Figure 1
A particle is projected with speed v from a point O up a smooth inclined plane and
in a vertical plane containing a line of greatest slope of the inclined plane. The
angle of inclination of the plane to the horizontal is o , and the angle of projection
is u with the line of greatest slope of the plane. The particle first strikes the plane
normally at a point A and makes its second impact with the plane at a point B. The
coefficient of restitution between the plane and the particle is e.
Show that
(a) 1 tan tan 2 = o u .
(b)
2
e
OA
AB
= .
2. Two aeroplanes
2 1
and P P , starting at the same time from points A and B
respectively, fly horizontally towards each other along the straight path AB, where
B is at a distance d due east of A. When the aeroplanes meet at a point P in
between A and B, they immediately reverse their lines of flight to return to their
own starting points. Suppose that they fly with the same constant speed v, and that
a wind blows horizontally from a direction North u East with a constant speed w
(w < v).
(a) Show that
2 2
2 2 2 2
) sin cos (
w v
w w v
PB
AP
÷
÷ ÷
=
u u
.
(b) Show that the times of flight of
2 1
and P P differ by
2 2
sin 2
w v
dw
÷
u
.
You may ignore the time taken by the aeroplanes to change their directions of
flight.
3.
Figure 2
Two uniform ladders AB and BC, of equal length 2l but unequal weights W and
2W respectively, are smoothly hinged at B and stand with their other ends on a
rough horizontal plane, the coefficient of friction between each ladder and the
plane being µ . Each ladder makes an angle o with the horizontal. A man of
weight W slowly ascends the ladder AB. Slipping begins when he has ascended a
distance x along AB.
(a) Find µ if
(i) l x s ,
(ii) l x > .
(b) Let 3 . 0 = µ and 2 tan
1 ÷
= o . Show that slipping occurs at A and determine
the normal reaction at A at the moment of slipping.
4.
Figure 3
A triangle OAB lies in the xy plane, the coordinates of the vertices O, A, B being
(0, 0), (a, 0) and (p, q) respectively. (See Figure 3.) Forces of magnitude and
direction equal to AB OB OA ì and 2 , ) 0 ( = ì act along the sides OA, OB and
AB respectively.
(a) Find the resultant of the given system of forces in term of i and j, where i and j
are unit vectors along the x and y axes respectively. Show that the system of
forces cannot be in equilibrium for any nonzero value of ì .
(b) Show that the line of action of the resultant always passes through a fixed
point L on AB for any value of ì . Find the ratio AL : LB.
(c) To keep the given system of forces in equilibrium, a force F is applied to the
triangle at B together with a couple of moment G. Determine F and G.
5.
Figure 4 Figure 5
(a) Figure 4 represents a lamina whose outer boundary ABCD and inner
boundary EFGH are squares with a common centre and sides of lengths 2a
and a respectively. The lamina is uniform and of mass M. Show that the
moment of inertia of the lamina about an axis through the corner A and
perpendicular to the plane of the lamina is
2
6
17
Ma . You may use the fact that
the moment of inertia of a uniform square lamina of sides 2l about an axis
through the centre and perpendicular to the plane of the square is equal to
2
3
2
mass l × .
(b) The lamina is placed on a horizontal table so that the corner A is in contact
with the table and AC is perpendicular to the table. The lamina is given a small
displacement and falls, the motion being parallel to the plane of the lamina.
(See Figure 5.) Let e be the angular velocity of the lamina when the edge
AB hits the table.
(i) If the table is rough enough to prevent slipping, show that
a
g
17
) 1 2 ( 12
2
÷
= e .
(ii) If the table is smooth, show that
a
g
11
) 1 2 ( 12
2
÷
= e .
6.
Figure 6
A particle P of mass m lies at the bottom of a rough inclined plane whose
inclination to the horizontal is o . P is connected, by a light inextensible string
passing over a small smooth pulley at the top of the inclined plane, to a particle Q
of mass M which is free to move vertically. The string lies along a line of greatest
slope of the plane and the particle Q is at a height h above the ground. The
coefficient of friction between P and the plane is ) 1 ( < µ µ . The weight is then
released from rest with the string taut.
(a) Prove that P will move up the inclined plane if and only if
) cos (sin o µ o + > m M .
(b) Assuming that the condition in (a) is satisfied and that P remains on the
inclined plane during the whole motion,
(i) find the speed of Q when it reaches the ground.
(ii) For M = 2m, determine the value of o so that Q reaches the ground
with the minimum speed.
7. A particle P of mass m rests on a smooth horizontal table and is attached by two
identical springs to two fixed points A and B. The natural length of each spring is l,
and they have modulus of elasticity mg
2
1
(i.e. force = extension
2
×
l
mg
).
Initially P is at rest with AP = PB =
4
5l
.
Figure 7
(a) P is projected towards B with speed v, where gl k v = . Show that, provided
4
5
0 < < k , P performs simple harmonic motion. Determine the period and
amplitude of this motion.
(b) The particle P is performing the simple harmonic motion described in (a).
When P is in the position of maximum displacement towards B, the spring
connected to A is removed so that it no longer affects the motion of P. Show
that in the subsequent motion, the closest approach of P to the point B is:
(i)
4
5
4
1
for ) 4 5 (
4
1
< s ÷ k l k ,
(ii)
4
1
k 0 for ) 4 3 (
4
1
< < + l k .
8. A uniform rod OP, of mass M and length a, is free to rotate in a vertical plane
about a fixed smooth horizontal axis passing through the end O. A small sphere of
mass
1
m is fixed to the other end P of the rod, and a second small sphere of mass
2
m rests freely at a distance a vertical below O. Initially the rod is held above the
horizontal axis with OP making an acute angle o with the vertical, and then
released from rest so that the first sphere hits the second sphere directly.
(a) Find the angular velocity of the rod before the impact, when OP makes an
angle u with the vertical.
(b) Assuming that the total energy of the system consisting of the rod and the
spheres remains unchanged throughout the impact, determine the speed of the
second sphere immediately after the impact.
9. A particle is moving under the combined influence of electric and magnetic fields.
Initially the particle is at rest at the origin. Its position at time t is given by the
vector r and is determined by the following equation of motion:
W
d
r d
E
d
r d
2
2
× + =
t t
where E and Ware nonzero constant vectors.
(a) Show that
W ) W r ( ) W E ( E r
d
r d
2
2
2
+ × + = + t
t
e
where W = e .
[You may use a ) c b ( b ) a c ( c ) b a ( ÷ = × × .]
(b) Suppose that E and Ware perpendicular to each other.
(i) Show that 0 W r = .
(ii) Hence show that
W E
sin
E
cos 1
r
2 2
×
÷
+
÷
=
e
e e
e
e t t t
.
1. The populations of two neighbouring countries A and B are under study. Their
natural growth rates are both 1% per annum. However, people are free to migrate
from one country to the other. People in A move to B at an annual rate of 4% of
the population of A, and from B to A at an annual rate of 3% of the population of B.
Initially, A has 10 million people and B has 5 million. Let x(t) and y(t) be the
populations of A and B respectively after t years, and assume that they may be
considered as continuous variables.
(a) Set up two simultaneous differential equations for x(t) and y(t).
(b) Show that
0
100
6
d
d
5
d
d
100
2
2
= ÷ +
x
t
x
t
x
.
Hence find x(t) and y(t).
(c) After how many years will A and B have equal populations?
2. (a) Suppose an equation
x = g(x)
has exactly one root, o , in the interval [a, b]. Suppose further that
M x g s ' ) ( , for any x in [a, b].
If ) (
1 n n
x g x =
+
and b x a
n
s s (n = 0, 1, 2, …), show that
o o ÷ s ÷
+
+ 0
1
1
x M x
n
n
.
Deduce that, if M < 1, then sequence } {
n
x converges to o .
(b) Consider the equation
0 1 2 :
3
= ÷ + x x E .
(i) Show that E has exactly one root in [0, 0.8]. Denote this root by o .
(ii) Suppose the iteration formula
) 1 (
2
1 3
1 n n
x x ÷ =
+
is used to determine o . If 8 . 0 0
0
s s x , show that
8 . 0 0 s s
n
x , for any positive integer n.
Hence show that the sequence } {
n
x converges to o .
(iii) Use the above iteration to determine o , starting with 0
0
= x . Give
your answer correct to four decimal places.
(c) Explain why, if Newton’s method is used to solve E, fewer iterations would be
expected to obtain o to the same accuracy as in (b).
3. The integral
)
+ =
6
0
d ) sin 1 ln(
t
x x I
is to be evaluated by numerical methods.
(a) Consider the composite trapezoidal rule:
T
n
i
b
a
E b f
n
a b
i a f a f
n
a b
x x f +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
+ +
÷
=
_
)
÷
=
) ( ) ( 2 ) (
2
d ) (
1
1
where the error term is
2
3
12
) )( (
n
a b f
E
T
÷ ' '
÷ =
ç
, where b a < < ç .
Apply this rule to evaluate I, so that the error is less than
4
10
÷
.
(b) Consider the composite midpoint rule:
M
n
i
b
a
E
n
a b
i a f
n
a b
x x f + 
.

\
 ÷
÷ +
÷
=
_
)
=1
2
) 1 2 ( d ) (
where the error term is
2
3
24
) )( (
n
a b f
E
M
÷ ' '
÷ =
q
, where b a < <q .
Apply this rule to evaluate I, with the same number of subintervals as in (a).
(c) Using (a) and (b), show that
0.115735 < I < 0.115765.
[Note: Retain at least 6 decimal places in all calculations and neglect the roundoff
errors.]
4.
5.
6. In a large professional drivers’ association, the proportion, p, of the members who
smoke is to be estimated.
(a) Ten members were randomly sampled and interviewed. Four of them were
found to be smokers. Determine a 0.95 confidence interval ) , (
2 1
p p for p,
where
1
p and
2
p satisfy the following equations:
025 . 0 ) 1 (
10
10
4
10
1 1
= ÷


.

\

_
=
÷
r
r r
p p
r
,
_
=
÷
= ÷


.

\

4
0
10
2 2
025 . 0 ) 1 (
10
r
r r
p p
r
.
Give your answers correct to two decimal places.
(b) It is felt that the above interval is too long for practical purposes. In order to
reduce its length to 0.10 and yet keep the same confidence level, how many
more members must be randomly selected for interview? (You may use normal
approximation, taking 0.40 as a preliminary point estimate for p.)
(c) Suppose a second sample of the size recommended in (b) is taken, and 125
members of the sample are found to be smokers. Determine a 0.95 confidence
interval for p, using the combined information of the two samples.
7. Prior to an official talk on pay rise, the Management and the Union of a large
enterprise made two independent sample surveys, seeking to ascertain what
percentage increase in salary was considered approximate by the employees. The
results reported by the two parties are as follows:
Survey
Conductor
Sample
Size
Mean Standard
Deviation
Management
Union
50
30
10.7
11.4
4.7
1.8
[Note: In this problem, the standard deviation is defined by a formula using n – 1
in the denominator.]
(a) Explain why an experienced statistician would find some of the above figures
surprising.
(b) The statistician found the following three errors in the Management data:
Datum recorded 15.1 5.7 40.1
Correct value 11.5 7.5 10.4
Calculate the correct mean and standard deviation of the Management data.
(c) On each datum recorded by the Union, the probability of an error is 0.05. If
the statistician found two errors within any 10 consecutive data, he would
declare the survey to be void. Find the probability that the survey was declared
void within the first 11 data checks.
(d) When all the Union data were checked, no error was found. The survey results
were then combined for presentation to the official talk. Calculate the mean
and standard deviation of the 80 data.
8. Farm eggs are graded by weight according to the following criteria:
Grade 6 5 4 3 2
Weight (g) 45 – 50 50 – 55 55 – 60 60 – 65 65 – 70
A USA hen lays, on the average, 1.7 eggs per day, and a PRC hen 2.2 eggs. The
weights of USA eggs are normally distributed, with mean 62 g and standard
deviation 6 g. The weights of PRC eggs are also normally distributed, but with
mean 51 g and standard deviation 5 g.
Mr. Gee has 150 USA hens and 150 PRC hens.
(a) On the average, how many Grade 4 eggs are produced daily?
(b) If Mr. Gee wants to have as many Grade 3 eggs as Grade 5 eggs produced per
day, in what ratio must be possess USA hens to PRC hens? Suppose he wishes
to increase the number of one breed of hens only to reach this ratio. How
many more hens should he buy for producing eggs, and of which breed?
(c) He has completed the further investment plan in (b). Eggs of the same grade
are randomly packed into boxes of 6. In a box of Grade 4 eggs, what is the
probability that at most one has been laid by a PRC hen?
9. Two machines A and B fill boxes with detergent powder. Machine A is set to fill
each box with
0
µ kg of the powder. The net weight varies according to a normal
distribution, with a standard deviation of 0.15 kg. Machine B is set to fill each box
with
1
µ kg of the powder. The net weight also varies according to a normal
distribution, but with a standard deviation of 0.10 kg.
(a) It is desired that no more than 2.5% of the boxes filled by each machine
should weigh less than 2.80 kg net. Determine the minimum values of
0
µ
and
1
µ .
(b) The values of
0
µ and
1
µ determined in (a) are used for production. A
shipment of the product is delivered to a supermarket. The whole shipment
was actually filled by one and the same machine, but it is not known whether
the machine was A or B. You, the supermarket manager, decide to randomly
sample n boxes, unpack them, and obtain the average net weight, x kg. The
value x is then compared with a predetermined value c. If x > c, you
would regard the machine to be A. If c x s , you would regard the machine to
be B. In either case, you want to limit the probability of making a wrong
decision to 0.05. Determine the values of n and c.
(c) Suppose that, of the n boxes sampled in (b), the first five boxes have net
weights 2.97, 3.11, 2.94, 3.05, 3.00 kg, and the remaining n – 5 boxes have an
average net weight of 3.05 kg. Would you conclude that the shipment was
filled by machine A or by machine B? Why?