spec. et] sic p. : | . Aug. | | : | saeculum Luc. : % | : : | | I audit Vg. Kirn] dilectissimi Aug. isti Luc. dilexerimus] dileximus Aug. habeamus Vg. sic] ita si] + ergo] Luc. 18. Cass-ed. quia Aug\_| nos i°] om. . Cass-cod. Aug. Aug. | | : quisque Cass-ed. suum] om. l /2 Aug. | qm] quia Aug. I in l°] ex Vict. Va Paul-Nol. | 2°— ipse] om. quia] quoniam ignorat] non nouit Vg. qui— dm] om. Vg. Claud. Tyr. 7a Cass. excludit foras Amb. qm] quia Vg. Aug-cod. Cass. Aug. unicum] unigenitum 9. De rebap. propterea] ideo 5. misit] miserit dilexit] amauerit Luc. quod Spec. Cass. pro peccatis nostris] peccatorum nostrorum Luc. | 7a Tert.] ut karitas] + Dei Vg. eum] ipsum Aug. perfecta nobis] in nobis perfecta est Vg.) eo] ipso in eo perfecta est Cass. (uid. I hunc mundum p. 1 2 in nobis Aug. Cyp-codd. Luc. dm] om. | | | | | : .) qui] quicunque Luc. saeculo] mundum Vg. caritas] dilectio Aug. Aug. Spec-ed. Cyp. : inuicem diligere Aug. Vg. cognoscit] cognouit Aug. Cass-cod. */a permanet] manet Vg.Vit. ipso Cass. 6. Aug. hinc] in hoc Vg. Aug. Luc. 7» | caritas] dilectio Aug. ds] : om. intellegimus spiritum amemus Luc. Vg. amare Luc. testes testamur] testificamur Vg. 11. ipse] + prior Vg. Cyp. Cass. 7a Tert.Vit. Aug. Aug. | confessus fuerit] crediderit Cass. 14. caritate] dilectione Aug. fratrem suum] om. diligit] + fratrem Luc. apparuit] manifestata est Aug. kmi] dilectessimi Aug^J diligamus] nos alterutrum Luc. Ruf. (?). 7s . Aug.Vit. : 15.APPENDIX | 211 : | hie— est 3 ] qui in mundo Vg. | Luc. /a Cass. | qui 2°] + autem | ex hoc Aug. Aug. quicunque] quisquis Vg. V2 Cass-ed. qm] quia p. Aug. p. diligimus p. cognoscimus spm] cognoscitur spiritus Aug. 8. uobis] nobis Cass. amauerimus Luc.Vit. — | | caritate l°] caritati | — : | : I | : | I '• | | | I | | | summata Aug. diligere alterutrum inuicem] alterutrum diligere Vg. Spec. nos audit] audit nos Luc. die Aug. | cognoscimus] in | scimus Vict. Aug. Vg. . hiijipsi Vg.] | ihs] ipse in do] caritas dei in in 1° ds i°] quam dilectionem deus habet Aug. Aug. | Christus Tert. : : : | dnm~. | : intellegimus qnrn] quia Aug. /s in nobis 17. Cyp. Mam. qui Aug. in] | | | | : | | Aug. sumus Aug. (uid. ipse dilexit nos] prior nos ille dilexit Cass. uobis Aug. (uid. Paul-Nol. '/a agape Cyp. pater misit] misit deus Cass. saeculi] mundi Vg. perfecta] con16. Vg. saeculo 2°] mundo Vg. Vg. '/ 2 Cyp. Salv. dilexit] amauit Luc] debemus et nos Aug. Hier.Vit. qui in isto mundo Cyp. V 2 et 3 ] om. Aug. litatorem Aug.Vit. credimus I p. Paul-Nol. caritas] dilectio Aug. : | : | | | | | | | | I ex Luc. in 3 l Aug. qui in hoc mundo est Aug. Aug. quod] quasi Vg. | Aug. agape do] in deo in dilectione Cyp-cod. : expiatorem Luc. : illo Tert. Va caritate 2 ] dilectione 2 eo] illo Aug. karitas in nobis] dilectio (+eius / s ) in nobis] nobiscum Vg. qm] quia Aug. : erit perfecta in nobis I | | | | I | | : — | | | I 13. Spec. Aug. De rebap.): declarata est Luc. : quod Luc. Vict. cognoscit] nouit Vg. manebit Aug. 7a Tert. nobis] uobis Spec-ed. Aug. | qm] quod Aug. Aug. Luc. qm] quia Aug. caritas] dilectio 12. quod si] si Vg. '/»• saeculo i°] mundo Vg. : I nos i°] + autem Luc. : ipso] eo Vg. manet 2 ] om. Aug. I suo] dei p. si sic] sicut p. Aug. : sancto Vict. */3 Amb. Cyp. caritas] dilectio Aug. Luc] propitiaiorem] propitiationem Vg. (manifesta di] Domini Spec-ed. sed] + enim Tert. caritas] dilectio Aug. Vict. Spec. Vg. Vict. /* Cyp-codd. p. Aug. foris Augforas mittit] foras abicit Tert. dilectio Aug.

seruauimus p. 2°] mundum Vg. Cf. ut 3. p. p.* : dm diligit | dm Luc. et 2 ] om. Luc. Aug. quia i°] est quoniam Vg. in | di 2 I ] : eius Spec. 8. oderit Vg. Vg. | di i°] om. 280) tres tria sunt quae testimonium spiritus Amb. p.) et spiritus sanctus (om. saeculum 1°. facimus] faciamus Vg. est 2°] + deus in ipso est et ipse in deo Spec. quia] quoniam Vg. dilectio dei Aug. Cass. | | | — quoniam Vg. testatus est Tert. Spec. et p. | diligimus | dm] deum diligamus Vg. quia] quoniam Vg. . Aug. Speccod. hoc] I dm dominum Aug. credidit p. | quoniam Cyp. diligat] amet Luc. testimonium] qui testificatur Vg. Luc. 5. 1 /i quoniam (quia p. De rebap. | | I | : | quando Luc. (?) 1 | qm] quia Aug. JOHN : poenam] tormentum Aug. in caelo pater uerbum (et filius codd. autem] om. | eum] deum Spec. 6. : | quomodo] a do] ab ipso Aug. saeculum] mundum Vg. custodiamus Luc. cum] quia Aug.) in caelo pater uerbum et (om. sps] Christus p. Cyp-cod. qui filium non habet nee uitam habet Tert. 4. ergo] om. quoniam Vg. mandata i°] praecepta Aug. diligit] amat Luc. Spec-eod. V2 I S.212 cod. cognoscimus] intellegimus Luc. diligit jquis] qui Cyp-ed. | + ergo : : | | | | | — : : | 2. qui testimonium perhibet De rebap.) et hi tres unum sunt Vict. | quern uidet] om. testimonio quia non credit] quoniam non credidit eius] 12. genitus] natus Vg. : | — I | : : | | | | | | | | : : | | 7. eum] pr. Spec. | enim] autem Luc. | se] semet ipso Spec. tantum in aqua] in aqua solum Vg. sanctus cod. von Soden.) in terra spiritus aqua et sanguis et hi tres unum sunt in Christo Iesu et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt (dant p. qm] quia filios] natos Vg. : amamus dm Luc. caritas] + dei Vg. | THE EPISTLES OF am] quia Aug. Tert. quia i° di 2 ] om. do] filio Vg. obseruemus Aug. qui testimonium reddit Spec. | : deum diligimus | Aug. diligimus i°] amamus Luc. Das lateinische NT. ds] om. : mandata] praecepta Aug.) tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt (dant p. : : : : : : 9. et Vg. diligit] amat p. ab eo p. om. quia odit — suum2°] om. : Cass. | <de>se quod deum 2 ] diligit Faust. genitus eo] ex deo (eo p. quod Aug. nos dilexit Aug. | | quia ] | filium Vg. I Spec. .) spiritus ( + sanctus p. Vg. l suppliciamentum Va | qui autem] et qui Tert.) et hii tres unum sunt p. natus est ex ipso Spec-codd. Tert. est i°] sit Aug. p. Vg. diligamus] + deum Vg. p. | /2 | caritatem] dilectione | Aug. I quia] quoniam Vg. eius] ipsius Luc. Vg. Spec. p. 20. Aug. quoniam tres sunt qui spiritus sanctus ethi tres spiritus et unum testimonium dant in caelo Pater uerbum et sunt et tres sunt qui testimonium dant in terra : : aqua et sanguis et hi tres unum sunt Vg. testes sunt aqua sanguis et . cf. non Cyp-ed. 2 perhibent aqua sanguis ( +et V2) Spiritus Euch.) natus est qui genuit eum Aug. quia] quoniam Vg. /j in Afrika. Luc. Tert. J /j| 19. Yacod. Vg. li ipse] deus Vg. et iterum de patre et filio et spiritu sancto scriptum est et tres unum sunt Cyp. Luc.-codd.) sunt in Christo Iesu Prise. Aug. 21. seruemus] explic. v. quis] qui p. accepimus filio i°] 2°] quod maius 10. seruemus] om. om. Spec-ed. eius] ipsius Luc. Aug. | diligo : dm] pr.Vit. in testimonium] p. hinc] in hoc Vg. genitorem] eum qui genuit Vg. | Iesu Christo Spec. | dicitLuc. Spec. Vg. '/2 cf. quia tres testimonium 3 perhibent spiritus et aqua et sanguis et isti tres unum sunt (in unum De rebap. | qui 2 + autem Spec. /s tria sunt qui testimonium dicunt in terra aqua caro et sanguis et haec tria in unum sunt et tria sunt quae testimonium dicunt in caelo pater uerbum et spiritus et haec tria unum tres sunt qui testimonium perhibent (dant cod. tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo pater uerbum et spiritus et hii tres unum sunt Spec. Luc.

Vg. est] sit Tert.) postulet] roget quis Vg. 2 om. 7a agape Cyp- cod. Luc.» q v g. )) q Vg. 20) (iv. .) Aug. et quod est uerum] uerum deum Vg. Aug. si quis] qui Vg. ad eum] apud dm p. (ii. caritas h Vg. omnis qui p. 12. Aug. eum qui (quia codd. Va>1 q Vg. peccare] delinquere Tert. 18. Hil. (iv. . 9. ab idolis]asimulacris custodite uos] cauete Aug. . Cass. q Vg.. | I | : | : I | | dabit ei uitam] dabitur ei uita Vg. Aug. | — : | | I \ | | | | om. cognosceremus Spec. Aug. . 1) 1 annunciatio mandatum h q (iii. ( 2 | ] delictum Tert. 2/ 2 16. 3) sanctus Vg. De rebap. totus r V g. castus h (iii. quidquid] quodcumque Vg. diligere h q d-ydxij . „ q Vg. . 1) Vg. castificare . iniquitas h Vg. 17. Aug. 8) ( d7a7r7/r6s . | aeterna] + et resurrectio nostra Spec. j 2 peccatum 2 ] delictum Tert. 2 l Hil. 14) amare Luc. 23) dilexerimus q Vg. repromissio (iv. | hie] ds] om. . : petat pro eo p. Paul-Nol. diligere „ Aug. enim] om. Aug.. 2 his Tert.) positus est] iacet totus] omnis Prise. Luc. Vg. / 2 ei] illi deus Hil. 19. quis Tert. */. +quis cod. Tert. . Spec.Oros. Luc. Vg. Tert. (iv. q Vg. | quia Vg. (iii. qm] : | | — | | I | — | | : | | : | 3 ] ut Spec-cod. Vg.Oros. i°. filioli] fratres Aug. XPO] Cf. hq Vg. + Amen Vg. 3 Jn. | uitam habet] habet uitam p. 9) iniustitia Tert. | | IHU XPO] | om. sed Hil. .. /j haec] pr. dyyeXia kyvlfav ayvds idixla . Vg. 2) ty5) dilectio „ „ Luc. 20 uenit] + et carnem uiduit nostri causa et passus est et resurrexit a et 1° mortuis adsumpsit nos p. Au &(ii. 16) 17) . (v. Hil. carissimus h Vg. '/j :+deus p. peccatum | : pr. peccatum i°] delictum Tert. /3 ) : qui (quia 72) non ad mortem delinquit Tert. postulabit] petat Vg. Spec. mundus totus est]saeculum totum in malo positum est Salv. (pr. iniustitia] iniquitas Vg. 10. q Vg. | | ] om. 6) dilectissimus Aug. Aug. (rogent Codd. q Vg. hie Paul-Nol. 3) Hier. . Hil. (iii. Vg. q Vg. (uid. 11) . 3 ut postulet] pro] de Tert. 10) amauerimus Luc. 11) amare Luc.APPENDIX Prise. Spec. quod Tert. p. I | uero] uerbum Spec-codd. Aug. . . Vg. Prise. d7a7ra»' . dilectio Aug. ipse Aug. 21. 3) sanctificare Vg. 15. (iii. '/2 1 2 peccantibus ed. peccat] delinquit Tert. 16) „ Aug. . 7. Va. . (iv. cod. et nos dedit sensum per quern sciremus quod est uerbum in Christo Iesu Paul.» „ Aug. non 3 ] pr. . Spec. V2 Cass-codd. agape Cyp. Hil. „ Vg. scripsi p. Aug. Cass-codd. sed Hil. 2 /2 : roget Cass. Cyp. (3jn. Aug. Cyp-cod. h (iii. Paul. /2 usque 2 ] om. quia] quoniam Vg.. Vg. (uid. mundus] pr. Cass. De Aug.(+eternam) Vg. quia] qm p. mortem 2 ] peccanti non ad mortem p. carissimi 14. Cass. intellectum] sensum sciamus] cognoscamus Vg. natiuitas] generatio Vg. 7) „ „ Aug. Aug. Cass. (iii. Aug..). (iv. si] om.. 17) dilectio Aug. rebap. 7. Vg. h q Vg. dileximus Aug. sed p. : 213 di 2 | + in se p. . / 2 Hil. petiuimus] postulamus Vg. Luc. / 2 : om. no] pr.) uerus est Spec. 13. V. (i. „ Aug. (iv. Vg.

. . d\^\ovs . 1 / s ). Vs- mandatum h Vg. '/5 cod. JOHN atpeiv aireiv . 9) quemadmodum h Hier. uoluntas Prise. (ii. (v. Aug.. (ii. (i. (ii. postulare Vg. inuicem q q q . Aug. ) eum Aug. Cyp.. Hier. (iii. Aug. excludit foras 4ir id'vfjita . substantia h q Vg. 16) petere Vg. Aug. Aug.. 5 Vg. (3 Jn. &v d(pievai jiios . 19) utique Vg. . exierunt prodierunt q Aug. (ii. propterea q (iv. remittere h Vg. Spec. Aug. Hil. THE EPISTLES OF S. #£w pdWei .. SIkcuov . (ii. placatio Tert. . . 1) Tert. Hil. (ii. 19) „ „ Vg. quomodo Cyp. concupiscentia h Cyp. (2 Jn. Tert. (i. emundare Vg. Aug.. .. Cyp. purgare h (i. (v. . 1 ) ? suffragatorem Cyp. facullates Aug. h Cyp. Aug. rbv y€vvfj<Tavra genitorem q (v. (prodiit h (Buch. Aug. 2) „ q Vg. /n. . tovto . 7) 2 iS) foras mitt it q Vg. propitiatio Vg. Spe h C)p. rbv yeyevvrj/xtvov 6 yevvrjOcls qui genitus est q Aug. 9) dimiiteie Cyp. forsitanh (ii. litator Aug. Aug. fiiov .. 2) intelligere Luc. 16) rogare Vg. (v. Hil. . 16) desiderium Aug. Aug. Tert. (2jn. .. (iv.a. afiaprla .. . a/j. Cyp. Vg. . . iniquitas Vg. scire h Vg. mundare Aug. 15) petere. mundi Cyp-cod. 17) desideria Aug. placatio Ad Vigil.. (i. (ii. 23) alterutrum Vg. 16) peccatum h Vg. Aug.pTai'eiv . 17) iniustitia q. Cyp. Aug. .. (iv. 6) sicut Vg. expiator Luc. Cyp. . 7) nos inuicem Vg. Tert. ed. Aug. (v. 5) auferre Aug.. qui genuit i. . l\atxjj. (v. cognoscere q Vg. 5) ideo Vg. Aug. 1 cod. Aug. Ka8aplfeu> KCl/'ulS . Aug. Aug.). i . et8w\ov . is) generatio Vg. /i humanae uitae Prise. Vg. Aug. 16) superbia uitae h Vg. . h Vg. deprecatio Cyp. ^TJXOaf (ii. propitiatio V'g. . natiuitas q (v. . Aug.. Cass. ambitio saeculi Cyp. 10) propitiator q. /sforas abicit Tert. . postulare q Tert. Vg. Aug. (iii. . peccare h Aug. Spec. . propitiator Aug. 21) simulacrum Vg. iustum h Vg. 5) cotjnoscere Aug. Tert. 1) eum qui genuit Vg... . (ii. (v. Tert. Vg. nos alterutrum Luc alterutrum Vg. . Cass. 3) praeceptum „ q Vg. tollere h Vg. ..6$ . yivwaneiv Sib. . petere q (v. qui natus est Vg. Luc. Luc. ? satisfactio et (iv. Spec. 5) 9) delictum Tert.. Amb. 3) Luc. . 2) exoratio h. .. profecti sunt Vg. Tert. Spec.. ^toXtJ t£e\r]\vOa<riv . postulare q Tert. idolum q (v.. 5) Vg.214 ISikLo. „ q Vg. [am. (v. (iii. Aug. 10) delinquere Cyp. (iv. (v. ipwrav aXafovla rod petere.

(iv. (iii. iii. . Aug. 16) Vg. 1) ista Cyp. testificamur Vg. filii q Aug. Vj. h.Vit. 13) hq Vg. supplicia- 607*01 70j . Vg. Tert. Vict.. Aug. Hovoyevys veavlaKot . Luc. 28) aduentus Vg. Tert. (v. 3) obseruare Vg. (»/„) Cyp. reuelari (ii. 2) nati Vg. manifestari Aug. Luc. (iv. q (iv. (ii. Vict. (iii. iv..) Aug. (iii. 28). Aug. 8) q Vg. (ii. Vg. 28) Vg. 2). 19). Luc. Cyp. 11) excaecare Cyp. manifestus esse Vg.. Aug. . Amb. (iii. h (Buch. uocemur Aug. paracletus Faust. Vit. Aug. appellemur tormentum Aug. ). 5. praesentia h occidit h q Vg. 9). 9) unigenitus Vg. (ii. 1) 1 nominemur Vg. Aug. raOra riKva . declarari Luc. Spec.i-ev Aug. Aug. 9). (ii. perfectus q Vg. 18) Tert. <put (iii. (ii. testamur (iv. 19. 13) adolescens Vg. Aug. fili h (ii. (ii. (ii. Spec.. mentum /c / 2 (iv. Trapovala t<X(pa. Tert. transitum fecimus Luc. 19). Aug. Aug. Cyp. (iii. quia cognouit iratdla Cyp. 3) obseruare Luc. De rebap. (ii. poena q

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