Based on the composition of fish scales and the composition of glue, they contain substances that can be used as glue or other adhesive product. . Many people have experimented on it but the researchers sa the possibility to enhance it and develop it. Because of these past researches the group has decided to ma!e fish scales as a main ingredient in ma!ing glue ith our additives li!e preservatives and essential oils that ill further develop and enhance the glue. By extracting the calcium phosphate in the scales, it a glutinous substance as created. "his substance as then tested for its ability to adhere different surfaces.

"he fish scales became the main ingredient in our glue that its composition, li!e the #alcium (hosphate found in fish scales ere used to become glue. )e have tested the glue and sho ed its capabilities and limitations. )e have seen that the glue can be made from fish scales. 'n line ith this, e also have observed that the adhesive made can bind paper to paper, the best sample, paper to ood, paper to cement, ply ood to ya!al. "hus, it is a good multi*purpose glue, but not for heavy duty or!.

*Study into fish that might be better suited *Substance to ma!e the glue stronger *More surfaces in testing *+fficient ay of heat source

#-A("+R .
Time for the materials to bind Cement Paper Paper Paper "ood Paper Pl#$ood % &akal $ood &akal $ood % &akal $ood /fig .*01 1-2 min Duration of Stickiness Strength of Adhesion

more than 24 hours more than 24 hours more than 24 hours more than 24 hours

20-2 lbs of force 2 -!0 lbs of force 20-2 lbs of force 1 -20 lbs of force

cannot be used for heavy duty or! since the strength is not there. Strength is a very big topic in terms of heavy duty glue because it needs to ithstand strong forces.
Paper Paper "ood Cement

1 min

"ood ' 

 ' 

2-! min

4- min

Did not stick

Did not stick

Did not stick

)e can see that the glue or!s very ell on paper and is inefficient on ood. "he glue as able to bind cement to paper, paper to paper, paper to ood and ply ood to ya!al. But it did not do anything ith a ya!al to ya!al bond. "he group as able to produce glue that, indeed, is multi*purpose. As for the strength of the bond, it can hold up ell. Basing on the table, e see that this glue

Although effective, there are circumstances that ould limit the effectiveness of the glue. "his is the type of ood that ould be bound. 't may seem as though it is a hassle to still thin! if the ood ould be bound, but it is not since our main agenda is to have an alternative to the glues that are commonly bought in stores.

,riven by the dire state of the environment, the group set out to find a suitable material to experiment on. "his material

turned out to be fish scales. "he group aimed to create glue that is geared to ards the benefit of lo *income communities. "he group decided to use scales of the fish tilapia since it a common fish and it ould seem accessible. )e have limited our expenses to 344 (hilippine pesos only ith each member contributing 203 pesos each. "his ensures even distribution of the expenses. Upon research, e found that the compound that e ould need for the adhesive is calcium phosphate. )e extracted this compound by simply boiling the scales in ater. Before boiling, e made sure that it as cleansed so that the manufactured product ould not smell. "o test this glue, e chose t o surfaces commonly bound by students5 ood and paper. By binding these t o materials together, e found out that the glue is effective for both surfaces. 't is a success.

But there is a catch. %ot all types of glue can be bound.

M+"-$,$&$6Y 2. #ollect the fish scales. 0. Rinse the fish scale in order to remove the odor. By ashing, rinsing and soa!ing the fish scales, the researchers can clean the fish scales thoroughly and removing the fish smell and the bacteria of the fish scales 7. #over the fish scales ith ater until they are 8ust covered in a heatproof covered container. #overing the fish scales ith ater until they are covered in a heat proof container ill loc! the materials inside and concentrating the heat belo hen heating is applied. .. Boil and let it simmer until the scales turn into a mass of soft viscous mush, !eep the fluid from evaporating from the container. 3. Mix the preservative li!e vinegar to the substance "he group ill mix the vinegar as the preservative of the product

9. #oo! the mixture on lo heat for several hours. Allo 9 to : hours for the collagen to dissolve releasing the calcium phosphate into the ater. By heating, the collagen in the fish scales ill dissolve and release the calcium phosphate that is one of the main ingredients in ma!ing glue. )hen the calcium phosphate is mixed ith the ater, it ill become an adhesive substance that can be turned into glue ;. After 9 to : hours, mix the essential oils for the s eet scent of the glue and to replace the foul smell of the fish scales. :. Remove the container from the heat and inspect the contents. 'f the scales have dissolved, cool the product and !eep it closed until ready in use.