The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian 10 Author(s): Gretchen Kromer Source: Hermes, 104. Bd., H. 4 (1976), pp.

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Kiel i88i. 1955. Seen from this point of view a poem is as he says an item in a commercial transaction. University of California Publications in Classical Philology i8. The Odes purport to express sincere and spontaneous praise of great deeds and in many passages (including 0. Nevertheless I believe that a detailed reading of Olympian IO. 110-II4. 67. Martin Classical Lectures 14.. An earlier essay. g. See also H. IO where the poet is described in the language of business and finance as having reneged on a contract: he has forgotten that he owed the victor as song.. BUNDY. Diss. Bemerkungen zu Pindars IO. In one of the best recent works on Pindar Elroy BUNDY (cf. His interpretation of 11. Cf. On the other hand. I945. As for the second theory. II. A number of scholars have dealt with the relationship between 0. 9 does not indicate that the poet will write a second ode but rather that the present poem will be exceptio nally fine and will fulfilll his obligation 'with interest'. n. I970. deals primarily with the myth. 87. been overlooked. Among modern scholars the argument has been inverted.9-IO has I9. Silvae: Festschrift fuir Ernst Zinn zum 6o. no critical work has yet provided an adequate account of his views on the writing of poetry. Leiden I955. I. io have been rather superficial e. originated with the Alexandrian interpretation of 0. 8. in P. It would obviously be impossible to encompass such a vast and difficult subject in the space of one short essay. Pindar The and Aeschylus. E. Heft 4 (1976) t Franz Steiner Verlag GmbH. who is the only scholar to have discussed 0. P. Progr. WPhoenician merchandise<<. Olympischer Ode. BRD . 23-33. Band. Thus a poem is both a sincere expression of admiration freely given and an 1 Most discussions of 0. 243-244 nn. ERBSE. io in detail. I962. io and 0. VILJOEN. BUNDY has provided a comprehensive discussion of Pindar's conventional use of the future to refer to the present. Tubingen. Studia Pindarica I-II. P. VAN N. 50. Wiesbaden. 9. IO. the poet also tells us that his songs are written on a commission basis for victors who in some cases did not physically participate in the Games e. Heidelberg. P. Cambridge. Pindar. I4 being taken as a promise to write 0. Dissertatio de Pindari carmine Olympico decimo. IO. As BUNDY has shown. I968. 3. 97-IO5) Pindar affirmshis genuine admilation for the victor. Hermes. J. Pindar: Die Isthmischen Gedichte. E. THUMMER. Berkeley. NORWOOD.THE VALUE OF TIME IN PINDAR'S OLYMPIAN io Although Pindar says more than most poets about his art and about his role as a poet. The commercial aspect of Pindar's poetry is stressed at the beginning of 0. i. O. which was taken as the poet's promise to write a second poem as 'interest' on his debt. both of these theories must be rejected. IO. i) has shown that the Odes are essentially encomiastic in character and therefore employ the rhetorical conventions associated with this type of poetry. 2I -35 (2I -24). 33. I04). FINLEY. Geburtstag. with the future eXA'aoo in 0. Pindaros se tiende en elfde Olympiese odes. 104. LUBBERT. Mass. g. 34-42. 9. as far as I know. Berkeley and Los Angeles. 5. which is discussed by E. 7. IO. Sather Classical Lectures basis for a literary treatment is provided by G. II9-120. This problem. by all critics except G. The expression is an extension of the conventional idea that the song is a debt (ZpZo ) owed to the victor (cf. I I. H.. The word t6xoq in 0. can contribute to an understanding of Pindar's conception of poetry'. an ode which has been largely neglected by scholars. 2. I-2.

Leipzig. In fact one of the poem's most prominent themes is that of the relationship between time and poetic truth. This simile demonstrates that if the poet had failed to pay his debt to the victor the passage of time would have been increasingly threatening to the victor whose. midway between the two descriptions of the song. for it threatens to turn the neutral business relationship into one of hostility. Hagesidamos of Epizephyrian Lokri. In each case the nature of the song definesthe relationship between the poet and the victor. In the third triad. The two descriptions of the relationship between poet and victor and of the song on which it is based correspond to two types of truth which are contrasted with one another throughout the ode. POHLENZ. deeds might have 'died childless' and been forgotten in the absence of song. There it is compared with a son born to childless parents who is loved all the more because his birth has been awaited for a long time. which means >>accuracy( or even >>punctilioushas said. This compromise is metaphorically expressed through the myth. For Herodotus' use of WTpexi. In the first triad the song is characterized as a longunpaid debt and the two men are seen as parties in a business contract. however. Atrekeia. I880. The thematic structure of 0. At the end of the poem. the account of the setting up of the Olympic Games by Herakles brings about a sort of reconciliation between the two types of truth. . I937. Pindars Siegeslieder. IO Alatheia comes to be identified with a more subjective type of truth and is associated with the final description of the song as an act of love. the song is seen as an act of love which confers immortality upon its recipient. as MEZGER the Lokrians are ruled by this 'goddess' indicates that for them adherence to nomos and to contracts between individuals is a serious matter. The fact that ness<<. The idea that the song is part of a business contract may be related to Atrekeia. 428-429. Particularly important both in the myth and in the poem as a whole is the function of time. Contrasted with Atrekeia is Alatheia upon whom the poet calls in the first part of the poem. primarily a businessman's virtue2. Leipzig. 197-I98. Io is based on two conceptions of the poet's song and their respective meanings in relation to time. in connection with numbers see M. In the course of 0. As long as the poet fails to fulfill his obligation to the victor the passage of time is increasingly dangerous to him. In the context of the third triad they are seen as mutually complementary aspects which together constitute a whole event. MEZGER. The relationship between Atrekeia and Alatheia operates on two levels. Herodot: Der Erste Geschichtsschreiber des Abendlandes. is. which recounts the founding of the Olympic Games by Herakles.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian Io 42I emotionless artifact to be sold or bartered. Within the total structure of the 2 F. which is said to 'rule the city of the Lokrians'. How does Pindar resolve this apparent contradiction? In Olympian io the poet effects a kind of compromise between the two apparently conflicting aspects of his art.

At the end of the strophe the poet calls upon the Muse and Alatheia. In 0. E. Since the first triad of 0. with rectifying hand. a Quotations from the text are taken from the SNELL-MAHLER edition. Leipzig. you and Truth.6q. I970.i-6) The lines begin with a reference to certain 'written' words which denote the existence of a contract between the poet and the victors. IO introduces the major thematic elements of the ode it will be discussed in some detail. implies that the song is part of a commercial transaction: it is worth a certain amount of money4. however. the reproach of lying which wrongs a friend. will bring about the realization of the action prescribed by the contract.9. for it articulates rules which govem the behavior of the participating individuals. . D.&xo&Gixocat uy&-nTp Opaq. especially XXXVIII. )>The Olympic victor.rtv &?St60pvov. however. wh . for I forgot that I owed him a sweet song. the daughter of Zeus. the reader encounters not the historical Lokrians but Pindar's characterization of them. The existence of the contract. It wil become 'true'. MoZa'. Tov 'OXuLt7rLovCXocv 0&y'vo(Y. Here the poet has neglected the rules. IO. If the poet keeps his promise he will be freed from )>the reproach of lying<(. (11. for his pledge will be seen is retrospect to have predicted a real event. 197I. &vr. 95-96: *Voila la question que pose peut-etre tout recit. But ward off. by helping him to compose the song. the two are contrasted with each other in relation to time and one is shown to be superior to the other. and 7t)o53togmay not have suggested money to the minds of the historical Lokrians but it is hard to imagine that a Theban poet would not have made this association. GERBER has reminded me that the Lokrians did not use money at this point in their history. A contract may be described as a form of private law. BARTHES. j. See R. ApXe6a'pd&t)ou &0L& yeyp0C7T0Lv y?uxU 7t6t cpeV64 y&p OCUJ) txo 6ogpeDOV ?X a. Editions du Seuil. Read me the words. Les recitscontrats. Collection Tel Quel. where they are written in my heart. as well as the use of the language of debt. Contre quoi Ichanger le r6cit? Que 'vaut' le rlcit?t (BARTHES' italics). for he has forgotten that he owed the victor a song. 4 This part of my argument has been influenced by Roland BARTHES' idea of examining a work of literature in relation to an economic frame of reference. Paris.Xept AXoct&Loc AL0q. son of Archestratos(. o Muse. Words like Xpio5.422 GRETCHEN KROMER poem. S/ [lot 1nXtc.

for the poet cannot find the place in his heart where the words are 'written' but asks someone else to do so. (Supp. i880. 6 In general see L. IO represent a slightly different version of this image. 946-949) Implicit in these lines is the idea that the spoken word is more vital. The Spoken and the Written Word. In order to clarify the significance of reading in 0. Pindar's reference to written language is not unparalleled in the first half of the fifth century. The opening lines of 0. P. but you hear them clearly from a freely speaking tongue. V. axoLec: ?g 'XeU. Throughout the ode there is an implied contrast between reading a name and naming.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian Io 423 The first line of 0. The reading of names. 23-59. HSCP 6o. is associated with being reminded while naming is connected with remembering. C. In the fourth triad the poet 'reads' the names of the first Olympic victors.t0 6aocv cx8' yXc6aa-. just as in the passage quoted above he had asked that the name of the present victor be read. as I will attempt to show. 789). Elsewhere in the plays of Aeschylus the idea of remembering something is expressed through the image of writing it down in one's heart (Supp. TAPA ii. who presides over the commercial aEpect of the poet's song. I972) These things are not inscribed tablets or sealed up in the on folds of books.&epO0ar0.. GREENE. more dynamically expressive. His contemporary Aeschylus contrasts written and spoken language in this passage of the Suppliants: TOT 0U 0' 7LVOCXv ?TLV ?yyeypo?tevc eV 7tU'MfLq4 pL[XC)V x0reaCpoXyLa VC. Reading is also related to Atrekeia. than the written word.. This development was contemporary with a number of social and political changes including the growth of commerce and the increase in the use of money. 34-5I and W. . IO contains the earliest example of the use of the verb in the meaning dto read#.. IO it will be helpful to mention several passages which illustrate the Greek attitude toward written language . a 'life' of their own.. and making them part of the continuity represented by the Olympic Games. In the third triad Herakles names certain geographical locations thereby giving them a new identity. The Beginning of a Written Literature in Greece. The proliferation of the written word in Greeksociety was already manifested in the late seventh century with the writing down of laws by such quasimythical figures as Dracon of Athens and Zaleukos of Epizephyrian Lokri. The idea of reading a name is fundaaVmyLyVCoxv mental to one of the poem's main themes. PACKARD. (PAGE. 1951. R. 99I-992.

TO &a. (275A) ~) The users of this drug will have the appearance of wisdom (aocpLocq .. as I will argue below.ocS unoLvjaeco o(pScxov e6paq.nop?it OcppaxOv eupe?hf. in Olympian io.274C-D). was also the originator of numbers.LVoVLxXWpoU. In the Phaedrus Socrates says that Theuth. Socrates then tells how Theuth went to Thamus to demonstrate his discoveries. ' Ketp . (ROBIN. you have invented a drug not of memory but of reminding. I947) This knowledge .. Just as the 'written' words link the poet's song with the world of financial calculation and commercial . The connection between poem and contract is particularly close. . and geometry (&pL$4L6vTe xoal XoyLatolv X.. Thus the art of writing is here connected with various skills basic to a mercantile society. for it has no power to answer back when it is criticized but It has a certain rigidity: always needs its father to protect it (275D-E).. xacl . not the real thing (a?$*Lov). . g6o. it always signifies one and the same thing (tv tL aIve &oc.. . will give the Egyptians greater wisdom and better memories..o. t6vov OrCXroV 275 D). aocpOUg Atyu-n=Lou.uv.424 KROMER GRETCHEN The contrast between written and spoken word was later elaborated by Plato in the Phaedrus (274C ft. The poem begins with a reference to certain 'written' words which represent an unfulfilled contract. . for the initial request that a 'written' name be read is answered by the completed poem which is itself a written text. the inventor of writing.u rL . who states that writing only serves to remind the individual of something he already knows (275C). calculation. .) where he developed ideas already implicit in the passage from the Suppliants and. ya . (Phaedr. These ideas may now be related to the opening lines of Olympian io. l yX&?stpWv. for a drug of both memory and wisdom has been discovered. for people will rely on the written words and will no longer use their memories (275 A-B): ouxouv dxk.1e p XI' a L coy'&x oac. Writing is like painting. The relationship of writing to memory and wisdom is then further elaborated by Socrates.JLh . For writing Theuth makes the following claim: toi-L-o 8 . . 274E) But Thamus replies that writing will actually produce the opposite effect.

Das Wissen des Xenophanes. So in the Phaedrus a written text is said to be rigid. however. They depend on the entities represented by them just as the written text in the Phaedrus depends on the spoken words of its 'father'-interpreter. as Unverborgenheit. Following HEIDEGGER. 331-335.etc. Truth and Song: Bacchylides 3. In this connection it is useful to mention some of the recent work on the etymology and meaning of &X&t?cx. the material or commercial aspect of the poet's song corresponds to a particular group of images which appear throughout 0. In lines 4-7 the poet asks the Muse and Alatheia to help him compose a song for the victor. Xr45w. In the works of later Greek writers `rutoq was eventually displaced For bibliography see E. Alatheia. is to be contrasted with Atrekeia and therefore with the commercial aspect of the poet's song. Such objects are like money. E. that it may be exchanged for a certain amount of money. HEITSCH. IO9. In the Phaedrus writing can only serve to remind the individual of something he already knows. for it always signifies one and the same thing. 96-98. io). In Homer ocWq denotes the type of truth which may be communicated by an individual on the basis of his own experience. (199-200 n. 1969.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io 425 exchange. The existence of the contract implies that the poem has an exact and finite value which may be expressed in material terms. Io. See also L. 6. 6 I93-235 . I must make a few further comments on the first strophe of 0. Phoenix 23. The difficulty with this definition. At this point. is faulty. parallel to the contrast Alatheia/Atrekeia in 0. is that words of this group in their original sense do not indicate a quality of the object of perception but of the act of perceiving. i6). HEITSCH and others define &XaBLx with the German word ((. S. Included in this group are objects whose only function is to represent or remind. for they have no intrinsic meaning or value. WOODBURY. (Thus the contrast &C t/&nTUO. )>unhiddenness T. ))real(( or Y>factual#. as I have already suggested.?n4hX. As I will attempt to demonstrate below. for she will aid him in settling the account. in Homer is roughly. Most scholars now believe that the word is related to Xocv4&Ovw. KRISCHER has shown. Thus I hope to show that the material poem is not only worth money but also resembles money in some respects. Alatheia is allied with the poet's persona. Its function is suggested by its proximity to L-trXoc' whose meaning indicates that the poet's memory. while in 0. I966. his perception of pact events. but not exactly. RhM N. With its implied reference to the perceiver ocX7) may be contrasted with "ruTVo. and comes to represent the possibility of evaluating the song in non-economic terms. io. io the 'written' words are intended to remind the poet of his obligation to the victor. which implies no such reference. so in the Phaedrus the invention of the alphabet is associated with the discovery of mathematics and geometry. The Muse has a >>rectifying hand(. with the self and with personal experience.

I6l-I74. For the future. I965. Alatheia is consistent with vitality and continuity. O. I962. T.pLV. While Atrekeia presides over finite entities which may be measured or counted.toU und &?oWI. Die nicht-philosophische aBLa. Hermes go. Philologus I09. In the lines I have been discussing the poet says that he forgot his debt to the victor. In the first antistrophe of 0. In 0. reading 45VTc-rcv. associated with time. 36-52. I . he will assert that he remembers what is most essential and is therefore able to confer immortality upon the victor. 53-55 he says that it is time )>who alone vindicates the exact truth(( (&X*sex tumvov). Hermes 9I. Pindar seems to refer back to the early use and etymological meaning of &XoeL. 7-I2) * I translate FENNEL'S conjecture OP&-o)vi3vfor the mss. KRISCHER. But at the end of the ode. See how* the stream now washes the rolling pebble along and how we will pay the common account for the sake of friendship. io time explicitly introduced: i exaftv y&p eiteXMV O .U&g ??Xu8avL8UVZ'q o67E T' XOLV6V ?O6yov ?pXM'Vt66aotLev q ox. approaching from afar. IO. In addition to its connection with the self Alatheia has a second function in 0.tL2BcWVXPOV0o t %pv EeioLav 4&CpOV 'T6XOg bvsatiXv vu3v ?Laaostvav oXa. x5uto xM-7MxXu6aaeL peov. for in 11. 'wj. HEITSCH. having composed the song with the help of the Muse and Alatheia. (11. where it is juxtaposed with its etymological cognate and in the passage I have just mentioned (11. io. has shamed my deep debt but payment of interest can wipe out sharp rebuke. Wahrheit als Erinnerung. Alatheia becomes the means for resolving a conflict between the self and time. I963. In lines 3-4.426 GRETCHEN KROMER by &XYNW07. 24-33.53-55) Alatheia is TCXYXx'. To anticipate the next stage of the discussion. however. Lines 7-8 have never been adequately explained but they become somewhat clearer when read in conjunction with NORWOOD'S comments on the image of E.

: The point is a play on the two in a brilliantly usages of focCpoq. Four Quartets. (D257262). however. III . may be seen as future-becoming-present or as futuremoving-toward-present 9. The two images. a considerable amount of time has passed. S. . In that passage there is a confrontation between the future (t VikX?cov xpeoq. the work of the gardener who irrigates his land. NORWOOD used by the Greeks in money-calculations ( and later say.)>clean pebbles(( to mean ))balancedaccounts# (de Cor. the other 12 and 243 n. But the metaphor alludes not to a beach or tides: what did Pindar know of tides? He has in mind what was far more familiar. London. In his explication of these lines NORWOOD does not mention that the Homeric description occu1s as part of Achilles' fight with the river (II. / And time future contained in time past. 39. effective phrase: the pebblecalculation shall be obliterated by a flood of song.. helps to explain lines 7-8 where time is said to move toward the poet. Here the future is said to move toward the self/ analogy rather unflattering to the pebble.. the main mythological figure of 0. #my deep debt(. Time. xp6voq) and the self as represented by 4Thv . . described so vividly by Homer. With this interpretation of the pebble-calculation it is amusing to find that Demosthenes uses the phrase xoc4poct -CpGL. on the other hand.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io 427 remarks that ))pebbleswere the pebble and the stream of water.=4. This fact. If this is true. / If all time is eternally present / All time is unredeemable . the opening lines of T. The story of Herakles' fight with the river Achelous was used " NORWOOD. 227). IO. 1959. that is. According to NORWOOD. the stream which sweeps away the pebble is analogous to the water which cleanses the stables of Augeas . the reference to the 'channel of ruin' (6x'tv &.. In temporal terms the self may be identified with the present: the 'I' can only talk about the past and future in relation to its present situation. 10It is interesting that Herakles. 1. 9 Cf. one unfavorable to the poet. ELIOT'S 'Burnt Norton': i)Time present and time past I Are both perhaps present in time future. Thus the future moves toward the poet just as the river moves toward Achilles and the stream toward the pebble'0. 37) into which the possessions of Augeas sink refers to the 6xe6q in the Homeric simile. I. is also said to have fought with a river. It has had to come a long way (`xra4ev) to get to this particular 'present'. making a channel for the bubbling water that thrusts along all the little pebbles in its course8.

The generative function of time implied is taken up later in the myth and in the reference to the by the word ro6xoq birth of the child (11. Pindar introduces the Epizephyrian Lokrians %o?Lv and their major 'goddess': 4LS. Contra Timocr. I927. Civilization. The delay may elicit reproach (SMvLra&) deep (PoxTh to the relationship between poet and victor. In a situation where money is loaned the passage of time becomes a positive force. ADcocK. The law code of Zaleukos was notable not only for its harshness but also for its inflexibility. 2298-2301. for the delay in redeeming the obligation produces interest and the greater the delay. Literary Tradition and Early Greek Code-Makers.. E. Erste Reihe XIII.. I-22. 95-IO9 and the works cited in the previous note. 428-429. J. according to one of the scholia to Il. Tim. what ironic in view of the poet's own debt'1. The lines quoted above illustrate the generative/destructive character of time. 2. The Lokrians were singled out by various ancient writers as an exceptionally law-abiding people (Demosthenes. Leg. Although it is Atrekeia who demands fulfillment of his pledge. See also F. Alatheia will help him fulfill it. however.. 12 MEZGER. RE. 112. 86-go). OLDFATHER. Atrekeia is an appropriate 'deity' for a city which was noted as a commercial center. 11 NORWOOD. 411-472. Zaleukos. DUNBABIN. . 1948. Philological Quarterly 3.8 = Ephorus fr. 68-74. who presumably lived in the seventh century and is supposed to have been the first to write down laws for his countrymen'4. by Pindar. The words are some)>For Accuracy rules the city of the Western Lokrians<(. I967. Philologus 67. 14 On Zaleukos in the context of the history of Western Greece see T. 13On the Lokrians generally see W.428 GRETCHEN KROMER unfavorable to the pebble-calculation. the Lokrians put their trust in Atrekeia.uiyocp'ATp&xeLoc Aoxp6v ZepupLwV.. I39. I39 J)13. Pindar indicates that the passage of time would have become increasingly threatening to the victor and his deeds if the song had not been written. Locris and Early Greek Lokrika. RE. 1924. Oxford. VON FRITZ. At the end ot the poem. While he invokes Alatheia. The Western Greeks. So the poet here claims that the quality of his song will correspond to the length of time it has been delayed. are a kind of microcosm of the whole poem. 139.. 1289-I363. 70b in SNELL'S I964 edition. 1908. 20A. Demosthenes (contra Timocr. the greater the interest. The scholiast's comment is quoted as part of fr. especially I8-22. (D 194. A. halb legendarer unteritalischer Gesetzgeber. The passage of time has caused the poet's debt (XP7o4)to become and is potentially harmful ). 638B. Plato. CHJ 2. Zweite Reihe. Lokroi. I927.i. This virtue of theirs is usually connected with the name of Zaleukos. A second and more important reason is given by MEZGER. But the debt may be eliminated through the payment of interest. Having described his plight.who develops in a different context an idea suggested by one of the scholia'2. The most recent discussion is K. Strabo 6. At the beginning of the ode the passage of time is potentially threatening to the poet because of the unpaid debt. But why are the Lokrians ruled by this particular 'goddess'? In the first place.

As a result of this procedure. I39 J. That legislation concerning debts was being made not long after Zaleukos' lifetime is shown by the reforms of Solon in the early sixth century. for the purpose of this study it is not so important to know what the legislator actually did in the seventh century. as seems probable. Ares suggests the struggle involved in athletic or heroic feats and Kalliope the song which is the reward of the successful contender in such a strugle. Philologus 56. I967. Lokroi. I. The poet calls upon Alatheia to aid him. I-14) describes the intimidating procedure by which new legislation was proposed among the Lokrians. WALBANK. although more doubtful as to authenticity. Der Streit Commentary on Polybius. I-3). Herakles establishes one of the most famous Panhellenic institutions. a contract involving a long-unpaid debt. 'Lokrian contracts' (Corp. . for example. I897. the words v?pLE y&p 'A-tpixem refer to the most famous of Lokrian law-givers. while the businesslike Lokiians with their 'patron goddess' Atrekeia have laws governing the making of contracts and perhaps forbidding the writing of loan contracts. If. gr. um das Sprichwort Aoxpoi rt&q auvTh'xog. Lokrika. (an association which may date back to Aristotle) see F. Two other gods. It is possible. i. 16 See the works cited in n. I3 above. Polybius I2. In spite of the lateness of the source. I. OLDFATHER. The poem begins with a request that certain 'written' words be read and Zaleukos was the first to write down legislation for his people. II6). II4 (cf. Oxford. Kalliope and Ares. The strictness of the Lokrians' adherence to such agreements ensures that the poet will be censured if he defaults. 3). W. as what the fifth century contemporaries of Pindar thought he did. i6) the name of Herakles. that legislation concerning contracts and particularly loan contracts might have become attached to the name of Zaleukos in the sixth/fifth century by analogy to the more recent reforms of Solon. 8 = Ephorus fr. paroem. On the proverb and its relation to Zaleukos' law gr. Zaleukos thereby established institutions for the Lokrians just as. in the main myth of the poem. 448. A different interpretation is given in Corp. 351-352. is the assertion by a Byzantine writer that Zaleukos forbade the writing of loan contracts15. More interesting in relation to 0. i6. the first strophe and antistrophe become even more closely linked. This pair may refer to the musical and military achievements of the Lckrians16. paroem. are mentioned in connection with the Lokrians. however. Diodorus I2. 2I. the principal mythological figure in the ode. Immediately after this (1. I322. 15Zaleukos' interdiction is cited as an explanation of the proverbial expression. WUNDERER. Polybius 12. The 'written' words represent a contract between Pindar and Hagesidamos.Within the context of an epinician ode. II. I72-177. cf. I2a. IO. Finally. this idea is consistent with the earlier references to his simplification of contracts. A Historical See also C.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io 429 Zaleukos is sometimes credited with simplifying contracts between individuals (Strabo 6. only one piece of new legislation was adopted in the course of more than two hundred years.

Just as both the hero and the poet owe their victories in part to the help of their respective patron goddesses. for they have significance only to the individual who knows about the real events or persons to which they refer. The relationship between these reminders and the entities represented by them is the same as that between the written text of a song and an oral. 17 . See DUNBABIN. I5). The pebble and the grave are dead and meaningless in themselves. He sings of the Olympic contest both by praising the present victor and by commemorating the founding of the Games by Herakles. IF 83-88)19. Patroclus is appropriately chosen to represent the present victor. finally overcame him'7. The relationship between Hagesidamos and Ilas is then comparedwith that between Patroclus and Achilles'8. with the aid of Athena. Herakles and Kyknos (Pindar. 24). Passing over for the moment the sufferings of Herakles which will be described later in this triad Pindar speaks of an event which demonstrates his glory. a The grave of Pelops is memorial to him. An earlier account given in the Shield of Herakles concludes with the burial of Cycnus and the washing away of the grave at the command of Apollo ([Hes. 1. In the Phaedrus Theuth invents H. 19 Opuntian Lokris was perhaps the mother city of Epizephyrian Lokri. a reminder of his existence and exploits. It therefore resembles the pebble-reminder in the first triad. Perhaps this part of the story was in Pindar's mind when he used the image of the pebble and the stream and that of the 'ancient grave of Pelops'. In originating the contest Herakles is 'founding' or 'establishing' it (ixr[L6act0o. 25) suggests mathematical calculation. According to the scholiast.. is so powerful that with his help his son Cycnus succeeded in repelling even Herakles. for the hero was said to have been born in Opuntian Lokris (II. (Mviuta is sometimes used as a synonym of ai[Loc). The theme of accuracy or precision introduced in the first triad is evident here. who established the laws of the Lokrians. Like Herakles. the god of the Lokrians.uov (1. a0. 472-480). E 324-327. Pindar here follows Stesichorus' version of the story. r1?O7COq.] Scut. Atrekeia and the related idea of being reminded are also suggested by the image of the >)ancient grave of Pelops<( (&pXoacy 1. 10. the poet has at first been impeded in his task but with divine help will finally complete it. )>The laws of Zeus< urge him to sing just as the private law represented by the contract had prompted him to fulfill his debt.[LUTL . cf. X. Mnemosyne Series 4. Ilas. Il. 0. 36. ROSE.. Ares. 25) like Zaleukos. spontaneous tribute. for the adjective ?&pLD. . I957. But Herakles. IIo-ii6. The second strophe begins with a general statement that few have won glory without suffering. . Thus the figure of Herakles is used to connect the victor's task with that of the poet. 18 The mention of Achilles tends to support the view that lines 7-8 contain an implicit reference to that hero's fight with the river..430 GRETCHEN KROMER is introduced. so Hagesidamos is similarly indebted to the trainer. J. The debt represented by the pebble has been unhonored for a long time and the grave of Pelops is ))ancientL(.

sinks )>into 34-38). while the third is in its correct position chronologically.28-29) of the of the death Moliones and an additional reason is given for it. In the first triad the poet was seen to have neglected the private law embodied in his contract with the victor. Just as Alatheia is connected with time. The wrongs inflicted by Augeas are also avenged. Thus the orderof events is B-A-B'-A'-C. followed by the general reason why they were killed. then the death of Augeas.. In that world orderly . io writing/reminding is connected with the pebble-calculation and with Atrekeia.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian Io 43I writing and numbers at the same time. In spite of its emphasis on violence and disorder the account of events here has a quality of preciseness which is brought about by the use of names: in lines 26-35 there are no less than ten proper names. from Augeas. Then there is a more specific account of how they died. In lines 30-34 there is a more detailed version tLL. followed by the specific reason for their death and finally by the death of Augeas. for their value is representative rather than intrinsic. for his city a deep trench of ruin(((11. The second triad also deals with reciprocal exchange but there it is acts of violence which are exchanged. each followed by a past event giving a reason for it. At first the poet gives the bare fact that the hero killed the Moiones. which is related to the first reason. The first two accounts of Herakles' actions are in reverse chronological sequence. The situation here is like that of humanity before the introduction of law. I have already suggested that images like the pebble and the grave resemble money. The character of the narrative changes as it progresses. Like coins. At first he is said to have killed them in order to exact >wagesfor his services(( (?atpLov. B and B'.. with two referencesto the killing of the Moliones. being very general at the beginning and more detailed and explicit at the end. then cause. In the first strophe of the poem the relationship between poet and victor was described as a business contract which involved a certain type of exchange between the two parties. first effect. A coin signifies both an exact and specific value and no value at all or valuelessness because it has a precise 'meaning' among people who understand its use but none at all outside its own system. while in 0. 11. Atrekeia and the elements governed by her reflect a concern with defining and making distinctions. In lines 26-29 the narrative moves back in time to the slaying of the Moliones by Herakles. In the second antistrophe and epode he demonstrates the consequences of neglecting such rules. They are killed because they destroyed Herakles' army and the hero is thus 'paying them back'. so Atrekeia is associated with nomos. with controlling and bringing to order.8a6v. Like the written text in the Phaedrus it needs a 'father'-interpreter who will give it life and meaning. A. they have a kind of empty materiality. because he was trying to exact payment from Augeas. The disordering of chronological sequence complements the description of disorderly human relationships.

(1. Through of the MoZpoL. Herakles. He also honors flowing water. Here the tone changes radically and chronologicalsequence is resumed.) Numbers are also used in the reference to the )dtwelvedivine lords(( (1. is here the opponent of men who disregard the conventional rules governing the behavior of men in a civilized society.raxq.0. LEFKOWITZ. The significance of the hero's actions is indicated by the approving presence who are also witnesses to the birth of lamos (O. The analogy becomes more plausible in the light of several comments made by M. 42). 8p natc. 1972-I973. IO as an elaborate pun on ve. 39-40). who is often the slayer of monsters..( According to LEFKOWITZ.. 6. 3I-38 (33 n. Following this line of reasoning it is possible to interpret the central myth of 0. In the first triad the unkept promise was potentially harmful to friendship (Ci4ro'6evov. I69 No.u/v6v4oq/voV.ux and vo. . of social conventions and institutions. who says. for both are reminders of a living or once-living entity. 34).oq 6onra'Vcov amxtlk is to be viewed as a surveyor2l. 8L'XpLvz. the originator of a group of nomoi. I3) the city of the Lokrians. I have already said that the setting up of the Olympic Games by Herakles is analogous to the writing down of laws by Zaleukos. Herakles 'rules' the Olympic Games just as Atrekeia rules (v4Le. 57). ))Wordsof measure and apportionment comprise the Greeks' vocabulary of justice . Cultural Conventions CJ 68. emphasizing the orderingactivities of the hero. Both Herakles and Zaleukos are founders of important social institutions: each establishes a type of nomos. (It will be remembered that in the Phaedrus geometry is invented together with writing and mathematics.432 GRETCHEN KROMER human relationships are impossible and one can only survive by being the stronger as the poet indicates in the gnome (11.49) and to the >>five year festival< (1. 45) and names the )>rock and covered in the obscurity of snow (11. the founding of the Olympic Games by Herakles. 1.uo. Herakles is a surveyor who divides and apportions the future site of the Olympic Games but he is also. like Zaleukos.toq of its etymological cognates vs. . as it is used in Pindar retains the coloring v6o. Thus in fr. At the beginning of the ode the poet had asked that a name be read. IO. 11. 1. The vocabulary of measuring is prominent in the description of the dividing up of the land for various purposes (arepTo. The 'written' words resemble the image of the tomb of Pelops. 49-51). In this triad Herakles does not read names but rather gives names to certain geographical points thereby providing them with a purpose and a 'life' of their own. 20 21 NORWOOD. K. LEFKOWITZ. K. II3- II4 M. He dedicates the grove to >his father most of Kronos which had previously been unnamed high (x(1.45 47 20. and the Persistence of Mistranslation."ffxs. 6) and in the second Augeas is described as vevat'. The third triad contains the principal mythological episode of 0. now no longer a nameless stream but the river Alpheus: river and rock now become compatible parts of the same landscape. 5).

62. 252 n. unlike laws which are written down and possibly forgotten. Herme8 104. FARNELL. . Their true function is suggested by NORWOOD. RhM Io6. who calls the passage )>a business-like list((24.for it both satisfies the demanos of the Lokrians and defends the poet from their charges. FARNELLsays. 22NORWOOD.54). The naming of the first Olympic victors is followed by a reference to the odes sung for Olympic victories. 44) but have become 10Cv noX46to 80a6cv of >the gift war. The strophe and antistrophe of the fourth triad have sometimes been condemned as dull and unimaginative. R. which does indeed repel oblivion (A-XOC8-stoc) . The founding of the Olympic Games satisfies both the demand for accuracy.1. Time no longer moves threateningly toward the poet but instead moves forwa-d and its movement is united with that of the narrative. Whether or not it is true.The spoils of war are no longer ococv .The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io 433 the activities of Herakles the site is 'born' and 'brought to perfection' simultaneously (Op&Toy6vcY TeXsa4. The Works of Pindar. is renewed every four years. as some commentators have suggested.. In founding the Olympic Games Herakles sets up an institution which. and perfection implied by Atrekeia and the desire for a vital and continuing force suggested by Alatheia22* The reconciliation of the two is made explicit in the phrase &ahXr0 v 0 tTUoOV (1. It is Atrekeia who is in charge here and gives free rein to her fondness for factual detail. 4 I932. The reading of a list of names may be contrasted with the naming of real objects by Herakles in the previous triad.. which is emphasized by the use of chronological sequence. Thus in the fourth triad the two types of truth which had been brought together by Herakles are separated but have related functions. 24 NORWOOD. I42-I48 (146) disagrees but sees a play on Kronos/Chronos. it is clear that he is imitating the style of such records. This function of the Games is shown when Greek historians later used them as a means of dating. 1932.( and speaks of the ))ratherdry chronicle form(( of the lines23. 5I). The forward movement of time. Etymologica. II2. I. >The chronicle itself may be regarded as a flaw . 23 L. Time does not move uncontrollably like the stream but is marked off and ordered by the existence of the festival. which implies both precisenessand the referenceto a perceiving individual living in time. . London. This request is parallel to that in lines I-2 of the poem where he had asked to be read the name of the present victor. o c0aCv (1. implies progress out of the violent and disordered world of lines 26-42.56-57). The list of victors is followed by a lyrical description of the victory celebration with the moon lighting up the evening and the place ringing with song (11. the first fruits(( oCxpotp6c (11. . In its positive function it indicates continual regeneration as well as a movement toward perfection. The list is introduced by the poet's request to be told the names of the first Olympic victors. completeness. that the lines are based on an actual written record to which Pindar had access.73-77). 43: ))Truth J. . Time is now seen as the 'vindicator' of the )exacttruth ((. H. QUINCEY.

93). Just as the )>exact truth< manifests itself with the passing of time so the poem too develops over a period of time. Here as in the first triad time is seen as a generative/destructive force. The reference to the ))earlierbeginnings<((1.86-87) since through him the father's possessions may 'live on'. If a man dies childless his money is passed on to a stranger (11.78) which introduces the description of the thunderbolt of Zeus implies both the narration of the first celebration of the Games and the literary convention of 'beginning with Zeus' (N. In the same way great deeds need a song which will cause them to be remembered even after the individual who accomplished them is dead. In the opening lines of 0. Just as wealth becomes a source of bitterness to a man who dies without an heir. a son is ))longedfor<((11. At the beginning of the ode Pindar had indicated that he had forgotten a business obligation. It appears beside the Dirke. so in the absence of song great deeds will have Z`Ope 1?6t& been accomplished in vain (xZvvoc rxvZaatL PPOC TL TpErV6v. which is #fittingin every victory<((11. The thunderbolt of Zeus. 85). the song is all the more to be valued because it comes after a long delay. The objects valued by Atrekeia take no account of the passage of time.434 GRETCHEN KROMER The evocation of the first celebration of the Olympic Games is now connected with the present occasion which is >namedafter'sit (1.88-go). the city of the Lokrians and the victor is described as )>lovely<( (4po6rov. for it brings about old age but it may also allow for the birth of a son who will grow up to inherit his father's wealth. 99). Here the obligation is instead associated with love and . The epode the relationship between the poet and the victor. In the last antistrophe the poet applies the simile to the present situation. The poet )>hasembraced< 1. The music of lyre and flute sprinkle glory upon the victor and the singer ))has rained honey upon the manly city#. for its movement and vitality are consistent with the character of water. In 11. The value of material possessions and of personal achievement is called into question by the fact that men exist in time. IO the song was seen to have a particular material or commercial value. 82-83) provides the link between the founding of the Games and the writing of the present song. last of contains the final description of IO named by Herakles. Like the son who is all the more prized because he is born when the father is already old. 1.78). 1-3). unlike the pebble which is swept away by the stream. 86-93 wealth and song are again brought together but the relationship is no longer one of equivalence. In the last triad of the poem the poet describes the present song which ))has appeared in time beside the famous Dirke<((1. To a man who has grown old. The present celebration is a descendant of the earlier one and inherits its name just as in the last triad of the poem the child is born and inherits his father's wealth. 2. This glorifying rain may be compared of Kronos# before it was with the obscuring snow which had covered the >>rock 0.

The fact that the poem is given in exchange for material goods or money does not mean that its worth may be measured in commercial terms. Ilias Parva.the ode it was shown that the poet's delay in fulfilling his obligation made the passage of time increasingly threatening to him. is exchanged for a certain material possession. which is essentially impersonal. as I have attempted to demonstrate. not by the belated recollection of a business agreement. for the passage of time undermines the worth of things valued by Atrekeia. 202-2I7. Alatheia and Atrekeia. The accomplishment of his task and the consequent reconciliation of the two is signified by the narration of the setting up of the Olympic Games. however. At the beginning o. on the other hand. personal experience. Hymn to Aphrodite. like the poem which is compared with a son who is )>longed for<. E 265-267. any more than the value of a beloved child may be equated with that of a precious gift. The use of this particular myth may therefore be intended to emphasize again the incapacity of material goods to replace that which is part of the personal experience of the individual. 4I-42 KINKEL). At the end of the ode the present victor is compared with Ganymede. implies precision and accuracy and is associated with the world of business and finance. with vitality and continuity.The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io 435 the charge of forgetfulness is countered by a statement that he has not forgotten what is most essential. In Olympian io. Just as Ganymede's beauty inspired admiration and caused Zeus to make him immortal. as opposed to Atrekeia. Pindar contrasts two types of truth. who is invoked by the poet at the beginning of the ode. The words. He is compelled to write. In the context of the previous lines in which the ode was compared with a son and heir the reference to Ganymede seems slightly ironic. his personal experience of the victory. Atrekeia is connected with nomos. Thus the son who was giieved for. In several early versions of the myth it is said that when the boy was taken his father grieved for him and the gods therefore gave him a precious gift in exchange for his son (Il. the poet causes the victor to live on as he was at the time of his triumph. the two 'goddesses' are contrasted with each other in relation to time.. Alatheia. but by his memory of the victory which fills him with love and admiration for the young man. While Alatheia has a particular relation to time. )J saw him at that time by the Olympic altar conquering with the strength of his handsa(.are a strong assertion that he has not forgotten the event. In the last triad the situation is reversed. pp. Atrekeia. so the appearance of Hagesidamos inspired the poet to immortalize him in song. Thus the deeds of the victor need the poet's song to preserve them 28* . It is the poet's task to compose a song which will satisfy the demands of both types of truth. Within the poem as a whole. The description of the activities of Herakles is therefore a symbol of the poem itself. even a gift from the gods. is identified with subjective. They also demonstrate the value of Alatheia with its implicit reference to the role of the perceiver. By recreating his own experience.

STAMBLER have also been useful. D. Add: A. 1972. for it is only she who can confer immortality25. IO. South Hadley.436 GRETCHEN KROMER: The Value of Time in Pindar's Olympian io from oblivion. Massachusetts USA GRETCHEN KROMER 25 This paper was delivered in somewhat different form as a Shoptalk at the American Academy in Rome. oral encomium based on love. E. was not available to me when I wrote this paper but does not alter my views on 0. 235-253. GERBER and from my colleagues. KOMORNICKA. Quelques remarques sur la notion d' &0Oe?to et de 0i58os chez Pindare. JONES and S. M. In relation to time. I am grateful to the various people who made helpful comments at that time. Eos 6o. The poet's song stands between the two 'goddesses': it is a written product with a finite material value but it has the aspect of a spontaneous. . it is Alatheia who takes precedence. Further suggestions from D. A. however.