Commission of the European Communities

energy

Energy audit No 3 Pulp, paper and board industry in the European Economic Community

Commission of the European Communities

energy
Energy audit No 3 Pulp, paper and board industry in the European Economic Community
PA Management Consultants Ltd
68 Knightsbridge London SW1 X7LJ United Kingdom

Contract No XVI l/AR/81/468

Directorate-General Energy

1983

EUR 8792 EN

1983 Printed in Belgium . Brussels · Luxembourg. Information Industries and Innovation Bâtiment Jean Monnet LUXEMBOURG LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication This report has been prepared by a private consultant and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of the Commission of the European Communities Luxembourg.Published by the COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Directorate-General Telecommunications. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 1988 ISBN 92-825-4063-4 Catalogue number : © ECSC-EEC-EAEC.

1 2.1 4.2 2. Paper and Board Industry in Member States 15 5.3 4.3 Key Findings Conclusions and Recommendations Energy Saving Potential 4. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 2.3 5.2 5.CONTENTS PAGE NO. Paper and Board Manufacture Audits of Mills im Member States The Role of combined Heat and Power 45 6.3 Energy Saving No.5 Significance of Energy Costs of Energy Energy Consumption in Pulp.5 Background Size and Structure Current Economic Situation Trends within the Industry The Pulp.1 3.4 5. 2.2 7. ENERGY MANAGEMENT PRACTICE 6.4 4. METHODS OF INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 7.1 5.1 7. OVERVIEW OF THE EEC PULP.2 3. Methodology Availability of Data Comparability of Data 4 1 ■ 2 U S MMARY OF REPORT 3.2 6.3 3.3 Current Situation Possible Difficulties with some Energy Management Organisation Structures Organising for Efficient Energy Management 70 7. ENERGY AUDIT OF THE EEC PULP. 1. Low and High Cost Energy Conservation Measures Technical Aspects of Energy Saving Opportunities 74 . PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 5 .2 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS BACKGRO U ND TO ENERGY AUDIT OF THE EEC PULP.1 6. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 4.

CONTROLS.2 Current Situation Conclusions 86 9.2 9. BARRIERS TO IMPLEt4ENTATION 9.I V 8.1 8.4 Financial Resources Market Considerations/Economic Environment Technical Barriers Attitude of Government and Member Federations 91 APPENDIX I TECHNOLOGY OF PAPER MAKING 97 . TARGETING AND MONITORING 8.1 9.3 9.

undertook the study in Italy and Resource Planning Consultants were responsible for the study in Greece. Tne energy audits in Greece and in Italy were conducted by consultants nominated by the Directorate General DG XVII of the EEC and subcontracted to PA Management Consultants. Cartoni e Paste per Carta (ASSOCARTA) Professor R Jottrand and Dr E Tomas of the Universite Libre de Bruxelles Mr A de Monts and staff of tne Confederation Europeene de l'Inaustrie des Pates. Government of Belgium Dr Gigliotti of the Associazone Italiana Carta. Papiers et Cartons (CEPAC) Mr E Persson of Sammenslutningen af Danske Papir-. Econerg s. Papiers et Cartons en Belgique (COBELPA) Mijnheer W Wuijster of the Dutch Paper and Board Makers Association The study would not have been possible without their full cooperation. . Pap og Cellulosefabrikker Mr A Smith of Comhlact Muilte Paiper na h'Eireann Monsieur H Vermelln of the Confederation Française de l'Industrie de Pâtes Papiers.-1 - ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to acknowledge the considerable assistance provided during the study by: Mr J Adams and Mr A Marriott of the British Paper and Board Industry Federation Monsieur M Alle of the Programmation de la Politique Scientifique.r. Cartons et Celluloses Monsieur F de Walque of Association des Fabricants de Pâtes.l.

This approach has prevented unnecessary duplication in those countries where industry audits have been completed previously.2. Therefore our comments on energy saving opportunities and the management of energy (based on the results of audits that have been conducted) may not be totally appropriate. paper and board industry a careful analysis of relevant published data and data made available by both CEPAC and the associate federations. have been conducted. and board mills in several member states discussions with a selection of organisations/ companies supplying energy audit and management systems and services to the pulp. However.2 Availability of Data Our assignment has relied to a large extent on the availability of previously conducted audits. given the time and budgetary constraints of this assignment. in-depth discussions with CEPAC and senior executives of the member federations of CEPAC a limited number of visits to pulp. paper. Moreover. themselves to conduct in depth audits in all individual member states. 2. BACKGROUND TO ENERGY AUDITS OF THE EEC PULP. We understand from discussions with the national federations in these countries that no comprehensive audits at a sector level. In this connection there have been difficulties in both France and Germany. . our limited exposure to energy management in the pulp. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 2. c) d) e) The major thrust of our programme has involved working through the federations rather than at mill level.1 Methodology The methodology has been based upon: a) b) development of a detailed questionnaire based upon the questionnaire. it would not have been possible for PA Management Consultants. paper and board industries in these countries suggests that many of the recommendations proposed in Section 4 are very relevant and contain much that will be useful to the sector in both countries.

-3 - 2.3 Comparability of Data Considerable efforts have been made to obtain data from individual countries that is as comparable as possible. A number of difficulties have arisen in this context because : differing product classifications have sometimes been used. (Not all audits are based upon the CEPAC. Another source of problems of direct comparability arises because no two mills: produce identical products have an identical output mix process identical raw materials. . system) not all audits contain the same data and extrapolation to a common base is not possible audits have been conducted at varying points in time in the period 1977-1982.

000 tonnes.3 million tonnes lower than in 1980).1 Size.1 Key Findings 3. In broad terms. and accounted for almost 75% of domestic consumption. Pulp production in 198I fell by 7% from 198O levels to ca. The decline in__the number of mills is a consequence of reduced mill profitability stemming. The competition is characterised by: a high degree of vertical integration and accessibility to raw materials high average capacity of mills permitting them to benefit from economies of scale . from: declining/stagnant demand (as a result of the current world recession) competitive pressures.000 tonnes industry rationalisation with a large number of mill closures in recent years particularly in the UK and in Italy.000 tonnes of paper and board dropped by 40%). paper and board industry in the EEC ranks as a major supplier to world markets behind the North American and Scandinavian countries (the Norscan block). 5. Structure and Current Economic Situation The pulp. SUMMARY OF REPORT 3. (In the period 1970-80 the number of mills producing less than 50.3. compared with mill capacities in Norscan countries of over 110. in particular.5 million tonnes. the community industry is characterised by: limited vertical integration (many mills rely on imported pulp) small average mill capacity (ca-40.1. Paper and board output in 1981 totalled some 24 million tonnes (some 0.

However. 595PJ derived from the following sources: Fuel Oil Electricity Natural Gas Coal ca. are less prepared to enter. 3. government commitment to a nuclear power programme. 19% ca. Recognition of the need to conserve energy is widespread.competitively priced energy stemming from for example. In order to maintain any measure of competitiveness EEC mills will need to improve control of costs (both fixed and variable). Already a number of the member states with smaller industries (eg Denmark) base their development strategy on increased exports of specialist and high quality papers. However. The near future of the EEC industry is likely to be one of: continuing rationalisation specialisation. 7% (as primary energy) Otner fuels remainder (eg wood waste) . 33% ca.1. A key element in this cost control programme is energy. 40% ca. paper and board industries eg West Germany. government pricing policy (a historical refusal by governments in some Norscan countries to charge "commercial" prices for natural gas).2 Energy Consumption and Costs Primary energy used is estimated at ca. it is anticipated that this trend to specialisation will be much less marked in member countries with large pulp. for reason of scale. abundant sources of hydroelectric power. Concentration on higher added value products enables them to exploit a market niche that larger competitors. increased competition as tariffs are abolished on the import of products from Scandinavian mills (1984). the extent to which energy saving opportunities have been identified and implemented varies considerably between the member states.

1. where required (up to 30% of process heat). 30-65% of electricity) paper machine operation (30-60% of electricity) cleaning of waste. on average. Recent indications suggest that the discrepancies in pricing between the Norscan countries and the EEC member states are narrowing in both gas and electricity. with the exception of West Germany and France.6 Energy costs as a percentage of production costs have shown a historical increase in all member states. 3. there are clear . has been examined and reviewed. Paper and Board Industries of Member States Audit data for all member states. Reasons for this include: the reluctance of North American gas suppliers to price gas commercially the benefits that both Sweden and Canada have derived from abundant hydro-electric sources the expansion of nuclear power in Sweden. Canada and North America. For reasons indicated in Section 3·3 much of the audit data for individual countries is not directly comparable with data for other countries. 3.4 Energy Audits of Pulp. The Norscan countries have traditionally benefited from cheaper energy.1. represented between 11% and 15% of total production costs in 1980. Where comparative data is available. In those community members with large paper and board industries. This proportion tends to be higher for cheap standard products such as newsprint than for more specialised products..3 Energy Usage The main functions for which energy is used are: drying (typically over 70% of process heat) refining of pulp and slushing of waste (typically ca. energy costs.

many of these installations are old and steam pressures are too low for the generation of sufficient electricity for a modern paper mill. recognition of the need to identify and implement conservation opportunities is very widespread and systems to manage implementation are developing. In those member countries with large paper industry sectors. with the result that. Additionally. Italy. The pivotal role of the BPBIF . in most cases. a back pressure turbine is the only form of steam turbine tnat should be considered when a public electricity supply is also available. with some exceptions. In all member states. 3. the energy requirement balance has altered progressively in favour of electricity. the proportion of electricity has declined.1. However. permit the large capital investments necessary to replace CHP plant.1. The mills in some (but by no means all) of the smaller member states lack both the technical expertise to identify all energy saving opportunities and the management resource to implement them.5 Combined Heat and Power Historically. all the member states with significant paper and board industries have relied strongly on Combined Heat and Power. The situation is not expected to change in the near future since current levels of profitability do not. The British Paper and Board Industries Federation (BPBIF) has seized the initiative on energy conservation and coordinates and advises the UK industry on all aspects of energy conservation and management. nas an average mill energy consumption that compares well with mills in other member states. there continues to be a relatively large proportion of mills where only limited action has been taken to date. despite having a large number of small inefficient mills. Nevertheless. 3.6 Involvement of Member Federations in the Energy Conservation Effort The involvement of individual federations in energy conservation varies widely.differences in performance (measured in terms of energy consumption/tonne).

paper and board industry have been conducted at national level in Belgium. Reasons for tnis include in depth audits at the national level in all member states have not yet been conducted. in comparison with other mills how efficiently they use energy.is not matched by any other community federations (although the Dutch. . are also strongly committed to the energy conservation effort). 3. since they tend to lack the necessary technical expertise. energy audits have been less comprehensive and generally confined to mill level. In other member states.2 Key Conclusions and Recommendations Recognition of the need to conserve energy is widespread in the industry throughout the member states. this commitment is not communicated to the work force and/or the methods currently used to manage energy conservation programmes are ineffective lack of knowledge of the technical aspects of energy conservation financial constraints. The role of most other federations in energy conservation is supportive rather than initiating. 3. in a number of countries and many mills: energy conservation opportunities are being neglected implementation of energy conservation programmes is not always fully effective.1 Energy Audits Energy audits of the pulp. the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. mills in these countries could be denied useful data that would enable them to estimate. to a lesser extent Belgian federations. Hence. there may be top management commitment to energy saving.2. However. Italian and. although at mill level.

However. Given the limited amount of currently available data (for member states) that is directly comparable these audits should be on the basis of guidelines developed for an EEC wide audit. This commitment can be increased by a number of methods eg existence of conservation targets. . b) Communicating Commitment It will be vital to communicate commitment to lower levels of management. it is important that attention to Conservation is not diverted by eg other business priorities. suitable vehicles for this could include circulating data demonstrating the effect of energy conservation on profitability establishing an energy committee with top management representation monitoring performance against targets.2 Managing Energy Conservation at Mill Level Effective conservation of energy depends upon: top management commitment communication of this commitment the correct approach to managing energy.2. 3.9 - We recommend therefore tnat outstanding audits be conducted without delay. an awareness of the impact of energy conservation on profitability. a) Top Management Commitment This is essential in sustaining concern by other levels of management and the workforce in the conservation of energy. doubts about the efficiency of some energy conservation measures and insufficient management resource.

10 c) The Correct Approach The approach to energy management must encompass energy management organisation energy management systems communications and allocation of resources setting of energy targets and controls. Ideally. no single approach is appropriate for all mills. However. we recommend that all approaches must be based upon: allocating ownership of the problem ie who owns the problem categorising the cost and benefit ie no cost with immediate payback low cost with short/medium term payback and high cost with long term payback. tighter management control to be exerted over energy costs and usage and equipment deficiencies to be highlighted to an early stage. management should adopt a multi-disciplinary approach to energy management rather than rely on an Energy Manager since the latter could dilute the sense of responsibility among other managers. The approach will need to be tailored to the individual mill bearing in mind factors such as mill size. This enables the effects of any conservation measures to be monitored and evaluated. targeting and monitoring. However. energy conservation history. particularly those in production. management style. .

On machines fitted with machine glazed or Yankee cylinders.3 Technical Aspects a) Given the considerable advantages that can accrue from the wider use of CHP. c) The particular measures recommended for research. management are wary of committing themselves.1 1 3. Development and Demonstration Projects in selected mills and funded at community or national level would be considerable and could easily be adopted by other mills. The benefits arising from.2. without support. for a number of reasons. as a means of heating air for ventilating the dryers. Energy Committees within individual member federations would oversee these projects (where necessary being advised and supported by outside consultants with experience of the paper industry). we recommend a detailed investigation into the application of CHP systems in the paper and board industry. The federations would be responsible for disseminating the results of these projects and recommendations arising. there are a number of other technical aspects that could enhance energy conservation opportunities but to which. Provision of hoods can offer savings of up to one third of the quantities of dry air required to remove 1 tonne of water.. development and demonstration projects are: heat recovery from dryer exhausts. the savings are even larger improved techniques for moisture measurement within the press section and at the boundary between the press and dryer section b) . for example Research. Moreover.

This is an unnecessary use of high grade heat since only a flow of hot water (50-70°C) is required. for some high quality products. is for drying. Given that over 70% of all process heat. Using water at such temperatures is a valuable outlet for recovered heat mechanical vapour recompression. Superheated steam is used in air caps. more efficient method of treating fibres is required. Until this is available. It has been suggested that only a small proportion of the energy input used in refining is for the intended function. A new. it is important to develop ways of controlling the refining action on existing plant and minimising the energy input for a given refiner upgrading waste fibres. only virgin fibres can be used. Slushers use steam often in considerable quantities.12 producing control systems for dryers. Current limitations on cleaning waste pulp and upgrading waste fibres means that. The moisture collected by the steam is extracted in a vapour recompression cycle so that the latent heat can be recycled research into refining. Research is needed into methods of cleaning these waste pulps and upgrading their fibres so that they can be used for a wider range of products . small percentage savings (through improved control) would have a significant effect on total energy consumption alternatives to using live steam in slushers for the treatment of waste. The rest is dissipated in raising the temperature of the stock.

Hence.5 Role of CEPAC We recommend that CEPAC take a leading role in the organisation and development of an energy auditing system that is appropriate for all member states. within individual mills. additional to those currently offered at community level for financial incentives eg very soft loans or financial guarantees : 3.5 should be implemented in member states under the aegis of . we recommend that the programme outlined in Section 4. 3. in energy terms of using recycled paper (rather than virgin pulp) are clear. for increased financial incentives. Of particular importance is the deinking and bleaching of printed paper..4 Financial Assistance The implementation of the total range of energy conservation opportunities is hindered by the shortage. of sufficient funds. 3. to a brightness approaching that of the unprinted paper.13 cleaning and deinking waste paper.2.2.6 Role of Individual Federations The initiative for improving energy management should be taken by the industry rather than by government.2. We recommend therefore that opportunities be investigated: at a national level.2. Recycled paper is increasingly important as a source of raw material. This will facilitate inter-country comparisons and enable mills with below average energy conservation performance to benefit from a much larger data base and wider experience in energy conservation than would be the case if they were forced to rely only on the experience of the domestic industry. Similarly CEPAC should oversee the development of community wide targeting and monitoring systems to aid in the implementation of identified conservation opportunities. The benefits.

. The federations would have an advisory role on energy managmement comprising for example : circulating improved comparative energy usage information publicising successful conservation measures publicising progress on research. paper and board sector this could mean savings of up to ca 150 PJ of annual energy consumed. it is estimated upwards of 90 ΡJ annually. low and high cost conservation opportunities (excluding those arising from the installation of CHP) could. the implementation of the no and low cost opportunities could save. 3.14 the Energy Committees of the individual federations but in close consultation with CEPAC. development and demonstration projects and other new developments assistance in evaluating potential cost-effective energy savings Where appropriate.3 Energy Saving Potential Implementation of all no. the federations should draw on the resources of external agencies in order to establish the systems necessary for this advisory service. In actual terms. For the pulp. In the medium term. in the longer term. save as much as 25% of energy consumed. savings would be somewhat less since some of the no and low cost opportunities have already been implemented.

1 Background 4. The fibres are separated by pulping and are then bleached. derived mainly from wood. on one site. Their continuous processing eliminates the need for additional drying of the pulp. The vegetable fibres consist primarily of cellulose fibre. Together these pass through a succession of roll presses to remove more water from the web. to the final paper/board product (integrated mills) and companies who lack pulping equipment and must purchase dried pulp. The pulp is then dispersed in water. continuous wire mesh band (tne "fourdrinier"). Integrated mills can enjoy a considerable cost advantage over paper/board mills. The multitude of tiny fibres produced by this process is known as pulp. The mixture is then cleaned and refined.1 Technology Paper is an aqueous deposit of vegetable fibres in sheet form. Water drains from the pulp leaving behind a wet layer of paper on top of the fourdrinier. The moist paper web is then dried by passing over a number of steam heated cylinders.1. This is wasteful in energy terms since the dried pulp must be redispersed in water prior to further processing. buy in raw wood and process it. without interruption. This wet paper web passes from the fourdrinier onto a felt. at which stage. In manufacturing terms. Figure I overleaf indicates the key processes. the paper and board making industry is divided between those companies that.15 OVERVIEW OF THE EEC PULP. The refined material passes to the paper making machine where it is spread evenly over a moving. prior to transportation to the paper/board mill. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 4. recycled (waste) paper may be added. .

1 KEY STEPS IN PAPER MAKING Vegetable Fibres fe Pulping.FIG. Forming Drainage Moist Web ^ Drying Finishing Paper/ Board . Bleaching Separated Fibres 1 Recycled Paper fe Stock*' Preparation Modified Fibres fc.

printing and writing) wrappings and packaging (kraft-liner.1 enable a wide range of types of paper and board to be produced. The distinction between paper and board is based on mass per unit area. for example. bleached sulphite. For the classification of paper and board. otherwise it is classed as board. generally. papers are generally produced in a single ply whereas boards are multi-ply sheets. CEPAC use four major groupings: papers for graphic use (newspaper. paper can be produced that is.1. It is derived from mechanical pulp and produced on very large high speed machines.2 Paper and Board Products Modifications of the basic process described in Section 5. case materials such as 1 corrugated board *) industrial and special purpose papers and packaging boards papers for other uses (mainly household tissues) a) Graphic Papers Newspaper must be suitable for printing at high speed.1. Dependent upon the particular process variation. often with different types of fibres in the various layers. white papers made from a mixture of chemical and mechanical pulps . Printings and writings are. opaque or transluscent flammable or fire-resistant permeable or impermeable degradeable or non-degradeable.) Moreover. (Material having an area density below 220 gm/m^ is classed as paper.17 - 4.

Packaging boards are used typically for retail cartons. kitchen paper. Boards and Packaging Boards Industrial and special papers and boards comprise a wide variety of products normally produced from chemical pulps. c) Industrial and Special Papers. Most mills produce a variety of grades of paper. d) Papers for Other Uses Household tissues consist mainly of toilet tissue. consisting of a multi-ply sandwich of: a layer of bleached chemical pulp several layers made from waste a backing made from mechanical pulp. from a mixture of waste paper and semi-chemical pulp (although 100 per cent mixed waste can be used). For ease of classification. They are made from chemical and mechanical pulps and from selected waste which does not require much cleaning. These papers are used for: books stationery magazines b) Wrappings and Packagings Wrapping and packagings include papers for wrapping. facial tissue and handkerchiefs. Wrapping papers are produced from recycled waste paper and from chemical pulps. Case materials include corrugated board in which three layers of paper are laminated together. Fluting is produced normally. The resultant material is light but strong. Liners are made from waste paper with added kraft pulp. . bags and sacks and board materials for boxes and cases. mills are grouped according to their major product.18 with mineral fillers to increase the capacity. The middle ply ("fluting") is corrugated during the process and interposed between the outer layers ("liners").

4. $16 billion in sales terms.1 Size As Tables I and II indicate. paper and board industry are: the comparatively small proportion of mills that are integrated the small average capacity of mills compared with those in North America and Scandinavia (the Norscan countries) continuing rationalisation in the industry Table III sets out details of the number of pulp.2. paper and board mills in the member states. Pulp and Board Industry 4.2 Size and Structure of the EEC Paper.19 4.2. Domestic production of paper and board accounted for almost 75% of consumption in 1981.. paper and board. worth ca. EEC countries account for about one seventh of total world output of paper and board and in 198I totalled almost 24 million tonnes. .2 Structure Key points to note concerning the structure of the EEC pulp. the EEC is a major producer of pulp.

692 1.199 5.Europe Total Europe North America Asia Latin America Australasia Africa World Total 738 609 3.928 3.676 2.481 16.000 tons) Neswprint Country 1980 1.128 13.096 13.988 1.086 1.029 2.681 9.871 11.031 O EEC Scandinavia Other W.783 3.368 323 26.TABLE I WORLD PAPER AND BOARD PRODUCTION BY GRADE I98O-8I (1.475 237 371 40.360 9.746 14.417 4.015 1.654 520 565 304 26.291 3.072 106 19.757 1981 8.692 1981 1.013 1981 4.017 2.371 Other Paper 1980 2.408 4.116 25.279 10.973 336 27.989 25.321 4.583 3.326 4.643 971 91 901 88 256 441 40.775 2.519 4.035 .999 Printing/ Wrapping 1980 8.407 Board 1980 4.390 6.087 3.863 3.064 13.363 1.363 1981 2.542 2.935 3.362 1.355 6.753 Packaging Paper 1980 6.902 16.956 12.286 16.698 3.758 11.663 1.710 2.251 4.777 1.355 1.720 14.200 4.Europe Total W.Europe E.251 997 121 19.417 4.652 218 638 56.080 712 656 3.354 3.978 8.863 3.510 15.087 714 6.003 494 5.180 498 552 225 25.175 10.969 1.492 712 6.100 6.324 175 647 56.491 1981 6.825 17.560 504 6.465 5.746 1.987 7.303 15.974 6.

666 5.068 4.727 5.824 9.Europe Total Europe North America Asia Latin America Australasia Africa World Total 941 1.448 634 8.398 753 518 86.449 531 801 202 26.395 899 906 722 615 87.887 9.981 2.21 TABLE II WORLD PULP PRODUCTION BY MAIN TYPE 1980-81 (1.911 5.637 5.350 1981 2.470 1.Europe E.209 1981 EEC Scandinavia Other W.762 15.083 11.740 15.257 3.283 25.581 7.166 10.688 1.629 11.396 4.123 48.170 48.736 0 680 16.299 25.895 522 760 269 27.294 Mechanical 1980 2.122 1..758 369 2.297 Other 1980 1.160 611 8.051 11.316 357 2.000 tons) Chemical Country 1980 2.608 11.227 1981 2.665 0 502 16.457 2.473 8.158 .Europe Total W.011 2.223 3.511 5.071 12.830 2.442 2.396 5.475 2.

662 - - Pulp and Paper International .806 3 400 3 133 28 2.TABLE III NUMBER OF MILLS PRODUCING PULP.850 1.350 5 212 3 133 138 6.900 28.322 4 65 55 1. PAPER AND BOARD IN EEC (1981) Belgium No of Paper and Paper and Board Mills Paper and Board Capacity (000' tons) No of Pulp Mills Pulp Capacity (000' tons) Source: Denmark Eire France West Germany Greece Italy Lux·bg Netherlands United Kingdom Total 17 6 2 172 200 18 480 35 117 1.047 905 318 70 - 5.000 37 2.028 355 5.550 10.880 - 3.

(Imports of Mechanical Pulp into both the Netherlands and the UK are in percentage terms lower since both countries have significant domestic production of this product. By contrast. (an increase of over 10% on the number of mills in 1973). the average size is marginally over 40.) c) Limited Mill Size The average capacity of a paper mill in the EEC is 27. The number of smaller mills. Thus.500 tonnes. France and Italy the quantities of domestically produced pulp are broadly comparable with those of imported pulp.000 tonnes. many of them very small. b) Reliance on Imported Materials The paper industries in all the producing countries of the EEC rely. (those producing less than 50. to a greater or lesser extent.which has almost 50% of the EEC mills. opportunities for vertical integration are more limited. . However.000 tonnes. In some of the larger countries eg West Germany. In North America the average capacity of a paper mill is 113. in Finland and Sweden the average is ca. on imported pulp. for many EEC producers.23 a) Vertical Integration The abundance of conveniently located forests enables many mills in Norscan countries to achieve economies through vertical integration.000 tonnes a year increased from 118 in 1973 to 130 in 1980. Excluding Italy..000 tonnes a year) was reduced by almost 40% during this period whilst the number of mills producing over 50. other member states eg United Kingdom..000 tonnes . 130. many mills in EEC countries must import their raw materials. and the Netherlands rely on imports for up to 95% of their chemical pulp consumption requirements. d) Rationalisation The EEC paper industry has undergone major rationalisation in the period 1970-80.

Throughout the EEC some 50 paper and board mills ceased operations in 198I.000 tonnes a year fell from 149 to 90 (a decrease of almost 40% over the 1973 figure) whilst the number of pulp mills producing over 100. Two countries accounted for the bulk of the decline in output. Opinions are divided on whether EEC consumption will. Although much of the US consumption is very wasteful. Between 1967 and 1972.5 million tonnes. the second successive annual decline.24 - A similar contraction has occurred in the pulp industry.8 million tonnes. growth declined to 2.000 tonnes to a record 7·8 million tonnes. The drop in output was not spread equally over the 10 member states. in the period 1975-80. Production fell by over 7% to 5. Between 1973 and 198O the number of mills producing less than 100.3. Per capita consumption of paper and board in the EEC is less than half that in the United States (130 kg versus 280 k g ) . Pulp production in the EEC also continued to decline in 198I. 4·3 Current Economic Situation 4.000 tonnes to 4.000 tonnes to 6.7% a year. there would still appear to be considerable scope for an increase in market size in the EEC.000 tonnes a year increased from 12 to 17 (an increase of over 4 0 % ) .4 million tonnes and in Italy by 100.000 tonnes in the period I98O-8I. Over 20 pulp mills were closed in 1981. match that in the US.000 tonnes to 3. while capacity was cut by a little over 300.5% annually.7 million tonnes. EEC paper and board consumption was rising at 4. in the foreseeable future. . production fell by 400. In Belgium and Denmark moderate increases were recorded. In the Federal Republic of Germany (BRD) production rose by over 200. the bulk of them in Italy.1 Supply/Demand Paper and board production in the EEC member states fell by over 300. However. In the UK.

costs of paper and board products have risen sharply since the 1960's. This arises from the abolition of EEC import tariffs on these products from European Free Trade Association members. Moreover. the Norscan countries with their ready access to raw materials and the scale of their integration. in particular. paper and board industry is to have a secure future. Member states have reacted by increasing the quantities of waste paper that are .2 b). it will depend to a large extent on increased cooperation between the industries of member states on initiatives organised at community level. the reduction of tariffs to North American suppliers can be expected to further increase pressure on the pulp and paper industry in the EEC.3. 4.2 Problems Facing the Industry The future development of the pulp. probably in 1984. the member states of the EEC are not expected to provide a very buoyant market for some time. . (Section 5. which is not expected to be very dramatic in the short term. to these current problems will be added. the increased competitiveness of Scandinavian pulp and paper exports. lack of investment in more productive and less energy intensive equipment. Other key problems currently facing the industry are dependence on imported raw materials (a portion of which are supplied by direct competitors) the cost of raw materials and of energy lack of profitability and thus.2. Longer term. Thus.paper and board industry is threatened by strong commercial pressures from. Moreover.25 Demand for paper products is linked closely to economic growth. a) Dependence on Imports The dependence of the EEC Pulp and Paper Industry on imported raw materials has already been noted. If the EEC pulp.

0 125. (Waste paper in 1980 accounted for 43. (This is discussed in detail in Section 6.2.5% in 1973·) b) Cost of Raw Materials Considerable quantities of raw materials used by the EEC paper and board industry are purchased from Scandinavian countries.26 - recycled.0 125. Peabody c) Relative Costs of Energy Industry in the member states of the EEC must pay more overall for its energy than its North American and Scandinavian competitors.) .2% of total paper and board production compared with 39.0 150. TABLE IV COMPARATIVE WOOD COSTS: SELECTED COUNTRIES (Winter 1980/81) Country Finland Sweden Canada (East) Canada (West) US (West) US (South) US $/tonne (ex.mill) 250.0 225. As Table IV indicates EEC mills suffer a considerable price disadvantage when compared with North American mills.0 100.0 Source : Kidder.

4 UK France Source : 4. d) Lack of Profitability/Lack of Investment The rate of return on sales for industries with relatively low R & D expenditure (of which the paper industry is a good example) is consistently lower in the EEC than in the USA.7 3.4.5 4.27 These problems are faced by all member states to varying degrees. In addition each country has its own individual problems. These are discussed in Section 5. The decline in mill population will be . Paper and Board Industry 4. More recent comparative figures are not available.3 USA Finland Canada ] Sweden ] Germany ] 9.. A consequence of this is that many paper companies in the EEC are unable to generate sufficient capital to make the large investments necessary for the more economic production of paper and board products. TABLE V CAPITAL INVESTMENT AS % OF SALES BY MAJOR PAPER PRODUCING COUNTRIES (1979) Country % 14.0 10. Trends within the EEC Pulp. although at a slower rate than in 1980 and 1981.1 Continuing Rationalisation Mill closures are expected to continue.4 Jaako Pöyry Survey.5.

exports of fine writing and printing papers accounted for almost 60% of the increase in exports in the period 198O/8I. domestic mills must compete against the output of Scandinavian mills made more price competitive through the abolition of import tariffs. A key element in maintaining price competitiveness will be improved cost control. Hence. eg wrapping paper in Italy.3 Improved Control of Raw Material and Production Costs Economic forecasts for Western Europe predict that demand for paper and board products is unlikely to grow strongly at least until 1985.28 - concentrated among the smaller. less efficient mills. paper and board production has declined between 2 and 5%· The actual decline depending upon the particular product and the member state. beginning in 1984. However. In addition. have based their export development on a programme of product specialisation.4. the extent to which energy saving opportunities have been identified and implemented varies considerably.4. particularly in those paper and board sectors where there is currently local overcapacity. Recognition of the need to control energy consumption (as a major cost item) is widespread amongst the paper industries of the member states. rather than attempting to compete across the total product range. 4. in Denmark. .2 Specialisation The pulp. Greece. are that pulp.5 The Pulp. 4. Paper and Board Industry in EEC Members States Production figures for 1982 are not yet available but the indications. paper and board industries in a number of the smaller member states of the EEC eg Denmark. 4.

profitability was unsatisfactory because of the need to marginally price products to compete. Belgian mills have been forced to specialise to some extent.29 4. Despite the difficulties. Moreover to compete against imports from suppliers benefiting from economies of scale and low cost energy. Belgium mills increased their output with a reduced number of mills (17) and fewer paper machines (33)· However in many cases. imports of paper and board products account for almost 75% of apparent consumption.1 Belgium The government introduced a number of austerity measures in early 1982 designed to offset the economic difficulties arising from high unemployment. Because of: the comparatively small size of the market the accessibility of the domestic market to foreign suppliers. a large balance of payments deficit. . zero growth and a large public sector borrowing requirement.5.

30 - TABLE VI PAPER.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Mechanical Other Total Pulp Market Pulp 219 140 0 359 189 209 128 0 337 179 1980 102 436 106 39 92 18 71 864 1981 108 423 129 43 95 17 72 887 Imports 1980 134 341 193 112 17 37 152 986 1981 121 345 206 114 18 48 143 995 Exports 1980 34 292 70 37 23 4 20 480 1981 35 383 81 44 18 4 26 491 329 59 4 392 0 347 42 2 391 0 142 1 0 143 0 137 0 0 137 0 Source: Pulp and Paper International . BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR BELGIUM (1.

for pulp the corresponding figure was 88%) an overall improvement in efficiency. y for exporters of Danish pulp. aided by: a 6% increase in paper production (capacity utilisation for paper and board totalled 84% in 198I. Profitability improved. the strengthening of the US dollar increased profitability considers ~ j . However the economic performance of the Danish pulp.2 Denmark 1981 was a bad year for the Danish economy.3 1 4. more integrated competitors. " decision by domestic producers to concentrate upon specialist/higher added value products for export has had considerable success and has enabled them to offset to some extent the problems arising from the accessibility of their market to the larger. Moreover. . paper and board industry was better than in 198O.5.

32 TABLE VII PAPER.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Semichemical Mechanical Other Straw Pulp : Total Pulp Market Pulp 0 64 3 54 120 90 0 63 0 54 117 88 1980 0 110 89 20 14 0 20 253 1981 0 123 88 20 14 0 23 268 Imports 1980 153 145 127 63 54 55 131 728 1981 164 137 128 62 53 60 144 747 Exports 1980 0 59 35 11 8 15 22 149 1981 0 76 38 12 7 18 23 173 ! 85 0 12 0 97 95 1 17 0 112 0 62 0 3 65 0 61 0 3 64 Source: Pulp and Paper International . BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR DENMARK (1.

. Soaring energy costs caused one of these mills to close in October I98I. By 1980. contraction has occurred owing to: lack of capital for investment energy supply problems (no domestic source of cheap energy) competitive pressures. The remaining mill located near Dublin manufactures low quality wrapping paper. TABLE VIII PAPER AND BOARD STATISTICS FOR EIRE (1000 tons) Production 198le 1980 Printings/Writings Packaging paper Total 20 35 55 23 32 55 ] ] ] Exports 1980 Imports I98O 15 278 278 15 Source: Pulp and Paper International e .5.Estimated . board and fluting from waste paper. only two mills remained.33 4. Eire had 5 mills and 10 machines making : fine papers board fluting. However. since then.3 Eire In 1970.

the new government has given indications that it is willing to assist the industry. capacity utilisation was high (94% in pulp and 86% in paper and board). although tissue output grew strongly. Demand in 1982 has been slack with prices under some pressure. Based upon these recommendations the industry is considering a series of major investments probably with substantial state aid. Pulp production declined sharply (by more than 6%). Some sectors of the pulp.4 France French paper and board production declined fractionally during 1981. . and commissioned a report to make recommendations. paper and board industry suffered seriously in I98I eg packaging paper and sulphite paper grades primarily from overseas competition. However. although the weakness of the French franc has benefited market pulp and integrated producers.34 4.5. However.

412 267 2.174 102 1.222 1.35 TABLE IX PAPER.148 373 2.651 499 487 0 0 0 Source: Pulp and Paper International .061 98 1.829 127 399 16 1.555 1.009 1.652 0 1.091 1.151 549 185 160 552 5.557 169 149 174 419 14 1.011 1.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Semicnemical Mechanical Other Total Pulp Market Pulp 1.130 382 2. BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR FRANCE (1.715 36 61 28 66 0 1 2 172 0 0 0 4 154 0 1.174 1980 1981 Imports 1980 1981 Exports 1980 1981 261 2.426 392 597 415 252 57 44 373 654 367 298 59 41 12 11 564 147 142 19 74 553 147 192 19 69 584 174 169 542 5.

20%) in: heavy fuel oil and natural gas wood. paper and board industry.5.36 4. However.8 million tons some 3% higher than the previous record set in 198O. The total sales turnover of the industry increased by 12% to ca. Higher inflation and higher interest rates restricted the growth in general demand. . profit margins were squeezed by cost increases (totalling ca. In 198I.5 Federal Republic of Germany The generally depressed economic situation in 198I was reflected in the pulp. consumption of goods and services as well as corporate investment. the bulk of the additional production being channelled into exports. imported pulp and additives.300 million although there was only 3% increase in volume. Exports increased to a record level of 1. Domestic consumption was relatively static. production of paper and board totalled 7. some 25% of total production.9 million tons. DM11. Capacity utilisation was 78% in paper and board. 87% in pulp.

225 13 71 106 9 2.795 Imports 1980 869 1.349 307 541 276 1.144 884 359 51 169 295 3.580 1981 680 3.289 307 515 285 1.942 2.181 832 395 54 196 292 3.709 1981 90 910 240 100 45 151 406 1.424 0 77 0 0 33 0 110 0 74 0 0 37 0 111 0 Source : Pulp and Paper International .021 274 1980 606 3.732 Exports 1980 81 761 236 84 36 155 356 1.210 169 0 2.219 18 87 111 11 2.045 1.995 298 564 69 1.134 1.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Semichemical Mechanical Dissolving Other Total Pulp Market Pulp 618 73 1.148 156 0 1.533 7.508 7.37 TABLE Χ PAPER.446 0 2. BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR WEST GERMANY (1.771 1981 782 1.

is the strong growth in exports. Profit margins have been under considerable pressure because: of strict price controls of the increasing cost of pulp imports of the high cost of money. Greece is conveniently located for comparatively cheap transportation to this region. paper and board production is estimated to have decreased by more than 6% in 1981.not available .) One positive development in recent years. na . BOARD AND PULP PRODUCTION IN GREECE (1.38 4. Straw Total Pulp 1980 1981 Imports 1980 1981 Exports 1980 1981 na na na na na na na na na na 30 20 320 300 165 160 57 50 29 25 54 30 18 48 na na na na 100e na na na na 100 na na Source : Pulp and Paper International. (A number of larger mills need considerable investment if they are to operate profitably.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Printings/Writings Tissue Total Paper & Board PULP Mechanical Other. TABLE XI PAPER. in the Greek pulp paper and board industry.5. These are directed mainly to Middle Eastern countries.6 Greece Reflecting the broader recession in the Greek economy.

8% corrugating medium) and strong increases (+16. it is anticipated that some of the smaller mills will be forced out of business in the near future because of legislation requiring tnem to instai expensive anti-pollution equipment. whilst paper and board prices rose by only 15.5%) and electric power (+27%).39 4. Moreover. Considerable investment is being made in the tissue sector with output expected to increase by ca.8% linerboard and tissue).5.000 tonnes/year in 1982. paper and board industry in 198I reflected the difficulties of the industrial sector as a whole with paper and board production falling by 1. . Profit margins were under considerable pressure because of: the cost of imported pulp (denominated in dollars) sharp increase in labour (+17·5%). A number of mills were closed in 198I because of financial difficulties. This figure masks a number of sharp declines (-15.50.6% newsprint. -11. fuel oil (+35.7 Italy The pulp.2%.8%.

496 22 104 3 1.40 TABLE XII PAPER.246 4.075e 95 94 493 280e 962e 1980 277 1.935 1981 234 1.625 1.469 8 0 0 1 9 12 0 0 0 12 73 78 82 63 73 86 78 76 60 71 Source: Pulp and Paper International e .844 Imports 1980 64 166 92 423 27 102 119 993 1981 99 208 89 365 21 99 86 963 Exports 1980 13 350 3 103 2 65 148 684 1981 12 442 3 123 8 69 164 821 Operating rate (%)e 1980 89 82 79 81 75 73 86 84 1981 76 82 72 77 78 76 88 83 1.estimated .376 21 67 5 1.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Corrugating medium Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Semichemical Mechanical Other Total Pulp 73 94 533 375e l.805 665 531 149 214 1.211 4. BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR ITALY (1.799 753 562 128 205 1.

4 1

4.5.8

Netherlands The problems of the pulp, paper and board industry reflect the national economic difficulties, with output down by 1.8% cf. 1980 (see Table XIII) cost pressures of increasing raw material, wages and energy prices pulp, paper and board capacity reduced through 5 mill closures since 198O (3 paper and board; 2 pulp). The domestic industry nas not been helped by: large increases in pulp prices strengthening of the dollar large increases in energy prices. Because of the recession, it has not been possible to pass on all price increases to the consumer. The Netherlands paper industry places considerable emphasis on the rational use of energy. The National Federation (VNP) has coordinated a nationwide review of energy management practice in the industry and in November I98I offered the final report to the Minister of Economic Affairs.

- 42

TABLE XIII PAPER, BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR THE NETHERLANDS (1,000 tons)

Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials & Other Wrapping Papers Tissue and Other Paper Board (Incl. Linerboard) Total Paper & Board PULP Chemical Semichemical Mechanical Other Total Pulp Source: 1980 1981

Imports 1980 1981

Exports 1980 1981

176 571 264 121 582
1,714

180 514 282 126 581
1,683

335 467 342
44

288 513
553*

51

47

400 119
22

405
407*

29
na
1,383

14 na

196
1,384

305

897
9 0 7 0 16

873

0 0
201

0 0
161

560

510

3
0 1 0
4

4
54

5 39 6 560

5 206

1 162

6 624

Pulp and Paper International

na - not available

- 43 -

4.5.9

United Kingdom The UK industry has suffered a dramatic decline since 1979· Production of paper and board in 1981 (see Table XIV) fell to the lowest level since 1967, with 18 mills closing in I98I. Consumption was some 1% higher than in 198O, whilst import penetration increased to 58%. Continuing economic difficulties in the UK market has accelerated the pace at which UK companies have expanded overseas (assisted by the abolition of foreign exchange controls). The expansion has been through diversification rather than integration, with flexible packaging companies being among the most popular acquisitions. A national programme, coordinated by the Britisn Paper and Board Industries Federation (BPBIF) aimed at assisting the industry to make more rational use of energy has been a key feature in recent years. The programme has had considerable success, with the BPBIF claiming that the British paper and board industry raised it's energy efficiency by 10% in 198I. Certainly, all available evidence, suggests that at national level, the UK paper and board industry has, the most comprehensive energy monitoring and targeting programme in the EEC.

793 114 920 853 183 440 190 681 3.510 na 466 na 34 88 0 50 90 1.076 1981 Exports 1980 1981 361 963 883 211 435 207 733 3.not available .381 1.000 tons) Production PAPER AND BOARD Newsprint Printings/Writings Casemaking Materials Other Wrapping Papers Tissue Other Paper Board Total Paper & Board PULP Cnemical Semichemical Mecnanical Other Total Pulp 1980 1981 Imports 1980 1..339 4 0 1 0 5 na na na na 12 12 164 184 11 1.588 194 11 1. BOARD AND PULP STATISTICS FOR UK (1.556 0 286 0 140 na Source: Pulp and Paper International na .381 na na na na na na na 58 122 64 21 na na na na na na na 823 863 294 71 7 194 na 383 na 3.44 TABLE XIV PAPER.

This is particularly the case for fuel oil. there have also been attempts to restrain soaring prices eg the British Gas Corporation froze prices in 1981. . typical examples are: primary energy consumption in the sector in the Netherlands in 1979 accounted for 2. eg the price of gas in the Netherlands.45 - 5. 5. Most of the adjustments have been upwards. However. Of particular concern to the industry is the rate at which energy costs have increased in relation to production/sales costs (Table XVI). prices had to some extent stabilised with governments and national utilities making price adjustments. The amount of energy consumed by this sector as a proportion of total energy consumption by the industrial sector varies by country and the size of the pulp. and a number continue to be significant.1 Significance of Energy Two key factors emerge from a study of energy usage in the pulp. ENERGY AUDIT OF THE EEC PULP. paper and board industry of the EEC: the significant consumption of energy in absolute terms the increasing importance of energy costs·as a percentage of total production costs. even though the gaps between energy charges in various countries are narrowing they still remain. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY 5. By late 198I.3% of total industrial consumption in Italy. Table XV sets out details of energy consumption of the industry: by country by source of energy.2 Energy Costs The oil crisis of 1979 had a dramatic effect on energy prices. energy consumption in this sector represented 3«7% of total industrial usage (excluding that of the energy industries). Nevertheless. However. The resulting disruption led to wide differentials in national pricing. paper and board industry in relation to total industry.

7 7.P.2 39.5 197 4.3 0.0 9.(3) 80(3) V Small Small 5388(2) 8093(2) 535C) 280 Negligible 5267(2) 40 (Mainly Coal) 4600(2) 235.4 6.1 97.TABLE XV ENERGY USAGE BY PULP.3 0.3 Electricity (Millions KWh) Coal (000 tonnes) 777(2) (Included under "other fuels") 203< 1 >.11 121.1 0.9(5) 43.0 1.7 6.G.5 (L.3 128.1 3I. Conversion factors for efficiency of heat to electricity: : for self generated 60$ for purchased 30$ .m) Denmark (1981) Eire (1981) France (1980) West Germany (1980) Greece (1977) Italy (1980) Netherlands (1979) UK (1980) Total (in PJ) As $ of Total 86 Negligible(3) Negligible 393 856 Negligible 466 608(3) (includes oil Converted to gas) 656(D V Small 592 115 19.1) Negligible 7.1 100 1. Paper and Board Output (millions tonnes) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Note : 19.3 595.8 31.6 0.6 59 916 7-3 Oil (000 tonnes) Other Fuels (PJ) 141 2.01 |J2(3) Small (mainly waste wood) 10 Negligible 1276 Small 1509 Small 93 Negligible 689 0.0 33.7 Purchased electricity Purchased and self generated Reporting mills only Expressed in hard coal equivalents Expressed as primary energy percentage split is approximate because of lack of data on some fuels.) See under 'Natural Gas' V Small 800 1.2 I79.7 Total Energy (PJ) Pulp. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRIES IN EEC COUNTRIES Belgium (1980) Natural Gas (million cu.9 5.

1 10.1 11 Energy Costs as % selling costs Refers to specialty papers Refers to liner board Refers to tissue paper 22.5 22.2 NA NA NA NA 9.8 10. Germany and Belgium not available .5 As % of total costs excluding profit and selling cost NA .8 12 NA -si 1978 1979 1980 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 10.5 32 NA NA 13 (5) 11-18 (5) 15.TABLE XVI TOTAL ENERGY COSTS AS % OF PRODUCTION COSTS FOR SELECTED EEC COUNTRIES Netherlands(2) Denmark(2) Eire(D.(3) Greece/2Q UK Italy 1976 1977 8.3 (5) (av) 10-15 (av) 15-17.Average Details for France.Not Available AV .

59 219. (Residual fuel oil prices averaged over tne member states in early 1982 were some 14% higher than those charged in New York.98 202. all EEC member states pay prices that are still higher than those charged in the USA.89 212.98 175. However. The UK no longer suffers the comparative disadvantage of very expensive fuel oil (see Table XVII)..95 301.37 194.25 232.42 WITH TAXES Belgium Denmark Eire France West Germany Greece Italy Netherlands United Kingdom Source: 166.04 198.25 212.A.62 246.81 179.91 190.) TABLE XVII RESIDUAL FUEL OIL PRICES (OCT 1982) ECU/TONNE WITHOUT TAX WITHOUT V.48 - 5.67 178.93 232.42 EEC Statistics .80 192.79 175.63 178.62 217.2.67 217.62 195.30 225.T.1 Fuel Oil There is now a greater degree of uniformity in the pricing of residual fuel oil between the member states than 12 months ago although there are still discrepancies eg Denmark.59 186.23 186.15 187.48 172. 166.

2. Previously negotiated contracts still often have lower basis prices.2 Gas Table XVIII provides details of remarkable differences in gas prices to industrial customers among some of the major cities of the member states. attaining gasoil price. especially in West Germany the changes in price are applicable only to new contracts. Key points to note are : there are considerable price differences within member states. Since then they have remained on this high level without. Especially since 1979. above all due to the increasing proportions of imports from third countries. however. .49 5. gas prices have recovered and the average price of EUR 10 overtook the final industrial price of Heavy Fuel Oil in 1980 (low sulphur grade) . some of which were indexed at 100% to crude oil prices. - Strong increases across the member states were recorded in past years.

69 2.91 4.81 4186 GJ 5.99 2.85 4.50 - TABLE XVIII GAS PRICES IN EUROPEAN CURRENCY UMITS (ECU) AT CURRENT PRICES (ECU/GJ) (PRICE WITHOUT VAT FOR INDUSTRY) Dusseldorf 1980 1981 1982 1980 1981 1982 1980 1981 1962 5.44 12.95 5.64 2.73 2.58 4.97 7.21 4.43 6.99 11.08 5.77 4.71 3-28 3.54 3.39 5.29 I3.53 6.25 2.19 3.55 2.23 3.40 5.91 4.02 3.92 Dublin Copenhagen 10.18 6.84 5.28 6.34 4.09 6.39 5.64 2.94 7.8O 3.83 4.47 3.38 Brussels London 3.38 2.64 8.76 3.55 6.32 4.21 5.92 GJ 4.03 4.02 4.49 3.10 - 4186 200 days 418Ó0 200 day3 1600h GJ 5.0« 4.01 4.99 2.10 5.43 4.01 .72 3.90 2.38 3.60 6.28 : SOURCE: EEC Statistics .90 2.76 3.OO 4.01 5.92 418600 250 days 4000 h 418600 330 days 8000 h 4186000 330 days 8C00 h GJ 1980 1981 1982 2.86 6.45 5.62 4.69 3.71 4.48 4.29 2.90 2.83 3-35 4.51 3.66 • 3-33 4.81 2.14 4.48 4.21 5.33 10.IO 9.01 4.92 41860 250 days 4000 h GJ 1980 1981 1982 3-73 4.72 3.04 4.85 Milan Rotterdam 3.90 3. GJ 5.05 4.18 6.64 4.74 4.01 4.91 6.92 GJ 1980 1981 1982 1980 1981 1982 3-55 4.04 4.46 6.37 4.72 3.52 3.81 2.18 4.28 3.66 3-33 4.23 4.02 3.90 4.36 4.77 Paris 4.82 4.26 2.85 4.01 4.76 3.85 4.

2. Although electricity price increases were recorded in most member counries. and in those states where the price of alternative generating fuels is tied to the price of oil eg gas in the Netherlands. the rate of increase of electricity costs to medium size consumers in Belgium over the period 1980-82 in one of the lowest of the member countries. paper and board producing member states it will be noted that France (based on electricity costs in Paris) continues to have the lowest electricity costs. comparisons are influenced by the exchange rate. over the period 1980-82. whilst prices to medium users (2 million kWh/year) in Paris grew by 15 per cent in 1980-82. in the corresponding period. electricity prices to medium users varied by as much as 68 per cent across the member states.51 - 5. the increase exceeded 88 per cent. Hence. However. Of the major pulp. Moreover in 1982. the increases were particularly marked in those states that rely largely on oil for electricity generation eg Eire or Netherlands. paper and board. It will be noted that there are considerable variations in the rate at which prices have increased in the member states in the period in the level of pricing between member states. .3 Electricity Table XIX indicates the electricity prices to industrial users in the member states producing pulp. It is believed that the extent to which both France and Belgium have invested in nuclear power has had a beneficial effect in restricting price levels and /or the rate of price increase in these countries (see Table XX). in Dublin.

20 7.47 6.11 4.10 7.25 8.20 4.34 5.26 6.13 4.33 4.37 6.02 6.03 7.29 5.74 7.84 5.35 4.11 4.85 5.000 kWh (2500 kW 4000 h) 5.56 6.72 5.31 4.52 6.95 6.11 5.000.08 5.67 4.28 5.90 5.24 6.000.67 4.69 5.60 5.53 6.25 4.000 kWh (500 kW 4000 h) 1980 1981 1982 1980 1981 1982 5.39 5.12 7.34 6.57 5.89 4.91 * SOURCE: Low Voltage EEC Statistics .00 4.67 6.37 6.15 e n 10.26 6.26 6.47 5.66 4.07 4.TABLE XIX ELECTRICITY PRICES IN ECU/100 KWH FOR INDUSTRIAL USE (EXCLUDING VAT) Dusseldorf Paris Milan Rotterdam Brussels London Dublin Copenhagen (*) Athens 2.75 4.23 6.

3 1.2.7 0 0 3-4 3-3 .1$ 25.5$ 18.5 6.1$ .4$ 37.2$ + 1.11.17.3$ 52.8$ .6$ 5.1 .1$ 88.0.7$ _ - _ - _ - ·· SHA RE OF NUCLEAR PRODUCTION IN TOTAL PRODUCTION 1981 1982 16.1 .6$ 17.0 .4 .5$ 84.4 + 21.4 173-5 176.3% 19.3$ + OF WHICH.3 21.6$ + 21.6$ 266.2 14.0$ 01 HYDROELECTRICAL + GEOTHERMAL 1981 1982 1982/81 152.2$ 221.0.7 71.9$ 9.0 1206.6$ 88.4 .7$ 77.0 .4$ 1.0$ 94.4 347.8$ 99.0$ 5I.9 254.3 10.8 226.1 1.8$ 34.7$ 38.5$ 3.8 .6$ 72.9$ NUCLEAR 1.9 21.1$ 122.8$ - 33-2 38.2.2.3-7$ 92.2$ - - - SHARE OF CONVENTION/iL THERMAL PRODUCTION IN TOTAL Ρ RODUCTION 1981 1982 70.4 .2.4$ 1.3 266.7$ 1.3 .6$ 72.4$ 246.3$ 99.1 1.2.7$ 99.1.5$ 62.7.7$ 18.0 .5 18.5.3 10.8 60.7 + 7.4 3.9$ 79.1 9.13.7 19.4$ 21.5 18.9 + 9.9$ .0.7 + 16.0 92.1 .3 57.3 .3 1204.5 22.8$ 14.0$ - 1981 1982 1982/81 201.5 .4$ 67.2 48.3 346.2$ - 12.2$ 48.5 .7$ 276.5 829.2$ 317.6$ 6.0$ 0.1 .0.4.2 1.3 + 1.6 0.0 148.1$ 82.1.6 + 2.29.2 .3.O 61.0$ IO.2$ .4$ ω 0.7$ 68.8$ 15.6$ .5 + 12.8 53-9 .5 22.7$ SOURCE: EEC Statistics .9 123-3 + 0.8 266.6 264.TABLE XX ELECTRICAL ENERGY Provisional data 1982 Thousand Millions of kWh TOTAL EEC WEST GERMANY FRANCE ITALY NETHERLANDS BELGIUM LUXEMBOURG UK IRELAND DENMARK GREECE j 1 TOTAL NET PRODUCTION 1980 1981 1982 1981/80 1982/81 1209.5 + 0.7$ 85.2 + 7.3.1 + 3-5$ 2.7$ 177.3.8$ 34.2.4 5.6 103.6 0.4 3.0.4$ 93.6 .2$ + 0.6 + 5.8$ 70.2 0.0$ 34.5 + 18.2$ 50.7$ 18.3$ .9$ 85.2$ 57.4 210.6$ 52.4$ 30.2.4$ .4$ 5.0 46.6$ 70.1. CONVENTIONAL THERMAL 1981 1982 1982/81 852.6.9 32.4 .7$ 12.1 + 18.4$ 25.0 + 0.6 .4 .1.O 48.6.3 259.

etc XX ** χ XX XX X XX XX XX X Making X **** *« X X X X Finishing Services Ancillaries COATING (off-machine) CONVERTING * X X X X XX X XX X * X Source: Based upon Energy Thrift Scheme Report of UK Dept of Industry . embossers.54 - TABLE XXI MAIN ENERGY REQUIREMENTS IN THE PULP. PAPER AND BOARD INDUSTRY The more stars. packing Boilerhouse Water and effluent Offices. workshops stores Coaters Supercalenders Laminatore. cutting Salle. the more energy is required) Department WOOD PREPARATION Processes Heat Power Space Heating Lighting Debarking Pulp production PAPER & BOARD MAKING Stock preparation (from pulp) (or waste paper) (DepeneIs upon method) X X XXX Pulping Cleaning Refining Pulping Cleaning Refining Pumping etc Macnine drive Vacuum Pumping Drying Air systems Slitting.

the coating and conversion processes are more labour intensive and space heating becomes more important.2.55 5. Drying is the largest user of heat and refining tne largest user of power. Hence the data presented should be considered as indicative of the variations in energy consumption patterns between the member states.2.2 Results and Discussion 5.4 Audit of Mills in the Member States 5.4. . A detailed discussion of the individual steps involved is provided in Appendix I.3 Energy Consumption in Pulp. For reasons set out in Section 3.4. An examination of process energy and electrical energy consumption requirements is provided in Section 6.3 data for individual member state are often not directly comparable.3· 5.4. Where no star is shown. By comparison.2.4. Paper and Board Manufacture Table XXI provides a general picture of the energy used in the industry ignoring variations between mills but giving the main steps in the manufacturing process and the relative requirements of energy.4. Pulp paper and board manufacture needs considerable amounts of process energy ie steam and power.2 and 6. 5.1 Energy Consumption by Product Sector Tables XXII to XXIV detail respectively electricity consumption by product process heat consumption by product primary energy consumption by product. This is the case for much of the audit data. with relatively little space heating and lighting.1 Background This section examines and discusses available audit data commenting on the associated technology. (eg for space heating and lighting in the stock preparation departments) consumption is comparatively insignificant.

56 - TABLE XXII ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN AUDITED MILLS (kWh/tonne) Product Worst Best No of Firms Reporting No of Countries Reporting Pulp (sulphate) Pulp (sulphite) 509 7C> 9 245 (Integrated Mill) 320-380 (av 350) 220-340 (av 280) 420-630 (av 525) 120-330 (av 225) 1 4 1 2 Graphic Papers 1400-2050 10 7 Packaging Papers 1100-2350 (av 1040) 1200-1500 (av 1350) 780-940 (av 665) 4 4 i i Tissue 4 4 \ I 1 Boards 10 6 .

5 4.06 15.61 (Integrated Mill) 4.1 10 10 4 10 4 5 2 5 . 80 4.6 16.10 16.5 20.57 TABLE XXIII PROCESS HEAT CONSUMPTION IN AUDITED MILLS (GJ/tonne) Product Worst Best No of Firms Reporting No of Countries Reporting Pulp (sulphate) Pulp (sulphite) 10.61 1 1 2 3 Graphic Papers Packaging Papers Tissue Boards 1 36.1 7.15 13.

6. Data from up to 4 countries.5-17. Calculated from calorific value of fuel used divided by tonnage of output.1 Data based on selection of audits from up to 7 countries.5 14. .3-17-3 8.6 28.0 0. Calculated from electricity purchased from grid divided by output and assuming 30% efficiency.0 14.58 TABLE XXIV ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA FOR SELECTION OF AUDITED MILLS Product Electricity to Process (GJ/t) Range 1 Heat to Process (GJ/t) Range Fuel Used (GJ/t) Range 2.8-8.4 4.4-14.4.5 7.8-33.5-16.1-20.2 20.6-21.8. electricity purchased from grid (at 60% efficiency) electricity (self-generated) at 60% efficiency divided by product output.6 10.4 Electricity from Grid (GJ/t) Range Total Primary Energy (GJ/t) Range 2.3 2.6-15.2-7.4 4.8 2.5 Graphic Papers Packaging Papers Tissue Board 1. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Calculated on lowest value of "best" range and highest value of "worst" range (Table XXII). Insufficient data for pulp.1-17.1 16.4-3.7 11.3 2.4-13.1-36.7-20.4 13.5 16.4 0.5-5.7 1..2-20.8-34. Sum of fuel used.1.3 4.

each paper industry is characterised by mills that are energy efficient and some that are energy inefficient. because of other factors. may operate at lower overall cost per tonne than old machines. although a number of other factors also have a rôle eg different machine sizes. different tissue weights (which can vary from ca. There is no consistent variation by country in primary energy consumption per product.) . The considerable variation in energy consumption between product sectors is to be expected. modern. high speed machines and mechanisation in general tend to use more energy per tonne but.59 It will be noted that there are considerable differences both within an individual product sector and also between products. It is an oversimplification that all mills could reduce specific energy consumption the lowest consumer. 15g/sm to 50g/sm). Clearly. However the variation within a product sector. (It has not been possible to weight consumption values according to output. such as tissue where the individual products are similar is more surprising and reflects to some degree differing extents to which energy conservation opportunities have been'identified. leads to the use of more energy per tonne. There reasons : to assume their to that of are several the products within most sectors vary quite widely in quality and value using different raw materials and needing different processing and finishing under-utilisation of plant (a problem in much of this industry throughout the member states) with frequent changes of grade.

Tissue machines run at very hign linear speeds and the nature of the product requires a different method of production. Because of the speed of the process large quantities of fibre must be deposited at the wet-end. relative energy consumption tends to be high. Air circulating through the air cap is often heated by natural gas. Hence. Because energy consumption per tonne increases with the number of varieties produced. the smaller Italian mills. In the remainder of the machine. further increasing the energy requirements. Moreover. concentrating on finer papers..60 a) Tissue Both the electricity and process heat consumption are higher for this product than other products. on which the sheet is dried by the combined action of steam-heating the cylinder and air drying the sheet during its passage under the air cap. the more dilution has to be used in its formation which means that water has to be extracted at a very high rate requiring a large pumping installation. the less dense the final product.. . the conventional presses and drying cylinders are replaced by a very large (Yankee) cylinder with an air cap. This requires large volumes of water (in which the fibres are carried) to be circulated and thus high capacity pumps using large quantities of electricity. are able to compete. b) Printings and Writings The production of printings and writings usually involves higher than average production of broke (because of the varieties of paper produced) and a larger than normal amount of refining (because of the quality of paper produced).

for raising the enthalpy of the exhaust steam for the dryers. Larger machines are more economical. The most economical values are obtained from equipment which is operating at maximum capacity but there are disadvantages with such operations : a great deal of maintenance many adjustments . This is thought to partly account for the considerable difference between worst and best practice mills.2 Electrical Consumption Electrical consumption varies considerably across the product sectors..6 1 c) Packaging Papers Strong demand for a relatively limited number of varieties has encouraged mills in some of the countries with larger industries eg UK. These can be explained partly by processing differences but also by under utilisation of machine capacity. large differences remain.2. to integrate operations and in some cases use CHP.4. the integrated operation means that less process heat is required (because enthalpy is carried over with stock from the pulp mill) and pass out steam can be used for steaming and digesting in the pulp mill and/or in a thermo compressor. Often board stock contains large quantities of waste material (up to 70% may be waste) and heat is required to ensure that the stock mixture is homogeneous. Even when allowance is made for differing machine outputs. d) Boards Large quantities of process heat may be required in stock preparation for board manufacture. 5.

.62 ■ quality variations that are difficult to control. reveals that there is almost as great a variation in the number of processing sections as in the energy consumed per processing section. Investigating the variations in some detail by examining the process subdivisions (see Table XXV). Some examples follow.

83 0.45 0.32 0.7 0.74 0.61 0.2 2.18 Stock Preparation Paper Making Machine Drive Site Services and 1.25 1.5 0.6 0.3 .53 0.46 0.63 - TABLE XXV EXAMPLE OF VARIATION OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY BY PRODUCT AND PROCESS SUBDIVISION (GJ/t) Process Product Printings Writings Packaging Paper Tissue Board Source: Audit Data 0..58 1.2 0.

The lowest energy consumption/tonne for pulpers is found in large pulpers. Unfortunately many mills.) c) Mixing and Pumping Bad machine scheduling can increase the need for mixing and pumping since holding tanks must be used. b) Beating and Deflaklng Capacities of beating units and deflakers are often not matched to raw material input. In some cases. because of variations in raw materials. continue to use small pulpers that are operating at full capacity other than at optimum capacity. across the member states. particularly where small quantities of a range of products are required. it is very difficult . (However. Raw materials and water are added continuously and the defibered pulp is pumped away through holes of a given diameter. it is not always possible to obtain an optimal match. considerable amounts of energy can be wasted if output is not closely matched to capacity. In many cases mixers are operated constantly when intermittent mixing would be adequate.64 a) Pulp Preparation In the pulp preparation section the number of pumps can range from 2 to 10. As a result part of the energy is converted into heat. the raw material having little or no influence. Many of the larger mills use continuous pulpers. Where this system is in operation. Many mills need therefore to pay closer attention to the size of the pulper in relation to product capacity.

The vacuum is often used inefficiently because too high a vacuum is applied or too much vacuum is lost during regulation. e) Vacuum A vacuum is used to speed up water loss from the fourdrinier contain water within the press rollers dry the felt (following damping). Many of the smaller mills in Greece and Italy which use their flexibility as a competitive advantage waste quantities of energy because of scheduling difficulties.3 Process Energy Consumption Table XXVI sets out an example of process energy consumption variations for the process subdivisions for a range of products. 5.2.65 to optimise scheduling.. . d) Cyclones Where cyclones are used to separate grit (usually just prior to the machine) considerable energy is needed to pump the stock because it is so thin and the pressure drop is high.4.

5 12.22 - 0.3 1.66 TABLE XXVI EXAMPLE OF VARIATION OF PROCESS ENERGY BY PRODUCT AND PROCESS SUBDIVISION (GJ/t) Process Product Stock Preparation Paper Making Machine Drive Site Services Printings and Writings 0.23 Board Source: Audit Data 2.47 .49 8.38 Tissue - 13.3 - 0.5 Packaging Paper 9.

an increase in the pressure at which the steam is used and. ranging in power typically from 5 to 50 megawatts and using exhaust from the turbines to supply steam to the process. modernisation of paper making plant has bought about a reduction in the amount of process steam required. it was recognised many years ago that considerable economies could be made by supplying both forms of energy from one source. . The bulk of process energy consumption occurs in the paper making section (for drying purposes) although steam continues to be used by some mills in slushers. an increase in the demand for electrical power.3-0. 5.5 The Role of Combined Heat and Power Because of the requirement for both heat (for drying) and electricity (for motive power). electricity are used). The result is that many CHP plants give a small amount of electrical power for the amount of steam raised. Many small mills throughout the member countries have not yet installed heat recovery equipment in the paper making section. The resulting mismatch can be improved only by the replacement of the existing CHP plant with modern higher pressure plant. particularly for waste treatment. The major reason for this trend is that many of the power stations in mills are old using steam which is raised at pressures that are low by modern standards in the generation of electricity. their process energy/tonne values continue to be high. In each case. High steam consumption occurs unless the felt (used to absorb water removed in the press nip and support the web) is very dry (containing a maximum of 0. action on this is likely to be minimal. As a result. the reduction in the period 1979/80 is a reflection of a longer term decline.67 The bulk of the energy is used as steam (although in some cases gas. Conversely.4 of its dry weight in water at the entrance to the nip/and the cylinder rolls are maintained in very good condition. Table XXVII sets out details of the preparation of total electrical power required that is generated at the mill itself. above all.. Given the current shortage of capital (arising from the depressed state of the EEC industry). Many mills now have their own power stations for generating electricity.

. is usually adopted. and drawing additional power from the grid.68 The alternative. of operating only enough CHP plant to supply the required process heat..

1 Negligible 22.8 37.0 - 1980 37. .0 46.4 64.0 Negligible 23.8 61.0 - 23.69 TABLE XXVII PROPORTION (%) OF TOTAL POWER REQUIREMENTS SUPPLIED BY CHP 1979 United Kingdom West Germany Italy France Netherlands Belgium Eire Denmark Greece 41.2 37.3 49.9 - Source: Federation Discussions and published data.9 - 24.

often on a part-time basis the chief engineer and his department have responsibility for energy conservation appointment of part-time energy co-ordinators to monitor energy use and motivate others to conserve energy b) c) d) e) .1 Current Situation The management structure in pulp. Typical examples in the member states include: a) the appointment of energy managers at senior management level (often reporting directly to the chief executive) and responsible for encouraging savings effort in individual mills formal energy committees. Similarly where commitments to energy conservation exist. meeting regularly under the chairmanship of the chief executive and with responsibility for minimising energy costs and developing methods by which this objective can be achieved appointment of people with specific responsibility for energy conservation in each mill production unit. ENERGY MANAGEMENT PRACTICE 6. there is a wide range of organisational frameworks used by mills to manage this task. paper and board mills and the relative importance of the individual management functions vary considerably and reflect among other things : the country in which the mill is operating the size of the mill whether the mill is part of a large group whose major interest is paper or a member of a large group for whom paper represents only a minor interest or is a member of a smaller group style and personalities of senior management the products made whether the mill is the group's main plant.70 - 6.

Hence. specific structures being influenced by a number of factors eg the necessity to integrate with existing structures and techniques and by the nature of conservation opportunities available. in Greece and in Eire in those mills where there is management involvement in energy conservation. arising from improved output depend upon increased productivity and can be influenced by sales or marketing efforts .2 Possible Difficulties with some Energy Management Organisation Structures The main energy responsibility of the chief engineer has historically involved the production and distribution of energy. is outside the control of the engineer and is the responsibility of production management. in the United Kingdom. However. There is no one organisational structure that is "correct". When the easily achievable conservation measures have been implemented. interpret and monitor controls good housekeeping savings either require efforts from production management or necessitate close liaison between maintenance staff and production indirect savings. further savings require the involvement of the whole management team. For example: savings from improved controls (other than in the boiler/power house) involve the performance of production management and probably also involve financial management. to consolidate. the diversity of organisational structures reflects the size of the industry both in relative and absolute terms. all of the structures outlined above have been identified whereas for example.7 1 f) the use of management consultants to plan the implementation of energy saving to assist where necessary. for example. the energy management organisation and approach must be mill-specific. Therefore. Broadly speaking. 6. in that implementation. the efficiency with which that energy is used. one organisational structure tends to predominate (typically option c ) .

decide the appropriate organisational arrangements. However. 6. evaluation. engineering and technical management in the identification. The appointment of an energy manager may reduce the commitment of other managers to energy saving. Energy committees promote a more multi-disciplinary approach to energy conservation. Clearly.72 project savings require collaboration between production. and are reflected in the efforts of individual managers. there should be representatives from the following: the engineering department (the identification evaluation and implementation of energy saving opportunities requires engineer's skills . Moreover because of the nature of energy use. if energy costs are to oe reduced and yet be consistent with other priorities. co-ordinator and facilitator.3 Organising for Efficient Energy Management Given that there is no single organisational structure to obtain and maximise the multi-disciplinary involvement required. As a result some potential savings areas are missed. it often happens that production management are not members of this committee. Although membership of the energy management team will vary from mill to mill. an energy manager cannot have responsibility for the efficient use of energy . The chief executive will then need to ensure that his commitment and relative priorities are channelled through the organisational structure selected. (They perceive it as no longer their responsibility). the relative priorities decided for each manager must interlock with their current tasks. However. the chief executive should decide the priority and level of commitment that management should give to energy conservation and. An energy management committee may not always be appropriate eg in mills where there are well defined opportunities for conservation. an energy committee is a useful vehicle for achieving the multi-disciplinary approach on which the implementation of cost effective energy saving measures depends.his role is that of persuader. on this basis. design and implementation of projects.

Because of the division of energy management in paper mills between the producers and users of energy ie Engineering and Production. The energy committee will be strengthened by the presence of a finance director or senior financial accountant. it is most important that a senior member of the team should have overall responsibility for ensuring that the decisions taken on energy are implemented by the individual managers responsible. because they use the energy energy savings resulting from increased productivity are their responsibility many of the savings resulting both from good housekeeping and improved monitoring and control are also their responsibility. the appointment of a single Energy Manager may not be appropriate..) Moreover. Appointment of such a manager could imply he has such responsibilities and thus dilute the awareness of line management of their responsibilities with regard to energy. This will ensure that the cost effectiveness of measures is always considered. . (An Energy Manager cannot be responsible for overall energy efficiency in a mill because he does not have authority over engineering and production. any management change on energy would imply that energy has not previously been treated as efficiently as it should. Effective management of energy at mill level can be best achieved by the establishment of an energy management committee composed of members drawn from the various branches of management. The appointment of an Energy Manager could be taken as implied criticism of the line managers who are responsible for energy use. However.73 - production management.

Hence.1 Indirect Savings Indirect savings are energy savings resulting from actions not primarily directed at reducing energy consumption. categories of saving can best be defined on the basis of the approach that management should adopt in order to achieve them. Those arising from indirect saving good housekeeping targeting. 7. monitoring and control projects savings new technology.. five categories of energy saving can be identified.74 7. METHOD OF INCREASING ENERGY EFFICIENCY 7. including: increased capacity utilisation increased machine speed reduced down time reductions in broke manufacture of less energy intensive products use of different raw materials. They can be achieved in a number of ways. . indirect savings are an important element in the total programme. Many terms are commonly used.1.1 Energy Saving There are no standard definitions of types of energy savings. Given the considerable economies that can be achieved in overall energy consumption through the adoption of these measures. In the context of energy management however.

closing doors and windows.1. 7. Targeting and Control A suitably designed energy targeting and monitoring system for energy (with the emphasis on simplicity of operation) permits: conservation measures to be monitored and evaluated tighter management control and accountability over energy costs and usage equipment deficiencies to be highlighted at an early stage. repair of steam traps and provision of space heating and lighting controls. The key requirement in targeting and monitoring is the provision of adequate measuring devices. in order to obtain a comprehensive understanding of energy flows and consumption.3 Monitoring. good maintenance management and minor expenditure on eg lagging for steam pipes. shutting doors etc are extremely difficult to sustain unless there is firm commitment throughout the management and workforce. However some measures such as controlling heating. usually a small number. for example. Some good housekeeping measures can be achieved without strong commitment from senior management to energy conservation.2 Good Housekeeping Good energy housekeeping is the achievement of energy saving by the prevention of either the gradual deterioration of plant or the drift away from good energy habits.1. Corrective action can thus rapidly be implemented. 7. .75 Indirect energy savings often occur as a result of a desire on the part of management to run the plant more efficiently rather than as a specific commitment to energy conservation. These· savings can be achieved through.

2 No.76 7.1. propose and implement an energy saving project. Implementation of the projects can involve considerable capital expenditure although small scale projects (eg lagging of steam mains. Low and High Cost Energy Conservation Measures Energy savings can be achieved in three broad categories no cost (immediate) low cost (short term) high cost (longer term) Table XXVIII sets out how these categories relate to the types of energy savings TABLE XXVIII COST/BENEFIT CATEGORIES BY TYPE OF ENERGY SAVING No Cost Indirect Savings Good Housekeeping Targeting Monitoring and Control Projects Saving New Technology X X Low Cost X High Cost (·) (*) (*) (») (*) X X X . (See Section 8.4 Projects Savings/New Technologies These require specific management effort either with one man or a small team to identify.3 for technical details.) 7. evaluate. Project savings may well require the application of new technology. provision of time clocks) may also be involved.

Implementation periods for the various measures can likewise show considerable variation. (or too low a vacuum). In payback terms. but many are not used. low cost measures can require up to 6 months.3. High cost measures. Most of the papermaking processes are common to all paper and board products. the no cost category can be implemented within 1-2 months. Electricity requirements for small pulpers can be up to twice those of larger pulpers (independent of the . Low cost measures should require no more than six months.1 No Cost a) Water Removal by Vacuum Many paper and board machines use vacuum systems to remove water. D) Pulping Considerable differences can arise between the energy requirements of large and small pulpers. anything larger is high cost. high cost measures from 1-4 years. However a rule of thumb is that investments costing 1-3% of the total annual energy bill are low cost. 7. Considerable amounts of energy can be wasted by: lack of maintenance eg seals are allowed to deteriorate use of too high a vacuum.77 It is not possible to quantify the low and high cost categories since the perception of individual energy saving measures as low or high cost will depend to a large extent on the energy bill of the mill. these should be taken as indications only since a large number of factors can affect payback periods eg provision of grants. 7. however. These recommendations can therefore have an impact on the energy consumption/tonne for most products. Typically. The technologies indicated are currently available in most of the member states.3 Technical Aspects of Energy Saving Opportunities This section examines energy saving opportunities from a technical viewpoint identifying them by cost category. However. which can involve considerable structural changes to the mill can take anything up to 24-30 months.

These are used to smooth out fluctuations in the flow of materials. there are large differences in the amount of energy used in refining. Mixing efficiency depends to some extent on the size and shape of the tanks. and the Netherlands. Two major sources of energy waste are: running refiners on part load over fiberising of pulp.78 material being pulped). c) Refining Similarly. This variation arises because of the manner in which refiners are used. old fashioned open beaters continue to be used rather than refiners. Italy. Opportunities for energy saving here include : eliminating the need for usage of these tanks through improved machine scheduling . open beaters use approximately twice as much energy as refiners. In a number of countries eg in Greece. Although for some raw materials there is no alternative equipment. d) Mixing and Pumping Processing sections are often separated by holding tanks. In order to: achieve good mixing prevent settling These tanks must be stirred and pumps are also required for filling and emptying. even when the raw material and final products are quite similar. Efficient use of pulpers depends upon matching the throughput of pulp to the capacity of the pulpers and ensuring control of the pulpers during operation ie minimising overpulping.

wastea energy and increased broke. In extreme cases. the moisture content at the end of the machine is not evenly distributed across the width. g) Broke Broke is produced for a number of reasons some of which are unavoidable. is a wasteful use of heat and is really only justified when there is. very forceful drying must be used followed by remöistening in order to obtain the required moisture content. Improved scheduling of machines (where the market situation permits) can offer significant savings. e) Use of Steam Heating in Pulping Steam heating in either the pulper or machine chest is used to accelerate the pulping process and/or water removal on the wire. Clearly. h) Machine Scheduling Current paper and board machines operate efficiently when producing long runs of one grade of board/paper. for example when starting or finishing reels. This. f) Control of Flowbox If sheet formation is irregular. To ensure that no wet areas occur on the web the average moisture content must be reduced. savings in this area can reduce energy requirements since much of the energy expended on making material which has to be recycled is wasted. Where steam heating is used it must be controlled so that only the minimum necessary temperature is reached in the pulper. . for example. Changes of grade to be produced mean down time. in general terms. when making machine adjustments. The amount of broke produced can vary typically from ca 6% to over 20%. a bottleneck in production.79 - reducing the need for separate pumps by removing partitions within individual tanks increased intermittent mixing eg 5 minutes of mixing followed by 10 minutes settling time.

(In general terms.3. if necessary. excessive air flow around the pre-heating cylinders or through contact with a felt that has been rinsed with cold water. heat the web prior to it passing to the press section.. A high capacity pump is required because: the stock is of very low viscocity the pressure drop is high. the effectiveness of pre-heating can be compromised by. for example. c) Presses After water removal on the fourdrinier wire. requiring less pumping capacity and therefore a reduced electrical power requirement. A comparatively recent introduction has been cleaners with a much smaller pressure drop.80 - 7.2 Low Cost a) Cleaners Grit separation is achieved by feeding the thinned stock into cyclones located in the stock preparation unit. .) To maintain maximum efficiency at the squeeze roll section the presses must be kept in top condition through for example: ensuring that nip pressures are maintained monitoring of the condition of the felt provision. a number of mills have pre-heating cylinders which. b) Pre-heaters In order to improve press operation. of felts on both sides of the web to increase water removal. less energy is used in removing a unit mass of water from the web by mechanical means than by evaporation. the web is passed through squeeze rollers. as their name implies. However.

Often. The amount of air required in the machine room to ensure a pleasant working environment. by repositioning the motors it is possible to minimise the purchase of new motors. Thyristor drives offer more efficient conversion of alternating current than the motor generation sets used in many mills. Provision of hoods can offer savings of up to one third in the quantities of dry air required to remove 1 tonne of water. losses can be up to 10%. Savings with air caps used on large machine-glazed and Yankee cylinders are even larger (although part of the savings are attributable to the increased size of the drying cylinders).8 1 d) Matching Electric Motors to Power Requirements If the load on an electric motor is matched to its rated power output.g sets can be as high as 35%). However these losses increase sharply if the motor output greatly exceeds load. (Losses on m. e) Dryer Hood Ventilation Canopy hoods or totally enclosed hoods are used in many mills. ventilated by dry air to reduce the vapour pressure in the atmosphere surrounding the web. Electronically adjusting the frequency of the 3 phase current also permits economies to be made. is determined largely by moisture vapour pressure (the bulk of which originates from the dryers). In many mills motors are not working at optimum load. Drying efficiency is reduced considerably if dryer hoods are not kept shut during machine operation. . f) Environmental Ventilation and Heating Ventilation of the machine room serves to remove heat (mainly arising from convection/radiation losses of the dryers) and moisture (water evaporation from the web).

(A non insulated 10cm diameter steam pipe operating at 11 bar in a room at 30°C loses ca. Moreover. The warm moist air is exhausted to the atmosphere. This recovered heat can be used for a number of purposes but the most effective is probably for heating air for the ventilation of the drying section of the machine. and tanks are insulated. hoods.82 Provision of a hood at the wet end would restrict the migration of moisture into the room.3. . 700 watts per metre. Energy savings can be made by recovering heat from this air through the use of heat exchangers.) 7. all pipes.3 High Cost a) Heat Recovery Water is evaporated from the paper web in the drying section. Heat pumps are of limited applicability in mills because they rely largely on low grade heat and limited temperature differences for their operation. restricting the amount of ventilation in the machine room can lead to considerable savings in connection with environmental heating. This can be reduced to 75 watts per meter with 4cm of insulation. thereby reducing the quantity of air required for ventilation. for example: air to air air to water scrubbers. g) Insulation Considerable savings in energy can also be achieved by ensuring that where appropriate.

the capital costs are extremely high. process control permits continuous monitoring and control of energy consumption within the whole factory.4 Current Technical Developments in Energy Conservation a) Radio Frequency Drying Selective removal of moisture from the web by radio frequency has been used to reduce variations in moisture content across the web. A processing computer can minimise broke since more of the production falls within specification. the boiler house and the finishing departments. for example. . The heat content of this moisture is then extracted in a vapour recompression cycle in order to recycle the latent heat. not only in the mill but also in. there are considerable opportunities for combined heat and power. b) Mechanical Vapour Recompression Superheated steam can be used in air caps to collect moisture.83 b) Process Control Good process control can increase the quantity of saleable material because more paper will conform to specification and product change overs can proceed more quickly.3. However. c) Combined Heat and Power Generation Many mills use outdated turbines and operate very old boiler plant (in some cases up to 60 years old). 7. Moreover. Because of sharply escalating energy prices and the relative inefficiency with which many public power stations generate electricity. This eliminates the necessity of overdrying at the edges (to comply with the specification for moisture content at the middle of the web).

Improved methods of cleaning pulps from waste and upgrading fibres to the standard required for high quality . There are few machines in which the water content of the material going into the dryers is measured. Sensing the surface temperatures of individual cylinders would help to improve control. The most common method uses a moisture meter on the web as it leaves the dryer. e) Control Systems for Drying Current control systems for drying need to be improved. g) Upgrading Waste Materials Because of current limitations on technology. The dry forming process produces a sheet material similar in appearance to conventionally made papers but with different physical properties. d) Heat Recovery from Dryer Exhaust See Section 8. The thermal inertia of the steam cylinders makes it difficult to design control systems for drying.3*3 a ) .84 c) Dry Forming Considerable effort has been devoted to developing a paper making process that uses the minimum of water. some paper products can only be produced using virgin fibres as raw material. This technique strengthens the web and gives improved contact between the web and drying surface. f) Research into Refining There is evidence to suggest that a large proportion of the energy used in refining serves only to increase tne temperature of the stock. A more efficient method of treating fibres is required. A mechanical drying method (known as press drying) is used in preference to the more normal combination of mechanical and heat drying.

improvements in the technologies of de-inking bleaching removal of contaminants sUch as adhesives. Similarly. coatings will ensure that larger amounts of paper can be recycled. .85 - papers are needed to increase the amount of waste paper that can be used.

grid and self-generated) and the consumption of the different fuels on a weekly basis. (This level of control can only be exercised by mills which have comprehensive metering of steam and electricity. technical and accounting personnel a statement of power costs (gas. In countries such as Eire and Greece (except in the largest mills) the lack of adequate metering and instrumentation does not permit a detailed data base of energy consumption to be developed. Where controls are used. This control serves to illustrate long term trends and is circulated by the technical department to all relevant production. . particularly in mills housing a large number of machines. engineering. the different types of controls used hinder useful comparisons.86 CONTROLS. The report is circulated to production and engineering management for action) controls developed by individual machine users reflecting their interests and expertise. (This control is used to enable the cheapest energy source to be used within commercial and technical constraints) a statement of thermal usage of electricity and steam by machine on a historical basis witn a breakdown by area of usage and trends on a weekly basis for the year. Even in countries such as the UK and Netherlands. TARGETING AND MONITORING 8. Often. where the need to control and monitor energy consumption is recognised and accepted. oil and electricity.1 Current Situation Considerable differences exist in the extent to which individual mills itemise energy costs in regular operating accounts. many mills still do not make maximum effective use of the data at their disposal. to permit comparison of usage with a standard or budget. typical examples include: boiler/power house consumption data a graphical presentation of specific energy consumption by machine on a nistorical basis.

High specific energy use does not necessarily imply the need for energy conservation a particular mill is unique. Moreover. the presentation of the data is often not of a sufficiently high standard to achieve the commitment necessary for implementation.2 Conclusions Any system of energy conservation must be designed. Therefore it's energy consumption cannot be compared meaningfully with that of other mills less than comprehensive metering of steam and electricity does not permit all relevant data to be gathered. Although. 8. achieving further savings will depend upon a system based upon more effective control information . Thus the figures are inappropriate for control purposes the biggest influence on specific energy consumption. energy controls are often perceived as being of limited usefulness in conserving energy. Typical reactions to the concept include: specific energy consumption is higher in winter than in summer. presented and implemented in such a way that the enthusiastic support of all personnel involved is obtained and any objections overcome prior to introduction. in many of the EEC countries reviewed. Hence it is very difficult to establish whether energy conservation· efforts have any effect. is capacity utilisation. For example: often no comparison with realistic targets or standards key figures not highlighted too little information to be meaningful no corrections to energy data for outside air temperature or capacity utilisation little or no attempt to demonstrate how energy costs can impact on profitability.87 However. the more obvious no and low cost energy conservation measures have already been implemented.

2 Setting Targets Energy targets can be defined in three ways a standard or historically based target a conservation target (either an arbitrarily set percentage saving target. have been identified and put into practice evidence that efforts produce results can be a powerful agent of motivation comparison of achievement versus target facilitates analysis of the causes of variation and the transfer of effective conservation practice effective controls permit meaningful comparisons between different mills in a group and possibly mills in different groups making similar products effective controls facilitate a more accurate assessment of the energy costs of different products. 8. .88 setting targets monitoring the effectiveness of management efforts to save energy.2. or a target based on a survey of potential savings a best practice norm.1 More Effective Control Information More effective controls are required because rising energy costs and increasing competition mean that profit will be more responsive to energy savings in many cases the obvious savings which can be identified with controls. However Table XXIX sets out typical energy savings that can be made by the application of different target techniques.2. There are a number of approaches to setting these targets (a discussion of whicn lies outside the scope of this report). 8.

Set norm for this type of mill (eg the lowest level achieved in this case) and control against that. Control against standard and conservation target of 10% over next two years 5. No control Usage varies between 21-32 GJ/tonne Usage varies across narrower range 24-28 GJ/tonne Two years later usage varies between 19-28 GJ/tonne Two years later usage varies between 22-26 GJ/tonne Two years later usage varies between 19-22 GJ/tonne to 2. No control but 10% conservation target over next two years 4. Control against a standard (say. 4 GJ/tonne (max) 13 6 GJ/tonne (max) 19 10 GJ/tonne (max) 31 . historical average) 4 GJ/tonne (max) 13 3.TABLE XXIX EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF TARGET (EXAMPLE ONLY) CONTROL EFFECT SAVINGS OVER NO CONTROL - % SAVING IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION (AS % OF MAXIMUM CONSUMPTION) CO 1.

However the maximum savings will come from a control system that sets norms for energy usage appropriate to the type of mill under consideration and controls against that norm. ..90 - Clearly any energy control technique can make savings.

with a limited number of exceptions. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION Effective implementation of energy conservation opportunities can be delayea by a number of factors the squeeze on financial resources technical barriers market considerations and the general economic environment. justify higher margins equipment to improve productivity energy conservation projects. a positive attitude towards energy conservation from both the government and the member federations can go a long way to overcoming these barriers and is crucial to the long term success of any energy conservation programme. Tne combination of reduced funds and lower returns on capital invested can reduce investment in: new and innovative products that satisfy to a greater extent. The comparatively low return on capital cf. market requirements and could. is characterised by worsening profitability competitive pressures and rising costs that are putting pressure on profit margins lower returns on investment making it harder to finance required investment higher interest rates that have increased the cost of financing investment externally ie through borrowing. therefore. However.9 1 9. .1 Financial Resources The EEC pulp. 9. paper and board industry. return in some other manufacturing sectors or service industries forces senior management to critically examine the investment plans of tneir paper and board divisions particularly if the company is highly diversified.

fuel and equipment costs are changing continuously. three difficulties arise: savings. For those mills subject to particularly strong financial pressure even the low cost projects may not be implemented.92 - In broad terms. the approval of capital investment in energy conservation projects involves an evaluation of the funds required likely payback relative priority. improved productivity. severely hampers energy conservation because: there is less money available to invest in energy saving projects management may need to concentrate on the "here and now". Most energy projects must be justified on payback criteria. In examining energy projects from the payback standpoint.. because of their lack of "visibility" energy saving projects may require more rigorous justification than projects for eg health and safety. and therefore paybacks. a slump in demand.2 Market Considerations/Economic Environment Reduced production. where larger investment is involved the high cost and long payback results in many of these projects being assigned lower priority. concentrated on the major problem . 9. However. short term payback projects (as have some of the larger mills in those countries with smaller paper and board industries). Hence. The cost involved may outweigh small savings. Paradoxically. the likelihood of approval is reduced. can be difficult to quantify accurate justification requires significant amount of management time. instead. stemming from eg increased competition. Financial and management resources that could be devoted to energy are. particularly if survival is uncertain. Many of the mills in those member states with large paper and board sectors have implemented the low cost.

3 Technical Barriers Many of the low cost. This stems partly from conservatism (a reluctance to accept new technology and to deal with new and as yet. major alterations or additions to equipment are required. increased broke and down time and lower output. particularly in those countries with small paper industries. The increasing sophistication of customers requires suppliers to offer higher quality products and packaging if they are to continue to compete effectively. there is often insufficient instrumentation to adequately monitor energy consumption. raw materials from integrated pulp/paper mills and regular investment) to further increase their penetration of EEC markets if demand falls for the products of the customers of the paper and board manufacturers. To achieve the more significant savings. Additional technical barriers arise from . In some cases the technology required to achieve these savings is currently not available eg refiners to achieve precise "wetness". width etc. imports of cheaper foreign products could rise or domestic suppliers will be forced to reduce prices. will encourage foreign competitors. price will become increasingly important in the buying decision. 9.93 reduced output invariably results in higher specific energy consumption. short payback savings have already been (or are currently being) implemented. if it continues. All mean shorter run length. This implies more frequent changes in product mix. This in turn results in higher specific energy use. (particularly those benefiting from economies of scales. The current economic climate and the strength of international competition is likely to continue to be a severe obstacle to further energy savings: minimal economic growth in most of the EEC markets will reduce domestic demand for paper. Hence. largely untried suppliers) but also from the unsatisfactory experiences of some mills with devices such as heat wheels and shell and tube heat exchangers. colour. pulp and board products the world recession. Moreover. In other cases. mill management tends to be wary when dealing with the many new companies that have emerged to exploit the field of energy conservation.

.2 Uncertainty Over CHP/Discriminatory Pricing Combined heat and power is a key element in satisfying the energy requirements of the paper and board sector in the larger EEC member countries. In Belgium. 9 .94 testing the viability of certain projects eg heat recovery from hoods can be time consuming. 9. tariffs for grid electricity supplied to mills with CHP are more expensive than those for mills whose total electricity requirement comes from the grid. paper and board industry varies considerably. Top management therefore rarely obtains accurate details of savings achieved.4 Attitude of Government and Member Federations 9 . National governments can seek however to stabilise the situation through a more flexible pricing policy. often imprecise and very expensive the difficulties of measuring accurately savings achieved by an energy savings project. In this context the current glut of oil on world markets acts almost as a disincentive to conserve energy. governments need to take positive steps to resolve current uncertainties and encourage an increase in the proportion of electricity generated at the mill site.4. Where such situations occur. 9 . mill management appear to be unclear as to whether existing CHP systems should be scrapped or whether CHP systems should be installed.1 Fuel Supplies When fuel supplies are readily available there is less incentive for industry to conserve fuel than when supplies are threatened. In some member countries eg United Kingdom. This makes it difficult to assess with precision whether projects should be repeated elsewhere.4. However.4. This has encouraged a reduction in CHP.3 Energy Conservation The extent to which the governments of individual member states involve themselves in energy conservation in the pulp. the amount of self generated electricity has declined.

such as those in the UK and Netherlands have immersed themselves in both the commercial and technical aspects of energy and act as the mouthpiece of the industry to the government in energy matters. and that they are not qualified to discuss technical aspects of energy conservation. A number. 9. Other federations adopt a more "arms length" approach to energy insisting that they represent the interests of their members in commercial matters only.4 The Role of Member Federations The extent to which governments in individual member states have become involved in energy conservation in the pulp. conversion to coal firing demonstration projects.95 - (A full list is provided in the Appendix. the provision of soft loans and/or partial grants to schemes funded largely by the government but co-ordinated through the federation and covering for example auditing of mills/energy survey schemes provision of grants towards cost of eg replacement of old boilers.4.) They range from financial assistance for outside consultancy. . paper and board sector matches to a certain extent the role in the energy field of the individual federations.

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97 APPENDIX I THE TECHNOLOGY OF PAPER MAKING .

98

THE TECHNOLOGY OF PAPER MAKING

1)

Manufacture of Pulp Historically a handcraft, papermaking is now a continuous process. In integrated mills, there is no interruption of process between the input of raw wood into the pulp mill and the emergence of the final product from the paper machine. Where the pulp mills and paper mills are separated by a distance, the pulp is dried and formed into bales suitable for transport to the paper mill. In the EEC there are comparitavely few integrated mills. Pulping separates the fibres from each other. Mechanical pulping is the simplest method. (Well-wetted logs are held against a grindstone and the fibres are torn apart.) The yield is high and a cheap mechanical pulp or groundwood is obtained, consisting of damaged fibres. A more recent development is the use of heating with steam to soften the lignin in the wood. In cnemical pulping, wood chips are treated with chemicals which dissolve lignin, causing the fibres to separate without damaging them. The pulp is then bleached if white paper is to be made from it. However chemical pulping is more costly than mechanical pulping and the yield of pulp from the tree is lower. There are many variations on these two methods. In semi-chemical pulping the lignin is softened by chemicals and the fibres are then separated mechanically. The species of tree used for raw materials determines the dimensions of the fibres which can be obtained.

99

2)

Manufacture of Paper The diagram below indicates the paper making process, as the starting material. Pulp is used

THE PAPER/BOARD MAKING PROCESS

Che m ¡call Pulp

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krn
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XZ
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}Stock che st " — O Preparation

Refiner

J J
O F*rt pump

mScreen

3

Steam

Main dryen Recycling snjlp Q

e Siz pre ss

Afte r drye rj |_

Making (Humiaifier)

Substanc e moisture control Q.C. inspe ction

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fil

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Si
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Inspection

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aper nock Oesc-stch

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(Reproduced by courtesy oí Th e Inveresk Paper Co. L t d . . Galdweils Paper Mül)

100 -

The pulp is redispersed by agitation in a slusher in about 20 times its mass of water. Any clumps of fibres are fully separated in a deflaker before the clay filler, size and other additives are mixed in. The next step is refining. The term has a special meaning in papermaking and means lacerating the fibres in a controlled manner. The natural fibres are stiff and smooth and would form a weak, bulky, porous sheet. For many applications a sheet is required which is strong, thin and impermeable. To obtain the required properties the fibres are bruised to make them more flexible and frayed to increase their surface area, giving greater contact for bonding between the fibres when they are finally dried in a sheet. The amount of refining determines the final character of the paper. Heavy refining is needed to give a hard dense translucent sheet such as greaseproof or tracing paper. A typical refiner consists of a barred metal cone rotating inside a barred conical shell. As the pulp mixture (known as stock) passes through the very small gap between the moving bars, the indiviudal fibres are refined. The stock is diluted with recylced water from the paper machine and passed thróugn the pulp cleaning and screening installation. The most widely used type of cleaner used is a vortex cleaner. Where stock is derived from waste paper, a different process is used. The slusher is heated by steam and has devices to remove gross rubbish. More cleaning is needed than for pulp and a de-inking plant is used if products of high quality are to be made. A steam-heated pitch dispersal plant may be needed to reduce the contamination of the stock by plastics often found in waste paper. Minimal refining is required. The papermaking machine consists of a number of machines in series with synchronised drives, performing different functions. The overall function is to remove water from the stock and leave the fibres in the form of a sheet. Paper machines are typically 50 m long and 3 to 5 m wide. The number of components in each part of the machine varies. Typically there may be three presses and 40 drying cylinders.

The coater may form part of the paper machine or coating may be done as a separate process. The middle ply. . The amount of finishing depends on the end-use of the paper. Further drying follows. Ten to twenty per cent of the paper fails to reach the warehouse in saleable form. flows out of a narrow slit onto the 'wet end' which is a wire-mesh conveyor belt as wide as the machine. Most of the water is drained or later sucked through tne mesh. The raw material for the fluting medium is normally a mixture of waste paper and semi-chemical pulp. after which further drying is required. Board machines are the slowest and tissue machines the fastest. For some purposes the machine reel is slit and rewound into narrower reels which may then be cut into sheets before inspection and packing for despatch. Board type packaging materials are made by a conversion process in which three layers of paper are laminated together.1 0 1 The thin stock ie fibres suspended in about 200 times their weight of water. and the wet end is adapted to handle several plies which are successively merged in the presses. After passing over about 30 drying cylinders. leaving a layer of fibres felted together. The liners are made from waste paper with added kraft pulp. the dry sheet is sometimes passed through a size press which treats both sides with solutions aimed at modifying the surfaces of the sheet. Paper making machines generally run at speeds of Detween 100 and 1000 m/min. are glued to the peaks. but it may be made from 100 per cent mixed waste. More water is squeezed out in the presses before the sheet enters the dryers where it is held against steam-heated cylinders. stock is usually prepared in two or more parallel systems. Some papers are coated with a mixture of pigments and binders. called the liners. About 2 tonnes of water has to be evaporated from each tonne of paper made. Paper torn in processing and offcuts from finishing are known as broke and are recylced within the mill. (fluting) is corrugated during the process and the outer layers. For making board. A calender roll smooths the surface of the paper before the sheet is finally reeled at the dry end of the paper machine.

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development and demonstration. The main functions for which energy is used are drying. 101 pp. in the longer term. . — 21. per annum.80 UKL 3. which means savings of up to 150 P. The report stresses the importance of effective energy management and organization at mill level.0 x 29. machine operation and cleaning of waste.European Communities — Commission EUR 8792 — Energy audit No 3 . save as much as 25% of energy consumed. The implementation of all conservation opportunities could. refining.7 cm Energy series EN ISBN 92-825-4063-4 Catalogue number: CD-ND-83-121-EN-C Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: ECU 6. it recommends a detailed investigation into the application of combined heat and power systems and indicates particular measures for research. paper and board industry in the European Economic Community PA Management Consultants Ltd Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 1988 — IV. As to the technical aspects.70 USD 6 The report evaluates energy consumption patterns of the European paper and board industry.J.55 BFR 300 IRL 4.Pulp. Energy costs have shown a historical increase in all Member States and represent today between 11 and 15% of total production costs.

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