Dr.

Cuong Huynh Telecommunications DepartmentHCMUT
CMOS ANALOG IC DESIGN
Spring 2013


1
Dr. Cuong Huynh
cuonghpm@yahoo.com

Department of Telecommunications
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Ho Chi Minh city University of Technology
Dr. Cuong Huynh Telecommunications DepartmentHCMUT
CMOS ANALOG IC DESIGN
Spring 2013


2
Dr. Cuong Huynh
cuonghpm@yahoo.com

Department of Telecommunications
Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Ho Chi Minh city University of Technology
Lecture 4: Differential Amplifiers
• A single-ended signal is measured with respect to a fixed
potential (ground)
• A differential signal is measured between two equal and
opposite signals which swing around a fixed potential
(common-mode level)
• You can decompose differential signals into a differential
mode (difference) and a common-mode (average
Single-Ended & Differential Signals
3
2

÷ +
÷ +
+
= ÷ =
out out
CM out out DM
V V
V V V V
Differential Signal Single-Ended Signal
Single-Ended & Differential Amplifiers
4
• Differential signaling
advantages
• Common-mode noise
rejection
• Higher (ideally double)
potential output swing
• Simpler biasing
• Improved linearity
• Main disadvantage is area,
which is roughly double
• Although, to get the same
performance in single-ended
designs, we often have to
increase the area
dramatically
( )
Tn GS DD
V V V ÷ ÷
Swing Output Max
( ) ( )
Tn GS DD
V V V ÷ ÷ 2
Swing Output Max
Common-Mode Level Sensitivity
5
• A design which uses two single-ended amplifiers to realize a
differential amplifier is very sensitive to the common-mode
input level
• The transistors’ bias current and transconductance can vary
dramatically with the common-mode input
• Impacts small-signal gain
• Changes the output common-mode, which impacts the maximum
output swing
Differential Pair
6
• An improved differential amplifier topology utilizes a “tail”
current source to keep the transistor bias current ideally
constant over the common-mode input range
• Allows for a constant small-signal gain and output common-
mode level
• Note, you still have to have keep the input pair and tail current
source transistors in saturation
D
SS
DD CM O
D D D m m m
D m
in in
out out
DM
R
I
V V
R R R g g g
R g
V V
V V
A
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ =
= = = =
÷ =
÷
÷
=
2
and where
,
2 1 2 1
2 1
2 1
Differential Pair Input-Output Characteristics
7
• For large-signal differential inputs, the maximum output
levels are well defined and ideally independent of the input
common-mode
• For small-signal differential inputs, the small-signal gain is
maximum at low-input signal levels
• As the differential input level increases, the circuit becomes more
nonlinear and the gain decreases
Differential Pair I-V Characteristics
8
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 1
4
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
4
1
4 using and sides both Squaring
2
2
1
2
2
using and sides both Squaring
2 2
: Difference Voltage Input
in in ox n SS in in ox n D D
D D ss D D D D D D
D D SS in in ox n
D D SS
ox n
in in
SS D D
ox n
D
ox n
D
in in
T GS T GS GS GS in in
V V
L
W
C I V V
L
W
C I I
I I I I I I I I I
I I I V V
L
W
C
I I I
L
W
C
V V
I I I
L
W
C
I
L
W
C
I
V V
V V V V V V V V
÷ + ÷
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ + =
÷ = ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷
= +
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷
µ µ
µ
µ
µ µ
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
4
2
1
in in
ox n
ss
in in ox n D D
V V
L
W
C
I
V V
L
W
C I I ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
µ
µ
Differential Pair I-V Characteristics
9
( ) ( )
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
4
2
1
in in
ox n
ss
in in ox n D D
V V
L
W
C
I
V V
L
W
C I I ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
µ
µ
• The differential current is an odd function
of the differential input voltage which
increases linearly for small inputs
• For large differential input voltages, the
output differential current compresses due
to the sqrt term
• The differential output current maxes out
when all the current flows through one
transistor at AV
in1
L
W
C
I
V
ox n
ss
in
µ
2
1
= A
Differential Pair I-V Characteristics
10
• The differential output current will saturate if
the differential input voltage exceeds sqrt(2)
times the equilibrium input overdrive voltage
( )
2
: Overdrive Input al Differenti Zero
overdrive input al differenti zero the to this relate can We
2
: Input al Differenti Maximum
of all support must M1 , At this
ideally , 0 For
0
M1 through flows current all when case he consider t range current maximum For the
1
2 , 1
1 1
1
1 1 2 1
2 2
1 1 2 1
in
ox n
SS
T GS
ox n
SS
T GS in
SS in
in T GS GS GS in
T GS D
SS D SS D D D
V
L
W
C
I
V V
L
W
C
I
V V V
I V
V V V V V V
V V I
I I I I I I
A
= = ÷
= ÷ = A
A
A = ÷ = ÷ = A
= =
= ¬ = ÷ = ÷
µ
µ
Differential Pair Transconductance
11
• The differential pair transconductance and gain is maximum near zero
input differential voltage
( ) ( )
D ss ox n D m v
D
ss ox n m
in
in
ox n
ss
in
ox n
ss
ox n
in
D
m
in in in D D D
in in
ox n
ss
in in ox n D D
R I
L
W
C R G A
R
I
L
W
C G
V
V
L
W
C
I
V
L
W
C
I
L
W
C
V
I
G
V V V I I I
V V
L
W
C
I
V V
L
W
C I I
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
= =
=
= A
A ÷
A ÷
=
A c
A c
=
÷ = A ÷ = A
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
is gain signal - small the , resistors load the g Considerin
is 0 at uctance transcond signal - small The
4
2
4
2
1
and Define
4
2
1
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1 2 1
Differential Pair Small-Signal Analysis
Method 1 - Superposition
12
• The X output from Vin1 is modeled as a
degenerated CS amplifier
Find V
out
(V
in1
)
2
1
and that Note
2
1
1 1
1
2 1 2 1
D m
m
m
D m
in
X
D D D m m m
R g
g
g
R g
V
V
R R R g g g
÷ =
+
÷
=
= = = =
Differential Pair Small-Signal Analysis
Method 1 - Superposition
13
• The Y output from Vin1 is modeled as a
Thevenin equivalent driving a CG amplifier
Find V
out
(V
in1
)
2
1
and that Note
1
2
1 2
1
2 1 2 1
D m
m
m
D m
in
Y
D D D m m m
R g
g
g
R g
V
V
R R R g g g
=
+
=
= = = =
Differential Pair Small-Signal Analysis
Method 1 - Superposition
14
( )
( )
( ) ( )
D m
in in
in in D m
in in
tot Y X
in D m
V
Y X
V
out
V
out
V
out
in D m in
D m D m
in
m
m
D m
m
m
D m
V
Y X
V
out
V
out
R g
V V
V V R g
V V
V V
V R g V V V
V V
V R g V
R g R g
V
g
g
R g
g
g
R g
V V V
V
in in
in in
in in
in
÷ =
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
= ÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
|
¹
|

\
|
÷
÷
=
|
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+
÷
+
÷
= ÷ =
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
1 1 1
1
2
1 2
2
1
1 1
: Gain al Differenti
symmetry, circuit the From
2 2
1 1
total the find To
2 2
1 2
1 1
1
Differential Pair Small-Signal Analysis
Method 2 – Half Circuit
• The symmetric differential pair can be modeled as a
Thevenin equivalent to observe how the tail node P
changes with the differential input signal
• If R
T1
=R
T2
and the input is a truly differential signal, node
P remains constant
• This allows the tail node to be treated as a “virtual ground”
15
Differential Pair Small-Signal Analysis
Method 2 – Half Circuit
16
( )
( )
D m
in
in D m
in in
Y X
D m
in
Y
D m
in
X
R g
V
V R g
V V
V V
R g
V
V
R g
V
V
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷
÷
÷ =
÷
÷ =
1
1
1 1
1
1
2
2
: Gain al Differenti
• Applying the virtual ground concept allows modeling as
two “half circuits”
Differential Pair Common-Mode Response
• Ideally, a differential amplifier completely rejects
common-mode signals, i.e. A
v,CM
=0
• In reality, the finite tail current source impedance results
in a finite common-mode gain
17
SS m
D m
SS m
D
m
CM in
out
CM v
R g
R g
R g
R
g
V
V
A
2 1 2 1
2
2
,
,
+
÷ =
+
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ = =
Differential Pair with Diode Loads
• While the gain of this amplifier is relatively small,
it is somewhat predictable, as it is defined by the
ratio of the transistor sizes and the n/p mobility
18
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3 3 1
1
0 Assuming
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ =
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ ~
÷ ~
+ +
÷ =
=
L
W
C
L
W
C
I
L
W
C
I
L
W
C
g
g
A
g
g
g g g
g
A
ox p
ox n
SS ox p
SS ox n
m
m
v
m
m
o m o
m
v
µ
µ
µ
µ
¸
Differential Pair w/ Current-Source Loads
• While the gain of this amplifier is higher, it is somewhat
unpredictable, as it is defined by the transistor output
resistance, which changes dramatically with process
variations
19
3 1
1
0 Assuming
o o
m
v
g g
g
A
+
÷ =
= ¸
Differential Pair w/
Diode & Parallel Current-Source Loads
• Adding a parallel current source to a diode connected load
allows for increase gain which is still somewhat predictable
20
( )
load diode the from steals" " source current that the percentage current the is where
1
0 Assuming
3
1
3
1
3
1
5 3 3 1
1
o
o µ
µ
¸
SS ox p
SS ox n
m
m
v
m
m
o o m o
m
v
I
L
W
C
I
L
W
C
g
g
A
g
g
g g g g
g
A
÷
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
÷ = ÷ ~
÷ ~
+ + +
÷ =
=
Cascode Differential Pair
21
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
5 7 5 3 1 3 1
5 7 5 7 5 3 1 3 1 3 1
0 Assuming
o o m o o m m v
o o m o o o o m o o m v
r r g r r g g A
r r g r r r r g r r g A
÷ ~
+ + + + ÷ =
= ¸
• Using a cascode differential
pair and cascode current-
source loads allows for a
considerable increase in gain
• However, a relatively large
power supply may be required
to supply the necessary voltage
“headroom” to keep all the
transistors in saturation