Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why

, etc.” of the work.

Narrator / Narrative Voice
Guiding Question: Who is telling the story? … hat is the …

is associated with a ma1or or minor character who is not able to 4see%8now7 all, may only be able to relate the thoughts of one or some characters but not others, may not 8now what happened 4off stage7 or in the past. C. #irst !erson " the story is told from the first person <$7 personal point"of"view, usually that of the main character. $nterior =onologue > first"person, train of thought 4overheard7 by the reader (+-T spo8en out loud as is a monologue), or sometimes 4overheard7 and reported by an omniscient narrator: other times it occurs as stream of consciousness (4The ?ilting of @ranny Weatherall7). &ub1ective +arration " first person, narrator seems unreliable, tries to get readers to share his%her side or to assume values or views not usually presumed by the reader. 3etached utobiography " first person, reliable narrator that guides the reader. +arrator is main character, often reflecting on a past <self7 > sometimes an adult recounting an event from childhood. When it is the latter, it is important to notice 4how7 the adult voice affects the child,s story. =emoir or -bserver +arration " first person, narrator is observer rather than main participant: narrator can be confidant(e), eyewitness or <chorus< (provides offstage or bac8ground information). This narrator can be reliable or unreliable. 3. -b1ective or 3ramatic " the opposite of the omniscient: displays an ob1ectivity: compared to a roving camera with sound. Aery little of the past or the future is given: the story is set in the present. $t has the most speed and the most action: it relies heavily on e9ternal action and dialogue, and it offers no opportunities for interpretation by the narrator. 2. #ramed +arrative > some narratives, particularly collections of narratives, involve a frame narrative that e9plains the genesis of, and%or gives a perspective on, the main narrative or narratives that follow, e.g., Chaucer,s Canter%ury Tales: =ary Wollstonecraft &helley,s /rankenstein: and ?oseph Conrad,s 0eart of 1arkness. &ome stories have multiple narrative frames that draw the reader away from the initial, outer setting (and the 4reality7 of the story) through a narrative maBe to the core events that are far%deeply removed from the first narrative encounter, e.g., (enry ?ames,s short story 4The Turn of the &crew.7

Narrative Point of View is the perspective from which the events in the story are observed and recounted. To determine the point of view, identify who is telling the story, that is, the viewer through whose eyes the readers see the action (the narrator). Consider these aspects: . !ronoun p"o"v: #irst ($, We)%&econd ('ou)%Third !erson narrator ((e, &he, $t, They) *. +arrator,s degree of -mniscience .#ull, /imited, !artial, +one)0 C. +arrator,s degree of -b1ectivity .Complete, +one, &ome (2ditorial?), $ronic)0 3. +arrator,s 45n%6eliability7 0 The Third !erson "therefore, a##arently $%&ective' Totally $(niscient "fly) on)the)wall' *arrator is the classic narrative point of view through which a disembodied narrative voice (not that of a participant in the events) 8nows everything (omniscient) recounts the events, introduces the characters, reports dialogue and thoughts, and all details. *ota +ene: Whether the voice of an unidentified, anonymous spea8er or that of an observer%character in the story, the narrator is never the author .never), not even if the character has the same name as the author. s with 4real7 life, one should always 4consider the source7 of a report and%or evaluation concerning events and%or people. Therefore, 48now7 who is telling the story, measure the omniscient details (if any), note how ob1ectively the report (story) is related, and determine how reliable the person%voice (narrator) may be. #or e9ample, does s%he have anything to gain from misrepresenting the 4facts7? ,n other words – ty#es of *arrative -oice. . -mniscient " a story told in the third person: the narrator;s 8nowledge, control, and prerogatives are unlimited, allowing 4authorial7 sub1ectivity. *. /imited -mniscient " a story told in the third person in which the narrative voice

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

Setting
Guiding Questions: Where, When, and (under) What Circumstances? What Cultural Content (if any)? These are all the place%where C time%when C reason(s)%why the action%events occur. *ota +ene: $f this information is withheld by the narrator, critical thin8ers must consider the narrative motivation for the omission and the effects (on purpose or by 4accident7) of this lac8 of information. . Where (place): The 4physical7 environment where the story ta8es place (the description of this environment may suggest its importance to other aspects of the fiction such as theme and 4message.7 &pecial features of some settings include:

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

PLOT & Plot Structure
Guiding Questions: What happens in the story? What is the design (structure) 7 > time 4line7 > of the narrative? The plot is the series of events and actions that occur in a story. The structure of the plot is the method or seGuence in which incidents in a narrative are organiBed%presented to the audience%readers. . Conflict (in the sense of 4friction7 or 4battle7 but not military%war) in fiction is the opposition of forces or characters: this 4friction7 usually fuels the action. Co(#lication or 429citing7 #orce is what fuels the rising action and may incite later events. /onger wor8s may have several 4complications.7

D

/ocal Color: The use of regional details to add interest and (sometimes) meaning to the story. 5se of /ocal Color may include description of a specific locale, a manner of dress, customs, speech patterns (dialect or accent), and slang e9pressions. Critical thin8ers will determine if these details are 1ust a decorative motif or if these details reflect or enhance a theme, add to the meaning, or serve as a 8ey to some aspect of the narrative or characters.

D. E. F. H.

=an versus =an % the $ndividual versus another $ndividual (uman versus +ature % the $ndividual versus the !hysical World (uman versus &ociety % the $ndividual versus the CiviliBation or 4-rder7 (uman versus (erself%(imself %% The $ndividual versus the &elf (human nature)

E

6egionalism (6egional /iterature): When the description of a region becomes an intrinsic and necessary part of the wor8, the relationship of the region to the action is characteristic of 6egional /iterature. 29amples of 6egional /iterature include Thomas (ardy,s 4Wesse97 novels such as 2eturn of the *ative and The 3ayor of Caster%irdge. *. When (time): Time includes all of its dimensions.0 What was going on at that time? What, if any, importance has the period and%or time"span of events with regard to the themes, motifs, characteriBations, atmosphere, tone, etc.?

*. $rder > +arrative events may be related in different orders: for e9ample, Chronological%/inear (natural order): in (edia res (in the middle of things): or begin in the present and return to the past I C. 1ivisions of the !lot include:

D. 29position and%or 6ising ction: how readers learn details previous to the
story,s beginning, and then continues toward the clima9 of the story

E. 3iversion: any episode prior to the clima9 that does not contribute directly to
the rising action or add to the suspense (e9ample: comic relief in tragedy).

D. 0What is the period (century, decade, year) during which the action
occurs?

F. Clima9: the moment in the story at which a crisis reaches its highest intensity
and its potential resolution, the turning point

E. 0-ver how many hours, days, wee8s, months, years, decades, etc. does the
action ta8e place?

H. 3Jnouement (4un8notting7) or #alling ction
3. /lash%ack: a scene inserted into a film, novel, story, or play to show events that occurred at an earlier time: this techniGue is used to complement the events in the 4present7 of the story.

F. The effects of the setting may include a particular atmosphere, insight to
the characters and%or their motivations, and a 8ey or connection to or reflection of other aspects of the story.

2. /oreshadowing: a literary device in which the outcome of the struggle or conflict have a past and there are usually important events that have ta8en place prior to the story is anticipated or hinted at by such elements as speeches or actions of characters itself, and sometimes the past will drive the action in the present. This is bac8"story, also 8nown as what"happened"before"this"story"too8place. or by symbols in the story. #. 2esolution: Type of Conclusion%2nding Su -!lots: story within a storyI &ub"plots are the little things going on in the bac8ground that often ma8e the main plot more interesting by giving the reader more to D. (appy ending > everything ends well and all is resolved. thin8 about. These little events are especially effective when they tie in seamlessly with E. Tragic or 5nhappy ending > many events in life do not end pleasantly, so literary fiction that emulates life is more apt to have an unhappy conclusion, the main plot. forcing the reader to contemplate the comple9ities of life. "onflict: &ome plot elements are optional. Conflict is not. Without conflict, there is no F. -pen"ended%/ac8 of 6esolution%!artial 6esolution%$ndeterminate > no purpose. Characters want something they do not have, or they are loo8ing for ways to definitive ending or resolution occurs, leaving the reader to ponder the issued change their current reality, or they must overcome challenges of some 8ind, however great raised by the story or minute. Were someone to write a story without conflict and the product would be a character s8etch or a character study. @. 4us#ense (What is going to happen ne9t?): Critical investigation will as8 the "li#a$: /i8e conflict, clima9 is an essential part of storytelling. The clima9 normally more important Guestion 4Why?7 rather than 4What?7 &uspense is most occurs right before the dJnouement or final resolution of the main conflict in the plot. t this often produced either by mystery or by dilemma. pea8 in a story,s plot, the interest of readers is most piGued so that they race through the falling action to discover the conclusion. (. 5rtistic 6nity is essential to a good, effective, successful story. +othing in the story is irrelevant, superfluous: that is, the story contains no detail or element that does not contribute to the meaning. +othing occurs that 4flies in the face7 of the 4reality7 of the story and%or the characters. The wor8 should have a sense of 4natural inevitability7 with its specific set of characters and the initial or core situation. $. 1eus e7 3achina (literally, @od from the =achine): !lot device in which someone or something appears <out of the blue< to help a character to overcome a seemingly insoluble difficulty.

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

"haracter / "haracteri%ation
"haracter is the mental, emotional, and social Gualities to distinguish one entity from another (people, animals, spirits, automatons, pieces of furniture, and other animated

?. 3otifs: recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop ob1ects). "haracter &evelo!#ent is the change that a character undergoes from the beginning of a story to the end. and to inform the ma1or themes of the story The importance of a character to the story determines how fully the !lot 8le(ents in other words /iction writers can e(#loy any one of countless structural ele(ents to character is developed. "haracteri%ation K process by which fictional enhance the design of a story9s #lot: those used (ost often include the characters are presented%developed following five. The Hook: (ow much time do you give a story to capture your undivided attention? . =ethods of CharacteriBation .4&how and Tell7: or Telling versus &howing), chapter? page? paragraph? (ow long will it ta8e you to capture your readers, attention? The hoo8 is what gets people interested in what you have to say. (oo8s are well"placed at D. 29pository%3irect !resentation: described and%or 4e9plained7 by the narrator the beginning but can be found elsewhere in the plotting as well. E. 3ramatic%$ndirect !resentation: actions 4show7 the kind of person the character is Back-story: There is more to every story than what we actually read. The characters each

a. (is%(er own actions, behavior, speech, and recorded thoughts and%or b. Lualities are apparent by what other characters say about him%her

important character. Typically, the foil is rather ordinary and static so that the unusual Gualities of the primary character will be more stri8ing in contrast. -ften this same character is both confidant and foil. 'nthro!o#or!hic characteri%ation is the characteriBation of animals, inanimate ob1ects, or natural phenomena as people. &8illed authors can use this to create fantasy even from stuffed toys (Winnie"the"!ooh). The characteriBing of inanimate ob1ects from tiny soldiers to trees and so on has many effects in stories > however, so(eti(es a %ird is &ust a %ird, a cigar is &ust a s(oke, and water is si(#ly water.

*. Ty#es of Characters

D. E. F. H.

#lat: a one"dimensional character, typically not central to the story Two"dimensional characters may be used as vessels to carry out the plot 6ound: a comple9, fully"developed character, usually prone to change

M. N. O. P. Q.

'ni#al characters personified create particular effects, especially when the animal &tatic: these can be either round or flat characters, but they do not change characters contain connotative metaphoric connects to human traits, i.e., fo9 K sly, during the story. #ol8tales, fairytales, and other types use static and flat weasel K duplicity, swan K elegance. characters whose actions are predictable, so the reader is free to concentrate on the action and theme as each moves toward an often times universal discovery. (un&a#ental Literary Ter#s that )n&entify "o#!onents of Narratives 3ynamic: a developing character, usually at the center of the action, who 4#iction7 is defined as any imaginative re"creation of life in prose narrative form. ll fiction changes or grows to a new awareness of life (the human condition) is a falsehood of sorts because it relates events that never actually happened to people &toc8: 4borrowed7 personage or archetype (e9. Western hero in white hat: old, (characters) who never e9isted, at least not in the manner portrayed in the stories. (owever, longed"nosed, straggly"haired hag as evil witch). Closely related to stereotype. fiction writers aim at creating 4legitimate untruths,7 since they see8 to demonstrate I meaningful insights into the human condition. Therefore, fiction is 4untrue7 in the a%solute &tereotype: a character so little individualiBed as to show only Gualities of an sense, but true in the universal sense. occupation, or national, ethnic, or other group to which s%he belongs (e9 $rishman, &icilian, soldier, nerd, dumb blonde, obno9ious brat, silly teenager) Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough 5niversal: characters with problems and traits common to all humanity investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work. $ndividual: a more eccentric and unusual representation of character

C. /unction of Character

't#os!here
tmosphere (=ood) is the dominant emotion%feeling that pervades a story. $t is less physical and more symbolic, associative, and suggestive than setting, but often a8in to the setting. . 2very story has some 8ind of atmosphere, but in some, it may be the most important feature or, at least, a 8ey to the main points of the story *. tmosphere is created by descriptive details, dialogue, narrative language, and such. #or e9ample, !oe,s story, 4The Cas8 of montillado,7 contains narrative description of entombment. The dialogue and word choice contribute to a sense of morbidity and horror. Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough

D. !rotagonist: the principle figure in the story E.
ntagonist: the character with whom the protagonist is engaged in a struggle.

+ote: a conflicting agency not embodied in an actual character is called an antagonistic force as is the weather in Tales of the ;ukon or the sea in stories li8e 4The -pen *oat7

D.

<Confident< for confidant(e): the character in whom another character (usually the protagonist) confides, much li8e Watson is confidante to &herloc8 and Tonto is confidante to the /one 6anger.

E.

#oil: a secondary character serving as a bac8drop (mirror) for a more

investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

certain characters, or simply lac8ing dialogue altogether #. ,(agery: sensory details such as similes, metaphors, onomatopoeia in a wor8 includes:

Tone
While related to atmosphere, tone is distinct from it. Tone is the narrator,s attitude toward his sub1ect and audience . +arrator,s tone may show, for e9ample, admiration for the sub1ect or a character *. -r the narrative tone can suggest pity or hostility: on the other hand, the narrator may be condescending or 4fol8sy7 with the audience C. &ometimes the narrative tone is ironic 3. The narrative tone may be demonstrated by direct comment, by characteriBation, or by choice of words, symbols, or other literary devices. (un&a#ental Literary Ter#s that )n&entify "o#!onents of Narratives 4#iction7 is defined as any imaginative re"creation of life in prose narrative form. ll fiction is a falsehood of sorts because it relates events that never actually happened to people (characters) who never e9isted, at least not in the manner portrayed in the stories. (owever, fiction writers aim at creating 4legitimate untruths,7 since they see8 to demonstrate meaningful insights into the human condition. Therefore, fiction is 4untrue7 in the a%solute sense, but true in the universal sense.

D. E. F. H. M.

Aisual: imagery of sight ural: imagery of sound (e.g., soft hiss of s8is) -lfactory: imagery of smell (e.g., the smell of stale beer) Tactile: imagery of touch (e.g., the feel of bare feet on a hot sidewal8) @ustatory: imagery of taste (e.g., the tart, dry taste of starchy, green bananas)

#. 5llegory: a literary wor8 in which the symbols, characters, and events come to represent, in a somewhat point"to"point fashion, a different metaphysical, political, or social situation. $n Western culture, allegories have often been used for instructive purposes around Christian themes: for e9ample, ?ohn *unyan,s !ilgri(9s !rogress in which the main character 4Christian7 goes on a 1ourney in which he encounters such characters as =r. Worldly Wise, Aanity #air, and the &lough of 3espond > all depicting the struggles of a Christian trying to stay pure. &imilarly, early merican writer, +athaniel (awthorne in his short story 4'oung @oodman *rown7 s8illfully manipulates the conventions of allegory, but in such a way as to resist fi9ed meaning and to create an ending that is open to interpretation.

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

Style
Style refers to the Gualities that distinguish the wor8s of one author from another,s, including: . 1iction. word choice: formal%informal *. 4entence 4tructure (simple or comple9) C. 4ynta7. sentence patterns of language " grammatical and ungrammatical arrangements of words 3. <anguage: abstract or concrete 2. 1ialogue: can be either more dialogue than description, or dialogue limited to

@. 4y(%ols: symbols are concrete ob1ects%images that stand for abstract sub1ects. The ob1ects and images have meanings of their own but may be ascribed sub1ective connotations such as heart K love, s8ull C crossbones K poison, color green K envy: light bulb K idea, seasons K times in a lifespan. &ymbols may be either of two types:

D. 2stablished (@eneral): the meaning of an established symbol is derived from
outside the conte9t of the story, from 4received association,7 i.e., symbolism is agreed upon 4universally7 (artificially) by culture, religion, tribe, 8inship, etc. #or e9ample, a 1ourney K life: water K rebirth%new beginning: lion K courage

E. !rivate (!ersonal): definable only within the conte9t of the story in which it

appears. #or e9ample, early in T. &. 2liot,s long poem The aste <and, the narrative voice issues, 4Come in under the shadow of the roc8.7 $n 2liot,s poem, the red roc8 is symbolic of the spiritual shelter of the nglican Church, although this is not a 4received7 symbol traditional to any particular culture.

*. The theme must be e9pressible in the form of a statement " not <motherhood< but <=otherhood sometimes has more frustration than reward.< C. theme reflects a central vision of life or a statement about the human condition%e9perience conveyed in a wor8. #or e9amples, 4=an8ind e9ists in an indifferent world.7 D. *roadly, a theme may be the view of life that pervades a story: i.e., 4=an,s self" importance is ridiculous in comparison with the immensity of the universe.7 E. +o theme is identical with a =oral. n e9ample of a moral would be, 4(onesty is the best policy.7 mature piece of literature embodies a more comple9 theme than a mere moral. mature wor8 does not teach, rather it reveals (it shows rather than tells): it does not #reach, %ut inter#rets. Themes, unli8e morals, are not prescriptive. Themes add understanding of life and leave it to the readers to arrive at rules of behavior through the increased perception offered by the story. F. $n longer wor8s, the central theme may be accompanied by a number of lesser, related themes, or it may contain two or more central themes. 5sually, these contain insight into the human condition. H. The means by which themes may be e9pressed include: a. +arrator may sum up the significance or meaning in a pithy paragraph b. +arrator may use a wise character to voice the theme c. =odern writers generally embody the theme in dramatiBation > the action, dialogue, or other elements. The theme (D) can be a revelation of human character: (E) may be stated briefly or at great length: but (F) is not the <moral< of the story . theme must be stated as a generaliBation about life. +ames of characters or specific situations in the plot are not to be used when stating a theme. *. C. theme must not be a generaliBation larger than is 1ustified by the terms of the story. theme is the central and unifying concept of the story. $t must adhere to the following reGuirements: D. $t must account for all the ma1or details of the story. E. $t must not be contradicted by any detail of the story. F. $t must not rely on supposed facts " facts not actually stated or clearly implied by the story.

F. *ota +ene: The ability to recogniBe and to interpret symbols reGuires
e9perience in literary readings, perception, and tact. $t is easy to <run wild< with symbols " to find symbols everywhere. 4o(eti(es a %ird is &ust a %ird, a cigar is &ust a s(oke, and water is si(#ly water. The ability to interpret symbols is essential to the full understanding and en1oyment of literature. @iven below are helpful suggestions for identifying literary symbols:

D. The story itself must furnish a clue that a detail is to be ta8en symbolically
" symbols nearly always signal their e9istence by emphasis, repetition, or position.

E. The meaning of a literary symbol must be established and supported by
the entire conte9t of the story. a story. 8ind from its literal meaning. symbol has its meaning inside not outside

F. To be considered a symbol, an item must suggest a meaning different in H.
symbol has a cluster of meanings.

(. 3otifs: recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the ma1or themes (points) of the story

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work. 'uthor*s Pur!ose +)ntent, - The#e Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas e9plored in a literary wor8. Guiding Questions: Why did this writer bring these characters to this place at this time? What is the point? What do readers now 8now, .should) understand, I? . Theme is the central or dominating idea(s) in a literary wor8, may be several, particularly in longer, comple9 fiction

3. There is no single way of stating the theme of a story. 2. ny statement that reduces a theme to some familiar saying, aphorism, or clichJ should be avoided. 3o not use < stitch in time saves nine,< <'ou can;t 1udge a

boo8 by its cover, < <#ish and guests smell in three days,< and so on.

elements of fiction such as description. S dvance the plot R What characters discuss can ultimately change the course of the story. S 3evelop conflict R rguing characters create conflict: dialogue can also build tension. S !resent information R 3ialogue can be used as an alternative to e9position: instead of being fed dry facts, the reader will en1oy learning the bac8ground of the story. S 3evelop character R 3ialogue can reveal the personality, age, intelligence, and e9perience of a character. &ome important elements to identify about dialogue include: D. (ow much of the story is dialogue? E. What can the reader determine about the characters through their diction, accent, vocabulary, references, idioms, vernacular, tone, etc.? F. $s the dialogue necessary to the story? 3oes it add to or detract from the plot? H. What, if anything, other than characteriBation is revealed by the dialogue?

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work. Irony

3ialogue, when applied well, can add to the story line, enhance a character,s image, $rony is a term with a range of meanings, all of them involving some sort of discrepancy or and tell a story all on its own. friendly &outhern diner would not be the same without a incongruity. $t should not be confused with sarcasm which is simply language designed to few pieces of essential dialogue. 4',all come bac8T7 and 4*less her heart.7 ?ust these words insult or to cause emotional pain. $rony is used to suggest the difference between appearance alone identify a place and its characters. =ost people would 8now where they are in this and reality, between e9pectation and fulfillment, the comple9ity of e9perience, to furnish story without being told. indirectly an evaluation of the author;s material, and at the same time to achieve compression. &lang and clichJ are also powerful tools for the fiction writer. Taut conversation can put the readers on the edge of their seats the same way that the parting scene between two Three 8inds of irony: doomed lovers can draw tears. D. Aerbal irony > what is said is actually the opposite of what is meant%intended. Aerbal irony occurs when a narrator or character says one thing and means 2motions are conveyed within Guotation mar8s. +uances and subtle hints of character something else are evident in what people say. =any writers use dialogue more than narrative as a means of E. 3ramatic irony occurs when a reader perceives something that a character or advancing the plot. narrator in a wor8 of literature does not 8now. $t is also the contrast between what a character or narrator says and what a reader 8nows to be true F. &ituational irony is the discrepancy between appearance and reality, or between e9pectation and fulfillment, or between what is and what would seem appropriate Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work.

Critical Thinking – analysis of any work of literature – requires a thorough investigation of the “who, where, when, what, why, etc.” of the work. .ialo/ue 3ialogue is the direct (Guoted) 4verbal7 e9changes between characters. $t can be used to: • *rea8 up narrative R The writer can use dialogue to balance out the other

'lle/ory n allegorical story has a second meaning beneath the surface, endowing a cluster of characters, ob1ects, or events with added significance: often the pattern relates each literal item to a corresponding abstract idea or moral principal. The creation of

an allegorical pattern of meaning enables an author to achieve power through economy. #ew wor8s of literature are allegories. 2ditorialiBing is the narrator,s commenting on the story in order to instruct the reader how to feel about or respond to a character, an event, and%or a situation in the story s%he is relating. (antasy nonrealistic story that transcends the bounds of 8nown reality, the fantasy reGuires the reader,s 4willing suspension of belief.7 !oeticiBing is a narrator,s use of immoderately heightened and distended language to accomplish particular effects. Senti#entality A cheap way of trying to create emotion with the reader, sentimentality employs stock response - an emotion that has its source outside of the story (babies, puppies, young love, patriotism…), a “sweet view of life, and other techni!ues to avoid having to actually create emotion-inducing situations in the story" #nstead, good writer draws forth emotion by producing a character in a situation that deserves the reader$s sympathy and showing enough about the character and the situation to make either%both real and convincing"