Article 1. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.

They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any ind, such as race, colour, se!, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. "urthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, #urisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non$self$governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Article %. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. Article &. 'o one shall be held in slavery or servitude( slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. Article ). 'o one shall be sub#ected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Article *. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law. Article +. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Article ,. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Article -. 'o one shall be sub#ected to arbitrary arrest, detention or e!ile. Article 1.. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and

/20 'o one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality. Article 1%. during marriage and at its dissolution. family. /20 This right may not be invo ed in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non$ political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the 1nited 'ations. including his own. . /10 Everyone has the right to see and to en#oy in other countries asylum from persecution. have the right to marry and to found a family. without any limitation due to race. Article 1*. home or correspondence. /10 Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. Article 1). 'o one shall be sub#ected to arbitrary interference with his privacy. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage. /20 'o one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence.impartial tribunal. Article 11. in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. nationality or religion. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attac s. Article 1&. and to return to his country. 'or shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed. /20 Everyone has the right to leave any country. nor to attac s upon his honour and reputation. /10 2en and women of full age. /10 Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. at the time when it was committed. under national or international law. Article 12. /10 Everyone has the right to a nationality.

Article 1-. Article 21. /%0 The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government( this will shall be e!pressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Everyone. conscience and religion( this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief./20 2arriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. /10 Everyone has the right to ta e part in the government of his country. of the economic. Article 1+. /10 Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. /20 Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. /20 'o one may be compelled to belong to an association. social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. to manifest his religion or belief in teaching. worship and observance. and freedom. Article 22. either alone or in community with others and in public or private. Article 2%. practice. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and e!pression( this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to see . /10 Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. . /20 'o one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought. /%0 The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the 3tate. as a member of society. through national effort and international co$operation and in accordance with the organi4ation and resources of each 3tate. receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. Article 1.. has the right to social security and is entitled to reali4ation.. directly or through freely chosen representatives. Article 2.

/10 Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well$being of himself and of his family. Article 2*. /10 Everyone has the right to education. has the right to equal pay for equal wor . including food. and the right to security in the event of unemployment. /20 Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. widowhood. Article 2&. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure. housing and medical care and necessary social services. /%0 Everyone who wor s has the right to #ust and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an e!istence worthy of human dignity. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Article 2+. /&0 Everyone has the right to form and to #oin trade unions for the protection of his interests. /%0 6arents have a prior right to choose the ind of education that shall be given to their children. at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. All children. tolerance and friendship among all nations. to en#oy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. /10 Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community. sic ness. clothing. 5t shall promote understanding. to free choice of employment. racial or religious groups. /20 Everyone. Education shall be free. by other means of social protection. and supplemented. without any discrimination./10 Everyone has the right to wor . shall en#oy the same social protection. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. including reasonable limitation of wor ing hours and periodic holidays with pay. disability. to #ust and favourable conditions of wor and to protection against unemployment. Article 2). old age or other lac of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. and shall further the activities of the 1nited 'ations for the maintenance of peace. whether born in or out of wedloc . /20 2otherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. if necessary. .

or intimidating or coercing him or a third person./20 Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific. 'othing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any 3tate. This article is without pre#udice to any international instrument or national legislation which does or may contain provisions of wider application. when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein. literary or artistic production of which he is the author. inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions. /%0 These rights and freedoms may in no case be e!ercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the 1nited 'ations. Article %. /10 Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. Article 2. "or the purposes of this 7onvention. the term 8torture8 means any act by which severe pain or suffering. 2. everyone shall be sub#ect only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the #ust requirements of morality. punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed. /20 5n the e!ercise of his rights and freedoms. or for any reason based on discrimination of any ind. 5t does not include pain or suffering arising only from. is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession. Torture Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel. Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Article 1 1.. . public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. Article 2-. whether physical or mental.. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully reali4ed.

to any of the 3tates mentioned in paragraph 5 of this article. 2. internal political instability or any other public emergency. "or the purpose of determining whether there are such grounds. Each 3tate 6arty shall ma e these offences punishable by appropriate penalties which ta e into account their grave nature. Article ) 1. 2. return /8refouler80 or e!tradite a person to another 3tate where there are substantial grounds for believing that he would be in danger of being sub#ected to torture. Each 3tate 6arty shall ta e such measures as may be necessary to establish its #urisdiction over the offences referred to in article & in the following cases9 /a0 :hen the offences are committed in any territory under its #urisdiction or on board a ship or aircraft registered in that 3tate( /b0 :hen the alleged offender is a national of that 3tate( /c0 :hen the victim is a national of that 3tate if that 3tate considers it appropriate. The same shall apply to an attempt to commit torture and to an act by any person which constitutes complicity or participation in torture. 2. Article & 1. #udicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory under its #urisdiction. the e!istence in the 3tate concerned of a consistent pattern of gross. An order from a superior officer or a public authority may not be invo ed as a #ustification of torture. 'o e!ceptional circumstances whatsoever. Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure that all acts of torture are offences under its criminal law. flagrant or mass violations of human rights. . 'o 3tate 6arty shall e!pel. where applicable.Article 2 1. the competent authorities shall ta e into account all relevant considerations including. 2. Each 3tate 6arty shall li ewise ta e such measures as may be necessary to establish its #urisdiction over such offences in cases where the alleged offender is present in any territory under its #urisdiction and it does not e!tradite him pursuant to article . Article 3 1. may be invo ed as a #ustification of torture. administrative. whether a state of war or a threat of war. Each 3tate 6arty shall ta e effective legislative. %.

Article * 1. The custody and other legal measures shall be as provided in the law of that 3tate but may be continued only for such time as is necessary to enable any criminal or e!tradition proceedings to be instituted. 2. Any person in custody pursuant to paragraph 5 of this article shall be assisted in communicating immediately with the nearest appropriate representative of the 3tate of which he is a national. any 3tate 6arty in whose territory a person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article & is present shall ta e him into custody or ta e other legal measures to ensure his presence. submit the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution. Article 7 1. 5n the cases referred to in article ). the standards of evidence required for prosecution and conviction shall in no way be less stringent than those which apply in the cases referred to in article ). %. that the circumstances so warrant. These authorities shall ta e their decision in the same manner as in the case of any ordinary offence of a serious nature under the law of that 3tate. it shall immediately notify the 3tates referred to in article ). pursuant to this article. The offences referred to in article & shall be deemed to be included as e!traditable offences in any e!tradition treaty e!isting between 3tates 6arties. paragraph 1. The 3tate 6arty in the territory under whose #urisdiction a person alleged to have committed any offence referred to in article & is found shall in the cases contemplated in article ). if it does not e!tradite him. 3uch 3tate shall immediately ma e a preliminary inquiry into the facts. %. paragraph 1. or. after an e!amination of information available to it. has ta en a person into custody. :hen a 3tate. &.%. 1. The 3tate which ma es the preliminary inquiry contemplated in paragraph 2 of this article shall promptly report its findings to the said 3tates and shall indicate whether it intends to e!ercise #urisdiction. if he is a stateless person. with the representative of the 3tate where he usually resides. paragraph 2. Article . This 7onvention does not e!clude any criminal #urisdiction e!ercised in accordance with internal law. 1pon being satisfied. 2. Any person regarding whom proceedings are brought in connection with any of the offences referred to in article & shall be guaranteed fair treatment at all stages of the proceedings. 3tates 6arties . of the fact that such person is in custody and of the circumstances which warrant his detention.

Article 12 . medical personnel. instructions. 2. 3uch offences shall be treated. 5f a 3tate 6arty which ma es e!tradition conditional on the e!istence of a treaty receives a request for e!tradition from another 3tate 6arty with which it has no e!tradition treaty. 3tates 6arties shall carry out their obligations under paragraph 5 of this article in conformity with any treaties on mutual #udicial assistance that may e!ist between them. E!tradition shall be sub#ect to the other conditions provided by the law of the requested 3tate. for the purpose of e!tradition between 3tates 6arties. 1. 3tates 6arties shall afford one another the greatest measure of assistance in connection with criminal proceedings brought in respect of any of the offences referred to in article &. Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure that education and information regarding the prohibition against torture are fully included in the training of law enforcement personnel. it may consider this 7onvention as the legal basis for e!tradition in respect of such offences. including the supply of all evidence at their disposal necessary for the proceedings. public officials and other persons who may be involved in the custody. detention or imprisonment. Article 1. as if they had been committed not only in the place in which they occurred but also in the territories of the 3tates required to establish their #urisdiction in accordance with article ). civil or military.underta e to include such offences as e!traditable offences in every e!tradition treaty to be concluded between them. interrogation or treatment of any individual sub#ected to any form of arrest. 2. 2. &. paragraph 1. Each 3tate 6arty shall include this prohibition in the rules or instructions issued in regard to the duties and functions of any such person. methods and practices as well as arrangements for the custody and treatment of persons sub#ected to any form of arrest. with a view to preventing any cases of torture. Article 1. detention or imprisonment in any territory under its #urisdiction. 3tates 6arties which do not ma e e!tradition conditional on the e!istence of a treaty shall recogni4e such offences as e!traditable offences between themselves sub#ect to the conditions provided by the law of the requested 3tate. Article 11 Each 3tate 6arty shall eep under systematic review interrogation rules. %.

The provisions of this 7onvention are without pre#udice to the provisions of any other international instrument or national law which prohibits cruel. Article 1) Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure that any statement which is established to have been made as a result of torture shall not be invo ed as evidence in any proceedings. There shall be established a 7ommittee against Torture /hereinafter referred to as the 7ommittee0 which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. 6A. 3teps shall be ta en to ensure that the complainant and witnesses are protected against all ill$treatment or intimidation as a consequence of his complaint or any evidence given. 2. The 7ommittee . when such acts are committed by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.. Article 1& 1. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment or which relates to e!tradition or e!pulsion. 5n the event of the death of the victim as a result of an act of torture. including the means for as full rehabilitation as possible. 'othing in this article shall affect any right of the victim or other persons to compensation which may e!ist under national law. its competent authorities. and to have his case promptly and impartially e!amined by. Each 3tate 6arty shall underta e to prevent in any territory under its #urisdiction other acts of cruel. 2. his dependants shall be entitled to compensation. wherever there is reasonable ground to believe that an act of torture has been committed in any territory under its #urisdiction. 5n particular. Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure in its legal system that the victim of an act of torture obtains redress and has an enforceable right to fair and adequate compensation. Article 1% Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure that any individual who alleges he has been sub#ected to torture in any territory under its #urisdiction has the right to complain to. Article 1* 1. 11. 12 and 1% shall apply with the substitution for references to torture of references to other forms of cruel.T 55 Article 1+ 1. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment which do not amount to torture as defined in article 5. the obligations contained in articles 1. e!cept against a person accused of torture as evidence that the statement was made.Each 3tate 6arty shall ensure that its competent authorities proceed to a prompt and impartial investigation.

The 3ecretary$=eneral shall prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated. for which two thirds of the 3tates 6arties shall constitute a quorum. the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall address a letter to the 3tates 6arties inviting them to submit their nominations within three months. who shall serve in their personal capacity. indicating the 3tates 6arties which have nominated them. 1. the term of five of the members elected at the first election shall e!pire at the end of two years( immediately after the first election the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the chairman of the meeting referred to in paragraph % of this article. At those meetings. <owever.ights 7ommittee established under the 5nternational 7ovenant on 7ivil and 6olitical . the 3tate 6arty which nominated him shall appoint another e!pert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of his term. consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution and to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal e!perience. Elections of the members of the 7ommittee shall be held at biennial meetings of 3tates 6arties convened by the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations.ights and who are willing to serve on the 7ommittee against Torture.shall consist of ten e!perts of high moral standing and recogni4ed competence in the field of human rights. The 7ommittee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. The members of the 7ommittee shall be elected for a term of four years. Each 3tate 6arty may nominate one person from among its own nationals. Article 1. 3tates 6arties shall be responsible for the e!penses of the members of the 7ommittee while they are in performance of 7ommittee duties. The e!perts shall be elected by the 3tates 6arties. %. ). The approval shall be considered given unless half or more of the 3tates 6arties respond negatively within si! wee s after having been informed by the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations of the proposed appointment. &. the persons elected to the 7ommittee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute ma#ority of the votes of the representatives of 3tates 6arties present and voting. The initial election shall be held no later than si! months after the date of the entry into force of this 7onvention. The members of the 7ommittee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by 3tates 6arties. +. At. 3tates 6arties shall bear in mind the usefulness of nominating persons who are also members of the <uman . . They may be re$elected. They shall be eligible for re$election if renominated. and shall submit it to the 3tates 6arties. *. sub#ect to the approval of the ma#ority of the 3tates 6arties. 5f a member of the 7ommittee dies or resigns or for any other cause can no longer perform his 7ommittee duties. 5east four months before the date of each election. 2.

5f so requested by the 3tate 6arty concerned. reports on the measures they have ta en to give effect to their underta ings under this 7onvention. The 7ommittee shall establish its own rules of procedure. Article 11. but these rules shall provide. Thereafter the 3tates 6arties shall submit supplementary reports every four years on any new measures ta en and such other reports as the 7ommittee may request. &. %. the 7ommittee may also include a copy of the report submitted under paragraph 5 of this article. the 7ommittee shall meet at such times as shall be provided in its rules of procedure. The 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall transmit the reports to all 3tates 6arties. including reimbursement to the 1nited 'ations for any e!penses. inter alia. at its discretion. Each report shall be considered by the 7ommittee which may ma e such general comments on the report as it may consider appropriate and shall forward these to the 3tate 6arty concerned. The 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall convene the initial meeting of the 7ommittee. The 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the 7ommittee under this 7onvention.2. that9 /a0 3i! members shall constitute a quorum( /b0 Decisions of the 7ommittee shall be made by a ma#ority vote of the members present. After its initial meeting. 1. The 7ommittee may. in its annual report made in accordance with article 2&. 2. decide to include any comments made by it in accordance with paragraph % of this article. %. Article 2. ). together with the observations thereon received from the 3tate 6arty concerned. That 3tate 6arty may respond with any observations it chooses to the 7ommittee. within one year after the entry into force of the 7onvention for the 3tate 6arty concerned. 5f the 7ommittee receives reliable information which appears to it to contain well$ founded indications that torture is being systematically practised in the territory of a 3tate . The 3tates 6arties shall submit to the 7ommittee. such as the cost of staff and facilities. through the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. The 3tates 6arties shall be responsible for e!penses incurred in connection with the holding of meetings of the 3tates 6arties and of the 7ommittee. &. incurred by the 1nited 'ations pursuant to paragraph % of this article.

and at all stages of the proceedings the co$operation of the 3tate 6arty shall be sought. 2. 5f an inquiry is made in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article. 3uch communications may be received and considered according to the procedures laid down in this article only if submitted by a 3tate 6arty which has made a declaration recogni4ing in regard to itself the competence of the 7ommittee. 'o communication shall be dealt with by the 7ommittee under this article if it concerns a 3tate 6arty which has not made such a declaration. the 7ommittee shall see the co$operation of the 3tate 6arty concerned. if it decides that this is warranted. the 7ommittee may. the 7ommittee shall invite that 3tate 6arty to co$operate in the e!amination of the information and to this end to submit observations with regard to the information concerned. After e!amining the findings of its member or members submitted in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article. %. pending or available in the matter( /b0 5f the matter is not ad#usted to the satisfaction of both 3tates 6arties concerned within . by written communication. the 7ommittee may. reference to domestic procedures and remedies ta en. 7ommunications received under this article shall be dealt with in accordance with the following procedure( /a0 5f a 3tate 6arty considers that another 3tate 6arty is not giving effect to the provisions ofthis 7onvention. such an inquiry may include a visit to its territory. the 7ommission shall transmit these findings to the 3tate 6arty concerned together with any comments or suggestions which seem appropriate in view of the situation. to the e!tent possible and pertinent. designate one or more of its members to ma e a confidential inquiry and to report to the 7ommittee urgently. bring the matter to the attention of that 3tate 6arty.6arty. After such proceedings have been completed with regard to an inquiry made in accordance with paragraph 2. after consultations with the 3tate 6arty concerned. which should include. it may. All the proceedings of the 7ommittee referred to in paragraphs 5 to & of th is article s hall be con fidential . &. as well as any other relevant information available to it. :ithin three months after the receipt of the communication the receiving 3tate shall afford the 3tate which sent the communication an e!planation or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter. ). Ta ing into account any observations which may have been submitted by the 3tate 6arty concerned. decide to include a summary account of the results of the proceedings in its annual report made in accordance with article 2&. Article 21 1. A 3tate 6arty to this 7onvention may at any time declare under this article that it recogni4es the competence of the 7ommittee to receive and consider communications to the effect that a 3tate 6arty claims that another 3tate 6arty is not fulfilling its obligations under this 7onvention. 5n agreement with that 3tate 6arty.

si! months after the receipt by the receiving 3tate of the initial communication. referred to in subparagraph /b0. in conformity with the generally recogni4ed principles of international law. set up an ad hoc conciliation commission( /f0 5n any matter referred to it under this article. the 7ommittee may call upon the 3tates 6arties concerned. to supply any relevant information( /g0 The 3tates 6arties concerned. the 7ommittee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached( /ii0 5f a solution within the terms of subparagraph /e0 is not reached. 2. This shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unli ely to bring effective relief to the person who is the victim of the violation of this 7onvention( /d0 The 7ommittee shall hold closed meetings when e!amining communications under this article( /e0 3ub#ect to the provisions of subparagraph /e0. the report shall be communicated to the 3tates 6arties concerned. 3uch declarations shall be deposited by the 3tates 6arties with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. by notice given to the 7ommittee and to the other 3tate( /c0 The 7ommittee shall deal with a matter referred to it under this article only after it has ascertained that all domestic remedies have been invo ed and e!hausted in the matter. the 7ommittee shall ma e available its good offices to the 3tates 6arties concerned with a view to a friendly solution of the matter on the basis of respect for the obligations provided for in this 7onvention. the 7ommittee may. either 3tate shall have the right to refer the matter to the 7ommittee. the 7ommittee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts( the written submissions and record of the oral submissions made by the 3tates 6arties concerned shall be attached to the report. 3uch a withdrawal shall not pre#udice the consideration of any matter which is the sub#ect of a communication already transmitted under this article( no further communication by any 3tate 6arty shall be received under this article after the notification of withdrawal of the . "or this purpose. submit a report9 /i0 5f a solution within the terms of subparagraph /e0 is reached. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the 3ecretary$=eneral. who shall transmit copies thereof to the other 3tates 6arties. shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being considered by the 7ommittee and to ma e submissions orally and>or in writing( /h0 The 7ommittee shall. 5n every matter. within twelve months after the date of receipt of notice under subparagraph /b0. when appropriate. The provisions of this article shall come into force when five 3tates 6arties to this 7onvention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of this article. referred to in subparagraph /b0.

if any. %. *. The 7ommittee shall consider communications received under this article in the light of all information made available to it by or on behalf of the individual and by the 3tate 6arty concerned. The 7ommittee shall forward its views to the 3tate 6arty concerned and to the individual. :ithin si! months. 2. ). e!amined under another procedure of international investigation or settlement( /b0 The individual has e!hausted all available domestic remedies( this shall not be the rule where the application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged or is unli ely to bring effective reliefto the person who is the victim of the violation of this 7onvention. . 3uch declarations shall be deposited by the 3tates 6arties with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations.. 3uch a withdrawal shall not pre#udice the consideration of any matter which is the sub#ect of a .declaration has been received by the 3ecretary$=eneral. The 7ommittee shall not consider any communications from an individual under this article unless it has ascertained that9 /a0 The same matter has not been. 'o communication shall be received by the 7ommittee if it concerns a 3tate 6arty which has not made such a declaration. Article 22 1. The 7ommittee shall consider inadmissible any communication under this article which is anonymous or which it considers to be an abuse of the right of submission of such communications or to be incompatible with the provisions of this 7onvention. 3ub#ect to the provisions of paragraph 2. +. &. and is not being. that may have been ta en by that 3tate. the 7ommittee shall bring any communications submitted to it under this article to the attention of the 3tate 6arty to this 7onvention which has made a declaration under paragraph 5 and is alleged to be violating any provisions of the 7onvention. who shall transmit copies thereof to the other 3tates 6arties. unless the 3tate 6arty concerned has made a new declaration. The provisions of this article shall come into force when five 3tates 6arties to this 7onvention have made declarations under paragraph 1 of this article. The 7ommittee shall hold closed meetings when e!amining communications under this article. A 3tate 6arty to this 7onvention may at any time declare under this article that it recogni4es the competence of the 7ommittee to receive and consider communications from or on behalf of individuals sub#ect to its #urisdiction who claim to be victims of a violation by a 3tate 6arty of the provisions of the 7onvention. A declaration may be withdrawn at any time by notification to the 3ecretary$=eneral. the receiving 3tate shall submit to the 7ommittee written e!planations or statements clarifying the matter and the remedy.

2.. paragraph 5 /e0. Article 2* This 7onvention is open to accession by all 3tates. Any 3tate 6arty having made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 5 of this article may. Article 2. privileges and immunities of e!perts on mission for the 1nited 'ations as laid down in the relevant sections of the 7onvention on the 6rivileges and 5mmunities of the 1nited 'ations. Article 2& The 7ommittee shall submit an annual report on its activities under this 7onvention to the 3tates 6arties and to the =eneral Assembly of the 1nited 'ations. 1. Article 2% The members of the 7ommittee and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions which may be appointed under article 21. 2. at any time. the 7onvention shall enter into force onthe thirtieth day after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession. 2.communication already transmitted under this article( no further communication by or on behalf of an individual shall be received under this article after the notification of withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the 3ecretary=eneral.T 555 Article 2) 1. withdraw this reservation by notification to the 3ecretary$ . Article 2+ 1. at the time of signature or ratification of this 7onvention or accession thereto. "or each 3tate ratifying this 7onvention or acceding to it after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession. shall be entitled to the facilities. 5nstruments of ratification shall be deposited with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. This 7onvention is open for signature by all 3tates. declare that it does not recogni4e the competence of the 7ommittee provided for in article 2. This 7onvention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date of the deposit with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession. unless the 3tate 6arty has made a new declaration. This 7onvention is sub#ect to ratification. Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of accession with the 3ecretary=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. 6A. Each 3tate may.

The other 3tates 6arties shall not be bound by paragraph 5 of this article with respect to any 3tate 6arty having made such a reservation. Any 3tate 6arty to this 7onvention may propose an amendment and file it with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 5 of this article.=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 5 of this article shall enter into force when two thirds of the 3tates 6arties to this 7onvention have notified the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations that they have accepted it in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. at the request of one of them. The 3ecretary=eneral shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to the 3tates 6arties with a request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of 3tates 6arties for the purpose of considering an d voting upon the proposal. other 3tates 6arties still being bound by the provisions of this 7onvention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted. Article 21 . any one of those 6arties may refer the dispute to the 5nternational 7ourt of ?ustice by request in conformity with the 3tatute of the 7ourt. %. Any amendment adopted by a ma#ority of the 3tates 6arties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted by the 3ecretary$=eneral to all the 3tates 6arties for acceptance. 2. 1. 5n the event that within four months from the date of such communication at least one third of the 3tates 6arties favours such a conference. . Each 3tate may. 5f within si! months from thc date of the request for arbitration the 6arties are unable to agree on the organi4ation of the arbitration. :hen amendments enter into force. Any 3tate 6arty having made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article may at any time withdraw this reservation by notification to the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. at the time of signature or ratification of this 7on vention or accession thereto. be submitted to arbitration. the 3ecretary=eneral shall convene the conference under the auspices of the 1nited 'ations. 2. Any dispute between two or more 3tates 6arties concerning the interpretation or application of this 7onvention which cannot be settled through negotiation shall. %. Article %1 1. Article %. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of$ the notification by the 3ecretary$=eneral . A 3tate 6arty may denounce this 7onvention by written notification to the 3ecretary$ =eneral of the 1nited 'ations. they shall be binding on those 3tates 6arties which have accepted them.

of which the Arabic. 2. %. ratifications and accessions under articles 2) and 2*( /b0 The date of entry into force of this 7onvention under article 2+ and the date of the entry into force of any amendments under article 2-( /c0 Denunciations under article %1. "ollowing the date at which the denunciation of a 3tate 6arty becomes effective. colour. national or social origin. 2. birth or other status. Each 3tate 6arty to the present 7ovenant underta es to respect and to ensure to all individuals within its territory and sub#ect to its #urisdiction the rights recogni4ed in the present 7ovenant. to adopt such laws or other measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recogni4ed in the present 7ovenant. such as race. religion. 3uch a denunciation shall not have the effect of releasing the 3tate 6arty from its obligations under this 7onvention in regard to any act or omission which occurs prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective. nor shall denunciation pre#udice in any way the continued consideration of any matter which is already under consideration by the 7ommittee prior to the date at which the denunciation becomes effective. The 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall transmit certified copies of this 7onvention to all 3tates. shall be deposited with the 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations. 7hinese. in accordance with its constitutional processes and with the provisions of the present 7ovenant. "rench. language. %. without distinction of any ind. Article %% 1. English.2.ussian and 3panish te!ts are equally authentic. the 7ommittee shall not commence consideration of any new matter regarding that 3tate. :here not already provided for by e!isting legislative or other measures. political or other opinion. . Each 3tate 6arty to the present 7ovenant underta es9 /a0 To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recogni4ed are . Article %2 The 3ecretary$=eneral of the 1nited 'ations shall inform all 3tates 2embers of the 1nited 'ations and all 3tates which have signed this 7onvention or acceded to it of the following9 /a0 3ignatures. each 3tate 6arty to the present 7ovenant underta es to ta e the necessary steps. This 7onvention. ICCPR Article 2 1. se!. property.

if it prefers. This obligation arises regardless of the e!traterritorial nature of the crime and regardless of the fact that the perpetrator and victim may be of alien nationality 3ee 7onvention against Torture. inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. any of the grave breaches of the present 7onvention defined in the following Article B @in C . provided such <igh 7ontracting 6arty has made out a D prima facie D case. 5A 7ommon Articles A. or to have ordered to be committed. and shall bring such persons. Article + 'o one shall be sub#ected to torture or to cruel. notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity( /b0 To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent #udicial. no one shall be sub#ected without his free consent to medical or scientific e!perimentation. and in accordance with the provisions of its own legislation. such grave breaches. 5t may also. 555. before its own courts. + =eneva 7onvention 5. Each <igh 7ontracting 6arty shall ta e measures necessary for the suppression of all acts contrary to the provisions of the present 7onvention other than the grave breaches defined in the following Article B @in C . or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the 3tate. hand such persons over for trial to another <igh 7ontracting 6arty concerned. the accused persons shall benefit by safeguards of proper trial and . administrative or legislative authorities. Art. Each <igh 7ontracting 6arty shall be under the obligation to search for persons alleged to have committed. AUT D D R AUT !UDICAR 5n law.violated shall have an effective remedy. 5n all circumstances. the principle of aut dedere aut #udicare /@atin for 8e!tradite or prosecute80 refers to the legal obligation of states under public international law to prosecute persons who commit serious international crimes where no other state has requested e!tradition. and to develop the possibilities of #udicial remedy( /c0 To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted.T57@E &The <igh 7ontracting 6arties underta e to enact any legislation necessary to provide effective penal sanctions for persons committing. 5n particular. 55. regardless of their nationality. or ordering to be committed.

) B @in C and those following of the =eneva 7onvention relative to the Treatment of 6risoners of :ar of August 12.defence. "TRAT RRITORIA# !URI$DICTIO% U%I& R$A# !URI$DICTIO% Eernas 1)+$1*+ . 1-&-. which shall not be less favourable than those provided by Article 1.