QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

UNIT-1 BASIC CONCEPTS

OBJECTIVES OF AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE:
Air traffic service is provided for the purpose of preventing collisions between aircrafts and on the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstacles. It also maintains a orderly flow of air traffic.

PARTS OF ATS:
Air Traffic service is classified into three types. They are 1. Air traffic control service (ATCS) 2. Flight Information service (FIS) 3. Alerting service (AS)

Air traffic control service (ATCS):
The main objective of ATCS is to prevent collision between the aircraft on the manoeuvring area and to provide advice and information useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flight. ATCS is divided in to three types: 1. Air control service 2. Approach control service 3. Aerodrome control service. AIR CONTROL SERVICE: It controls the air traffic by maintaining orderly flow of flights It provides advice and information to the flights during normal flight conditions and also during emergency conditions. APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE: It gives information to the flight for safe and smooth landing It provides signals to the flights before taking off and landing down. This is called as clearance.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE: It provides information to the aerodrome authorities about the landing and take-off of flights It will give clearance signal to the flights for landing and take-off after getting approval from the aerodrome authorities. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE (FIS):
It provides useful information about the flight for safe and efficient conduct of flights 1. within flight information region 2. within controlled airspace. WITHIN FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION: It provides information about the flight and the flight Equipments in detail to the ATC. WITHIN CONTROLLED AIRSPACE: It provides details to the pilot about the nearest ATC and about the original ATC tower. By this the pilot can contact the ATC and can attain information from that ATC. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ALERTING SERVICE: It is useful during emergency conditions and also it will provide information about the flight during search and service operations.

VISUAL FLIGHT RULES: (VFR)
Visual flight rules (VFR) can be applied in an aircraft when the flight conditions on air and on ground are visually known to the pilot. The aircrafts which are obeying Visual Flight rules (VFR) are called VFR flights.

VMC: (VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITION)
Visual Meteorological Condition (VMC) is expressed in terms of visibility, distance from clouds and ceilings equal to (or) greater than specified minima. The aircrafts which falls under this condition are called as VFR flights.

IFR: (INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES)
Instrument flight rules (IFR) can be applied to the flights in which instruments are used to control the aircraft on air and on ground.

IMC: (INSTRUMENTAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITION)
Instrumental meteorological condition (IMC) expressed in terms of visibility distance from clouds and ceiling above VMC. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Airspace classifications:
Based on the (i) Type of flight (ii) ATC provided to the aircraft. The airspaces are classified as follows  CLASS A  CLASS B  CLASS C

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

 CLASS D  CLASS E  CLASS F  CLASS G BASED ON THE TYPE OF FLIGHT: The airspaces are classified based on type of flight as  IFR flights  IFR AND VFR flights In this the class A airspace alone used the IFR. Other than class A flights, class B to class G uses both IFR and VFR BASED ON ATC SERVICE PROVIDED: From Class A to Class E, ATCS provided. The FIS and AS can be applicable only during the emergency conditions. All other information relating the aircraft flight will be provided only by the ATCS. In the class F and Class G, FIS is provided throughout the flight. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT-2 AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES SEPARATIONS: There are two types of separations used in aircrafts inorder to avoid collisions between the aircraft.

1. Vertical separation

2. Horizontal separation

VERTICAL SEPARATION: It is obtained by using prescribed altimeter setting procedures to operate the aircraft at different altitudes.The minimum vertical separation from the sea level to the aircraft is 300m. The nominal vertical separation level is 600 m. ASSIGNMENT OF CRUISING LEVELS: During vertical separation we are maintaining some altitude difference between the aircrafts in the atmosphere. Due to this altitude difference the climb rate, cruising levels of the aircraft will differ. The vertical separation between the aircrafts can be obtained only through the proper approval from the corresponding ATC tower. VERTICAL SEPARATION DURING CLIMB OR DESCENT: This can be obtained only when the sudden change of altitude of the aircraft during emergency conditions. The corresponding ATC should take care while giving clearance to the particular aircraft. HORIZONTAL SEPARATION: There are two kinds of horizontal separation 1. LATERAL SEPARATION. 2. LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION.

LATERAL SEPARATION:
The lateral separation of the aircraft is obtained by requiring operations on the different routes (or) different geographical locations as determined by the visual observations, use of navigational aids or by using of area navigational aids.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION: The longitudinal separation of the aircraft can be obtained by seriously looking the different aircrafts running around the reference axis of the particular aircraft.

LATERAL SEPARATION BY REFERENCE TO VOR: When both aircraft flying on the same reference axis separated by distance of 28 km VOR navigational aid is used to deviate the second aircraft upto 15o from the reference axis. LATERAL SEPARATION BY NDB: Using VOR navigational aid at very high altitudes we can deviate the second aircraft upto 30o when the two aircrafts are separated by a distance of 28 km from the reference axis LATERAL SEPARATION BY DEAD RECKONING: In this method the aircraft can diverge up to 45o when the true air speed of the second aircraft is greater than the TAS of the first aircraft. There are three types of tracks used for longitudinal separation of aircrafts. 1. SAME TRACK 2. RECIPROCAL TRACK 3. CROSSING TRACK In same track, the angular difference between the aircrafts is less than 45o and more than 315o. The reciprocal track or opposite track in while the angular difference between the aircraft is more than 135o or less than 225o. The crossing tracks are interesting tracks moves other than the angles specified for same track and reciprocal track. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

UNIT-3

AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES
ATC CLEARANCES: Clearances are issued to maintain orderly flow of aircrafts and to provide exact separation between them in order to avoid the air traffic. It is based on 1. AIR TRAFFIC CONDITIONS 2. MANEUVERING AREA 3. VEHICLE TRAFFIC 4. ANY OBSTRACTIONS THAT INSTALL TEMPERORILY IN THE MANEUVERING AREA As a part of flight, the aircraft should produce the approved flight plan to the appropriate ATC. The ATC authorities will check the flight plan and the air traffic on that referred flight plan and they will provide the clearance certificate. Once the clearance is obtained the aircraft can fly in the approved flight plan. If any intermediate stops are present in the flight plan then the aircraft should get proper clearances from the intermediate ATC. The clearances should be obtained by the aircraft while doing the following manoeuvres. 1. TAXING/ TAXI CLEARANCE. 2. TAKE OFF CLEARANCE. 3. DEPARTURE CLEARANCE. 4. EN ROUTE CLEARANCE. 5. APPROACH CLEARANCE. 6. LANDING CLEARANCE.

CONTENTS OF ATC CLEARANCE:
The following are the contents present in the clearance data sheet. The ATC will check the air traffic and it will give clearance for change of level of flight.

READ BACK OF CLEARANCES:
1. ATC CLEARANCE CERTIFICATE 2. CLEARANCES AND INSTRUCTIONS TO DO TAKE OFF, LANDING, EN ROUTE, DEPARATURE, etc,. 3. RUNWAY IN USE 4. ALTIMETER SETTING OF THE AIRCRAFT. POSITION REPORTS: The crew members of the flight should report to the ATC about the aircrafts time and level of passing through reporting points as specified in the flight plan is called as position reports. Through there are reports we can able to find out the position of the aircraft and the services will be provided by the ATC continuously.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

The position report of the aircraft is obtained by the FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE provided in the aircraft. The aircrafts which are in the FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE (FIS) should send the details of position of the aircraft to the appropriate ATC as soon as they reach the designated report points. The position of the aircraft will be send to the ATC, 1. HALF-AN-HOUR BASIS IN THE VMC 2. HALF-AN-HOUR BASIS IN THE IMC AND DURING NIGHT. 3. LEVEL OF CHANGING OF FLIGHT. If the position report is not received by the ATC before the estimated time the FIS and ALERTING SERVICE are used to obtain the position of the aircraft. CONTENTS OF POSITION REPORT: 1. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION 2. POSITION. 3. TIME 4. LEVEL OR ALTITUDE OF FLIGHT. 5. NEXT POSITION AND TIME OVER. 6. SIGNIFICANT POINTS.

FLIGHT PLAN:
Information relative to an intended flight (or) position of a flight to be provided to the ATS unit should be in the form of flight plan. The flight plan should consists of 1. MAXIMUM TIME ELASPED. 2. APPROVED ROUTE OF FLIGHT. 3. VARIOUS LEVELS USED DURING FLIGHT. SUBMISSION OF FLIGHT PLAN: REQUIREMENTS: The flight plan should be submitted to the appropriate ATS to operate. 1. Any flight or portion of flight to be provided with ATCS. 2. Any flights operating in advisory IFR regions. 3. FIS and AS during emergency conditions. 4. Military services of other states in order to avoid interception of flights. 5. Any flights crossing international borders. SUBMISSION:  The flight plan should be submitted to the ATS before 60 minutes of departure of aircraft.  In the event of delay of 30 minutes in the total lapsed for controllable aircraft and one hour for uncontrollable aircraft, the flight plan will be cancelled and the new flight plan will be submitted to the ATS during flight.  Change of flight plan due to weather conditions or due to en route of flight should be submitted to the ATS at least 10 minutes before the arrival of the aircraft. ACCEPTANCE OF FLIGHT PLAN: The ATS unit receiving flight plan should, 1. Check it for the correct format and data conversions. 2. Check it for the completeness of entire flight. 3. Take action during emergency conditions. 4. Check the acceptance order of the originating ATS. CONTENTS OF FLIGHT PLAN: The following are the contents present in the flight plan form  AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION  FLIGHT RULES AND TYPES OF FLIGHT  WAKE TURBULENCE CATEGORY  EQUIPMENT USED IN AIRCRAFT  DEPARTURE AERODROME  ESTIMATED BLOCK TIME

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

        

CRUISING SPEED CRUISING LEVEL ROUTE TO BE FOLLOWED DESTINATION AERODROME ALTERNATE AERODROME FUEL AERODROME TOTAL NUMBER OF PERSONS ON BOARD EMERGENCY AND SURVIVAL EQUIPMENT OTHER INFORMATION

ADHERENCE TO FLIGHT PLAN:
Any aircraft which fly on air should adhere to the current flight plan approved by its appropriate ATS. During emergency conditions the aircraft should get proper approval from ATC and should adhere to the new flight plan. CHANGES TO FLIGHT PLAN: TWO TYPES  INADVERTENT CHANGES  INTENDED CHANGES

INADVERTENT CHANGES:
(i) DEVIATION FROM TRACK: If the aircraft deviates from its original track which was approved by the ATS then the heading adjustment should be done as soon as possible in order to regain its track. This is due to sudden changes in weather conditions. (ii) VARIATION IN TRUE AIR SPEED (TAS): If suddenly the average true air speed at the cruising level between reporting points varies upto±5% of original TAS then the aircraft will suffer change in track. This should be informed to the appropriate ATS and after getting approval from the ATS new flight plan should be followed. (iii) CHANGE IN TIME ELASPED: When the aircraft exceeds 3 minutes of the total estimated elapsed time then the appropriate ATS should be informed inorder to make changes in the current flight plan. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

INTENDED CHANGES:
(i) CHANGE OF CRUISING LEVELS: The aircraft can change its original cruising level to new cruising level by making some changes in time elapsed by getting approval from appropriate ATS. (ii) CHANGE OF ROUTES:  DESTINATION UNCHANGED: If the aircraft have several routes in order to achieve destination aerodrome we can change its routes by getting approval from appropriate ATS.  DESTINATION CHANGED: During emergency conditions or during intermediate stops the aircraft should do landing and take off from mew aerodrome. If the destination is changed, so change in flight plan should be approved by the appropriate ATS. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

RNAV: REFERENCE AREA NAVIGATION:
A method of navigation which permits the aircraft operation on any desired flight path within the coverage area of appropriate ATS is called as reference area navigation. The route which is followed along with navigational aids is called as area navigation route.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

RNP: (REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE): It is a value which expresses the usage of navigational aid in nautical miles (NM) from the intended portion of the aircraft to the 95% of flying area is called as required navigation performance.

UNIT-IV
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICES, ALERTING SERVICES AND EMERGENCY PROCEDURES

EMERGENCY:
The various circumstances surrounding each emergency situation will preclude the establishment of exact detail procedures to be followed. During emergency conditions the ATS, should maintain full and complete coordination with affected aircraft. The ATS personnel should use their best judgement in handling the emergency situations. The pilot of the affected aircraft should encounter the state of emergency to the ATC through the emergency transponder. A specific code will be sent to the ATC. SSR MODE A code 7500 SSR Mode A code 7700. After receiving the emergency signals from the aircraft the ATC personnel should operate additional radar services inorder to locate the affected aircraft. Once the emergency link is created between the affected aircraft and the ATS, 1. The aircraft should not use any other frequencies except the emergency frequency send by the appropriate ATS. 2. The engine operating conditions of the aircraft should be limited to the minimum value. 3. Information should be send to the other aircrafts which are operating in the nearby regions of the affected aircraft. EMERGENCY CONDITIONS:  UNLAWFUL INTERFERNCE  AIRCRAFT BOMB THREAT  EMERGENCY DECENT UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE: The unlawful interference occurs in an aircraft due to  Wind turbulence  Bad weather condition  Engine failure Whenever the unlawful interference occurs on an aircraft there will be interrupt signal and the interrupt signal will display in SSR transponder (i.e) in code 7500 and code 7700 display. The pilot should sent SSR mode A code 7500 to the appropriate ATC and the necessary action will be taken by the ATC in order to safeguard the aircraft. AIRCRAFT BOMB THREAT: Incase of any bomb material found inside the aircraft then the pilot should send transponder signal from SSR mode A code 7700 signal to the appropriate ATC. The ATC should take necessary action and it should provide separate parking area for the attached aircraft. Once the bomb checks are finished the crew member or the passenger of the aircraft will allow flying. The ATC unit should not provide any advice or suggestion for the aircraft which contains explosive material. It should provide full support to find and disengage the explosive items inside the aircraft.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

EMERGENCY DESCENT: Due to engine failure or due to failure in control system the aircraft should land immediately. This emergency decent is done by aircraft and ATC by using proper radio aids. Once the emergency descent is given between the ATC and the aircraft, the aircraft should fly in ‘VMC’. The aircraft should use the frequency sent by the appropriate ATC. Action is taken by the pilot in command. The pilot should tune up the radio in order to receive the frequency send by the appropriate ATS. He should get proper clearances in order to descent the aircraft in the proper area specified for the particular aircraft. ACTION BY THE ATS: After receiving emergency signal from the aircraft the ATS should send the alert signal to the approach control unit and the aerodrome control unit. The ATC should maintain constant voice communication with the affected aircraft. Once the clearance signal is obtained from the aerodrome control unit and approach control unit, the ATS should sent clearance signal to the affected aircraft. COMMUNICATION FAILURE: When the radio aids using inside the aircraft gets damaged there will be communication failure between the aircraft and the appropriate ATS. This communication failure will also occur due to improper signals from the ATS and due to aircraft flying in non-communicated areas. Once the communication failure occurs the pilot of the aircraft should fly the VMC then the pilot should tune the radio in order to get help from nearly ATS. The appropriate ATS should send radar signals in order to locate the particular aircraft. If the aircraft is crashed then the ATS should send such as rescue people to the particular location. FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE (FIS): A service is provided for the purpose of giving advice and information for the safe and efficient conduct of flights is called as FIS. A unit which provides the flight information service and alerting service is called as FLIGHT INFORMATION CENTRE. FIS shall be provided to all aircrafts likely to be affected by information and which are (a) Provided within ATCS (b) Or known to relevant ATC units. The FIS provides only the advice and information to the pilot in command. The pilot has to take his own decision regarding any change in flight plan. FIS provides information about  Forecast weather condition in the current flight plan  Sudden weather changes.  Changes in serviceability of navigational aids of the aircraft.  State of movement area of aerodromes. There are two types of FIS is provided in order to conduct safe and efficient flights.

1. ATIS (AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE) 2. ATAS (AIRTRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE) AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE:
ATIS broad case shall be provided at aerodrome where there is requirement to reduce communication load on ATS. ATIS broadcast about  Arriving of aircraft

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

 Departure of aircraft  Both arrival and departure of aircraft.  Both arrival and departure for long level flights which have more than three significant points. Wherever the ATIS is provided it broadcast,  the information about the related aerodrome  continuous and repetitive information about the aerodrome and the landing area  Provides a updated information related with the change in flight plan. AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE: A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure separation between the aircraft operating in the IFR region is called as Air traffic advisory service. (ATAS) An ATAS unit which providing ATAS shall  ADVICE  SUGGEST  PASS

ADVICE:
Advice the aircraft to depart in specified time as mentioned in the flight plan and to cruise at same level as given in the flight plan. SUGGEST: Suggest the aircraft about the possible actions should be taken during emergency conditions. PASS: Pass the information regularly in order to conduct safe and efficient flight. ALERTING SERVICE: Alerting service shall be provided 1. For all the aircraft provided with ATCS. 2. For all the aircraft within having filled flight plan or known to that appropriate ATS. 3. To any aircraft subjected to unlawful interference within the controlled region of that appropriate ATS. The flight information centre collects the information of the affected aircraft through FIS and this Flight Information Centre sends signals to the Alerting Service Centre (i.e) Rescue Coordination centre provide inside the appropriate ATS. The Alerting Service takes all the possible actions in order to safeguard the affected flight. In case the aircraft is crashed the alerting service will send rescue people in order to rescue the people inside the affected aircraft. NOTIFICATION TO RESCUE COORDINATION CENTRE: There are three types of notifications provided by the Flight Information Centre to rescue the coordination centre. 1. UNCERTAINLY PHASE. 2. ALERT PHASE. 3. DISTRESS PHASE. UNCERTAINLY PHASE:  When no communication has been received from an aircraft within 30 minutes from the last communication  When an aircraft fails to arrive within the estimated time of departure the uncertainly phase will occur for the aircraft

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

‘INCERFA’ is the code send by the flight information centre to the rescue coordination centre.

ACTION PHASE:
 Following the uncertainly phase if the alerting service fails to establish the communication between the affected aircraft and the ATS is called as alert phase.  During this phase ‘ALVERFA’ mode will be sent from FIC to Rescue co ordination centre.  When an aircraft fails to leave the land within 5 minutes from the estimated landing time or any operating controls inside the aircraft is damaged, the affected flight will come under alert phase.

DISTRESS PHASE:
 When following the alert phase there is no communication established between the affected flight with the various nearby ATS will come under distress phase. ‘DITERFA’ is the code send by FIC to RCC.  When the fuel on board is considered to be exhausted or to be insufficient to reach their aerodrome safely will also come under distress phase.

CONTENTS OF NOTIFICTION:
The notification of alert phase consists of following contents: 1. INCERFA, ALERFA, DETERFA (as appropriate to the phase of emergency) 2. Agency and person calling 3. Nature of emergency 4. Significant information from the flight plan 5. Unit which has made last contact to the affected aircraft. 6. Last position report 7. Colour and identification marks of the aircraft. 8. Other necessary remarks.

RULES OF AIR:
The rules of air shall apply to the aircraft which is approved by the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO). There are two types of rules of air  VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR)  INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR)

VFR (VISUAL FLIGHT RULES)
    The visual flight rule can be applicable for all classes of flights from class A to class G. The VFR can be used only when the aircraft is flying in the VMC region. The aircraft which is moving below 450 from the ground visibility region can follow VFR. The aircraft should get proper approval from ATC in order to use VFR for landing and takeoff.

The aircraft should not enter VFR  When the ceiling is less than 600 m  When the ground visibility is less than 5 km The VFR flights should not be operated,  At transonic and supersonic speed.  Over congested areas of cities or open air assembly of persons.

Special VFR flight:
When traffic condition permits and the proper clearance are obtained from appropriate ATC, the aircraft can do emergency landing and take-off.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

UNIT-V
AERODROME DATE, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND OBSTACLE RESTRICTIONS AERODROME BASIC CONCEPTS: A defined area on land or water intended to be used for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft. AERODROME REFERENCE CODE: The code which is used to identify the aerodrome when the aircraft is on air is called as aerodrome reference code. This code is composed of two elements: ELEMENT 1: It gives the reference field length of the aeroplane. EX: 1, 2, 3, 4, ELEMENT 2: It is based on the aeroplane wingspan and outer main gear wheel span. EX: A to F AERODROME REFERENCE POINT: The aerodrome reference point shall be located near the geometric centre of the aerodrome. This reference point is given in degrees, minutes and seconds. AERODROME ELEVATION: The aerodrome elevation points are measured in order to study about the surface of aerodrome. This will be reported to the aerodrome information service. It is measured at every one-half meter for non-precision runway and one-quarter metre for precision runway. RUNWAY: A defined rectangular area on land prepared for landing and take-off of aircraft is called as runway. There are two types of runways. 1. NON-PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY 2. PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY.

NON-PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY:
An instrument runway served by visual aids for providing directional guidance is called as nonprecision approach runway.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAY:
An instrument runway served by instrument landing system and visual aids for providing directional guidance is called as precision approach runway. There are three categories of precision approach runway  CATEGORY I –visual range not less than 550 m from the ground level.  CATEGORY II – visual range not less than 350 m  CATEGORY III – visual range below 300m.

USABILITY FACTOR OF RUNWAY:
It is defined as the percentage of time during which the usage of runway is not restricted due to cross wind component. The usability factor depends on  Wind direction  Alignment of runway for safe approach of aircraft

THRESHOLD:
It is located at the extreme points of the runway. It can be displaced either permanently or temporarily. It is used to give intimation to the pilot about the starting and ending point of the runway.

RUNWAY SHOULDERS: When the wing span is from 36 m to 80 m and outer main gear assembly is from 9 m to 16 m runway shoulders are used. The runway shoulders should have enough width and strength in order to withstand the entire weight of the aircraft. RUNWAY STRIPE: There are lines which are used to specify the landing area, taxing way, stop way and clearway etc. CLEARWAY: The specified area from which the initial climb to specified height can be achieved is called as clearway. STOPWAY: The specified area in which an aircraft can be stopped in case of bomb threat is called as stopway.

TAXIWAY:
A defined area of aerodrome established to provide link between one part of the aerodrome to other is called as taxiway.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

There are three types of taxiway 1. Aircraft stand taxiway 2. Apron taxiway 3. Rapid exit taxiway. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MARKING SYSTEM:
A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface movement of the aerodrome area is called ass marking system of aerodrome. There are three types of markings available: 1. Runway marking 2. Taxiway marking 3. Stopway marking RUNWAY MARKING: The runway should be marked in order to give clear idea about runway to the pilot on air. This runway marking is done at the centre of the runway for the smooth and efficient landing of aircraft. The runway marking is also be done at either of runway in order to avoid crashing of aircraft. The pilot should land the main landing gear on the centre line of runway and he should maintain the total wingspan should not exceed above the sideway marking.

TAXIWAY MARKING:
The taxiway marking is used to taxing out the aircraft from the runway to other part of the aerodrome. STOPWAY MARKING: The stop way marking is used to park the aircraft from the runway to other part of the aerodrome. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------COLOURING OF RUNWAY MARKING:  The runway marking is done by white colour with black outline.  The reflective materials are coated over the marking in order to provide clear visibility to the pilot

RUNWAY DESIGNATION MARKING:
 The runway designation marking should be provided at the thresholds of the runway.  The runway designation marking shall consist of 2 digit number which may be supplemented with a letter in case of parallel runways.  The designation marking is a whole number which is located nearest to the 1/10 the of the magnetic north pole. So it will be clearly visible to the pilot on air.

RUNWAY CENTERLINE MARKING:
 The runway centreline marking shall be located along the centreline of the runway.  The length of the centreline stripes shall not be less than 50 m or more than 75 m.  The gap between each runway is maintained within 30 m. THRESHOLD MARKING:  The threshold marking is done at both ends of the runway.  The threshold marking shall commence from 6 m from the threshold.  The number of stripes for the threshold will get increased according to the runway width.  For ex: RUNWAY WIDTH NUMBER OF STRIPES 18 m 4 23 m 6 30 m 8 45 m 12 60 m 16

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

TRANSVERSE STRIPE: It is used to display the threshold displacement from the normal threshold distance. The transverse stripe shall not be less than 1.8 m wide. AIMING POINT MARKING:  Aiming point marking shall be provided at each approach end of a paved instrument runway.  The aiming point should be located after the threshold points. TOUCH DOWN MARKING:  Touch down marking shall be provided in the touch down zone in order to land the aircraft in the specified landing area of the runway.  The touch down marking consists of two stripes at either ends of the centre runway marking. RUNWAY SIDE STRAIGHT MARKING:  The runway side straight marking shall be provided at the runway edges and the shoulders.  It has an overall width of 0.9 m on 30 m runway (or) 0.45 m on narrower runways. TAXIWAY CENTERLINE MARKING:  Taxiway centreline marking should be provided for indicating taxiway, de-icing or anti-icing facilities provided inside the aerodrome.  The taxiway centreline marking should be at least 15 cm in width and continuous in length with interaction due to runway holding position. AIRCRAFT STAND MARKING:  It is provided for designated parking position of the aircraft or for providing de-icing or antiicing facility  It consists of 1. Stand identification 2. Turn bar 3. Turning line 4. Alignment bar 5. Stop line. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------APRON SAFETY LINES:  It is provided for the safe and efficient parking of aircraft on the respective designated parking points.  It gives the wingtip clearance lines and service boundary lines for parking of aircraft. LIGHTING SYSTEM:  When the aircraft is on air, the pilot should view the runway from the designated approach point. This will be provided at day times by marking systems. During night time, the markings shall not be viewed properly, so lighting systems are used. APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM:  A simple approach lighting system is shown is above diagram. This diagram shows the approach system for runway of code no 3 or 4.  It consists of row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway extends over a distance not less than 420 m from the threshold.

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

 The cross bar of 18 m or 30 m in length at a distance of 300 m from the threshold is used to provide the lighting system. The gap between each and every light shall be kept at 6m.  The lights of simple approach system are fixed lights. It shows various colours like white or red in order to provide information to the pilot on air.  The centre line light system consists of

(a) A single source (b) A barrette at least 3 m in length.
 In barrette source system, the cross bars of continuous lights is replaced by a rectangular stripe of cross bar.

VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR SYSTEM [VASIS]:
 The T-VASIS consists of 20 light units symmetrically disposed about the centre runway line.  It forms of two wing bars of four lights each with bisecting longitudinal lines of 6 lights.  The AT-VASIS shall consist of 10 lights arranged on only one side of runway as shown in above fig.

WORKING: When above approach slope: Wing bars – white light Longitudinal lights – white lights When on approach slope: Only wing bar glows in white colour When below approach slope: Wing bar- white light Longitudinal lights – red light. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

PAPI AND APAPI:
PRECISION APPROACH POSITION INDICATOR SYSTEM: (PAPI) The PAPI consists of a wing bar of 4 sharp transition multi-lamp systems. The system shall be located on the left side of the runway as shown in fig.

The A- PAPI system shall consists of only two light wingbar system placed at left hand side of the runway. WORKING OF PAPI: When on the approach slope 1. Nearest two lights – red 2. Next two lights – white When above approach slope 1. nearest one light – red 2. Other 3 lights – white

QB –AE2035: AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL AND PLANNING

When below approach slope 1. Nearest 3 lights – red 2. Farthest 1 light – white.

ADVANCED PRECISION APPROACH POSITION INDICATOR SYSTEM: (APAPI)
WORKING OF APAPI:
When on the approach slope 1. Nearest light – red 2. Next light – white When above approach slope Both units - white When below approach slope Both units – red. OTHER LIGHTING SYSTEMS: The following lighting systems are used to identify the various movements of runway inside the aerodrome  Threshold lights  Runway centre line lights  Runway end light  Runway end light  Runway touching down light  Stop way light  Taxiway lights.