Understanding the problem Planning Designing Implimenting Testing, evaluating and maintaining

Project management tools assist in managing large projects that may involve hundreds or thousands of people. These tools allow for ease of documenting all aspects of the system. Appropriate documentation is very important and needed to keep track of developments on a managerial, business and technical level. Project management software provides powerful features allowing the project to be tracked. The progress of Project an undertaking with specific objectives, scope and duration Project team a group of people all working togetheer with a common goal. Usuaullly consists of the project leader, systems analysts, development and technical support. Gantt chart is a diagrammatic sheduling tool Context diagrams show the whole system as a single contextual process. The system is represented by a circle. Outisde the circle are external entities which are linked to the system by a set of directional arrows representing the data flows. Users are people who view or use information from an information system Participants are people users! who carry out the information proces within an information system Requirements prototype is the modelling of a system to gain a better understanding of the system"s re#uirements Data flow diagrams are an illustrated set of processes and directional data flows representing the logical flow of data with a system or subsystem and the external environment. easa!ility study is the analaysis of potential solutions to determine whether a project can bne produces as a viable solution, under given constraints.

There may be an inappropriate infastructure to support the system.• $conomic • A cost%benefit analysis of introducing or upgrading to a new system would be made. The solution may simply be beyond the organisation"s current financial resources. • • Technical • • • • • The project may not be technically possible The project is technically possible but ill re#uire ground&breaking research to complete The technology nmay be innapropriate for the location where it is to be installed. Additional resources may be re#uired to ensure adherence to schedules.oes the porject fit in with the organisation"s culture* )ill this project affect the organisation"s structure* . The cost of such a scheme would also have to be set against the available financial resources. A (antt chart could be used to illustrate suggested schedules. 'cheduling • There may be tight completion schedules that have to be adhered to and this could lead to problems if there is a delay in one area. or cost savings that would occur. • • Operational • • • • )ill operational re#uirements such as the re#uired work shifts for this project be an issue* )ill administrative or technical staff be available to manage and operate this project* +s it possible to operate this project at the times re#uired in this locality* Organisation • • . The cost of the project has to be compared against the anticipated project revenues.

$ach process in a level 1 . The directional lines connecting the single process to the entities represent the data flows to and from the process. The level 1 . as deemed necessary by the analyst. in order to meet the re#uirements specified by the organisation. have the same symbols as a context diagram with the addition of the open&ended rectangle representing a data store. A data store is a supository of data such as a spreadsheet or database file.! symbols.0.0. shows the main information system processes that make up the information system and its interaction with entities external to the system.ictionaries are used to standardise and define data used throughout a system. These can be further broken down in a lower level . . A decision table is sometimes reffered to as a decision logic table. The diagram shows the system as a single process and any inputs or outputs to and from that system as being to or from external entities. • • • The context diagram is the "parent" or summary of the .. can be further broken into sub&processes in a level 2 . . The decision table is a tabular presentation e#uivalent of a decision tree and is divided into three main areas.• -egal and environmental • )ill the project and its assumed outcomes conflict with the legislation or ethical environmental concerns* "utsourcing is the resourcing of some or all the needs for the systematic development from outside the organisation Customisation referrs to the modifying of the development appproach.. . . Iterati#e & repetitive Design Tools . /ontext diagram allows the analyst to model a whole system as a process.ata flow diagram .

.ata dictionaries may also contain validation rules such as limiting data entry for a field to between 5 and 6 or to set a string of characters. Using data structures called files. 3articipant training refers to skilling of staff sufficiently to operate the new system. field si4e. the participant training available how the new system is to be tested. A hierarchial top down design storyboard allows for diferent paths to be chosen. A record is a collection of facts about one speicfic entry in a database. fields and characters. analysts and participants refer to a data dictionary in order to ensure hat they have used their terms and definitions consistently.e. . 'toryboards are series of frames and links which represent the interfaces and their links. data type. 7on linear storyboards allow the users to crisscross hori4ontally from one frame to another. +mplimentation plan details how the new system is to be installed. without being limited to se#uential or one level hierarchial vertical movement. data format. +n the • . The Address in a database is a file. A file in a database is divdied into a set of related records. 8ybrid storyboards may use a combination of some or all of these storyboard structures. existing data converted to the enw system.3rogrammers. The data dictionary would commonly include the field names. but to change pathways the user is re#uired to go back through the central frame and back down another path. what it is for and maybe an example of its use. description of each field & i. records. A flat file database organises data into a signle table and is suitable for many spall applications. )hen you have someone work o na computer it is stored in a file. • 0iles are blocks of data.

8andshake takes place between the two computers via the modems and the connecting medium and protocols are exchanged.$. • 9eys are fields that are used to sort and retrive information. /are must be taken when chosing a single key. 3rimary keys cannot be empty or null.ata items in a field are made up of characters.odulate signals back into digital signals. communication medium and reciever.odulating device is called a modem. A character is the smallest unit of data that people can see.O. +n order to make sure the formatting of the data between both devices is compatible. address and home phone. a compound key can be made from such fields as (ender and . as some fields such as 0amily 7ame are not always uni#ue. A record is divided into one or more related fields. The . each key holds a uni#ue item that applies to only one record. 0or example. suburb and postcode and home phone are fields. There are different types of keys. and specific symbols. Unlike other keys.O. a record is information about a person"s name. A primary key is a single key or compound key that must have a value.Address database. )hen the records are sorted. • A field is a specific category of datat in a database. secondary keys are not always uni#ue . the family name. A secondary key is a field that contains useful items of data often used in searches. the modem interfaces between the sender. in the Address database. Usually.odems are devices that convert .ate of :irth. street. numbers. the key is used so that not all the data has to be read or retrieved. /haracters include letters.ulating and . given name. . . A composite key or compound key is made by joining two or more firneds together.ulate digital signals to analog signals and . +t is used when no data item in any field can be guaranteed to be uni#ue.$. A single key is a field in which each itme of data is uni#ue.