ATOMIC PHYSICS

• Early models of atom and Bohr’s model • Quantum model of hydrogen atom • Wave functions for hydrogen • Physical interpretation of the quantum numbers • The X-ray spectrum of atoms • X-rays and the numbering of the elements • Lasers and laser light

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QUESTIONS to be ANSWERED today 1. Mention the postulates of Bohr’s model of H-atom.[2] 2. Based on the Bohr’s model for H-atom, obtain the expression for (a) the total energy of the H-atom (b) radii of the electron orbits. [5] Sketch the energy level diagram of H-atom schematically, indicating the energy value for each level and the transition lines for the Lyman series, Balmer series and Paschen series. [4] Write the expressions for total energy of (a) the Hatom (b) other one-electron atoms. From this, obtain the expressions for the reciprocal wavelengths Hspectral lines in terms of quantum numbers. [4]
BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 2

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4.

MIT- MANIPAL

BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM

Bohr’s postulates 1. The electron moves in circular orbits around the proton under the influence of the electric force of attraction as shown in the figure
r F

–e me v

+e r

2. Only certain electron obrits are stable (stationary states). When in one of the stationary state, the atom does not radiate energy. Hence the total energy of the atom remains constant in a stationary state.
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The frequency f of the photon emitted is independent of the frequency of electron’s orbital motion. radiation is emitted. the electron makes a transition from a –e me v +e r stable orbit of larger radius to that of smaller radius]. The frequency (f) of this radiation (photon) is given by Ei – Ef = h f .BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM r F When the atom makes a transition from higher energy state (Ei) to lower energy state (Ef ) [ie. MIT.MANIPAL 4 .

MANIPAL 5 .BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM In his semiclassical model of the H-atom Bohr postulated thatThe angular momentum of the electron in any stable orbit is quantizedmev r = n h n = 1. 3. me = mass of the electron v = speed of the electron in the orbit r = radius of the electron’s orbit +e r F –e me v r h= h 2π MIT. 2. . . .

BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM Electric potential energy 2 k e of the H-atom is U= − e r F –e me v r +e r ke= Coulomb constant The total energy of the H-atom is Newton’s 2ND law 2 me v k ee E=K +U= − 2 r k ee2 me v 2 =F = 2 r r me v 2 k ee2 ∴ K = = 2 2r BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 2 MIT.MANIPAL 6 .

.9 pm 2 mek e e 7 2 rn= n2 ao . . . Thus the electron orbit radii are quantized ao = h = 52.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM The total energy of the H-atom is k ee k ee ∴ E=K +U= − r 2r k ee E = − 2r 2 2 2 9ao 4ao –e ao +e 2 2 n h 2 v = = 2 2 m er From Newton’s 2ND law equation and orbit quantization equation n2 h 2 rn = 2 mek e e Bohr radius MIT.MANIPAL k ee2 mer n = 1. 3. 2.

2. .BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM Energy quantization Substitute rn= n2 ao in the total energy equation En k ee2 k ee2 = − = − 2r 2 ao  1    n2     13. 3.606 eV En = − . 2 n E1= –13.MANIPAL n = 1. . .606 eV MIT. E1 En = − 2 n 8 .

MANIPAL Ionization energy = minimum energy required to ionize the atom in its ground state = 13.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM k ee  1 Ei − E f 1   f = = − 2 2  h 2 a oh  n f ni   2 k ee  1 1 f 1   Use c = f λ = = − 2 2  λ c 2 aoh c  n f ni   2  1 1 1  k e e  = RH  − R = 2   n2 H λ n 2 a oh c i   f 2 MIT.6 eV for H-atom From the equation Ei – Ef = h f Frequency of the photon emitted during transition of the atom from state i to state f is RH = 1.097 x 107 /m9 .

.Nuclear charge = + Z e ao 2 radius rn = n Energy En k ee2 = − 2 ao  Z2    n2     ( )Z n = 1.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM Extension of Bohr’s theory to other one-electron atoms . MIT. . it was found that many of the lines in the H-spectrum were not single lines but closely spaced groups of lines. Limitations of Bohr’s theory: • When spectroscopic techniques improved. 2. 3. .MANIPAL 10 . • The lines appear split when the H-vapour was kept in magnetic field.

BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM Bohr’s correspondence principle: Quantum physics agrees with classical physics when the difference between quantized levels becomes vanishingly small. SJ-Example-42.MANIPAL 11 .1 Spectral lines from the star ξ-Puppis: Some mysterious lines observed in 1896 in the emission spectrum of the star ξ-Puppis fit the empirical equation   Show that these lines    1 1 1  can be explained by the = RH  − 2 2  Bohr’s theory as λ nf   ni   originating from He+.       2 2     MIT.

Find the wavelength to which radioastronomers must tune to detect signals from electrons dropping from n=273 level to n=272.2 Electronic transition in hydrogen: (A) The electron in a H-atom makes a transition from the n=2 energy level to the ground level (n=1). (B) In interstellar space highly excited hydrogen atoms called Rydberg atoms have been observed.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Example-42. Find the wavelength and the frequency of the emitted photon. (C) What is the radius of the electron orbit for a Rydberg atom for which n=273 ? (D) How fast is the electron moving in a Rydberg atom for which n=273 ? (E) What is the wavelength of the radiation from the Rydberg atom in part (B) if treated classically ? MIT.MANIPAL 12 .

95 x 10-25 N-s. Calculate (a) the energy (b) the wavelength (c) the frequency of the emitted photon.4eV. 3. Ans: 410nm.8eV. L=2. K=3.32x1014 Hz MIT.9 A photon is emitted as a hydrogen atom undergoes a transition from the n = 6 state to the n = 2 state. E=K+U=-3. 7.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Problem-42.11x10-34 kgm2/s.MANIPAL 13 . calculate (a) the radius of the orbit (b) the linear momentum of the electron (c) the angular momentum of the electron (d) the kinetic energy of the electron (e) the potential energy of the system and (f) the total energy of the system.7 A hydrogen atom is in the first excited state (n = 2). (Ans: r=0. U=-6. 9. Using the Bohr theory of the atom.4eV) SJ-Problem-42.212nm.03eV.

13 (a) Construct an energy-level diagram for the He+ ion (Z = 2).MANIPAL 14 . What is the ionization energy for He+ ? Ans: MIT.BOHR’S MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Problem-42.

m2/C2 k ee2 U(r) = − r r = radial distance of electron from proton [H-nucleus] The time-independent Schrodinger equation in 3-dimensional space is Since U has spherical symmetry.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM The potential energy function for the H-atom is ke = 8. φ): θ 2 2 2 r = x + y + zr where φ θ is the angle between z-axis and r MIT.MANIPAL y 15 x . it is easier to solve z the Schrodinger equation in spherical polar r P r coordinates (r.99 x 109 N. θ.

f(θ). g(φ). θ. one gets three different quantum numbers for each allowed state of the H-atom. The quantum numbers are integers and z r P correspond to the three independent r θ degrees of freedom. φ as follows: ψ(r.MANIPAL y x 16 . φ) = R(r) f(θ) g(φ) By solving the three separate ordinary differential equations for R(r). θ. It is possible to separate the variables r.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM φ is r the angle between the x-axis and the projection of r onto the xy-plane. φ MIT. with conditions that the normalized ψ and its first derivative are continuous and finite everywhere.

ml can range from –l to +l . MIT.606 eV = − . . [n allowed values]. • The application of boundary conditions on the three parts of ψ leads to important relationships among the three quantum numbers: n can range from 1 to ∞. 2. l can range from 0 to n–1 . 2 n n = 1.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM The radial function R(r) of ψ is associated with the principal quantum number n. which is in agreement with Bohr theory. [(2l+1) allowed values]. • The azimuthal function g(φ) is associated with the orbital magnetic quantum number ml. . 3. From this theory the energies of the allowed states for the H-atom are En  k ee2  1 = −  2a   n2 o   13.MANIPAL 17 . . • The polar function f(θ) is associated with the orbital quantum number l.

. l= l= l= l= l= l= . ..... .. s subshell p subshell d subshell f subshell g subshell h subshell . ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ K L M N O P . 0 ⇒ 1 ⇒ 2 ⇒ 3 ⇒ 4 ⇒ 5 ⇒ .MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 18 . ..... . shell shell shell shell shell shell . . .All states having the same principal quantum no are said to form a shell.. .. MIT.. 1 2 3 4 5 6 ... . All states having the same values of n and l are said to form a subshell n= n= n= n= n= n= .. .

MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 19 . and calculate the energies of these states. MIT.3 The n = 2 level of hydrogen: For a H-atom.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Example-42. determine the number of allowed states corresponding to the principal quantum number n = 2.

16 A general expression for the energy levels 2 2 2 µ k e q1 q2 of one-electron atoms and ions is En = − 2 h 2n2 where ke is the the Coulomb constant. m1m2 and μ is the reduced mass.3 nm (visible red light). given by µ = m1 + m2 The wavelength for n = 3 to n = 2 Transition of the hydrogen atom is 656. q1 and q2 are the charges of the electron and the nucleus. What are the wavelengths for this same transition in (a) positronium(which consists of an electron and a positron) and (b) singly ionized helium ? MIT.MANIPAL 20 .SJ-Problem-42.

• For hydrogen • For positronium Ans: Wavelength doubles. So .All the factors in the given equation are constant for this problem except for the reduced mass and the nuclear charge. b) energy becomes 4 times.31 µm. wavelength=656. 1.3/4= 164nm 21 .. Therefore. ie. the wavelength corresponding to the energy difference for the transition can be found simply from the ratio of mass and charge variables.

but the uncertainty in its position is approximately equal to the radius r of its orbit. The electron’s average vector momentum is zero. but its averaged squared momentum is equal to the squared uncertainty in its momentum. p2 The electron has a kinetic energy K = 2me The atom has a potential energy and total energy E = K + U.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Problem-42. as given by the uncertainty principle. MIT. If the electron is bound to the proton to form a Hatom.MANIPAL 22 k ee2 U= − r . its average position is at the proton.17 An electron of momentum p is at a distance r from a stationary proton.

MIT.THE QUANTUM MODEL OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM SJ-Problem-42. Compare your answer with the predictions of the Bohr theory. and total energies in terms of r. (a) estimate the uncertainty in the electron’s momentum in terms of r. Find that value of r and the resulting total energy. (b) Estimate the electron’s kinetic. (c) The actual value of r is the one that minimizes the total energy.MANIPAL 23 . potential. resulting in a stable atom. K = 2me Treating the atom as one-dimensional system.17 continued… An electron of momentum p is at a distance r from a 2 p stationary proton.

• A MIT-MANIPAL 24 .

2. [4] The wave function for H-atom in 2s state is  1   r      ψ 2 s (r ) = 2− e     ao  4 2 π  ao   Write the expression for the radial probability density of H-atom in 2s state. Give a brief account of quantum model of H-atom.MANIPAL 25 3 2 − r ao . The wave function for H-atom in ground state is [2] ψ1s (r) = 1 π a3 o e − r ao 3.QUESTIONS to be Answered 1. radial distance. Obtain an expression for the radial probability density of H-atom in ground state. Sketch schematically the plot of this vs. [2] 1 MIT. radial distance. Sketch schematically the plot of this vs.

• Sketch schematically the plot of the radial probability density vs. radial distance for H-atom in 1s-state and 2s-state. [2] • Give the physical interpretation of the following: (a) Orbital quantum number l (b) Orbital magnetic quantum number ml (c) Spin magnetic quantum number ms

[1] [4] [3]

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THE WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN The potential energy for H-atom depends only on the radial distance r between nucleus and electron. ∴ some of the allowed states for the H-atom can be represented by wave functions that depend only on r (spherically symmetric function). The simplest wave function for H-atom is the 1s-state (ground state) wave function (n = 1, l = 0): r − 1 ao

ψ1s (r) =

π a3 o

e

ao = Bohr radius.

ψ1 s

2

 1   =  3  πa  e  o

2r ao

|ψ1s|2 is the probability density for H-atom in 1s-state.
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THE WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN The radial probability density P(r) is the probability per unit radial length of finding the electron in a spherical shell of radius r and thickness dr.

P(r) dr is the probability of finding the electron in this shell. P(r) dr = |ψ|2 dv = |ψ|2 4πr2 dr ∴ P(r) = 4πr2 |ψ|2

Radial probability density for H-atom in its ground state:

 4r  3 P 1s ( r ) =   ao
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  e 

2r ao

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rMOST PROBABLE = ao rAVERAGE = 3ao/2 Cross-section of the spherical electronic charge distribution of Hatom in 1s-state 29 . P1s(r) is maximum when r = ao (Bohr radius).Plot of the probability of finding the electron as a function of distance from the nucleus for H-atom in the 1s (ground) state.

Also calculate the average value r for the electron in the ground state.4 The ground state of H-atom: Calculate the most probable value of r (= distance from nucleus) for an electron in the ground state of the Hatom.THE WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN SJ-Example-42.MANIPAL 30 . MIT.

MIT.THE WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN SJ-Example-42.MANIPAL 31 .5 Probabilities for the electron in Hatom: Calculate the probability that the electron in the ground state of H-atom will be found outside the Bohr radius.

E2 = E1/4 = –3. 32 .The next simplest wave function for the H-atom is the 2s-state wave function (n = 2.401 eV (1ST excited state). l = 0): 3 2 ψ 2 s (r ) = rMOST PROBABLE = 5ao  1   r      2− e     ao  4 2 π  ao   1 − r ao ψ2s is spherically symmetric (depends only on r).

MANIPAL 33 . MIT.THE WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN SJ-Problem-42.21 For a spherically symmetric state of a H-atom the schrodinger equation in spherical coordinates is h2 − 2m  ∂ 2 ψ 2 ∂ψ  k ee2   + − ψ = Eψ 2  ∂r  r ∂r  r  Show that the 1s wave function for an electron in H-atom ψ1s (r) = 1 π a3 o e − r ao satisfies the schrodinger equation.

Question to be answered … Give the physical interpretation of the following: (a) Orbital quantum number l [1] (b) Orbital magnetic quantum number ml [4] (c) Spin magnetic quantum number ms [3] MIT-MANIPAL 34 .

1. an atom in a state whose principal quantum number n can take on the following discrete values of the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum: L = l(l + 1) h l = 0.49 x 10-34 J. n − 1 SJ-Example-42.6 Calculating L for a p-state: Calculate the magnitude of the orbital angular momentum of an electron in a p-state of hydrogen. .s 35 . .PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS The orbital quantum number l According to quantum mechanics. . . Ans: l=1 for p state. 2. L=1.

LZ = mlЋ MIT. The orbital magnetic quantum number ml specifies the allowed values of the z-component of the orbital angular momentum. According to quantum mechanics.MANIPAL 36 . r  e r Since µ = −  2m  L e   r one finds that the direction of L is quantized. This r means that r LZ (the projection of L along the z-axis [direction of B ]) can have only discrete values. there are r discrete directions allowed for the magnetic r moment vector µ with respect to magnetic field vector B.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS The orbital magnetic quantum number ml r The energy U of r a magnetic moment µ in a r the electron r with magnetic field B is U = -µ • B.

r The quantization of the possible orientationsr of L with respect to an external magnetic field B is called space quantization. Following vector model describes the space quantization for l = 2. LIES ON THE SURFACE OF A CONE AND PRECESSES ABOUT r THE DIRECTION OF B r L THE ALLOWED VALUES OF LZ θ is quantized θ≠0 LZ cos θ = r = L ml l(l + 1) 37 .

l=1 ENERGY hfo n=1.MANIPAL h(fo–∆f) hfo ml=+1 ml=0 ml=–1 h(fo+∆f) ml=0 (fo–∆f) fo (fo+∆f) SPECTRUM WITH MAG-FIELD PRESENT 38 . l=0 fo SPECTRUM WITHOUT MAG-FIELD MIT.The Zeeman effect: splitting of energy levels and hence spectral lines in magnetic field NO MAG-FIELD MAG-FIELD PRESENT n=2.

7 Space quantization for H-atom: Consider the H-atom in the l = 3 state. the allowed r values of LZ. MIT.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS SJ-Example-42. Calculate the r magnitude of L. and the corresponding angles θ that | L | makes with the z-axis. how many values of ml are allowed.MANIPAL 39 . For an arbitrary value of l.

The electron spin does not come from the schrodinger equation. There can be only two directions for the spin r angular momentum vector S. l. ml are generated by applying boundary conditions to solutions of the schrodinger equation.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS The spin magnetic quantum number ms The quantum numbers n.MANIPAL 40 . spin-up and spin-down as shown in the figure: MIT. This originates from the relativistic properties of the electron. The experimental evidence showed the necessity of the spin magnetic quantum number ms which describes the electron to have some intrinsic angular momentum.

like mass magnitude S a single s=½: S= r S s (s + 1) h = 3 h 2 is quantized in space as described in the figure: It can have two orientations relative to a z-axis. The spin angular momentum for the electron is expressed in terms of quantum number (spin quantum number).MANIPAL 41 . The z-component of S is : SZ = msЋ = ±Ћ/2 MIT. specified by the spin magnetic quantum number r ms = ±½.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS Spin is an intrinsic property of a particle. and charge.

27 x 10 −24 J / T 2 me MIT. r The spin magnetic moment µSPIN of the r electron is related to its spin angular momentum S r  e r  µSPIN = −   m S  e eh Z-component of the µ SPIN.Z = ± spin magnetic moment: 2 me Bohr magneton eh µB = = 9.MANIPAL 42 .PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS The value ms = +½ is for spin-up case and ms = –½ is for spin-down case.

PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS SJ-Example-42. MIT. determine the quantum numbers associated with the possible states that correspond to the principal quantum number n = 2.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 43 .8 Putting some spin on H-atom: For a H-atom.

(b) n=2. (d) n=4.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 44 .27 How many sets of quantum numbers are possible are possible for an electron for which (a) n=1. and (e) n=5 ? Check your results to show that they agree with the general rule that the number of sets of quantum numbers for a shell is equal to 2n2.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS SJ-Problem-42. MIT. (c) n=3.

MIT-MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-QUANTUM MECHANICS-2010-2011 45 .

1.-1. ml = -2. Imagine that the electrons in an atom were replaced by ρ-mesons.0. s=1 and ms= -1.1 MIT.2. and a mass 1507 times that of the electron. n=3.31 The ρ-meson has a charge of –e.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 46 .0. Ans: The 3d subshell has l=2. a spin quantum number of 1. List the possible sets of quantum numbers for ρ-mesons in the 3dsubshell.PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE QUANTUM NUMBERS SJ-Problem-42.

[4] • Explain the characteristic x-ray spectrum with a schematic plot of the spectrum. [2] • Obtain an expression for the cutoff wavelength in the continuous xray spectrum. [3] • Write Moseley’s relation for the frequency of characteristic x-rays. [4] MIT-MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-QUANTUM MECHANICS-2010-2011 47 . sketch schematically the Moseley’s plot of characteristic x-rays.Questions to be answered… • Explain the continuous x-ray spectrum with a schematic plot of the spectrum. [2] • Explain the origin of characteristic x-ray spectrum with a sketch of xray energy level diagram. [2] • Obtain Moseley’s relation for characteristic x-ray frequency from Bohr theory.

MIT.5 pm 48 .MANIPAL TARGET: MOLYBDENUM X-RAY TUBE VOLTAGE: ∆V = 35 kV λMIN = 35. • The x-ray spectrum has two parts: continuous spectrum and characteristic spectrum. shown in the figure below: • The x-rays are emitted by atoms in a target when the atoms are bombarded with high energy electrons.THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS To examine the motions of electrons that lie deep within multielectron atoms. • Sharply defined cutoff wavelength (λMIN) is a prominent feature of the continuous x-ray spectrum. one needs to consider the x-ray spectrum of atoms.

hitting a target atom.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 49 . The electron’s initial kinetic energy is K = e ∆V. Thus the emitted x-rays can have any value for the wavelength above λMIN in the continuous x-ray spectrum. which appears in the form of xray photon energy (Bremsstrahlung). Thus e ∆V = hfMAX = λMIN = hc e ∆V hc λ MIN λMIN depends only on ∆V MIT. ∆K can have any value from 0 to K.THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS Consider an electron accelerated through a potential difference of ∆V (x-ray tube voltage) . The electron loses its kinetic energy by an amount ∆K = hf.

∆V = x-ray tube voltage) electron strikes a target atom and knocks out one of its electrons from the inner shells with energy Enf (| Enf | ≤ K. nf = integer). When a high energy (K = e ∆V. The characteristic x-ray photon emitted has the energy: hc hf = λ MIT.MANIPAL = Eni − Enf BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 X-RAY ENERGY LEVEL DIAGRAM FOR MOLYBDENUM EKα= 17.4 keV λKα= 71 pm 50 . ni = integer). the vacancy in the inner shell is filled up by an electron from the outer shell (energy = Eni.THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS The peaks in the x-ray spectrum is the characteristic of the target element in the x-ray tube and hence they form the characteristic xray spectrum.

A Kβ x-ray results due to the transition of the electron from M-shell to K-shell. Lβ.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 51 .THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS A Kα x-ray results due to the transition of the electron from Lshell to K-shell. When the vacancy arises in the L-shell. an L-series (Lα. Lγ) of x-rays results.5pm MIT. Ans: 35. the origin of M-series of x-rays can be explained. Similarly. HRK-Sample Problem 48-1: Calculate the cutoff wavelength for the continuous spectrum of x-rays emitted when 35-keV electrons fall on a molybdenum target.

–2. producing both continuous and characteristic x-rays.4 keV respectively.THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS HRK-Exercise 48. HRK-Exercise 48.6 keV. and –0. MIT. If the accelerating potential applied to the x-ray tube is 50.0 keV.1: Show that the shortwavelength cutoff in the continuous x-ray spectrum is given by 1240 pm λMIN = ∆V where ∆V is the applied potential difference in kilovolts.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 52 . what values of (a) λMIN (b) λKβ (c) λKα result ? The energies of the K-shell.5: Electrons bombard a molybdenum target. L-shell and M-shell in the molybdenum atom are –20.0 kV.

9° when reflected from the alternating planes of the sodium atoms. If a Kα x-ray from copper is incident on a sodium chloride crystal and gives a first-order Bragg reflection at 15.THE X-RAY SPECTRUM OF ATOMS HRK-Exercise 48. respectively. determine the wavelengths of the resulting photons.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 53 . Neglect the recoil of the heavy target atoms.0 keV.979 keV and 0. If an electron makes three collisions in the target before coming to rest and loses one-half of its remaining kinetic energy on each of the first two collisions.951 keV. what is the spacing between these planes ? MIT.9: X-rays are produced in an x-ray tube by a target potential of 50. HRK-Exercise 48.12: The binding energies of K-shell and L-shell electrons in copper are 8.

MANIPAL 54 . the elements are arranged according to their atomic numbers in the periodic table MOSELEY PLOT OF THE Kα X-RAYS MIT. Based on this observation.X-RAYS AND THE NUMBERING OF THE ELEMENTS Moseley’s observation on the characteristic Kα x-rays shows a relation between the frequency (f) of the Kα x-rays and the atomic number (Z) of the target element in the x-ray tube: f = C (Z − 1) C is a constant.

X-RAYS AND THE NUMBERING OF THE ELEMENTS Bohr theory and the Moseley plot: Bohr’s formula for the frequency of radiation corresponding to a transition in a one-electron atom between any two atomic levels i and f differing in energy by ∆E is m Z 2e 4  1 1  ∆E  2 − 2 f = = 2 3  h 8 ε oh  n f ni   In a many-electron atom. the effective nuclear charge felt by an L-electron can be thought of as equal to +(Z–b)e instead of +Ze. where b is the screening constant due to the screening effect by the only K-electron. for a Kα transition. MIT.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 55 .

X-RAYS AND THE NUMBERING OF THE ELEMENTS Bohr theory and the Moseley plot: ∴ Frequency of the Kα x-ray is m (Z − b ) e  1 1   f = − 2 2 3 2   8 ε oh 1 2   1 2 4 MOSELEY PLOT OF THE Kα X-RAYS and or  3 m e4  2  f =  2 3  32 ε h  (Z − b ) o   sin ce b ≈ 1 f = C (Z − 1) HRK-Sample problem 48-2: Calculate the value of the constant C in the Moseley’s relation for x-ray frequency and compare it with the measured slope of the straight line in Moseley plot. 56 .

What is the impurity ? MIT. The wavelengths of the Kα lines are 178. due to an impurity in the target.X-RAYS AND THE NUMBERING OF THE ELEMENTS HRK-Sample Problem 48-3: A cobalt target is bombarded with electrons.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 57 . fainter characteristic spectrum is also found.9 pm (cobalt) and 143. A second. and the wavelengths of its characteristic x-ray spectrum are measured.5 pm (impurity).

QUESTIONS 1. MIT. Give a brief account of a He-Ne laser. Explain the following terms with reference to lasers: (a) spontaneous emission (b) stimulated emission (c) metastable state (d) population inversion (e) pumping (f) active medium (g) resonant cavity. 3.MANIPAL 58 . [2] [2] [2] [2] [1] [2] [1] [5] [4] 2. Explain the principle of a laser.

Interaction of radiation with matter Absorption: Absorption of a photon of frequency f takes place when the energy difference E2 – E1 of the allowed energy states of the atomic system equals the energy hf of the photon.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Characteristics of laser light: Laser light is highly monochromatic. Then the photon disappears and the atomic system moves to upper energy state E2 MIT.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 59 . highly directional and can be sharply focused. highly coherent.

MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 60 . it comes back to the state of lower energy on its own accord by emitting a photon of energy hf = E2– E1 In an ordinary light source the radiation of light from different atoms is not coherent. MIT.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Spontaneous Emission: The average life time of the atomic system in the excited state is of the order of 10–8 s. After the life time of the atomic system in the excited state. The radiations are emitted in different directions in random manner. Such type of emission of radiation is called spontaneous emission.

LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Stimulated Emission: When a photon (stimulating photon) of suitable frequency interacts with an excited atomic system. In stimulated emission. these two photons are coherent. same phase and are in same state of polarization. Thus amplified radiation is got by stimulated emission MIT.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 61 . both the stimulating photon and the stimulated photon are of same frequency. In other words. Such an emission of radiation is called stimulated emission. it comes down to ground state before its life time. they are emitted in the same direction.

n(E2) < n(E1) if E2 > E1 (Figure a).  E 2 − E1  n(E 2 )  = exp −   n(E1 ) k T   k = Boltzmann constant. n(E2) = density of atoms with energy E2 . MIT.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Population inversion: Boltzmann statistics gives the population of atoms in various energy states at temperature T. n(E1) = density of atoms with energy E1 .MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 62 .

MIT.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Metastable state: • A metastable state is an excited energy state of an atomic system from which spontaneous transitions to lower states is forbidden (not allowed by quantum mechanical selection rules). • The average life time of the atomic system in the metastable state is of the order of 10–3 s which is much longer than that in an ordinary excited state. •Thus it is possible to have “population inversion” of atomic systems in a metastable state relative to a lower energy state. An excited atomic system goes to metastable state (usually a lower energy state) due to transfer of its extra energy by collision with another atomic system. • Stimulated transitions from the metastable state are allowed.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 63 .

or a crystal or a semiconductor.MANIPAL 64 . The atomic systems in this may have energy levels including a ground state (E1). resonant cavity and pumping system. This medium has atomic systems (active centers). This medium may be a gas. or a liquid. an excited state (E3) and a metastable state (E2). In a laser the medium chosen to amplify light is called lasing medium (active medium). MIT.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT Principle of a Laser: The main parts of a laser are lasing medium. with special system of energy levels suitable for laser action (see figure).

65 . which is required for attaining the population inversion.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT In ruby laser the lasing medium is a ruby rod. Ruby is Al2O3 doped with Cr2O3. The resonant cavity is a pair of parallel mirrors to reflect the radiation back into the lasing medium. MIT. The atoms in the state E2 come down to state E1 by stimulated emission. Cr3+ ions are the active centres. Pumping is a process of exciting more number of atoms in the ground state to higher energy states. which have approximately similar energy level structure shown above.MANIPAL In Ruby laser the pumping is done by xenon flash lamp. The atoms in the state E3 may come down to state E1 by spontaneous emission or they may come down to metastable state (E2) by collision.

• The out put is an intense beam of coherent light.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT • These radiations may be reflected due to mirror action of the end faces (see figure). • The ruby laser gives red light MIT. all coherent. • When population inversion takes place at E2.MANIPAL 66 . a stray photon of right energy stimulates chain reaction. accumulates more photons. • The reflecting ends turn the coherent beam back into active region so that the regenerative process continues and part of the light beam comes out from the partial mirror as a laser pulse.

E2 and E3.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT He-Ne Laser has a glass discharge tube filled with He (80%) and Ne (20%) at low pressure. raising them to level E3 (a metastable state). Electrons and ions in the electrical gas discharge occasionally collide with Heatoms. 67 . He-gas is the “pumping” medium and Negas is the “ lasing” medium. E1. The simplified energy level diagram (see figure) shows 4 levels: Eo.

and Neatoms. The mirror M1 is fully reflective and the mirror M2 is partially reflective to allow the laser beam to come out. Thus.MANIPAL 68 . Stimulated emission from level E2 to level E1 predominates.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT During collisions between He. MIT. population inversion occurs between levels E2 and E1. to make the laser light linearly polarized. This population inversion is maintained because (1) the metastability of level E3 ensures a ready supply of Ne-atoms in level E2 and (2) level E1 decays rapidly to Eo. The Brewster’s windows W & W are at polarizing angles to the mirrors. the excitation energy of He-atom is transferred to Ne-atom (level E2). and red laser light is generated.

If the optical mechanism is shut off.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 69 . emits laser light at a wavelength 550 nm. near the centre of the visible band.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT HRK-Sample Problem 48-7: A three level laser of the type shown in figure below. what will be the ratio of the population of the upper level E2 to that of the lower level E1 at 300 K ? At what temperature for the condition of (a) would the ratio of populations be half ? MIT.

Molar mass of Al2O3 is 0.102 kg/mol. which is 6 cm long and 1 cm in diameter.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 70 . with energy levels of the type shown in the figure) for every 3500 chromium ions. The ruby laser light has a wavelength of 694. MIT. How much energy is there in a single laser pulse if all these ions come down to ground state in a single stimulated emission chain reaction episode ? Density of Al2O3 is 3700 kg/m3.4 nm.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT HRK-Sample Problem 48-8: A pulsed ruby laser has a ruby rod (Al2O3 doped with Cr2O3) as an active medium. Suppose that all the chromium ions are in metastable state (E2) and none are in ground state (E1). There is one aluminium ion (active centre.

and (b) how many photons are there in each pulse ? MIT. If a laser pulse is emitted for 12.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 71 .4 nm.0 ps and the energy release per pulse is 150 mJ.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT HRK-Exercise 48. (a) what is the length of the pulse.28: A ruby laser emits light at a wavelength of 694.

29: It is entirely possible that techniques for modulating the frequency or amplitude of a laser beam will be developed so that such a beam can serve as a carrier for television signals. If a television channel occupies a bandwidth of 10 MHz.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT HRK-Exercise 48. how many channels could be accommodated with this laser technology ? MIT. Assume also that laser systems will be available whose wavelengths can be precisely tuned to anywhere in the visible range (400 nm to 700 nm).MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 72 . much as microwave beams do now.

0 x 1020 atoms are in the lower state. (a) How many occupy the upper state under conditions of thermal equilibrium ? (b) Suppose. How many photons are emitted each minute by this laser when operating ? HRK-Exercise An atom has two energy levels with a transition wavelength of 582 nm. How much energy could be released in a single laser pulse ? 48.0 x 1020 atoms in the lower state.MANIPAL BE-PHYSICS-ATOMIC PHYSICS-2010-11 73 .33: MIT. 4. instead. that 7. with 4.8 nm and has an output power of 2.LASERS AND LASER LIGHT HRK-Exercise 48. At 300 K.0 x 1020 atoms are pumped into upper state.3 mW.30: A He-Ne laser emits light at a wavelength of 632.