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315-324

Special section for proceeding of International E-Conference on Information Technology and Applications (IECITA) 2012

ISSN: 2222-2510 ©2011 WAP journal. www.waprogramming.com

**Beamforming Algorithms Technique by Using MVDR and LCMV
**

Balasem. S.S *

Center of System and Machine Intelligence Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia eng_blasm@yahoo.com

S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh

Center of System and Machine Intelligence Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Malaysia siehkiong@uniten.edu.my

Abstract: This paper presents the significance of the beamforming technique employed for the next generation broadband wireless mobile systems. The capacity, data rates, null steering and coverage of the cellular system are improved by using various beamforming techniques such as the Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV). These two techniques depend on the received weight vector of the desired signal. The simulation result shows that for all the improved system parameters the MVDR technique shows better results than LCMV technique. The four elements of the linear array smart antenna are used in our simulation program with the operation frequency around 2.4 GHz, noise power is 0.5dB, and the spacing between elements is λ/2 d. Keywords: Beamforming, linear array antenna, minimum variance distortion, linear constraint minimum variance.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The enormous growth of wireless communications industries is creating a huge market opportunity. The wireless operators are currently in search of new technologies which would be implemented into the existing wireless communications infrastructures to provide the broader bandwidth per user channel, the better quality and new valueadded services. Beamfrming in Smart antenna is recognized as a promising technology for higher user capacity in 3G wireless networks by effectively reducing multipath and co-channel interference. [1] Smart Antennas, also known as multiple antennas, adaptive array antennas, are used to increase the efficiency of digital wireless communication systems. It works by taking the advantage of the diversity effect at the transceiver of the wireless system that is the source and the destination. The term diversity effect refers to the transmission and reception of multiple radio frequencies that are used to minimize the errors during data communication and also to increase data speed between the source and the destination. The special antenna arrays have already established its significance in most of the wireless communication systems as they are used with signal processing algorithms which can easily locate and track the different wireless targets including the mobiles. It is also used to calculate the beam forming vectors and the direction of arrival [DOA] of the signal [1]. The smart antenna is a new technology and has been applied to the mobile communication system such as GSM and CDMA [2] .It is also used in 3G mobile communication system or IMT 2000 and they yield a lot of benefits. By providing higher network capacity, it increases the revenues of network operators and gives less probability of blocked or dropped calls to the customers. A smart antenna consists of number of elements (referred to as antenna array), whose signals are processed adaptively in order to exploit the spatial dimension of the mobile radio channel. All elements of the adaptive antenna array [3], [4] have to be combined (weighted) in order to adapt to the current channel and user characteristics. This weight adaptation is the “smart” part of the smart antenna, which should hence be called “adaptive antenna”. These adaptive antenna systems uniquely approach the communication between a user and base station by adding a dimension of space. By adjusting to an RF environment as it changes, the adaptive antenna technology can dynamically alter the signal patterns to near infinity to optimize the performance of the wireless system. The adaptive arrays utilize sophisticated signal processing algorithms to continuously distinguish among the desired signals, multipath, and interfering signals and as well as calculate their directions of arrival. This approach continuously updates its transmit strategy based on the changes in both the desired and interfering signal locations. [2].

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

Adaptive Beamforming [4] is a technique in which an array of antennas is exploited to achieve maximum reception in a specified direction by estimating the arrival of signal from a desired direction (in the presence of noise) while signals of the same frequency from other directions are rejected. This is achieved by varying the weights of each of the sensors (antennas) used in the array. It basically uses the idea that the signals originating from different transmitters, occupy the same frequency channel and they still arrive from different directions. This spatial separation is exploited to separate the desired signal from the interfering signals. Beamforming is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception. This spatial selectivity is achieved by using adaptive or fixed receive/transmit beam patterns. The beam pattern is formed by adjusting complex weights of the antenna elements so that the beam is directed in the direction of interest [5]. When receiving, the information from different sensors is combined in such a way that, the expected pattern of radiation is preferentially observed. Thus Receive Beamforming increases the sensitivity in the direction of desired user than that of interferences., A beamformer controls the phase and relative amplitude of the signal at each transmitter when transmitting and produces a high directional beam in the direction of desired user and null in the direction of interferences, thereby increasing SINR of the desired user and reducing the wastage of transmitted power in the undesired direction. The reception beamforming is achieved independently at each receiver while in the transmit beamforming, the transmitter has to consider the all receivers to optimize the beamformer output [6, 7]. This paper presents three methods of beamformer design namely Null steering beamforming, Minimum Variance distortionless response (MVDR) and Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV).

II.

BASICS OF BEAM-FORMING

Beamforming is an advanced signal processing technique which, when employed along with an array of transmitters or receivers will be capable of controlling the 'directionality of' or 'sensitivity to' a particular radiation pattern. This method creates the radiation pattern of the antenna array by adding the phases of the signals in the desired direction and by nullifying the pattern in the unwanted direction. The interelement phase usually adjusts the amplitudes to optimize the received signal. A standard tool for analyzing the performance of a beamformer as shown in Fig.1[1]. In Fig. 1 the outputs of the individual sensors are linearly combined after being scaled with the corresponding weights optimizing the antenna array to have maximum gain in the direction of desired signal and nulls in the direction of interferers. For beamformer the output at any time n , y(n) is given by a linear combination of the data at M antennas, with x(n) being the input vector and w(n) being the weight vector.[8]

Fig 1: Beam forming

(1) Weight vector W(n) can be define as: (2) And (3) For any algorithm that avoids matrix inverse operation and uses the instantaneous gradient vector vector up gradation the weight vector at time n + 1 can be written as for weight

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

(4) Where µ is the step size parameter, which controls the speed of convergence and it lies between 0 and 1. Very small values of µ leads to the slow convergence and good approximation of the cost function; on the contrary the large values of µ may lead to a faster convergence but the stability around a minimum value may be lost. (5) An exact calculation of instantaneous gradient vector J(n) is not possible as prior information of covariance matrix R and cross-correlation vector p is needed. So an instantaneous estimate of gradient vector J(n) (6) (7) And (8)

By putting values from (6, 7, and 8) in (4) the weight vector is found to be W(n+1) = = = W(n)+ µ[p(n)-R(n)W(n)] W(n)+ µX(n)[ (n)(n) W(n)] (9)

W(n)+ )+ µX(n) (n)

The desired signal can be define by three equations below:

µX(n) ( )

III.

LINEAR ARRAY DESIGN

To electronically scan a radiation pattern in a given direction, it is essential to have an array of elements arranged in a specific configuration. Although linear arrays lack the ability to scan in3-D space, the planar arrays can scan the main beam in y direction of θ (elevation) and φ (azimuth). Following the design of the individual rectangular patch antenna, a linear array of eight micro strip patches with inter element spacing of λ/2 (half wavelength), where space in cm is based on the resonance frequency. The reasons for choosing inter element spacing of λ/2 are as follows: To combat fading, the inter element spacing of at least λ/2 is necessary so that the signals received from different antenna elements are (almost) independent in a rich scattering environment (more precisely, in a uniform scattering environment [9], [10]). In such cases, the antenna arrays provide performance improvement through spatial diversity. However, to avoid grating lobes (multiple maxima), the interelement spacing should not exceed one wavelength. However, to avoid aliasing and causing of nulls to be misplaced the interelement spacing should be less or equal to λ/2 (the Nyquist rate) [11]. Thus, to satisfy all three conditions, the interelement spacing of λ/2 (half wavelength) is chosen. The total amplitude radiation patterns of the 4-element linear array based on the cavity model are represented, neglecting coupling, by the product of the element pattern (static pattern) and the array factor (dynamic pattern).[6]

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

IV.

DIRECTION OF ARRIVAL ESTIMATION

The objective of this part is to find the direction of the desired user is and t the interference in order to steer the main beam towards the desired user and null along the interference. We have used a linear array here. Assuming this array to be equispaced and laid out along with the z-axis and the array factor is: (10) is the complex currents that are fed to array element and is the reference current. Total number of elements are 2N+1 and d is the inter element spacing of the array. To estimate the direction of arrival of a signal that impinges on the array elements, suppose a source lies at a distance that is much greater than the separation between the array elements. The induced currents in the array elements will be same, but with a successive phase the difference given by [12].

(11) is angle of direction of arrival of signal with the axis of array as shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2: Linear array Without loss of generality, assuming the azimuth of all incident signals on antenna array are / 2, that is, all signals are from the same plane, the elevation angle of ith incident signal is . The coordinate vector of the mth antenna in space is: =[ , ,, ,] = (12)

Then, the signal steer vector on array elements can be expressed as Equation steering [13]

=

(13)

V.

METHODS

This paper presents a single M mobile users and one base station with 4-element antenna array. Assume that there are desired signal sources and interference sources simultaneously transmitting on same frequency channel, initially the antenna receives signals from different sources ( ) and each element of antenna have incident wave at the same time each user have angle. Next the weight (w) will get many values (amplitude, phase). The w selects the beiger value to steer beam ( ) for the user by using the following received signal equation [2011-3]:

=

(

(14)

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

is array steering vector denoting the amplitude gain and the phase shift of the signal at the Where relative operator. is signal. The beamformer system output can be written as: )= Then the null-steering beamforming problem can be formulated as:

antenna

1.

Estimation DOAs by using algorithm

Estimation DOAs by using algorithm: There are a set of methods, which are used to estimate DOA such as the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) method is the first of the high-resolution algorithms for correcting the underlying data model of narrow band signals in additive noise. The next algorithm is Minimum Norm-Method (MNM) and ESPRIT using to find DOAs. An expression for the power spectrum is given by, [5] ( )= ( )

=

(15)

Where:

array correlation matrix.

Validation process Once DOAs are estimated for all incoming signal, next the validation process which separate out desired signal from interferences are carried out. After the validation process if, it is found that there is only single desired user and others are interferences then the null steering mode is invoked. If it is found that there is more than one desired user then multi-beamforming mode is invoked. Optimization weight vector using null –steering The optimization weight vector can be done using 2 techniques: Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) beamforming algorithm: The MVDR beam former does not require the knowledge of the directions of the interferences for weight vector calculation. It requires only the direction of the desired signal. MVDR weight vector is given by [5].

=

ሺ16)

Thus, the beamformer weights are selected by maximum value, to select the element and minimum mean value of output power depending on the number of user inside the coverage while maintaining unity response in the look direction. The constraint ensures that the signal passes through the beamformer undistorted. Therefore, the output signal power is the same as the look-direction source power. The minimization process then minimizes the total noise, including interferences and uncorrelated noise. Minimization of total output noise, while keeping the output signal constant, is same as maximizing the output SINR. For the optimal beam former to operate as described above and to maximize the SINR by cancelling interferences, number of interferences must be less than or equal to L-2, as an array with L elements has L-1 degrees of freedom and one has been utilized by the constraint in the look direction. As MVDR beamformer maximize the sensitivity only in one direction, this beamformer is not suitable for multipath environment where desired signal get scattered in many directions. Multipath occurs in the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments such as populated urban area where there are many scatterers close to the users and the base station. Thus, MVDR nullifies the desired signal coming from different directions due to multipath fading and not suitable for in such environment. Thus it can be implemented for rural environment where multipath signals.[5].

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

Beamscan Spatial Spectrum

15

10 Power (dB)

5

0

-5 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 Broadside Angle (degrees) 40 60 80

Fig.3: Power spectrum of beamforming

A.

Liner Convenience Minimum Variance LCMV Beamformer:

Recently, the LCMV beamformer can be used to prevent the null-steering, which allows us to put multiple constraints along the target direction (steering vector). It reduces the chance that the target signal will be suppressed when it arrives at a slightly different angle from the desired direction In LCMV algorithm the array output is compared with reference signal, thus beams are produced in the direction of multipath signal those matches with reference signal unlike MVDR. Thus, LCMV beamforming is the optimum candidate for NLOS urban environment, as it not only reduces the interference but also multipath fading is mitigated. Now we need to create several constraints. To specify a constraint, we add corresponding entries in both the constraint matrix, constraint, and the desired response vector and desired response. Each column in constraint is a set of weights that we can apply to the array and the corresponding entry in the desired response is the response that we want to achieve when the weights are applied. For example, to avoid self nullifying in this demo, we may want to add the following constraints to the beamformer: • • Preserve the incoming signal from the expected direction (43 degrees in azimuth). To avoid self nullifying, ensure that the response of the beamformer will not decline at +/- 2 degrees of the expected direction.

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

1.5 Original Beamformed 1

0.5 Amplitude

0

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0

100

200

300

400

500 Time

600

700

800

900

1000

Fig. 4: beam forming by using LCMV

VI.

SIMULATION

Simulation study has been carried out for a 4-element uniform linear array (ULA). The interelement spacing between elements is [0.229]. In this paper, 4 incoming signal sources are considered. The first Angle of Incidence of The Desired Source Signal and the three angles is The Angle of Incidence of the Undesired Interference Source Signal. The Estimation of The Weight Vector of A Null Steering Beamformer calculated by using weight equation. Let DOAs of incoming signals are {0°, 50°, 100°, 150°, 200°}. SNR is assumed to be 10 dB for all incoming sources.

A. MVDR DOA estimation There are two types of MVDR DOA estimation techniques. First, the MVDR DOA spectrum and polar plot for estimated directions. Let DOAs of incoming signals, Angle of Incidence of the desired source signal {60°}, and the angle of incidence of the undesired interference source signal {45°, 30°, 75°}. SNR is assumed to be 10 db for all incoming sources as shown in fig. 2.

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

The Generalized Null Steering Beam Former Output Radiation Pattern 90 120 3 150 2 1 30 4 60

180

0

210

330

240 270

300

Fig. 5: Polar Plot of MVDR Beamforming

Second, Null steering beamforming for the single desired user a single desired source is considered in direction φ = 40°. Weights are calculated using Eq (1) to produce a beam in the direction of desired user (φ = 40°) and null in the direction of interferences (30°, 60°, 100°). The Fig.6 shows the power spectrum and polar plot for null steering beamforming respectively.

Beamscan Spatial Spectrum

15

10

Power (dB)

5

0

-5

-80

-60

-40

-20 0 20 Broadside Angle (degrees)

40

60

80

Fig. 6: Power spectrum of MVDR beamforming

B. MVDR Algorithm A desired source is in direction φ = 50°. Weights are calculated using Eq (9) to produce a unity response in the direction of desired user (φ = 50°) and null in the direction of interferences (45°, 70°). Fig.7. Shows the power spectrum and polar plot for MVDR beamforming respectively.

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Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

Azimuth Cut 0 MVDR -10

-20

Power (dB)

-30

-40

-50

-60

-70 -200

-150

-100

-50 0 50 Azimuth Angle (degrees)

100

150

200

Fig.7: power spectrum and polar plot for MVDR beamforming

C. LCMV Algorithm For this simulation multipath environment is considered. Due to multipath fading a desired source is arriving from direct path φ = 0° with SNR = 40 dB and from reflected path φ = 100° with SNR = 30 dB. Weights are calculated using Eq (1) to produce. a beam in the direction of direct and reflected path (φ = 20° and φ = 100°respectively) and null in the direction of interferences (40°, 50°,120°). Fig.8 shows the power spectrum and polar plot for LCM beamforming respectively.

Azimuth Cut 40 30 20 10 0 Power (dB) -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -200

-150

-100

-50 0 50 Azimuth Angle (degrees)

100

150

200

Fig.8: power spectrum and polar plot for LCM beamforming

The effect of constraints can be better seen when comparing the LCMV beamformer's response pattern to the MVDR beamformer's response pattern. It can be noted that the LCMV beamformer is able to maintain a flat response region around the 45 degrees in azimuth, while the MVDR beamformer creates a null.show in Fig.9.

323

Balasem. S.S and S.K.Tiong, S. P. Koh, World Applied Programming, Vol (2), No (5), May 2012.

Azimuth Cut 30 LCMV MVDR 20

10 Power (dB)

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

0

10

20

30

40 50 60 Azimuth Angle (degrees)

70

80

90

Fig.9: compare between (LCMV, MVDR)

VII. CONCLUSION This paper presents beamforming technique which has gained importance in wireless mobile communication system due to its ability to reduced cochannel and adjacent channel interferences. This paper presented two techniques depend on the received weight vector of the desired signal the significance of the beamforming technique such as the Minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) and Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV). Both modes give high output power but requires direction of all incoming sources which is difficult to obtain in practice MVDR beamforming mitigate the multipath fading problem by adding the multipath signal which increases strength of desired signal. Depending on the application requirements one of the beamforming algorithms is selected. That s mean the result by using MVDR algorithm is better from LCMV algorithm. Thus beamforming has proved its benefits for next generation mobile system and plays a vital role in next generation mobile networks..Beamforming is a good candidate which fulfils user demands with efficient spectrum utilization.

REFERENCES

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] Susmita Das, “Smart Antenna Design for Wireless Communication using Adaptive Beam-forming Approach”. (2009). Bow-Tie, “Antenna for GSM/CDMA and 3G/WLAN’’, Microwave, antenna,propagation and EMC Technologies for Wireless Communication, 2007 International symposium on 16-17 Aug. 2007 Page(s): 504 – 507 Lal C. Godara, “Application of Antenna Arrays to Mobile Communications,Part П: beam-forming and direction-of-arrival considerations”, Proceeding of the IEEE, Vol. 85, No. 8, pp. 1195- 1234, August 1997 Salvatore Bellofiore, Jeffrey Foutz, Constantine A. Balanis, and Andreas S. Spanias, “Smart-Antenna System for Mobile Communication Networks Part 2: Beamforming and Network Throughput” IEEE Antenna's and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 44, NO. 4, August 2002. Compton R. “Adaptive antennas concept and performance”. Prentice Hall,2011 Balanis C. “Introduction of smart antennas”. Morgan and Claypool Publication. Dahrouj H., Yu W., “Coordinated Beamforming for the Multicell Multi-Antenna Wireless System”. IEEE transactions on wireless communications, vol. 9, no. 5, may 2010. Rana Liaqat Ali, Anum Ali, Anis-ur-Rehman, Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Anti-Jamming. International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition Vol. 4, No. 1, March. 2011. Y. Bah¸ceci and T. M. Duman, “Combined Turbo Coding and Unitary Space-Time Modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. 50, No. 8, Aug. 2002. pp. 1244–1249. Y. Bah¸ceci, “Trellis- and Turbo-Coded Modulation for Multiple Antennas Over Fading Channels,” MS Thesis, Arizona State University, Aug. 2001. D. H. Johnson and D. E. Dudgeon, “Array Signal Processing” Concepts and Techniques, Prentice Hall PTR, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993. Habib Awan , Khurrum Abdullah and M. Faryad, “Implementing Smart Antenna System using Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Immune System” Zhao hongwei, Lian Baowang and Feng Juan, “Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm for Interference Suppression in Gnss Receivers” , International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT) Vol 3, No 5, Oct 2011.

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