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Preliminaries: Logical deduction

We begin with a rather wordy proof listed in steps, to illustrate a variety of proof techniques. Proposition 0.1. pP

_ pQ ^ Rqq ðñ ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq.

Proof. We prove the “if and only if” statement by proving implications in each direction. For the ﬁrst direction, we prove pP _ pQ ^ Rqq ùñ ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq. To start, we assume the hypothesis, pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. We continue the proof by an analysis of cases. Case 1. P is true. Then pP _ Qq, since one of the statements (disjuncts) is true. Also pP _ Rq, by the same reason. Thus ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq, since both statements (conjuncts) are true. Case 2. pQ ^ Rq is true. Then Q, since it is one of the conjuncts. So pP _ Qq, since one of the two statements is true. Also R, since we assumed pQ ^ Rq. So pP _ Rq, since one of the two statements is true. Thus ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq, since both conjuncts are true. By assumption, one of the cases must hold. Thus ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq, since it is true in both cases. Therefore, pP _ pQ ^ Rqq ùñ ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq. (We assumed the hypothesis and proved the conclusion.) For the opposite direction, we prove ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq ùñ pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. Assume the hypothesis, ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq. Then pP _ Qq, since it is one of the conjuncts. Now continue the proof by an analysis of cases. Case 1. P is true. Then pP _ pQ ^ Rqq, since P is one of the disjuncts. Case 2. Q is true. Also pP _ Rq, since it is a conjunct of our hypothesis for this direction of the proof. Sub-Case 2a. P is true. Then pP _ pQ ^ Rqq, since we have assumed P . Sub-Case 2b. R is true. Then pQ ^ Rq. Thus pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. In both sub-cases, pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. Since pP _ Rq, one of the sub-cases must hold. Consequently, pP _ pQ ^ Rqq in this case. In both cases, pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. Since pP _ Qq, one of the cases must hold. 2

Case 1. Therefore. Then P ^ P . Start by assuming the hypothesis. . it follows that pP _ pQ ^ Rqq ðñ ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq. Proof. Thus pP _ Qq. Let a be a witness.2. Start by assuming the hypothesis. Proposition 0. Therefore. @xpP pxq ^ Qpxqq ùñ @x P pxq. Case 2. a contradiction. Proof. Thus DxpP pxq _ Qpxqq. The third example includes an existential quantiﬁer and is written in paragraph form. @xpP pxq ^ Qpxqq. we have a contradiction. @x P pxq. a contradiction. Also Q. Assume pP _ Qq. since one of the disjuncts is true. Q. Therefore Dx P pxq ùñ DxpP pxq _ Qpxqq. p P ^ Qq ùñ pP _ Qq. Proposition 0. since a is a witness. Dx P pxq.3. and exempliﬁes the technique of using an arbitrary element and applying universal generalization. P . (We assumed the hypothesis and proved the conclusion. ùñ DxpP pxq _ Qpxqq. It is presented in a minimalist style. by way of contradiction. Then P pxq ^ Qpxq. 3 ùñ @x P pxq. Proof by Cases. Since x was arbitrary.4. Then P .Therefore ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq ùñ pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. p P ^ Qq ùñ pP _ Qq. The second example brings in negations and is an example of a proof by contradiction. Then P paq _ Qpaq. Thus P pxq. Let x be arbitrary. Assume p P ^ Qq. since it is one of the conjuncts. so that P paq. The ﬁnal example includes a universal quantiﬁer. Then Q ^ Q. Dx P pxq Proof. In either case.) Since we have both pP _ pQ ^ Rqq ùñ ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq and ppP _ Qq ^ pP _ Rqq ùñ pP _ pQ ^ Rqq. @xpP pxq ^ Qpxqq Proposition 0.

4 .10.9. p@x P pxq _ Dx Qpxqq ùñ DxpP pxq _ Qpxqq 0. p@x P pxq _ @x Qpxqq ùñ @xpP pxq _ Qpxqq 0. DxpP pxq ^ Qpxqq ùñ pDx P pxq ^ Dx Qpxqq 0.8. Dx P pxq ðñ @x P pxq 0. explain why by giving an example in which the converse implication is false. @xpP pxq ^ Qpxqq ðñ p@x P pxq ^ @x Qpxqq 0. In each case where the implication only goes in one direction. p@x P pxq ^ Dx Qpxqq ùñ DxpP pxq ^ Qpxqq 0.Project Zero: Logical Proofs Give logical deductions for the following: @x P pxq ðñ Dx P pxq 0. pDx P pxq ùñ @x Qpxqq ùñ @xpP pxq ùñ Qpxqq 0. DxpP pxq _ Qpxqq ðñ pDx P pxq _ Dx Qpxqq 0. @xpP pxq ðñ Qpxqq ùñ pDx P pxq ðñ Dx Qpxqq 0.7.5.11. p@x P pxq ùñ Dx Qpxqq ðñ DxpP pxq ùñ Qpxqq 0. pDx P pxq ùñ DxQpxqq ùñ DxpP pxq ùñ Qpxqq 0.1.6.14. @xpP pxq ùñ Qpxqq ùñ p@x P pxq ùñ @x Qpxqq 0.4.12.2.13. @xpP pxq ðñ Qpxqq ùñ p@x P pxq ðñ @x Qpxqq 0.3.