UDK 63

ISSN 1330-7142

POLJOPRIVREDA
znanstveno - stru~ni ~asopis Svezak 9; Broj 1; Lipanj, 2003.
SADR@AJ Z. Zduni}, D. [imi}, I. Brki}, A. Jambrovi}, Renata Zduni}, Tatjana Leden~an PROCJENA GENETSKIH EFEKATA ZA VISINU BILJKE NA DVA SPECIFI^NA PARA INBRED LINIJA KUKURUZA I [EST GENERACIJA KRI@ANJA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Manda Antunovi}, V. Kova~evi}, Mirta Rastija, Z. Zduni} UTJECAJ TLA I GENOTIPA NA SADR@AJ MIKROELEMENATA U KUKURUZU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 V. Kova~evi}, I. Brki} UTJECAJ KALIJEVA KLORIDA NA PRINOS I STANJE ISHRANE U DVA HIBRIDA KUKURUZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 B. [imi}, V. Kova~evi}, Zorica Jurkovi} REAKCIJA GENOTIPOVA KUKURUZA NA GNOJIDBU NA HIDROMORFNOM TLU POSAVINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Mira Kne`evi}, Marija \urki}, I. Kne`evi}, K. Hajba UTJECAJ OBRADE TLA I NISKIH HERBICIDNIH DOZA NA KOROVNU POPULACIJU I PRINOS JAROG JE^MA . . . 25 A. Kristek, Zvjezdana Magud, Manda Antunovi}, Suzana Kristek PRODUKTIVNOST MONOGERMNIH LINIJA [E]ERNE REPE U ZAVISNOSTI OD OSJETLJIVOSTI NA CERKOSPORU (Cercospora beticola Sacc.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 T. ^upi}, S. Popovi}, Marijana Tucak, M. Stjepanovi}, Sonja Grlju{i} PROCJENA STABILNOSTI PRINOSA ZRNA GRA[KA (Pisum sativum L.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 T. Karadeniz, A. Kazankaya, T. Yarilgaç ODRE\IVANJE POMOLO[KIH ZNA^AJKI BADEMA (Prunus amygdalus Batsh) U MALATYI (TURSKA) . . . . . . . . 42 M.Yercan, S. Engindeniz PROFITABILNOST PROIZVODNJE SUHIH SMOKAVA (PRIMJER U TURSKOJ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

P. Miji}, I. Kne`evi} NOVI NA^IN VREDNOVANJA KRAVLJEG MLIJEKA U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \. Sen~i}, Marcela [peranda, Z. Antunovi}, T. [peranda TOVNOST I MESNATOST SVINJA NEKIH DVOPASMINSKIH KRI@ANACA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 T. Rastija, Z. Antunovi}, Mirjana Baban, I. Mandi} RAZVIJENOST I KORELACIJSKA POVEZANOST SEDMODNEVNE I [ESTOMJESE^NE LIPICANSKE @DREBADI . . 60

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Glavni i odgovorni urednik Editor-in-Chief Dra`enka Jurkovi} Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska Ure|iva~ki odbor Editorial Board Franc Habe, University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Dom`ale, Slovenia Viktor Jej~i}, Agricultural Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia Geza Kuroli, University of West Hungary Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Mosonmagyarovar, Hungary Istvan Rajcan, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada Zdenko Rengel, University of Western Australia Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, Crawley, Australia Jon Tollefson, Iowa State University, Ames, USA Ivan Brki}, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Hrvatska Marija Ivezi}, Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska Sonja Jovanovac, Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska Zorica Jurkovi}, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek Goran Ku{ec, Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska Alojzije Lali}, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Hrvatska Svetislav Popovi}, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Hrvatska Tihana Tekli}, Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska Marija Vratari}, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Hrvatska Mate Vuj~i}, Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Hrvatska

Tehni~ki urednici Technical Editors Manda Antunovi} Danica Han`ek Lektura Language Editing Branka Horvat Anica Perkovi} Prijevodi Translation Anica Perkovi} Tisak Print Grafika d.o.o. Osijek

UDK 63

ISSN 1330-7142

POLJOPRIVREDA
znanstveno - stru~ni ~asopis Svezak 9; Broj 1; Lipanj, 2003.

Izdava~i Published by

Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku
The Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek 31000 Osijek, Trg Sv.Trojstva 3 Republika Hrvatska / The Republic of Croatia Tel. ++385 31 224 200 Fax: ++385 31 207 017

Poljoprivredni institut Osijek
Agricultural Institute Osijek 31000 Osijek, Ju`no predgra|e 17 Republika Hrvatska / The Republic of Croatia Tel. ++385 31 500 685 Fax: ++385 31 503 404

Osijek, 2003.

"POLJOPRIVREDA znanstveno-stru~ni ~asopis" je sljedbenik ~asopisa »ZNANOST I PRAKSA U POLJOPRIVREDI I PREHRAMBENOJ TEHNOLOGIJI«, koji je izlazio od 1975. do 1994. godine / The Journal of «AGRICULTURE Scientific and Professional Review» is continuator the Journal of «RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD TECHNOLOGY» that has been published from 1975 to 1994 year. ^asopis izlazi dva puta godi{nje u nakladi od 300 primjeraka / The Review is published twice a year in 300 copies. "POLJOPRIVREDA znanstveno-stru~ni ~asopis" citira se u sljede}im bazama podataka / "AGRICULTURE Scientific and Professional Review" is cited by the database: 1. CAB International 3. Nacionalna i sveu~ili{na hrvatska biblioteka / National and University Croatian Library

Poljoprivreda

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 631.524.5+631.527.5:633.15

PROCJENA GENETSKIH EFEKATA ZA VISINU BILJKE NA DVA SPECIFI^NA PARA INBRED LINIJA KUKURUZA I [EST GENERACIJA KRI@ANJA

Z. Zduni} (1), D. [imi} (1), I. Brki} (1), A. Jambrovi} (1), Renata Zduni} (2), Tatjana Leden~an (1) Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak Original scientific paper
SA@ETAK Procjena genetskih efekata za svojstva od interesa sastavni je dio ve}ine oplemenjiva~kih programa na Poljoprivrednom institutu Osijek. Ovaj se rad bavi procjenom prihvatljivosti (adequacy) aditivno/dominantnog modela naslje|ivanja te procjenom i usporedbom genetskih efekata za visinu biljke na dva odabrana specifi~na para inbred linija (A672´Va99 i A672´Os6-2) i njihovih {est osnovnih generacija kri`anja (P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 i BCP2). Provedena su dvogodi{nja istra`ivanja na dva lokaliteta u isto~noj Hrvatskoj. Pokusi su se sastojali od 121 ~lana razli~itog stupnja inbridinga dobivenih parcijalnim dialelnim kri`anjem, zatim samooplodnjom i povratnim kri`anjem. U obje godine istra`ivanja kori{ten je nepotpuni blokni (jednostavni latis - lattice) raspored. Rezultati goodnes of fit testa ukazali su da aditivno/dominantni model nije mogao objasniti sva variranja me|u srednjim vrijednostima istra`ivanih generacija. Digeni epistatski model pokazao se prihvatljivim kod oba para barem u jednoj godini istra`ivanja. Procjene i usporedbe genetskih efekata za izdvojene specifi~ne parove i {est generacija kri`anja otkrili su prevladavaju}e dominantne u~inke gena u odnosu na aditivne. Klju~ne rije~i: kukuruz, visina biljke, analiza srednjih vrijednosti generacija, genetski efekti

UVOD
U oplemenjivanju sila`nog kukuruza visina biljke predstavlja va`no kvantitativno svojstvo, ~ija je ekspresija uvjetovana razli~itim djelovanjem poligena, njihovom interakcijom s okolinom i okolinskim utjecajem. Melchinger, Geiger i Schnell (1986.) opisuju kako poznavanje prirode aktivnosti gena otvara mogu}nost oplemenjiva~ima kukuruza za bolje optimiziranje oplemenjiva~kih programa. Procjena genetskih efekata koji su uklju~eni u kontroliranje visine biljke mo`e se izvr{iti pomo}u analize srednjih vrijednosti generacija (generation means analysis), Hayman (1958.). Budu}i da se ta analiza zasniva na srednjim vrijednostima svojstva od interesa, a ne varijancama, njezina osjetljivost i preciznost mogu imati izvjestan utjecaj na oplemenjiva~ke programe. Za detektiranje epistati~kih efekata, me|utim, ta analiza predstavlja bolji test od ispitivanja komponenata varijanci (Fenster i sur., 1997.). Kumar i Gangashetti (1998.)

utvrdili su kod pet prou~avanih genotipova zna~ajne aditivne i neaditivne genetske efekte za visinu biljke. Mahto i Ganguli (2001.) procijenili su zna~ajne i ve}e dominantne nego aditivne efekte, kao i zna~ajne aditivneaditivne i dominantnedominantne digenetske epistatske interakcije. Procjena aditivnihaditivnih i dominantnihdominantnih interakcija bila je ve}a nego aditivnihdominantnih interakcija. Nedostatak genetskih informacija o visini biljke u doma}oj literaturi bio je dodatni motiv za to istra`ivanje. Cilj ovog istra`ivanja bio je procijeniti i usporediti genetske efekte uklju~uju}i i digenetske nealelne interakcije (epistaze) za visinu biljke kod dva specifi~na para inbred linija i njihovih {est osnovnih generacija.
(1) Dr.sc. Zvonimir Zduni}, dr.sc. Domagoj [imi}, dr.sc. Ivan Brki}, dr.sc. Antun Jambrovi} i dr.sc. Tatjana Leden~an – Odjel za oplemenjivanje i genetiku kukuruza, Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Ju`no predgra|e 17, 31000 Osijek, (2) Renata Zduni}, dipl. ing., zn. novak – Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Zavod za za{titu bilja, Trg Svetog Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek

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Z. Zduni} i sur.: PROCJENA GENETSKIH EFEKATA ZA VISINU BILJKE NA DVA SPECIFIÈNA PARA ...

Provedeno je dvogodi{nje istra`ivanje na dva lokaliteta u isto~noj Hrvatskoj. Kri`anci uklju~eni u istra`ivanje izabrani su iz seta od ukupno 28 kri`anaca, stvorenih 88 polovi~nim dialelnim planom kri`anja (Zduni}, 2001.). Oni predstavljaju najvi{e kori{ten heteroti~ni koncept BSSS × Lancaster u klasi~nom oplemenjivanju kukuruza. [est osnovnih generacija kri`anja (P1, P2, F1, F2, BCP1 i BCP2) posijane su prema jednostavnom latis (lattice) planu pokusa. Za sve generacije i na svakom lokalitetu podaci su uzimani na individualnoj osnovi (po biljci), s veli~inom uzorka od najmanje 80 biljaka za uniformne generacije i 240 biljaka za segregiraju}e generacije kri`anja. Da bi se izbjegao efekt kompeticije redova me|u generacijama s razli~itim stupnjem inbridinga, podaci nisu uzimani iz dva rubna reda svake parcelice. Za odabrane kri`ance provedena je analiza srednjih vrijednosti generacijâ, koriste}i model koji su detaljno opisali Mather i Jinks (1982.). Notacija genetskih efekata m, a, d, aa, dd, i ad preuzeta je od Gamblea (1962.). Prikladnost (adequacy) additivno/dominantnog modela naslje|ivanja testirana je 2 testom (goodness of fit test), a zna~ajnost genetskih parametara t-testom.

REZULTATI I RASPRAVA
Srednje vrijednosti visine biljke sa standardnim pogre{kama (SE) kroz {est generacija kri`anja za dva kri`anca i dvije godine istra`ivanja prikazani su u Tablici 1. Roditeljske generacije razlikovale su se u visini biljke kod oba istra`ivana kri`anca i u obje godine. F1 generacija kri`anja je zbog ekspresije heterozisa o~ekivano ostvarila najvi{e prosjeke kod oba kri`anca u obje godine istra`ivanja. Promatraju}i segregiraju}e generacije, F2 generacija je ostvarila najvi{e prosjeke kod A672×Va99 kri`anca u obje godine, dok je kod A672×Os6-2 kri`anca F2 generacija bila najvi{a u 1998., a BCP2 generacija u 1999. godini istra`ivanja.

Kod procjene prikladnosti odre|enog modela naslje|ivanja, 2 test pokazao se signifikantnim kod oba kri`anca u najmanje jednoj godini istra`ivanja, {to ukazuje da glavni efekti nisu mogli u potpunosti objasniti variranja me|u prosjecima generacija kri`anja (podaci nisu prikazani). Lamkey et al. (1995.) nagla{avaju da uvo|enje digenih epistatskih efekata u nekim slu~ajevima mo`e pobolj{ati fit modela za odre|ena svojstva ~ak i kada c2 ostaje signifikantan. Prema rezultatima goodnes of fit testa u ovom istra`ivanju, kod prvog istra`ivanog kri`anca A672×Va99 aditivno/dominantni model naslje|ivanja nije uspio objasniti variranja u visini biljke kod razli~itih generacija kri`anja u 1998. godini. Me|utim, model se pokazao adekvatnim u 1999. godini. Nasuprot tomu, kod A672×Os6-2 kri`anca additivno/dominantni model nije bio zadovoljavaju}i niti u jednoj godini istra`ivanja. U 1998. godini rezultati procjene glavnih i interakcijskih (epistatskih) efekata kod prvog istra`ivanog kri`anca A672×Va99 ukazuju na pozitivne signifikantne aditivne efekte, dok su dominantni efekti bili pozitivni i nesignifikantni (Tablica 2.). Procjenjeni su i negativni signifikantni dominantnidominantni interakcijski efekti (epistaze), kao i negativni nesignifikantni additivniadditivni i additivnidominantni efekti (Tablica 2.). Takvi rezultati ukazuju da su ovdje interalelne interakcije (epistaze) odigrale va`nu ulogu u naslje|ivanju visine biljke. Pozitivne odnosno negativne procjene dominantnih i aditivno×dominantnih efekata nisu bile zna~ajne. U 1999. godini procijenjeni su pozitivni nesignifikantni aditivni te signifikantni dominantni efekti (Tablica 3.). Kod A672×Os6-2 kri`anca u obje godine istra`ivanja procjenjeni su pozitivni signifikantni aditivni efekti (Tablice 2 i 3). Procjene additivnih additivnih, kao i dominantnih ×dominantnih interakcijskih efekata bile su negativne i signifikantne u 1998. godini (Tablica 2.). U 1999. godini procjenjeni su i pozitivni dominantni efekti, dok su kod samo dominantni ×dominantni interakcijski efekti bili zna~ajni i negativni (Tablica 3.). Iz navedenih je rezultata vidljivo da su kod oba istra`ivana specifi~na

Tablica 1. Srednje vrijednosti i standardne pogre{ke (cm) u 1998. i 1999. godini Table 1. Means and standard errors for plant height (cm) in 1998 and 1999

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Tablica 2. Procjene genetskih efekata i njihove standardne pogre{ke u 1998. godini Table 2. Estimates of genetic effects with their standard errors for plant height in 1998

ns = nesignifikantno - no significant, ** signifikantno na razini vjerojatnosti 0,01 *, ** t-test significant at P<0,05 and P<0,01 level, respectively

kri`anca u obje godine istra`ivanja barem jedan od glavnih i jedan od interakcijskih efekata bili zna~ajni. To ukazuje da su razlike izme|u srednjih vrijednosti {est osnovnih generacija kod istra`ivanih kri`anaca uvjetovane slo`enim mehanizmima genetske kontrole visine biljke, koji se vrlo ~esto ne mogu precizno objasniti aditivnodominantnim modelom naslje|ivanja. Zbog procjenjenih naj~e{}e vi{ih vrijednosti dominantnih efekata u odnosu na aditivne (osim kod kri`anca A672×Os6-2 u 1998.godini) u svim istra`ivanim slu~ajevima, mo`e se zaklju~iti da su dominantni efekti imali ve}u va`nost od aditivnih. To je u skladu s Hallauer i sur. (1988.), koji nagla{avaju da su kod svojstava koja

biljke izme|u {est osnovnih generacija u obje godine istra`ivanja. Tu se uspje{nijim pokazao digeni epistatski model. Lübberstedt i sur. (1997.) su, uspore|uju}i srednje vrijednosti testkri`anaca, ukazali na postojanje signifikantne epistaze, me|utim analiza lokusa kvantitativnih svojstava (QTL) za visinu biljke je detektirala samo sporadi~ne signifikantne interalelne interakcije. Dominantni genetski efekti bili su gotovo uvijek va`niji od aditivnih. Procjenjena vrijednost i zna~ajnost glavnih i epistatskih efekata tako|er su ovisile o odabranom kri`ancu i godini istra`ivanja.

Tablica 3. Procjene genetskih efekata i njihove standardne pogre{ke u 1999. godini Table 3. Estimates of genetic effects with their standard errors for plant height in 1999

ns nesignifikantno – no significant, ** signifikantno na razini vjerojatnosti 0,01 *, ** t-test significant at P<0,05 and P<0,01 level, respectively

su pod jakim utjecajem heterozisa ~esto dominantni efekti va`niji od aditivnih. Visoke vrijednosti dominantnih efekata javljaju se zbog heterozigotnosti onih gena po kojima se roditelji jasno razlikuju (Kearsey and Pooni, 1996.).

LITERATURA
1. Fenster, C.B., Galloway, L.F., Chao, L. (1997): Epistasis and its consequences for the evolution of natural populations. Trends Ecol. Evol. 12:282–286. Gamble, E.E. (1962): Gene effects in corn. Part 1. Separation and relative importance of gene effects for yield. Can. J. Plant Sci. 42:339-348. Hallauer, A.R., Miranda, J.B. Fo. (1988): Quantitative genetics in maize breeding. 2nd ed. Iowa St. Univ.Press. Hayman, B.I. (1958): The separation of epistatic from additive and dominance variation in generation means. Heredity 12:371–390. Kearsey, M.J., Pooni, H.S. (1996): The Genetical Analysis of Quantitative Traits. Chapman Hall, London. Kumar, A., Gangashetti, M.G. (1998): Gene effects for some metric traits of maize. Annals of Agri Bio Research, Vol. 3, No. 2, 139-143.

ZAKLJU^AK
Na temelju dvogodi{njeg istra`ivanja genetskih efekata za visinu biljke provedenog za dva specifi~na para inbred linija kukuruza i njihovih {est osnovnih generacija kri`anja, mo`e se zaklju~iti: Prihvatljivost aditivno/dominantnog ili digenog epistatskog modela naslje|ivanja za visinu biljke ovisila je o odabranom kri`ancu i godini istra`ivanja. Kod A672Va99 kri`anca digeni epistatski model pokazao se prihvatljivim u 1998.godini. U 1999. godini prihvatljiv je bio additivno/dominantni model naslje|ivanja. Kod A672Os6-2 kri`anca additivno/dominantni model nije uspje{no objasnio razlike u visini

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

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Lamkey, K.R., Schnicker, B.J., Melchinger, A.E. (1995): Epistasis in an Elite Maize Hybrid and Choice of Generation for Inbred Line Development. Crop Sci. 35: 1272-1281. 8. Lübberstedt, T., Melchinger, A.E., Schön, C.C., Utz, H.F., Klein, D. (1997): QTL mapping in testcrosses of European flint lines of maize .1. Comparison of different testers for forage yield traits Crop Sci. 37(3):921-931. 9. Mahto, R.N., Ganguli, D.K. (2001): Generation means analysis for grain yield and its components in maize. Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding, 61(2):165-166. 10. Mather, K., Jinks, J.L. (1982): Biometrical Genetics. Chapman Hall, London. 11. Melchinger, A.E., Geiger, H.H., Schnell, F.W. (1986): Epistasis in maize. 2. Genetic effects in crosses among early flint and dent inbred lines determined by three methods. Theor. Appl. Genet. 72: 231-239. 12. Zduni}, Z. (2001.): Optimalna procjena oplemenjiva~ke vrijednosti linija kukuruza (Zea mays L.). Doktorska disertacija. Agronomski fakultet Sveu~ili{ta u Zagrebu.

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS
SUMMARY Estimation of genetic effects on economically important traits is a common procedure in the most breeding programmes at Agricultural Institute Osijek. This paper deals with estimation of adequacy over additive/dominance model of inheritance as well as estimation and comparison of genetic effects on plant height for two specific pairs of inbreds (A672Va99; A672Os6-2), and its six basic generations (P2, F1, F2, BCP1 and BCP2). Two year investigation was carried out at two locations in eastern Croatia. The trails consisted of 121 entries of different inbreeding level derived by partial diallel mating design followed by selfing and back crossing. Simple lattice experimental design was used in both investigated years. Goodness of fit test results indicated the additive/dominance model failed to explain all differences among generation means. Digenic epistatic model appeared to be adequate in both investigated pairs of inbreds at least in one of the investigated years. Estimations and comparisons of genetic effects for selected pairs of inbreds and basic generations revealed prevailing dominance effects when compared to additive. Key words: maize, plant height, Generation mean analysis, genetic effects (Primljeno 9. travnja 2003.; prihva}eno 16. svibnja 2003. - Received on 9 April 2003; accepted on 16 May 2003)

Poljoprivreda

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 633.15:631.524.6

INFLUENCES OF SOIL AND GENOTYPES ON MICRONUTRIENTS STATUS IN MAIZE PLANTS
Manda Antunovi} (1), V. Kova~evi} (1), Mirta Rastija (1), Z. Zduni} (2) Original scientific paper Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak
SUMMARY Ten corn hybrids were grown on two soil types of Drava Valley in Slatina area (alluvial soil and pseudogley) during two growing seasons (1998 and 1999). The ear-leaf at the beginning of silking stage was taken for chemical analysis. Micronutrient concentrations in corn leave samples were measured by ICP-AES after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soils was also determined by ICP-AES after their extraction by ammonium acetate-EDTA. In both year of the testing, corn yields on acid soil were about 25% lower in comparison with alluvial soil. Mean concentrations of tested elements in corn leaves found in our investigations (mg kg-1) were 30.4 (Zn), 129.4 (Mn) and 190.0 (Fe), respectively. In general, significant influences of growing season, soil type and genotype on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn were found. For example, in the first year of testing higher Zn and Mn were found, as well as lower Fe concentrations in comparison with the second year. Corn growing on alluvial soil occurred due to lower Zn and Mn as well as higher Fe concentrations in plants compared to growing on pseudogley. However, these findings are not in coincidence with status of mobile fractions of Zn and Mn in the experimental plots. We presume that pH value near to neutral on alluvial soil could be responsible factor because low availability of Zn and Mn for plants occured under these conditions. An important role of heredity factors on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn was found in our study because differences among the hybrids (mean values for two growing seasons and two soil types) under identical environmental conditions were in ranges (mg kg-1) from 26.8 to 36.0 (Zn), from 98.6 to 150.4 (Mn) and from 168.2 to 222.4 (Fe), respectively. It is very indicative that the first-ranged hybrid concerning grain yield (OsSK458exp: 12.34 t ha-1) is in the group characterizing low concentrations of Zn, Mn and Fe in leaves. Key-words: corn hybrid, zinc, manganese, iron, pseudogley, alluvial soil, yield

INTRODUCTION
Soils in the Eastern Croatia have very different properties including nutritional status. Calcaric chernozem and eutric cambisol are major soil types in Vukovar and Osijek area, while pseudogley prevails in Donji Miholjac and Slatina area, near the Drava bank, the Sava and the Danube river have more fertile alluvial soils (Kova~evi} and Ba{i}, 1997). In general, usual fertilization practice includes application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, while micronutrients supplies are mainly adequate for normal growth of field crops although its availability is related to soil pH reaction. However, under conditions of the Eastern Croatia sporadically have been found examples of zinc (Zn) deficiencies in maize (Kova~evi} et al. 1986, 1988, 1989, 1998). Zn availability was reduced affected by liming (Mu{ac et al., 1974,

1976, 1982). Effects of Zn fertilization on corn yields were different depending on soil and growing season characteristics (Josipovi} et al., 1998; Kova~evi} et al., 1998; Rastija, 2001). Also considerable influences of inheritance on Zn status in corn were found. General aspects of factors promoting micronutrient deficiencies were reported by Lucas and Knezek (1972), Bergmann (1992), Mengel and Kirkby (2001). As micronutrient problems could become a limiting factor of some field crops growing, we tested zinc, manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) status in ten maize hybrids grown on two soil types.
(1) Ph.D Manda Antunovi}, Associate Professor, Ph.D Vlado Kova~evi}, Full Professor, MSc Mirta Rastija - Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg Sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek; (2) Ph.D. Zvonimir Zduni} - Agricultural Institute, Ju`no predgra|e 17, 31000 Osijek

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10 MATERIAL AND METHODS The field experiments

M. Antunoviæ et al.: INFLUENCES OF SOIL AND GENOTYPES ON MICRONUTRIENTS STATUS ...

Ten corn hybrids were grown on two soil types of Drava Valley in Slatina area during two growing seasons (1998 and 1999). The field trials were sown by pneumatic sowing machine in four replicates (exp. plot 14 m2). Planned plant density (PPD) depended on the hybrids and it was 71428, 63493 or 58310 plants ha-1 (seed distance in row: 20.0, 22.5, or 24.5 cm: inter-row spacing 70 cm). The remaining soil crop management practices were in competency of own choice of farmer. Fertilisation was the same on both localities: 120 kg ha1 N, 80 kg ha-1 P2O5, 120 kg ha-1 K2O (200 kg ha-1 UREA and 400 kg ha-1 NPK- 10:20:30). For this reason, results of these trials are reflection of the real status in fields. Corn was harvested by hand in the first decade

of October. Grain yields were calculated for 14% moisture and 90% realization of PPD basis. The ear-leaf at the beginning of silking stage (the second decade of July) was taken for chemical analysis (about 25 leaves in the mean sample) from each plot. Mean soil sample was taken by auger to 30 cm depth from each experimental plot in autumn 1997. The total amount of Zn, Mn and Fe in corn leaves and soil samples was measured by ICP-AES technique after their microwave digestion using concentrated HNO3+H2O2. Mobile fraction of these elements in soils was also determined by ICP-AES technique after their extraction by ammonium acetate-EDTA (pH 4.65) solution by Lakanen and Ervio method (1971). Plant and soil analysis was made in the laboratory of Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (RISSAC), Budapest.

Table 1. Some soil properties of the Sopje experimental fields Tablica 1. Svojstva tla pokusnih parcela u Sopju

Table 2. Weather data for Slatina Tablica 2. Vremenske prilike u Slatini

1

approx. air - distance from Sopje: 10 km toward south – zra~ne linije od Sopja: 10 km ju`no

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Characteristics of the Experimental Fields
Choice of two typical soils of the Slatina area was made for experimentation. Alluvial soils are mainly situated near the river Drava bank, while pseudogley is dominant soil type in the remaining part of the area. In general, alluvial soil is more fertile in comparison with pseudogley. Both soils are near Sopje village and they are about 2 km apart from each other. Alluvial soil reaction is neutral and contains considerable higher levels of total and mobile fractions of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P), as well as lower levels of potassium in comparison with pseudogley (Table 1).

Weather Characteristics
The growing seasons 1998 and 1999 were favourable for corn growing under Eastern Croatia conditions (Table 2). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Considerable influences of the growing season, soil and heredity on yields and ear-leaf composition of maize were found by our investigations (Table 3 and 4). Mean grain yield was 11.71 and 10.86 t ha-1, for the 1998 and 1999 growing season, respectively. In both year of testing, corn yields on acid soil were about 25% lower in comparison with alluvial soil.

Table 3. Influences of the growing season, soil and hybrids on corn properties Tablica 3. Utjecaj godine, tla i hibrida na svojstva kukuruza

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Table 4. Influences of the growing season, soil and hybrids on corn properties - AC and BC interactions Tablica 4. Utjecaj godine, tla i hibrida na svojstva kukuruza – interakcije AC i BC

Higher yields (2-year means) on alluvial soil were obtained by 3 hybrids (OsSK554, OsSK458 and OsSK568exp.: mean 14,01 t ha-1), while OsSK444 yielded only 11,31 t ha-1. The high yields (above 10 t ha-1) on acid soil were obtain by four corn hybrids (OsSK 332, OsSK 444, OsSK458 and OsSK490exp. (mean 10,84 t ha-1), while under 9 t ha-1 yielded OsSK413, OsSK382, OsSK425exp. and OsS425exp. (mean 8,76 t ha-1). Mean concentrations of tested elements in corn leaves found in our investigations (mg kg-1) were 30.4 (Zn), 129.4 (Mn) and 190.0 (Fe), respectively. In general, significant influences of growing season, soil type and genotype on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn were found (Tables 3 and 4). For example, in the first year of testing higher Zn and Mn, as well as lower Fe concentrations were found in comparison with the second year. Growing of maize on pseudogley soil resulted in 56% higher ear-leaf Zn concentrations and more than double higher Mn concentrations in comparison with plants on alluvial soil. At the same time, differences in ear-leaf Fe concentrations were only about 10%.

However, these findings were not in accordance with status of total and mobile fractions of these elements in tested soils. We presume that acid reaction and lower Ca and Mg in pseudogley (Table 1) could be responsible factors for these differences. In our study an important role of heredity factors was found on Zn, Mn and Fe status in corn because differences among the hybrids (mean values for two growing seasons and two soil types) under identical environmental conditions were in ranges (mg kg-1) from 26.8 to 36.0 (Zn), from 98.6 to 150.4 (Mn) and from 168.2 to 222.4 (Fe), respectively (Table 3). It is very indicative that the first-ranged hybrid concerning grain yield (OsSK458exp: 12.34 t ha-1) is in the group characterizing low concentrations of Zn, Mn and Fe in leaves (Table 3). Mengel and Kirkby (2001) cited data concerning appraisal of the nutrient status of the ear-leaf at flowering stage of corn: adequate status (mg kg-1) are from 20 to 70 (zinc), from 20 to 200 (manganese) and from 10 to 300 (iron), respectively. Bergmann (1992) reported adequate nutritional status (mg kg-1) of corn (leaves

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opposite ear) from 25 to 70 (zinc) and from 40 to 200 (manganese). Based on these criterions normal status of zinc, manganese and iron were found in our investigations in corn. Zn deficiency mainly occurs on soils with high pH, especially calcareous soils (Kova~evi} et al., 1986; Rastija et al., 2002). Also, cultivars of the same species may differ markedly in their potential to exploit soil Zn (Cakmak et al., 1996). Similar findings are achieved for Mn and Fe availabilities (Bergmann, 1992; Mangel and Kirkby, 2001).

8.

9.

10.

CONCLUSION
Mainly considerable influences of growing season, soil type and inheritance on corn yields and the ear-leaf micronutrients (Zn, Mn and Fe) status were found by our study. However, low connection was found between yields and nutritional status of corn probably because concentrations of these elements in corn leaves were in an adequate range. The first-ranged hybrid concerning grain yield (OsSK458exp: 12.34 t ha-1) is in the group characterised by low concentrations of Zn, Mn and Fe in leaves.

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REFERENCES
1. Bergmann, W. (1992): Nutritional disorders of plants development, visual and analytical diagnosis. Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena, Stuttgart, New York. Cakmak, I., Sari, N., Marschner, H., Ekiz, H., Kalayci, M., Yilmaz, A., Braun, H.J. (1996): Phytosiderofore release in bread wheat and durum wheat genotypes differing in zinc efficiency. Plant and Soil 180,183-189. Josipovi}, M., Kova~evi}, V., Bavec, F. (1998): Response of maize genotypes to foliar fertilization with zinc sulphate. In “Fertilization for Sustainable Plant Production and Soil Fertility” (Editors: O. van Cleemput, S. Haneklaus, G. Hofman, E. Schnug and A. Vermoesen), Proceedings of the 11th World Fertilizer Congress of CIEC (International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers), 7-13 September 1997, Ghent, Belgium , Volume I, p. 270-276. Kova~evi}, V., @ugec I., Berti}, B. (1986.): Poreme}aji mineralne ishrane biljaka na tlima Slavonije. Savremena poljoprivreda 34(3-4):133-150. Kova~evi}, V., @ugec, I., Berti}, B., Katu{i}, V. (1988): Growth retardation and chlorosis due to zinc deficiency under the conditions of Eastern Croatia. Tagungsbericht - Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, No. 267, p.379-386. Kova~evi}, V. (1989.): Pregled poreme}aja mineralne ishrane kukuruza na tlima Slavonije i njihovo rje{avanje. Zbornik referata XXIII seminara agronoma, Kupari, 10.18.02., Poljoprivredni fakultet, Institut za ratarstvo i povrtlarstvo Novi Sad, str. 181.-189. Kova~evi}, V., Ba{i}, F. (1997): The soil potassium resources and the efficiency of potassium fertilizers in Croatia (Country Report 10). International Potash Institute, Coordinator Central/Eastern Europe, CH-4001 Basel/Switzerland.

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Kova~evi}, V., Kadar, I., Brki}, I., Marketi}, M. (1998): Influence of inheritance and potash fertilization on zinc, manganese and iron status in corn (Zea mays L.). In: “Fifth Congress of ESA (European Society for Agronomy), 28 June - 2 July, 1998, Nitra, The Slovak Republic. Short Communications, Volume I (M. Zima and M. L. Bartosova, Editors), p. 191-192. Mengel, K., Kirkby, E.A. (1987): Principles of plant nutrition. Publ. International Potash Institute Bern, Schweiz, 4. Auflage. Mu{ac, I., Juri}, I., Kova~evi}, V. (1974.): Utjecaj zahvata melioracijske obrade na promjene kemijskih svojstava sekundarnog pseudogleja isto~ne Slavonije. Zbornik radova Poljopr.inst.Osijek IV (1):101.-114. Mu{ac, I., Juri}, I., Kova~evi}, V., @ugec I. (1976.): Utjecaj agromeliorativne obrade tla Slavonije s nereguliranim vodozra~nim re`imom na kemijske promjene povr{inskog sloja i prinos kukuruza. Simpozij “Ure|enje zemlji{ta - osnova za intenzivnu proizvodnju kukuruza”, Osijek 18. i 19.10.1976, str. 227.-234. Mu{ac, I., Juri}, I., Kova~evi}, V., @ugec, I., Ma|ar, S. (1982): The productivity of pseudoglay in Slavonia and the chemical changes which occur in the surface layer after meliorative tillage. In: “Proceedings ISTRO” Ninth Conference of the International Soil Tillage Research Organization, Osijek, June 21, p. 26-32. Lucas, R.E., Knezek, B.D. (1972): Climatic and soil conditions promoting micronutrient deficiencies in plants. In: Micronutrients in Agriculture (Mortvedt J. J., Giordano P . M. anf Lindsay W. L. editors). Soil Scie. Soc. America, Madison, p. 265-288. Rastija, M. (2001.): Reakcija samooplodnihg linija kukuruza na gnojidbu cinkovim sulfatom (magistarski rad). Poljoprivredni fakultet Sveu~ili{ta J. J. Strossmayera u Osijeku, Osijek. Rastija, M., Bukvi}, G., Josipovi}, M. (2002): Response of corn to zinc fertzilization. International Scientific Conference “Energy efficiency and agricultural engineering” 4-6 April 2002, Rousse, Bulgaria (Conference Proceedings, Volume 1). p. 131-136.

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UTJECAJ TLA I GENOTIPA NA SADR@AJ MIKROELEMENATA U KUKURUZU
SA@ETAK Deset hibrida kukuruza uzgajano je na dva tipa tla (aluvijalno tlo i pseudoglej) slatinske Podravine tijekom dvije godine (1998. i 1999.). List ispod klipa u fazi svilanja uzet je za kemijske analize. Pristupa~na frakcija elemenata u tlu odre|ena je, tako|er, pomo}u ICP-AES nakon ekstrakcije otopinom amonijevog acetata-EDTA. Godine 1998. i 1999. bile su povoljne za uzgoj kukuruza u isto~noj Hrvatskoj. U obje godine istra`ivanja prinosi kukuruza na pseudogleju bili su za oko 25% ni`i od prinosa na aluvijalnom tlu. Prosje~ne koncentracije analiziranih elemenata u listu kukuruza dobivene na{im istra`ivanjima (mg kg-1) bile su 30,4 (Zn), 129,4 (Mn), odnosno 190,0 (Fe). Op}enito, ustanovljen je signifikantan utjecaj godine, tipa tla i genotipa na koncentracije Zn, Mn i Fe u listu. Tako su u prvoj godini istra`ivanja ustanovljene ve}e koncentracije Zn i Mn, a manje koncentracije Fe nego u sljede}oj godini. Uzgoj kukuruza na aluvijalnom tlu rezultirao je manjim koncentracijama Zn i Mn te ve}im koncentracijama Fe nego na kiselom tlu. Me|utim, takvo stanje nije u skladu s razinama mobilne frakcije tih elemenata u ta dva tla. Pretpostavljamo da bi reakcija tla blizu neutralne vrijednosti mogla biti odgovorna za slabije primanje Zn i Mn. Tako|er, u na{im istra`ivanjima ustanovljena je zna~ajna uloga nasljednih faktora na stanje tih elemenata, jer su razlike izme|u hibrida uzgajanih u identi~nim uvjetima u rasponima (mg kg-1) od 26,8 do 36,0 (Zn), od 98,6 do 150,4 (Mn), odnosno od 168,2 do 222,4 (Fe). Vrlo je indikativno da je hibrid s najvi{im ostvarenim prinosom (OsSK458 exp.: 12,34 t ha-1) u grupi hibrida s niskim koncentracijama Zn, Mn i Fe u listu. Klju~ne rije~i: hibridi kukuruza, cink, mangan, `eljezo, pseudoglej, aluvijalno tlo, prinos (Received on 20 March 2003; accepted on 21 May 2003 – Primljeno 20. o`ujka 2003.; prihva}eno 21. svibnja 2003.)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 631.526.325:633.15:631.832

INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS
V. Kova~evi} (1), I. Brki} (2) Preliminary communication Prethodno priop}enje
ABSTRACT Six corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids (OsSK 377; OsSK 382; OsSK 407; OsSK 552; OsSK 644 and Bc 66-61) were grown on strong K-fixing soil during the growing season 1993. Increased K fertilization in KCl form was applied in spring of 1990 to level of 3250 kg K2O ha-1. Four rates were used for testing corn hybrids response (150, 1000, 1900 and 3250 kg K2O ha-1). Response of corn to K fertilization was very pronounced: grain yields were in range from 1.83 t h-1 (150 kg K2O ha-1) to 7.04 t ha-1 (3250 K2O ha-1). Differences of grain yields among corn hybrids were from 4.35 t ha-1 (Bc 66-61) to 5.31 t ha-1 (OsSK 407). Significant differences of nutritional status among the hybrids were found as follows (mg kg-1): 18.9-26.5 (zinc), 14.4-17.4 (manganese), 120-144 (iron) and 18.2-23.2 (copper), respectively. Zinc status in corn leaves was independent on applied fertilization, while the concentration of manganese, iron and copper was significantly decreased by application of the highest KCl rate (mg kg-1: 17.4 and 12.6 Mn, 150 and 120 Fe, 21.5 and 18.5 Cu, for the control and 3250 kg K2O ha-1, respectively). As affected by KCl fertilization there were found considerable differences in K and Mg status of corn leaves as follows: 0.31% K (acute K deficiency) and 1.18% K, as well as 1.08% Mg and 0.47% Mg, for the control and 3250 kg K2O ha-1, respectively. Key- words: corn, yield, hybrids, fertilization, potassium, magnesium, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, ear-leaf status

INTRODUCTION
Potassium deficiency in connections with K-fixation and magnesium excess are main reasons for reduced soil fertility of some gleysols of Croatia concerning corn growth (Kova~evi} and Ba{i}, 1997). Similar phenomenon is found in Hungary (Kadar et al., 1991). Fertilization by the enormous quantities of K was shown as acceptable solution, but by choice of more tolerant genotypes it is possible to contribute to overcoming of this problem (Kova~evi} and Vujevi}, 1994). Influenc of this fertilization on yield, potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) status were elaborated in the previous study (Kova~evi} et al., 1996). As nutritional unbalances are possible due to ameliorative fertilization, we tested zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) status in six corn hybrids affected by KCl application on strong K-fixing soil. General aspects of Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu nutrition of plants were showed by Bergmann (1992), Mengel and Kirkby (2001), etc.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
The field trial with increased K fertilization (in KCl form up to level of 3250 kg K2O ha-1) was conducted on strong K-fixing soil in spring of 1990. It was conducted by randomized block design in four replications. In the next three years, the trial was fertilized uniformly (ordinary fertilization related to soil nutrient status). In the fourth year of testing (the growing season of 1993) in total 12 corn hybrids grown on this field ordinary fertilization practice was applied as follows (kg ha-1): 240 N + 125 P2O5 + 150 K2O. Six corn hybrids (OsSK377, OsSK382, OsSK407, OsSK552, OsSK644 and Bc6661) and four rates of KCl fertilization (150, 1000, 1900 and 3250 kg K2O ha-1) were chosen for leaf analyses (the ear-leaf at the beginning of silking stage: 30 leaves
(1) Ph.D Vlado Kova~evi}, Full Professor – J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek, Trg Sv. Trojstva 3, HR-31000 Osijek Croatia, (2) Ph.D Ivan Brki} - Agricultural Institute in Osijek, Ju`no predgra|e 17, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia

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in mean sample, total 96 samples). Corn was sown in April 28, and it was harvested in September 24, 1993. Grain yields were expressed on the realized plant density with corrections for contribution of the female-sterile plants and 14 % moisture basis. Chemical analyses were made by ICP technique in the Research Institute for Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary. Soil was classified as drained gleysol on calcareous loess substrate. By the soil analyses (0-30 cm of depth) of the control treatment (ordinary K fertilization) values were found as follows: pH in 0.1 m KCl = 7.3; organic matter content = 2.4 %; carbonate content = 14.9 %; exchangeable K by 1n NH4-Acetate (pH = 7.0) solution = 5.6 mg K 100 g-1; lightly exchangeable Mg (CaCl2-method) = 37.6 mg Mg 100 g-1; exchangeable calcium (NH4-Acetate) = 603 mg Ca 100 g-1. Micronutrient status in the soil sample was determined by extraction with NH4-Acetate +EDTA (pH 4,65) according to Lakanen-Ervio (1971) method (mg kg-1: 0.57 Zn, 57 Mn, 305 Fe and 5.2 Cu, respectively).

Weather conditions in the growing season of 1993 were less favourable for corn growing mainly because of drought stress during the two-month period (July and August). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Mean concentrations of tested nutrients found by our study were as follows (mg kg-1): 23.4 (zinc), 16.0 (manganese), 131 (iron) and 19.8 (copper), respectively (Table 1). Golmick et al. (1970) reported appraisal of the nutrient status in the ear-leaf of corn at flowering stage and ranges (mg kg-1) from 20 to 70 (zinc), from 20 to 200 (manganese) from 10 to 300 (iron) and from 6 to 50 (copper) as adequate for normal growth of corn. According to this criterion low concentrations of Mn and moderate concentrations of Zn were found by our testing. As affected by applied KCl fertilization, the concentrations of Mn, Fe and Cu decreased in comparison to the control by 28%, 20% and 14%, respectively, while Zn concentrations were independent on applied fertiliza-

Table 1. Residual effects of ameliorative fertilization with KCl (spring 1990) on Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu status in corn for the growing season 1993 Tablica 1. Naknadni u~inci melioracijske gnojidbe s KCl (prolje}e 1990.) na sadr`aj Zn, Mn, Fe i Cu u kukuruzu vegetacije 1993.

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tion treatments (Table 1). We presume that foliar spraying of corn with manganese and zinc (for example, two time application 0.75% solution of manganese- and zinc sulphate in early growth stage and about ten-day interval) could be a contribution to normalization of corn supplies with these elements.

Also, considerable role of genotype on Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu status in corn was found by our study because the significant differences (mg kg-1) were found among the hybrids under identical environmental conditions: 18.9-26.5 (zinc), 14.4-17.4 (manganese), 120-144 (iron) and 18.2-23.2 (copper), respectively (Table 1).

Table 2. Residual effects of ameliorative fertilization with KCl (spring 1990) on corn properties for the growing season 1993 (Kova~evi} et al., 1996) Tablica 2. Naknadni u~inci melioracijske gnojidbe s KCl (prolje}e 1990.g) na svojstva kukuruza u vegetaciji 1993. (Kova~evi} i sur., 1996.)

*100% (plants ha-1) = 68027 (OsSK377); 63492 (OsSK382, OsSK407 and OsSK552) and 54945 (OsSK644 and Bc66-61) * 100% (biljaka ha-1) = 68027 (OsSK377); 63492 (OsSK382, OsSK407 i OsSK552) i 54945 (OsSK644 i Bc66-61)

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Three hybrids had considerably lower Zn concentrations (OsSK377, OsSK382 and OsSK407: mean 21.0 mg Zn kg-1) in comparison with remaining three tested hybrids (mean 25.6 mg Zn kg-1). Especially low Mn concentrations were found in two hybrids (OsSK407 and OsSK552: mean 14.8 mg Zn kg-1), while in the other four hybrids they were higher (mean 16.5 mg Zn kg-1). The hybrids Os377, Os382 and Bc66-61 had higher Fe concentrations (mean 140 mg Fe kg-1) than remaining three tested hybrids (mean 122 mg Fe kg-1). Two hybrids (Os382 and OsSK552) were separated by higher Cu concentrations (mean 21.8 mg Cu kg-1) from the remaining hybrids (mean 18.7 mg Cu kg-1). However, K deficiency in corn was the main reason for application ameliorative rates of KCl in this experiment. As affected by ameliorative K fertilization, grain yield increased near fourfold in comparison with ordinary fertilization (Table 2). Differences of grain yields among the hybrids were in range from 4.35 t ha-1 (Bc 66-61) to 5.31 t ha-1 (OsSK407). Degree of tolerance to soil stress conditions was estimated throughout grain yields achieved on the control. Corn hybrids OsSK377 and OsSK382 could be designated as something more tolerant because their yield (on the average 2.31 t ha-1) is on the average 44% higher compared to the other four tested hybrids (on the average 1.60 t ha-1). Potassium fertilization has been a factor of stabilization of grain yield in genotype function. For example, yield differences among corn hybrids were relatively higher when grown on the control treatment (range from 1.54 t ha-1 to 2.47 t ha-1) compared to the highest rate of K fertilization (range from 6.56 t ha-1 to 7.73 t ha-1). Normalization of K nutrition was a considerable factor of plant density realization. For example, under soil stress conditions (the control treatment) plant density realization was on the average 32% lower in comparison with plan (theoretical plant density), while under normal conditions this reduction was on the average about 6% only (Table 2). We presume that dynamics of the early growth (especially root development) and overcoming of drought stress at the beginning of the plant development could be in connection with differences of plant density realization under different K supplies degrees. Connection between drought resistance and K nutrition was also found in corn by Mukherje (1982). Lodging at maturity stage is in close connection with soil K status. For example, it was on the average 27% and 4% under soil stress and normal soil condition, respectively. However, considerable differences of lodging incidences were found among tested corn hybrids. Hybrids OsSK644 and Bc66-61 are more tolerant to lodging under soil stress conditions compared to OsSK382 and OsSK377 ones (Table 2). Also, grain moisture was 34% on the average at harvest time under soil stress conditions, while under normal conditions about 25% only. Close relationship between corn status and lodging tolerance (disease resistance) was also found

by other studies (Liebhardt and Murdock, 1965; Kova~evi} and Vukadinovi}, 1992). Acute K deficiency and oversupply of Mg (Bergmann, 1992) were found in corn under soil stress conditions. Also, antagonism between K and Mg (Ca) uptake was very expressed. Influences of KCl fertilization on K and Mg status in corn were elaborated in detail by Kova~evi} et al. (1996).

CONCLUSIONS
Ameliorative fertilization with KCl influenced considerably decreasing Mn, Fe and Cu concentrations in corn leaves, while Zn concentrations were similar to the control. Also, considerable differences in Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu status in corn were found among the hybrids. In general, under soil stress conditions induced by K deficiency and Mg oversupply, corn grain yields were on the average 75% lower. Relations between K and Mg uptake by plants were normalized by the ameliorative K fertilization. As Mn concentrations in corn leaves were low, while concentrations of Zn were moderate, we presume that foliar application of these nutrients could be contribution to the higher efficiency of applied KCl fertilizer.

REFERENCES
1. Bergmann, W. (1992): Nutritional disorders of plants Development, visual and analytical diagnosis. Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena. Golmick, F., Neubert P ., Vielemayer H. P . (1970): Possibilities and limitations of plant analysis in estimating the nutrient requirement of crops. Fortschrittsberichte f. d. Landw. U. Nahrungsguterwirtschaft 8, H. 4, Berlin. Kadar, I., Csatho, P ., Sarkadi, J. (1991): Potassium fertilization in Hungary - responses in maize and other crops. Acta Agron. Hung. 40, 295-317. Kova~evi}, V., Ba{i}, F. (1997): The soil potassium resources and the efficiency of potassium fertilizers in Croatia (Country Report 10). International Potash Institute, Coordinator Central/Eastern Europe, CH-4001 Basel/Switzerland. Kova~evi}, V., Kadar, I., Brki}, I., Josipovi}, M. (1996): Response of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids to potassium fertilization on strong K-fixing soil. In: Proceedings of the IX Intern. Coll. for Optimization of Plant nutrition (IAOPN), Prague, Czech Republic, 8-15 September 1996, p. 458-461. Kova~evi}, V., Vukadinovi}, V. (1992): The potassium requirements of maize and soybean on a high K-fixing soil. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 9, 10-13. Lakanen, E., Ervio, R. (1971): A comparison of eight extractans for the determination of plant available micronutrients in soils. Acta Agr. Fenn. 123:223-232. Liebhardt, W.C., Murdock, J.T. (1965): Effect of potassium on morphology and lodging of corn. Agronomy Journal. 57, 325-328.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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9.

Mengel, K., Kirkby, E.A. (2001): Principles of plant nutrition. Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht/Boston/ London. 10. Mukherjee, I. (1982.): Genotipische Unterschiede in der Reaktion auf Kalium und in der Anreicherung von Prolin in Mais im Verlauf des Welkens. Inter. Kali-Briefe, Fachg. 9, Folge 49, 1.-5.

UTJECAJ KALIJEVA KLORIDA NA PRINOS I STANJE ISHRANE U DVA HIBRIDA KUKURUZA

SA@ETAK [est hibrida kukuruza (Zea mays L.: OsSK 377; OsSK 382; OsSK 407; OsSK 552; OsSK 644 i Bc 66-61) uzgajano je na tlu sa sna`nom fiksacijom kalija tijekom vegetacije 1993. godine. Rastu}e koli~ine kalijevog klorida (KCl) dodane su u prolje}e 1990. do razine 3250 kg K2O ha-1. ^etiri varijante (150, 1000, 1900 i 3250 kg K2O ha-1) kori{tene su za testiranje reakcije kukuruza na gnojidbu. Reakcija hibrida kukuruza na gnojidbu bila je vrlo izra`ena, jer su prinosi zrna bili u rasponu od 1,83 t ha-1 (150 kg K2O ha-1) do 7,04 t ha-1 (3250 K2O ha-1). Razlike prinosa izme|u hibrida bile su od 4,35 t ha-1 (Bc 66-61) do 5,31 t ha-1 (OsSK 407). Utvr|ene su i signifikantne razlike izme|u hibrida u koncentracijama mikroelemenata (mg kg-1): od 18,9 do 26,5 (cink), od 14,4 do 17,4 (mangan), od 120 do 144 (`eljezo) i od 18,2 do 23,2 (bakar). Koncentracije cinka u listu kukuruza bile su neovisne o primijenjenoj gnojidbi, dok su koncentracije mangana, `eljeza i bakra zna~ajno smanjene primjenom najve}e koli~ine gnojiva (mg kg-1: 17,4 i 12,6 Mn, 150 i 120 Fe, 21,5 i 18,5 Cu, za kontrolu, odnosno 3250 kg K2O ha-1). Tako|er, utvr|en je zna~ajan utjecaj KCl gnojidbe na koncentracije kalija i magnezija: 0,31% K (akutan nedostatak kalija) i 1,18% K, 1,08% Mg i 0,47% Mg na kontroli, odnosno varijanti s 3250 kg K2O ha-1). Klju~ne rije~i: kukuruz, prinos, gnojidba, kalij, magnezij, cink, mangan, `eljezo, bakar, list ispod klipa (Received on 4 April 2003; accepted on 19 May 2003 - Primljeno 4. travnja 2003.; prihva}eno 19. svibnja 2003.)

Poljoprivreda

9 (2003)

ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 631.524.01:633.15:631.811+631.445.1

RESPONSE OF MAIZE GENOTYPES TO FERTILIZATION ON HYDROMORPHIC SOIL OF SAVA VALLEY
B. Šimiæ
(1)

, V. Kovaèeviæ

(2)

, Zorica Jurkoviæ (1) Original scientific paper Izvorni znanstveni èlanak

ABSTRACT Growing seed-maize is more profitable than mercantile maize, but also riskier, especially under less favourable soil conditions because parents of maize hybrids are less tolerant than their progeny to environmental stress, including plant nutrition problems. For this reason, we conducted the field experiment with P and K fertilization and a range of maize genotypes (parents of seed-maize) on soil with moderate P and K supplies. Following application of 382 kg P and 726 kg K ha-1, maize grain yields increased from 1.93 t ha-1 to 2.86 t ha-1 (3-year means). High correlations were found between grain yields of maize genotypes and nutrient concentrations in ear-leaf at silking stage (r = 0.82** for P and r = 0.90** for K). Based on these results, we could recommend the higher P and K fertilization of seed-maize crops on soils of similar chemical properties. Key-words: fertilization, maize, nutritional status, phosphorus, potassium, yield

INTRODUCTION Environmental conditions for maize growing in Croatia, especially in the Eastern Croatia, are generally favourable. Possible problems in some growing seasons are connected with water shortage (Kovaèeviæ and Josipoviæ, 1998). In addition, low phosphorus and potassium supplies are limiting maize growth on some gleysols of Sava valley area (Kovaèeviæ and Vukadinoviæ, 1992; Kovaèeviæ et al., 1996). In general, it is more profitable to grow seed-maize than mercantile maize. However, growing seed-maize is accompanied by more risks in comparison with growing mercantile maize (hybrids) since parents of maize hybrids compared to their progenies are less tolerant to environmental stresses, including drought and unfavourable soil properties, mainly low pH and nutritional disorders. For this reason, we conducted the field experiment with increased rates of P and K fertilization and different maize genotypes (parents of seed-maize) on soil characterized by moderate K and P supplies. Country needs for maize seed stock has been covered by own seedmaize production. For example, seed-maize production in Croatia (Pucariæ, 1992) for the 10-year period (19811990) was 14 894 t annually (domestic consumption 8503 t and export 6391 t).

MATERIAL AND METHODS The field experiment
Seven maize (Zea mays L.) parents of hybrids (inbred lines: Os36-16, Os2-48, Os84-44, Os138-9, Os89-9 Os84-49 and Os86-39) were grown under field conditions for three growing seasons (1993, 1994 and 1995) on Orubica eutric gleysol. Fertilization treatments were as follows: a) control (standard fertilization: 180 kg N + 52 kg P and 133 kg K ha-1), b) a + 382 kg P ha-1 as monoammonium phosphate (MAP: 23% P and 12% N), c) a + 726 kg K ha-1 as KCl (50% K), d) a + 382 kg P ha-1 + 726 kg K ha-1. Ameliorative fertilization with phosphorus and potassium was made before maize was sown in the first trial year (March 22, 1993), while for the second and third year at the field trial the standard fertilization was applied (kg ha-1): 180 kg N + 52 P + 133 K ha-1 (before sowing 200 kg ha-1 urea and 400 kg ha-1 NPK 10:20:30; top dressing with 200 kg ha-1 calcium ammonium nitrate).

(1) Ph.D Branimir [imi} and Ph.D Zorica Jurkovi} - Agricultural Institute, Ju`no predgra|e 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia, (2) Ph.D Vlado Kova~evi}, Full Professor - J.J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

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Additional quantities of urea (192 kg N ha-1) were used during ameliorative fertilization for the a and c treatments for equalization of nitrogen application. For this reason, total N quantity for ordinary fertilization in the first year of testing was 372 kg N ha-1. The field experiment was set up in the split-plot design with four replicates then main plot (fertilization treatment) 300 m2 and subplot (genotypes) 40 m2. Maize was sown at the end of April/beginning of May. Grain yields were calculated on theoretical plant density (66,027 plant ha-1) reduced by 25% (49,520 plants ha-1 = share of mother parent in the seed-maize crop) and 14% grain moisture basis.

50.6 K content for extraction at 20 and 80oC, respectively (Table 1). The soil contain in the large proportion of clay (51.3%) is highly compacted. Lowland position in the landscape was disadvantageous during the period of water excess.

Weather conditions
In general, weather conditions during the three growing seasons were favourable for maize, with exception of 1995 when excess of water occurred at the early growth stage (194 mm in the May/June period). Rainfall

Table 1. Chemical and physical properties of the Orubica soil Tablica 1. Kemijska i fizikalna svojstva tla kod Orubice

Comment: very compacted clay soil - Komentar: jako zbijeno glinasto tlo

Sampling and sample analysis
Maize ear-leaf samples were collected at the start of silking (the middle of July) from each plot (25 leaves per sample). They were prepared for chemical analysis by drying (70oC) and grinding. Plant material was digested using the wet-ashing procedure by concentrated sulfuric acid and catalyst Se (Holz, 1973). Potassium was determined by flame emission spectrometry, and P spectrophometricaly by molybdenum-vanadium complex. For soil analysis we used the surface soil layer (30 cm deep) (soil sampling before ameliorative fertilization - March 10, 1993). Soil test was done by the EUFmethod (Nemeth, 1982).

in the 7-month period April-October (Nova Gradiška Weather Bureau) was 490 mm, 752 mm and 486 mm, for the growing seasons 1993, 1994 and 1995, respectively. Rainfall and mean air-temperatures in the critical period for maize (July + August) were adequate (total 190 mm, 282 mm and 143 mm, as well as 22.7oC, 22.6oC and 22.5oC, for the 1993, 1994 and 1995, respectively). Excess rainfall in June and July 1994 (total 390 mm) was useful for maize because of its increased needs for water in this period.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Our results confirmed considerable influences of the growing season, fertilization and genotype on maize yields and its nutritional status (Table 2). For example, depending on the growing season mean grain yields ranged from 1.33 t ha-1 to 3.40 t ha-1. Especially low yields in the 1995 growing season could be in connection with lowland position of the soil and excess of rainfall the beginning of maize growth (May and June rainfall 194 mm). In the pre-

Soil properties
Orubica eutric gleysol (before the trial: pH 1 N KCl = 5.30; humus 1.75% g) is located near Nova Gradiška, Eastern Croatia. Soil test (EUF method) showed low plant available phosphorus and potassium (mg kg -1) as follows: 5.28 and 4.18 P content; and 40.4 and

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vious years of testing, grain yields were similar and considerably higher (2-year mean 3.29 t ha-1). In general, ear-leaf P and K status were considerably different among the growing seasons, applied fertilization and genotype (Table 2) As affected by ameliorative fertilization, maize grain yields were almost increased by 50% (3-year means: 1.93 t ha-1 and 2.86 t ha-1, for the control and

ameliorative fertilization, respectively). Analogous values for maize nutritional status (ear-leaf P and K concentrations at beginning of silking stage) were as follows: 0.29% P and .43% P , 0.86% K and 2.04% K, respectively. Application of both elements in ameliorative quantities resulted by 56% increase of maize yield, while by individual addition of these elements yield increases were similar (for 45%).

Table 2. Influences of the growing seasons, fertilization and genotype on maize properties Tablica 2. Utjecaj godine, gnojidbe i genotipa na svojstva kukuruza

726 kg K ha-1, d = a + 382 kg P ha-1 + 726 kg K ha-1. For the 1994 and 1995 growing seasons all treatments were fertilized uniformly in range of the control (nitrogen 180 kg N ha-1). ** za 1993. godinu: a = kontrola (372 kg N + 52 kg P i 133 kg K ha-1), b = a + 382 kg P ha-1 , c = a + 726 kg K ha-1, d = a + 382 kg P ha-1 + 726 kg K ha-1. Za 1994. i 1995. godinu svi tretmani gnojeni su jednako na razini kontrole (dušik 180 kg N ha-1).

*for the 1993 growing season: a = control (372 kg N + 52 kg P and 133 kg K ha-1), b = a + 382 kg P ha-1 , c = a +

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For estimation of nutritional status of maize plants, as reliable criterion is nutrient concentrations in ear-leaf at the beginning of silking stage. For example, critical concentrations (on dry matter basis) for high yields of maize are 0.25% P and 1.90% K (Melsted et al., 1969), while adequate ranges are from 0.25% to 0.35% P and from 1.75% to 2.25% K (Barber and Olson, 1968). By the other study, adequate ranges (leaf situated opposite the cob at the beginning of silking stage) are as follows: from 0.25% to 0.50% P and from 3.00 % to 4.50% K (Bergmann, 1992). In general, according to these criteria, potassium status of maize in our testing could be designated as moderate and phosphorus as adequate for maize growth. Also, acute K deficiency (less than 1.0% K) and low P contents (less than 0.30% P) were found by maize growing on the control treatment, while ameliorative fertilization considerably improved both P and K status to normal levels. Nutritional status of maize is also under considerable influences of heredity because under identical environmental conditions differences were found among cultivars and hybrids (3, 7, 8). By our testing differences were found concerning genotype influences (3-year means) from 0.38 to 0.42% P and from 1.72 to 1.80% K and being highly significant. The highest concentrations of tested elements were found in the genotypes as follows: Os86-39 (phosphorus), Os84-44 and Os89-9 (potassium). Considerably higher yields (mean 2.86 t ha-1) were found by the Os84-44 and Os138-9 genotypes compared to Os2-48 and Os84-49 (mean 2.42 t ha-1). Three year means of maize properties (genotype x fertilization) were tested by correlations (total 28 pairs) whereas very high connections between grain yields and ear-leaf composition were found as follows: r = 0.82** (phosphorus) and r = 0.90** (potassium). Residual effects of application of high levels of fertilizer were also found by other investigations. For example, application of 130 kg P ha-1 in form of calcium superphosphate on calcareous soils resulted in wheat yield increase for 16% in the fourth testing year (Shaoling, 2000). CONCLUSION Although environmental conditions in the eastern Croatia are mainly favourable for seed-maize growing, phosphorus and potassium nutritional problems could be a limiting factor of profitable yields. Considerable differences of maize yields depending on the growing season, applied fertilization and tested genotypes were found by our testing. As nutritional status of maize (earleaf P and K status) were in close connection with grain yields, based on our investigations, we could recommend application of more P and K fertilizers for seedmaize growing, especially on less favourable soils. Increased inputs as affected by recommend fertilization are covered by the higher yields of seed.

REFERENCES
Barber, S.A, Olson, R.A. (1968): Fertilizer use in corn. In Changing patterns in fertilizer use (Nelson L.B. Ed.). Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin pp.163-188. 2. Bergmann, W. (1992): Nutritional disorders of plants – development, visual and analytical diagnosis. Gustav Fischer Verlag Jena – Stuttgart – New York pp.343-362. 3. Brkiæ, I., Kovaèeviæ, V., Vujeviæ, S., Kozumplik, V. (1997): Inheritance of potassium, calcium and magnesium status in maize (Zea mays L.) plants. In Plant Nutrition for Sustainable Food Production and Environment (Ando T., Fujita K., Mae T., Matsumoto H., Mori S. and Sekiya J. Eds). Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Printed in Japan, Vol. 78, pp.163-164. 4. Holz, F. (1973): Die automatische Bestimmung des Stickstoffs als Indophenolgrun in Boden und Pflanzen. Landwirtsch. Forsch. 26:177.-192. 5. Kovaèeviæ, V., Vukadinoviæ, V. (1992): The potassium requirements of maize and soyabeans on a high K-fixing soil. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 9(1):10-13. 6. Kovaèeviæ, V. (1994): Investigation of genetic aspects of corn mineral nutrition in Agricultural Institute Osijek (1971-1992). Sjemenarstvo, 5: 327-349. 7. Kovaèeviæ, V., Kadar, I., Brkiæ, I., Josipoviæ, M. (1996): Response of corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids to potassium fertilization on strong K-fixing soil, IXth International Colloquium for the Optimization of Plant Nutrition, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept 8-15, 1996, Prague, Czech Republic, pp.458-461. 8. Kovaèeviæ, V., Josipoviæ, M. (1998): Weather and soil limitations for maize growing in the Eastern Croatia, In: Fifth Congress of European Society for Agronomy (ESA) Nitra, The Slovak Republic, June 28 – July 2, 1998; M. Zima and Bartosova M.L. Eds.; Short Communications, Volume II, pp.157-158. 9. Melsted, S.W., Motto, H.L., Peck, T.R. (1969): Critical nutrient composition values useful in interpretation plant analysis data. Agronomy J. 61:17-20. 10. Nemeth, K. (1982): Odreðivanje stvarne i potencijalne raspolo`ivosti hranjivih elemenata u zemljištu pomoæu metode elektroultrafiltracije (EUF). Jugoslavenski poljoprivredno šumarski centar Beograd. 11. Pucariæ, A. (1992): Proizvodnja sjemena hibrida kukuruza, Institut za oplemenjivanje i proizvodnju bilja, Zagreb. 12. Shaoling, J. (2000): Study on the residual effects of phosphatic fertilizer on calacareous soils. Volume of Abstracts, International Symposium on Phosphorus in the Soil-Plant Continuum, Beijing, China, Sept 17-23, 2000; Fusuo Zhang, Ed., pp.37. 1.

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REAKCIJA GENOTIPOVA KUKURUZA NA GNOJIDBU NA HIDROMORFNOM TLU POSAVINE
SA@ETAK Uzgoj sjemenskog kukuruza profitabilniji je od uzgoja merkantilnoga kukuruza, ali i više riskantan, osobito na tlima slabije plodnosti. Razlog tome je u èinjenici da su roditelji hibrida kukuruza manje tolerantni od svoga potomstva prema stresu izazvanog okolišem, ukljuèujuæi i probleme s ishranom. Zato smo postavili poljski pokus gnojidbe fosforom (P) i kalijem (K) i genotipovima kukuruza (roditelji sjemenskog kukuruza) na tlu umjereno opskrbljenom s P i K. Primjenom 382 kg P i 726 kg K ha-1, prinos kukuruza je poveæan od 1,93 t ha-1 do 2,86 t ha-1 (3-god. prosjeci). Visoke su korelacije ustanovljene izmeðu prinosa zrna genotipova kukuruza i koncentracija P i K u listu ispod klipa u fazi svilanja (r = 0,82** za P and r = 0,90** za K). Na osnovu takvih rezultat, mogli bismo predlo`iti jaèe naglašenu gnojidbu fosforom i kalijem od uobièajene za sjemenski kukuruz na tlima sliènih kemijskih svojstava. Kljuène rijeèi: gnojidba, kukuruz, stanje hraniva, fosfor, kalij, prinos (Received on 25 February 2003; accepted on 7 April 2003 – Primljeno 25. veljaèe 2003.; prihvaæeno 7. travnja 2003.)

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9 (2003)

ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 631.51.023+632.954:632.51:633.16

INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE AND LOW HERBICIDE DOSES ON WEED POPULATIONS AND SPRING BARLEY YIELD
Mira Kne`evi} (1), Marija \urki} (1), I. Kne`evi} (1), K. Hajba (2) Original scientific paper Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak
SUMMARY The influence of different tillage variants and low herbicide doses of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture (Dicuran forte 80 WP) on weed populations and crop yield were studied in spring barley on lessive pseudogley soil in North-Eastern Croatia at the ^a~inci locality in 1999. Tillage had no significant influence on annual broad-leaved weed biomass production, which was 22 kg ha-1, on the average. Chisel ploughing and disk harrowing significantly increased perennial weed biomass by 21 and 44 times, respectively compared to mouldboard ploughing. The average efficacy of total weed biomass control was 95, 89 and 81% at full, one-half and one-quarter of the recommended herbicide dose, respectively and did not differ very much between tillage treatments. Both reduced herbicide doses ensured very good biomass control of the most abundant weed populations such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Ch. polyspermum L. and Polygonum lapathifolium L. No significant tillage and herbicide dose effects were recorded in barley yields, which ranked from 4.93 t ha-1 in chisel ploughing to 4.48 t ha-1 in disk harrowing. These results suggested a possibility of mouldboard ploughing substitution with reduced tillage practices on lessive pseudogley soil and herbicide dose reduction of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture to 50% or more in spring barley. Key words: Spring barley, soil tillage, weed populations, weed dry biomass, crop yield

INTRODUCTION
Rational tillage systems and usage of low rates of environmentally safe herbicides are of the most importance in the development of integrated weed management systems (Swanton & Weise, 1991). Reducing the tillage practices for cereal crops under different environmental conditions is a general trend ( cf. Cannell, 1985; Butorac et al., 1986; Ko{uti} et al., 1998). The effects of tillage on weed population and crop performance were reported for spring barley on a clay and loam soil by Legere et al., 1990. The response of the weed flora in spring barley on three soil types (sandy loam, clay loam and silt loam) was described by Pollard and Cussans (1976) and discussed by Cussans (1976). The results of low herbicide doses application in spring cereals under Danish, Finnish, and Scottish conditions showed that a reduction of herbicide dose is feasible and successful with considerable economic and environmental influence (Kudsk, 1989; Salonen, 1992; Fisher et al., 1993).

In total arable land of cereals in Croatia, barley covers about 45.000 ha or 7%, and grain production is 125.000 t per year (Statisti~ki ljetopis, 2000). In most barley fields, chemical weed control is obtained by triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture (Dicuran forte 80 WP) which is registered for broad-leaved weeds and some grasses at the rate of 15 g a. i. ha-1 at the pre-emergence or 11 g a. i. ha-1 at the post-emergence application (Maceljski et al., 2002). This paper reports the influence of different tillage practices and herbicide doses of triasulfuron & chlortoluron herbicide mixture lower than recommended, as well as their interaction on weed population and spring barley yield on a lessive pseudogley soil in northeastern Croatia.
(1) Ph.D Mira Kne`eviæ, Full Professor, Ph.D Marija Ðurkiæ, Assistant Professor and Ph.D Ivan Kne`eviæ, Full Professor – Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Agriculture, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, (2) Kazimir Hajba, B.Sc. – P.P. Orahovica d.d., R.J. Èaèinci, Croatia

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26 MATERIAL AND METHODS

M. Kne`eviæ et al.: INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE AND LOW HERBICIDE DOSES ON WEED ...

The stationary field trials started in the autumn of 1996 on lessive pseudogley soil at the ^a~inci locality in north-eastern Croatia with a winter wheat - maize rotation. The experimental design was a split-plot with tillage as the main factor (T) and weed control as the sub-factor (W). Weed control plots (3.5 x 9 m) were replicated four times within each tillage plot. Soil tillage had been performed continuously during 1996-1999 in five treatments: MP - continuous mouldboard ploughing to 30-35 depth, disk harrowing, standard sowing; MPDH - mouldboard ploughing every second year alternating with disk harrowing; DH-MP - disk harrowing every second year alternating with mouldboard ploughing; CPloosening with a chisel plough to 15-20 cm depth, disk harrowing ; DH - continuous disk harrowing to 8-10 cm depth. Spring barley (cv. Jaran) was sown on March 13, 1999 after maize (instead of winter wheat, that could not be sown in the third year due to the wet Autumn of 1998). Fertilisation was based on 120 kg ha-1 of N, 150 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2O. The top dressing with 27 kg N ha-1 was accomplished in April at the beginning of the forking stage of crop. Chemical weed control was subjected to herbicide treatments with triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture with three ascending dose rates up to the highest recommended dose, which corresponded to 11.3 g & 1185 g a. i. ha-1 or 1.5 kg ha-1 of commercial herbicide of Dicuran forte 80 WP . Sub-plot treatments were: W0 = untreated control: W1 = one-quarter dose; W2 = onehalf dose; W3 = full recommended dose. The postemergence application of herbicide mixture was made

when spring barley was at the tillering stage, corresponded to Zadoks scale 25-29. The time interval between sowing and herbicide spraying was 25 days. Herbicide was applied by knapsack sprayer “Solo” in 300 l ha-1 of water volume at a pressure of 300 kPa. Weed samples were collected 54 days after the herbicide application by counting plant numbers and recording the air dry biomass of each weed species in a 0.25 m2 circle replicated four times per each sub-plot, i. e. 16 replications totally per each weed control treatment. The phytotoxic effect of herbicides on crop plants was evaluated using the 1-9 scale. Spring barley was harvested on June 17, 1999. The crop yield was adjusted to 14% of the moisture content. The analysis of variance was used for testing the univariate differences between independent groups of observations. Dependent variables were: weed dry weight of botanical groups (annual broad-leaved weeds, perennial weeds, and total weeds), crop density and crop yield. Tillage and weed control treatments, as well as their interaction were groups in separate variance analyses. Particular group-to group differences were tested by the Fisher’s test (Ott, 1993) using the probability level of P=0.05. Linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate univariate correlations between weed dry weight, crop density and crop yield. Correlated values were sub-plot averages of repetitions of the respective variable. Correlation analyses were performed for total sample and for the each tillage treatment and each weed control treatments separately. Weather conditions during the experiment are presented in the Table 1.

Table 1. Weather conditions during spring barley growing season in 1999 and the 10-year average (1991-2000) for the ^a~inci locality

Tablica 1. Vremenske prilike u vegetacijskom periodu jarog je~ma u 1999. godini i u 10-godi{njem razdoblju (1999.-2000.) za lokalitet ^a~inci

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION A total of 20 weed species were recorded in barley weed community, of which 7 were species in mouldboard ploughing (MP), 11 species were in both alternating tillage treatments with mouldboard ploughing and disk harrowing (MP-DH, DH-MP), 9 species in chisel ploughing (CP) and 17 species in disk harrowing (DH). Annual broad-leaved species dominated the weed flora with 12 species, compared to 8 perennials. Species composition and their dry weight in different tillage treatments are shown in Table 2. The proportion of annual broad-leaved weeds in total weed dry weight was the highest in MP (95%), medium and similar in MP-DH and DH-MP (76 and 80%, respectively), still lower in CP (60%) and the lowest in DH (49%). On the contrary, perennial weeds significantly increased their biomass proportion in DH-MP , CP and DH by 10, 41 and 54 times, respectively compared to MP . Several reports suggested differences in the weed community under deep mouldboard ploughing and shallow

tillage practices. The reduced tillage generally favoured perennial species over annual broad-leaved species (Froud-Williams, 1988; Archad et al., 1995). However, in some studies, tillage had no influence on selectivity of the weed flora (Swanton et al., 1993). Chenopodium album, the characteristic species in mouldboard ploughing (Froud-Williams et al., 1988) in our trial had a higher biomass production in DH than in MP with the biomass reaching 22 kg and 4 kg ha-1, respectively. Biomass responses of annual species of Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Polygonum lapathifolium to tillage intensity were inconsistent. On the other hand, Anagallis arvensis, Chenopodium polyspermum, Erigeron annuus and Matricaria inodora showed the tendency to increase plant densities and dry weight in CP , DH-MP and DH. Perennial weed species such as Plantago major, Equisetum arvense and Convolvulus arvensis clearly increased their dry weight in disk harrowing, whereas Sonchus arvensis species was associated only with CP . It is known that soil compaction increases the abundance of some perennial

Table 2. Weed species composition and weed dry weight on untreated plots in spring barley after 3 years of the continuous tillage practices (1999, June) Tablica 2. Floristi~ki sastav i suha masa korova u netretiranom jarom je~mu nakon tri godine kontinuirane obrade tla (lipanj, 1999.)

MP = mouldboard ploughing; MP-DH and DH-MP = tillage treatments in alternation every second year; CP = chisel ploughing; DH = disk harrowing; + = weed dry weight < 0.01 g m-2 MP = obrada leme{nim plugom; MP-DH i DH-MP = obrada u alternaciji svake druge godine; CP = obrada chisel plugom; DH = tanjuranje; + = suha masa korova < 0,01 g m-2

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weeds such as E. arvense (Bachthaler, 1985), but in our study it was a less competitive weed species. After three years of continuous tillage trials, the results indicated that tillage effect caused some changes in weed abundance and selection of weed species, but the time interval was still too short for the record of directional shifts and the selective tillage effects on weed composition in spring barley. The analysis of variance shows significant tillage effect only in DH with the highest total weed biomass of 57 kg ha-1, corresponding to an increase of 149%, compared to MP . The herbicide efficacy, measured as a relative reduction in weed dry weight compared to untreated plots within each tillage, did not differ significantly bet-

The analyses of variance detected a significant tillage x herbicide dose (T x W) interaction in DH tillage with one-quarter herbicide dose by 53 % of control efficacy. This result is due to an increase of perennial weed biomass on these tilled plots. Correlations between total weed biomass and barley yield were negative and poor in DH tillage (r2 = -0.1978) and with one-quarter herbicide dose (r2 = -0.0964). This suggested that weeds did not have any influence on barley yields. The groups are: tillage (T), weed control (W) and interaction of tillage and weed control (T x W). N is number of observations in the group, F is proportion of between- group and within group variance. The means, followed by the same letter within a column, are not significantly different at the 5% level.

Table 3. Weed density (plants m-2) of selected annual broad-leaved species on untreated plots and efficacy of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture at reduced herbicide dose in spring barley (averaged over all tillage treatments according to an assessment in June 1999) Tablica 3. Broj biljaka m-2 nekih jednogodi{njih {irokolisnih korovnih vrsta u netretiranom je~mu i u~inkovitost triasulfuron & klortoluron herbicida u smanjenim dozama (prosjek od svih obrada prema ocjeni zakorovljenosti u lipnju, 1999. godine)

ween tillage treatments, with the exception of DH tillage. The average dry weight of total weeds was 108 kg in untreated and 13 kg in treated plots, respectively (Table 4). Thus, the average control efficacy with this herbicide mixture was 88%. The best average herbicide efficacy occurred with the full recommended herbicide dose, which corresponded to 95% control. One-half and one-quarter of the recommended dose provided 89 and 81% of the total biomass control, respectively, but still provided very good biomass control of dominant annual broad-leaved weeds (94-95%). The susceptibility of the annual broad-leaved weeds to low herbicide doses varied among species (Table 3). The best control efficacy with one-quarter and one-half herbicide doses were achieved against Ambrosia artemisiifolia (94-96%), Polygonum. lapathifolium (93-95%), Chenopodium polyspermum (8893%), whereas herbicide efficacy against Matricaria inodora (79-84%) was improved by increasing the dose. In contrast, all three herbicide doses were unsuccessful in perennial weed control, as was anticipated considering the weed control spectrum of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture. No crop plant injury by this herbicide mixture has been observed.

Barley yields were influenced by crop density, expressed in ears number m-2. The ear numbers varied from 600 ears m-2 in CP to 573 ears m-2 in DH, with significant differences (Table 4). Correlations between crop density and crop yield have been strong, positive and significant in untreated crop (r2 = 0.9235*) and in treated crop with one-quarter herbicide dose (r2 = 0.8948*). Weak crop competition in DH due to lower crop density probably influence on the inadequate efficiency of the lowest herbicide dose as was reported by Courtney (1991), Richards and Davies (1991) and Pallutt (1999). This was caused by unfavourable weather conditions in 1999. Namely, the barley growing season was extremely wet with 138 mm more precipitation in June, than the average of 89 mm in 1991-2000 (Table 1). In spite of that, tillage had no significant effect on barley yields, which ranked from 4.93 t to 4.72 t and 4.48 t ha-1 in CP , MP and DH, respectively (Table 4). This result concurs with some earlier finding by other authors (Brown and North, 1984; Butorac et al., 1986; Ko{uti} et al., 1998) that suggested that reduction of tillage was not always associated with significant crop yield reduction. The same conclusion can be drawn regarding the influence of herbicide doses on barley

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Table 4. Influence of tillage, the herbicide doses and tillage x weed control interaction on weed biomass, crop density and grain yield of spring barley in 1999 Tablica 4. Utjecaj obrade tla, herbicidnih doza i njihova interakcija na suhu masu korova, sklop i prinos jarog je~ma u 1999. godini

yields, which did not differ either between the treatments with the recommended and reduced doses or even between untreated controls. In conclusion, the results suggested a possibility of mouldboard ploughing substitution with reduced tillage practices on lessive pseudogley soil for spring barley. The reduced herbicide doses of triasulfuron & chlortoluron mixture to 50% or more provided adequate control of annual broad-leaved weeds in terms of barley yield, although the efficacy was lower than that obtained by the recommended doses. The efficacy of one quarter herbicide dose was not successful in controlling of perennial weed biomass after disk harrowing tillage but it had no influence on barley yields.

REFERENCES 1. Arshad, M.A., Gill, K. S., Coy, G. R. (1995): Barley,
2. canola, and weed growth with decreasing tillage in a cold, semiarid climate. Agron. J. 87, 49-55. Bachthaler, G. (1985): Changes in the weed population of Bavaria. Comparison of the results of regional evaluations for survey periods 1948 -1955 and 1979-1980. Bayer. Landwirtsch. Jahrb. 62, 60-75. Brown, N.J., North, P .F. (1984): Tillage under controlled conditions its effect on emergence and yield of spring barley. J. Agric. Sci. 102, 181-189. Butorac, A., @ugec, I., Ba{i}, F. (1986.): Stanje i perspektive reducirane obrade tla u svijetu i u nas. Poljoprivredne aktualnosti 25, 159.-262. Cannell, R.Q. (1985): Reduced tillage in northwest

3.

4.

5.

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Europe: a review. Soil Tillage Res, 5, 129-177. Courtney, A.D. (1991): The role of competition in developing an appropriate rate strategy for weed control in spring barley. Proc. Brighton Crop Protec. Conf. –Weeds, 1217-1224. 7. Cussans, G.W. (1976): The influence of changing husbandry on weeds and weed control in arable crops. Proc. Brighton Crop Protec. Conf.- Weeds, 1001-1008. 8. Fischer, N.M., Davies, D.H.K., Whytock, G.P . (1993): Reliability of broad-leaved weed control in cereals using low doses of herbicide. Proc. Brighton Crop Protec. Conf.- Weeds, 1223-1228. 9. Froud-Williams, R.J., (1988): Changes in weed flora with different tillage and agronomic management systems. In (eds. Altieri M.A. & Liebman, M.) Weed Management in Agroecosystems: Ecological Approaches, pp. 213-236. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 10. Ko{uti}, S., Filipovi}, D., Gospodari}, Z. (1998): Influence of different soil tillage systems on yield, energy and lobour requirement in spring barley production. Poljoprivreda 4, 67-75. 11. Kudsk, P . (1989): Experiences with reduced herbicide doses in Denmark and development of the concept of factor adjusted doses. Proc. Brighton Crop Protec. Conf.- Weeds, 545-554. 12. Légère A., Samson, N., Lemieux, C., Rioux, R. (1990): Effects of weed management and reduced tillage on weed populations and barley yields. Proc.7th EWRS Symp. Integrated Weed Management in Cereals, 111118. 6.

13. Maceljski, M., Hrlec, G., Ostoji}, Z., Cvjetkovi}, B. (2002.): Pregled sredstava za za{titu bilja u Hrvatskoj. Glasilo biljne za{tite 2-3, 61.-177. 14. Ott, R.L. (1993): An introduction to statistical methods and data analysis. Duxbury Press, Belmont, 1051 p. 15. Pallutt, B. (1999): Possibilities and limits of using seed rate and nitrogen fertilisation to decrease weed infestation and herbicide input in cereals. Proc. 11th EWRS Symp., 114. 16. Pollard, F., Cussans, G.W. (1976): The influence of tillage on the weed flora of four sites sown to successive crops of spring barley. Proc. Brighton Crop Protec. Conf.-Weeds, 1019-1028. 17. Richards, M.C., Davies, D.H.K. (1991): Potential for reducing herbicide inputs/rates with more competitive cereal cultivars. Proc. Brighton Crop Prot. Conf. -Weeds, 1233-1240. 18. Salonen, J. (1992): Efficacy of reduced herbicide doses in spring cereals of different competitive ability. Weed Res. 32, 483-491. 19. Swanton, C.J., Weise, S.F. (1991): Integrated weed management: The rationale and approach. Weed Tech. 5, 567-663. 20. Swanton, C.J., Clements, D.R., Derksen, D.A. (1993): Weed succession under conservation tillage: a hierarchical framework for research and management. Weed Tech. 7, 286-297. 21. ............ Statisti~ki ljetopis (2000.): Poljoprivreda, lov i {umarstvo R. Hrvatske, 540 p.

UTJECAJ OBRADE TLA I NISKIH HERBICIDNIH DOZA NA KOROVNU POPULACIJU I PRINOS JAROG JE^MA
SA@ETAK Utjecaj nekih varijanta reduciranih obrada tla i smanjenih doza herbicidnog pripravka Dicurana forte 80 WP na korovnu populaciju i prinos jarog je~ma ispitivan je na lesiviranom pseudogleju na lokalitetu ^a~inci u 1999. godini. Najbrojnije korovne vrste bile su iz skupine jednogodi{njih dvosupnica: Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Chenopodium album L., Chenopodium polyspermum L. i Polygonum lapathifolium L. Obrada tla nije zna~ajno utjecala na produkciju suhe mase te korovne skupine, ~ija je prosje~na masa iznosila 22 kg ha-1. Reducirane obrade tla (tanjuranje svake druge godine u izmjeni s oranjem, oranje s chisel plugom i kontinuirano tanjuranje) pove}ale su masu vi{egodi{njih korova za 10 do 54 puta prema konvencionalnoj obradi. Herbicidni pripravak u dozama od 100%, 50% i 25% preporu~ene doze postigao je dobru prosje~nu u~inkovitost od 95, 89 i 81%. Obrada tla i smanjenje herbicidnih doza nisu zna~ajno utjecali na prinose usjeva, koji su varirali u prosjeku od 4,93 t ha-1 u obradi s chisel plugom do 4,48 t ha-1 u obradi kontinuiranim tanjuranjem, bez statisti~kih razlika. Rezultati su pokazali mogu}nost zamjene konvencionalne obrade s reduciranim oblicima obrada na pseudogleju uz uporabu smanjenih doza herbicidnog pripravka Dicurana forte 80 WP za 50% i vi{e u proizvodnji jarog je~ma. Klju~ne rije~i: jari je~am, obrada tla, korovne populacije, suha masa korova, prinos je~ma (Received on 19 March 2003; accepted on 30 April 2003 - Primljeno 19. o`ujka 2003.; prihva}eno 30. travnja 2003.)

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PRODUKTIVNOST MONOGERMNIH LINIJA ŠEÆERNE REPE U ZAVISNOSTI OD OSJETLJIVOSTI NA CERKOSPORU (Cercospora beticola Sacc.)
A. Kristek (1), Zvjezdana Magud (2), Manda Antunoviæ (1), Suzana Kristek (1) Izvorni znanstveni èlanak Original scientific paper
SA@ETAK Proizvodne vrijednosti monogermnih CMS linija šeæerne repe i njihovu otpornost na C. beticolu istra`ivali smo u Osijeku tijekom dvije godine (2001., 2002.) u uvjetima prirodne infekcije i potpune zaštite fungicidima. Vrednovanje je izvršeno preko pokazatelja prinosa i kvalitete korijena te vizualnom ocjenom ošteæenja listova. U istra`ivanju je bilo 28 CMS genetski divergentnih linija i 2 standarda. Rezultati istra`ivanja ukazuju na postignuti napredak u oplemenjivanju i obeæavajuæu vrijednost monogermnih CMS linija, koje je moguæe koristiti za dobivanje novih hibrida i daljnje genetsko unapreðenje. Tri ispitivane linije postigle su visok prinos korijena na razini standarda, a èak deset linija imalo je istu ili veæu digestiju od boljeg standarda. Utvrðeno je da je upotrebom fungicida u odnosu na nezaštiæene varijante prosjeèno poveæan prinos korijena za 7,09 t/ha (16%), digestija za 0,81% (rel. 5%) i prinos šeæera za 1,38 t/ha (22,8%). Mjere zaštite fungicidima više su utjecale na proizvodni rezultat kod osjetljivih linija na C. beticolu, a manje kod otpornijih linija. Kljuène rijeèi: šeæerna repa, prinos, kvaliteta korijena, Cercospora beticola

UVOD
Kontinuirana testiranja i ocjene stvorenih selekcijskih materijala šeæerne repe nu`an su put kojim nastojimo dostiæi oplemenjivaèke ciljeve. Za uspješnost selekcijskog postupka potrebno je utvrditi genetske parametre koji daju uvid u prirodu genetske varijabilnosti razlièitih selekcijskih materijala. Osim prinosa korijena, sadr`aja šeæera, kalija, natrija, alfa amino dušika, znaèajan interes oplemenjivaèa šeæerne repe predstavlja otpornost prema pjegavosti lista koju izaziva Cercospora beticola Saac. Ta bolest zastupljena je u svim proizvodnim podruèjima naše zemlje i redovito se javlja svake godine. Bolest ošteæuje listove, smanjuje lisnu površinu i asimilaciju CO2 (Nagel i Leonard, 1940.), zbog èega opada prinos korijena i do 60%, sadr`aj šeæera mo`e biti ni`i 3-7%, a poveæava se udio štetnih elemenata (K, Na, AmN) u korijenu repe (Mariæ, 1969., 1974.; Matiæ i Ðurðeviæ, 1970.; Smith i Ruppel, 1973.; Yoshimura et al. 1992.; Smith i Campbell, 1996.; Lioviæ i sur., 1998.). Jaka epidemija mo`e izazvati gubitak prinosa šeæera i preko 42% (Smith i Ruppel, 1971.). Osim toga, korijen zara`enih biljaka te`e se èuva od korijena zdravih biljaka (Smith i Ruppel, 1971.).

Smanjenje gubitaka izazvanih pjegavošæu lišæa šeæerne repe mo`e se postiæi korištenjem otpornih sorata i primjenom fungicida. Kao izvori otpornosti prema tom patogenu uglavnom se koriste sorte i linije stvorene u SAD i Italiji, koje su nastale kri`anjem šeæerne repe Beta vulgaris var. altisima s divljom repom Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima. Te sorte i linije posjeduju razlièiti stupanj otpornosti, a izvor imuniteta pronaðen je u repama iz sekcije Patellares. Meðutim, kri`anje tih biljaka s biljkama Beta vulgaris vrlo je teško, a i povezano s unošenjem velikog broja negativnih osobina, koje se tijekom selekcije teško eliminiraju. Prouèavajuæi genetsku osnovu otpornosti na C. beticolu, razni istra`ivaèi dobili su vrlo nejednake podatke. Tako Smith i Gaskill (1970.) navode da otpornost prema C. beticoli kontrolira veæi broj gena (4-5), a Lewelen i Whithney (1976.) jedan gen kod rase C2

(1) Dr.sc. Andrija Kristek, red. prof., dr.sc. Manda Antunoviæ, izv.prof., dr.sc. Suzana Kristek - Sveuèilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, (2) Zvjezdana Magud, dipl.in`. - Institut za šeæernu repu d.d., M. Divalta 320, 31000 Osijek

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Cercospora beticola, uz napomenu da taj gen nije efikasan prema rasi C1. Kako genetska osnova, tako se i rezultati o naèinu nasljeðivanja otpornosti prema pjegavosti lišæa šeæerne repe znaèajno razlikuju kod pojedinih istra`ivaèa. Lewelen i Whithney (1976.) opisuju da se otpornost u F1 generaciji nasljeðuje dominantno, a Kohls (1950.) recesivno. Hasegawa et al. (Kovaèev, 1982.) navode da je nasljeðivanje po tipu nepotpune dominacije recesivnog roditelja, dok Smith i Gaskill (1970.) te Kovaèev (1982) naèin nasljeðivanja opisuju kao intermedijalni. U ovom radu analiziraju se vrijednosti stvorenih CMS monogermnih linija preko kvantitativnih i kvalitativnih pokazatelja (prinos korijena i šeæera, sadr`aj šeæera, K, Na, AmN), uzimajuæi u obzir otpornost na C. beticolu kao znaèajno svojstvo, va`no u proizvodnji te kulture. Na takav naèin dobit æe se va`ne informacije, koje æe poslu`iti pri izboru linija kao komponente za dobivanje F1 triploidnih hibrida.

MATERIJAL I METODE
Kako bismo utvrdili proizvodnu vrijednost i otpornost monogermnih CMS linija šeæerne repe na C. beticolu, u 2001. i 2002. godini postavili smo poljske pokuse u Osijeku. U pokusima se nalazilo 28 CMS monogermnih genetski divergentnih novostvorenih linija šeæerne repe Instituta za šeæernu repu i 2 hibrida, Os Sana i Kristal, kao standard. Istra`ivane linije izdvojene su kao bolji selekcijski materijal u preliminarnim istra`ivanjima na najva`nija proizvodna svojstva (prinos korijena i šeæera, sadr`aj šeæera). Najbolje linije poslu`it æe kao majèinska komponenta za dobivanje F1 triploidnih hibrida. Istra`ivanja su vršena u uvjetima prirodne infekcije cerkosporom, bez zaštite i potpune zaštite od cerkospore fungicidima. Ocjena proizvodnih vrijednosti i otpornosti prema pjegavosti lišæa šeæerne repe izvršena je preko pokazatelja prinosa i kvalitete korijena te vizualnom

ocjenom ošteæenja listova, koristeæi skalu od 0 (nema bolesti) do 10 (potpuno sušenje lišæa). Izabrani genotipovi posijani su u dva odvojena poljska pokusa (tretirano i netretirano), prema shemi sluèajnog bloknog rasporeda u 6 ponavljanja, s velièinom osnovne parcele od 10 m2 u vaðenju. Tretiranje fungicidima obavljeno je u obje godine sredinom srpnja prvi puta (Brestanid 0,6 l/ha + Duet 0,7 l/ha), krajem srpnja/poèetkom kolovoza drugi puta (Brestanid 0,6 l/ha + Rias 300 EC 0,5 l/ha) i u drugoj dekadi kolovoza treæi puta (Alto combi 0,4 l/ha). Završna vizualna ocjena cerkospore izvršena je u drugoj dekadi rujna, a vaðenje pokusa u zadnjoj dekadi listopada. Vremenske prilike u godinama izvoðenja pokusa razlikovale su se i utjecale su na tok porasta šeæerne repe i na razvoj C. beticole. Godinu 2001. u vegetaciji karakteriziraju prosjeène mjeseène temperature zraka (17,70 C) za ovo podruèje i poveæana kolièina oborina u vegetaciji. Meðutim, raspored oborina bio je nepovoljan, zbog izmjene suhih i vla`nih razdoblja. Tako je u kolovozu palo 7,1 mm kiše, a u lipnju èak 238,9 mm. Takve vremenske prilike pru`ale su uvjete za postizanje zadovoljavajuæe kvalitete, ali ne i prinosa korijena, dok optimalni uvjeti za razvoj C. beticole u drugom dijelu vegetacije nisu bili ispunjeni. Za 2002. godinu mo`e se ukratko reæi da je bila topla i vla`na, povoljna za dobar prinos korijena, ali i za razvoj C. beticole. Istovremeno, takvi uvjeti bili su nepovoljni za nakupljanje šeæera u korijenu repe - digestiju. U ovoj godini temperatura zraka je tijekom vegetacije bila prosjeèno za 1 0 C viša od dugogodišnjeg prosjeka, a mjeseèna kolièina oborina u vegetaciji iznosila je 50-70 mm, s izuzetkom svibnja, u kojem je palo 155,6 mm kiše.

REZULTATI I RASPRAVA
Rezultati provedenih poljskih pokusa, laboratorijskih analiza korijena šeæerne repe i statistièke obrade

Tablica 1. Prinos i kvaliteta korijena šeæerne repe u uvjetima potpune zaštite od cerkospore i prirodne infekcije Table 1. Yield and quality of sugar beet root in the conditions of full Cercospora protection and natural infection

** Signifikantno na razini P<1% - Significant at level P<1%

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podataka izneseni su u Tablici 1. Iz prikazanih rezultata zapa`amo signifikantne vrlo znaèajne razlike u primjeni zaštite od C. beticole u svim ispitivanim svojstvima korijena šeæerne repe. Veæi prinosi korijena (51,43 t/ha), veæa digestija (16,98%) i veæi prinosa šeæera (7,44 t/ha) ostvareni su pri potpunoj zaštiti šeæerne repe od C. beticole. Razlika izmeðu netretiranih i tretiranih varijanti iznosi u prinosu korijena 7,09 t/ha (16%), u sadr`aju šeæera 0,81% (rel. 5%) te u prinosu šeæera 1,38 t/ha (22,8%). U uvjetima prirodne infekcije cerkosporom bez zaštite, prosjeèna ocjena napada bolesti bila je 7,4, što je visoko signifikantno više u odnosu na uvjete potpune zaštite fungicidima (1,9). Utvrðene su statistièki vrlo znaèajne razlike u rezultatima i izmeðu godina istra`ivanja. Znaèajno veæi prinos korijena (57,82 t/ha) i šeæera (7,79 t/ha) na razini P-0,01 dobiven je u 2002. godini, a veæa digestija (17,37%) i iskorištenje šeæera na repu (14,58%) u 2001. godini.

Prosjeèna ocjena napada lišæa šeæerne repe cerkosporom u prvoj godini iznosila je 3,7, a u drugoj 5,6. Prinos korijena. Osim primjene fungicida i godine, prinos korijena zavisio je od istra`ivanih genotipova (Tablica 1. i 2.). Najveæi prinos (55,85 t/ha) u varijanti bez zaštite i 63,11 t/ha uz zaštitu od C. beticole, postignut je sa standardom Os Sana. Gotovo isti prinos bez statistièki opravdanih razlika dobiven je kod linije 25 (MS 1028), linije 20 (MS 1461) i linije 21 (MS 864). Iako je zaštita od C. beticole znaèajno utjecala na prinos korijena (prosjeèno 16%), rang vrijednosti linija po prinosu korijena nije se znaèajnije mijenjao u varijantama sa i bez zaštite. Tako su najbolje tri linije dale najveæi prinos u varijantama bez zaštite i sa zaštitom šeæerne repe od C. beticole. Treba ipak istaknuti razlièito poveæanje prinosa korijena korištenjem fungicida, ovisno o osjetljivosti genotipova. Tako je najveæi porast prinosa kod primjene fungicida utvrðen kod linija osjetljivijih na C. beticolu.

Tablica 2. Prinos i kvaliteta korijena šeæerne repe (prosjek 2001. i 2002.) u uvjetima prirodne infekcije cerkosporom bez zaštite Table 2. Yield and quality of sugar beet root (average 2001. and 2002.) in the conditions of Cercospora natural infection without protection

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Utvrðeno je da je kod osjetljive linije 1 poveæanje prinosa iznosilo 20% (s 39,02 t/ha bez zaštite na 46,82 t/ha uz zaštitu), odnosno 19% kod linije 16 te 18% kod linije 27. Kod najotpornijih linija na C. beticolu poveæanje prinosa iznosilo je 12% (od 38,65 t/ha na 43,29 t/ha) kod linije 4, odnosno 13% kod linija 3, 8 i 25. Sadr`aj šeæera. Vrlo znaèajna osobina šeæerne repe, pored prinosa korijena, je sadr`aj šeæera, buduæi da od ta dva elemenata najviše zavisi prinos šeæera. Pored istaknute zavisnosti digestije od tretmana fungicidima i godine, iz podataka Tablice 2. i 3. uoèavamo zavisnost i od genotipa. Najveæa digestija iznosila je 16,66% bez zaštite i 17,65% uz zaštitu od C. beticole. Najmanja digestija bila je kod varijanata bez zaštite – 15,53%, a kod primjene fungicida 16,11%. Deset linija (18, 1, 17, 22, 20, 21, 26, 27, 3, 2) imalo je veæu digestiju od boljeg standarda sorte Kristal. Meðutim, treba istaknuti da su u uvjetima bez zaštite razlike izmeðu veæine genotipova statistièki neopravdane. Samo dvije linije (25 i 8) te stan-

dard 29 imali su statistièki znaèajno ni`u digestiju. Kod varijante zaštite od cerkospore, razlike izmeðu genotipova su veæe, pa je èetrnaest linija imalo znaèajno ni`u digestiju, na razini P-0,01. Tretiranje fungicidima doprinijelo je poveæanju digestije, osobito kod genotipova osjetljivih na C. beticolu. Tako razlike izmeðu tretiranih i netretiranih varijanti iznose od 0,54% (linija 8 – s 15,57 na 16,11% i linija 13 – s 15,93 na 16,49%) kod otpornih linija na C. beticolu, do 1,08 (linija 1 – s 16,65 na 17,37%) kod osjetljivih linija. Prosjeèna razlika u sadr`aju šeæera izmeðu tretiranih i netretiranih varijanti iznosi 0,81%. Prinos šeæera. Uzimajuæi u obzir èinjenicu da su istra`ivanja vršena s monogermnim linijama šeæerne repe, mo`e se istaknuti da je ostvaren visok prosjeèni prinos šeæera od 6,74 t/ha. Na visinu prinosa šeæera visoko signifikantan utjecaj imao je i genotip. Najveæi prinos u varijantama sa zaštitom od C. beticole (8,87 t/ha) ostvarila je linija 20 (MS 1461). Nešto ni`i prinos,

Tablica 3. Prinos i kvaliteta korijena šeæerne repe (prosjek 2001. i 2002.) u uvjetima potpune zaštite fungicidima Table 3. Yield and quality of sugar beet root (average 2001. and 2002.) in the conditions of full protection by fungicides

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ali bez statistièki opravdanih razlika za razinu P-0,01 ostvarilo je još 10 linija (21, 25, 18, 13, 7, 24, 26, 12, 17, 22) i dva standarda. Ostale linije postigle su statistièki opravdano ni`i prinos šeæera, a najni`i prinos je iznosio 6,18 t/ha i postignut je kod linije 3 (MS 1281). U varijantama s prirodnom infekcijom bez zaštite od C. beticole, najveæi prinos šeæera (7,2 t/ha) dao je standard Os Sana, a zatim linija 20. Ni`i prinos, ali bez statistièki znaèajnih razlika na razini P-0,01 postignut je još s 14 linija i drugim standardom (Kristal). Najni`i prinos ostvaren je opet kod linije 3 i iznosio je 5,17 t/ha. Tretiranje fungicidima dalo je veæi uèinak u vidu poveæanja prinosa šeæera kod genotipova osjetljivih na C. beticolu. Najveæa utvrðena razlika iznosila je 27,3% kod linije 20 (MS 1461). Najmanji uèinak zaštite od C. beticole, u visini od 18,7% dobiven je kod linije 8, koja je pokazivala veæu otpornost na C. beticolu. Pjegavost lišæa šeæerne repe. Ocjena otpornosti genotipova prema uzroèniku pjegavosti lista šeæerne repe (Cercospora beticola Sacc.) izvršena je vizualno po skali 0 (nema ošteæenja) do 10 (potpuno sušenje lišæa). U uvjetima prirodne infekcije, bez zaštite, jaèina zaraze na listovima ocijenjena je ocjenom 7,4, a uz potpunu zaštitu fungicidima 1,9. Meðu istra`ivanim linijama u uvjetima bez zaštite najosjetljivije linije ocijenjene su ocjenom 9,8 (linija 1); 9,6 (linija 27); 9,5 (linija 19) i 9,3 (linija 18). Te linije prema ispitivanim kvalitativnim osobinama pripadaju grupi s veæim sadr`ajem šeæera, a s obzirom na prinos korijena, razlièito su rangirane. Linija 18 pripada najrodnijoj grupi, a linija 1 grupi s najni`im prinosom korijena. U varijanti bez zaštite fungicidima, najotpornija na C. beticolu, s ocjenom 4,2, bila je linija 8 i s 4,5 linija 25. Ti genotipovi po sadr`aju šeæera pripadaju lošijoj, a po prinosu korijena boljoj – rodnijoj grupi. U uvjetima potpune zaštite fungicidima, jaèina zaraze lišæa ocijenjena najveæom ocjenom zabilje`ena je kod linija 1 (4,2) i 20 (4,0), dok je najzdravije lišæe, s vrlo malo ošteæenja, utvrðeno kod linije 8 (0,1) i 25 (0,2). Kod standarda 29 (Os Sana) otpornost na C. beticolu bila je na razini prosjeka pokusa (1,8), a kod standarda 30 (Kristal) utvrðena je veæa osjetljivost (2,9).

5%), iskorištenje za 0,78% (rel. 5,7%) te prinos šeæera za 1,38 t/ha (22,8%). Zaštita fungicidima više je utjecala na prinos i kvalitativna svojstva osjetljivih, a manje na ista svojstva kod genotipova otpornih na C. beticolu. - prema vizualnoj ocjeni, prosjeèno ošteæenje listova pjegavošæu lišæa šeæerne repe u uvjetima prirodne infekcije bez zaštite iznosilo je 7,4, a uz zaštitu fungicidima 1,9 - od 28 istra`ivanih linija, izdvaja se deset s visokim sadr`ajem i iskorištenjem šeæera, tri s visokim prinosom, a po otpornosti na C. beticolu dvije. Najbolje linije bit æe ukljuèene u daljnji proces oplemenjivanja šeæerne repe. LITERATURA
1. Kohls, H.L. (1950): A genetic study of 17 F1 hybrids and their inbred patents. J. Amer. Soc. Sugar Beet Techn, 165-170 Kovaèev, L. (1982.): Nasljeðivanje prema Cercospora beticola Sacc. kod F1 triploidnih hibrida šeæerne repe. Zbornik «Matica srpska» 62, 151.-155. Lioviæ, I., Kristek, A., Magud, Z., Mertz, R. (1998.): Osjetljivost linija i hibrida šeæerne repe u uvjetima umjetne i prirodne infekcije cerkosporom (Cercospora beticola Sacc.). Sjemenarstvo, 15(5):269.-281 Lewellen R.T., Whitney, E.D. (1976): Inheritance of resistance to rase C2 of Cercospora beticola Sacc. In Sugar beet. Crop Sci., 16(4):558-561 Mariæ, A. (1969.): Pegavost lišæa šeæerne repe. «Zadru`na knjiga» Beograd. Mariæ, A. (1974.): Bolesti šeæerne repe. Forum, Novi Sad. Matiæ, I., Ðurðeviæ, M. (1970.): Djelovanje jaèine napada cerkospore na sorte s razlièitom otpornošæu prema parazitu. Savremena poljoprivreda, 18:207.-214. Nagel, C.M., Leonard, O.A. (1940): The effect of Cercospora beticola on the chemical composition and carbon assimilation of Beta vulgaris. Phytopathology, 30:659-666. Smith, G.A., Gaskill, J.O. (1970): Inheritance of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot in Sugarbeet. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 16:172-180. Smith, G.A., Ruppel, E.G. (1971): Cercospora Leaf Spot as a Predisposing Factor in Storage Rot of Sugar Beet Roots. Phytopathology, 61:1485-1487. Smith, G.A., Ruppel, E.G. (1973): Association of Cercospora Leaf Spot, Gross Sucrose, Percentage Sucrose, and Root Weight in Sugarbeet. Can. J. Plant Sci. 53:695-696. Smith, G.A., Campbell, L.G. (1996): Association between resistance to Cercospora and yield in commercial sugarbeet hybrids. Plant Breeding, 115:28-32. Yoshimura, Y., Abe, H., Ohtuschi, K. (1992): Varietal Difference in the Susceptibility to Cercospora Leaf Spots and its Effect on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beets. Proc. Japan soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 34: 112-116.

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5. 6. 7.

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9.

ZAKLJUÈAK Na temelju dobivenih rezultata istra`ivanja vrijednosti genetski divergentnih genotipova šeæerne repe (28 monogermnih linija i 2 standarda), u uvjetima prirodne infekcije cerkosporom bez zaštite i uz zaštitu fungicidima, na lokaciji Osijek, u 2001. i 2002. godini, mogu se donijeti sljedeæi zakljuèci: - prinos korijena i šeæera, sadr`aj i iskorištenje šeæera zavisili su od genotipa, uvjeta proizvodnje i zaštite od C. beticole; - statistièki znaèajno ni`i prinos i kvaliteta korijena ostvareni su u uvjetima bez zaštite od C. beticole. Primjenom fungicida poveæan je prinos korijena za 7,09 t/ha (16%), digestija za 0,81% (rel.

10.

11.

12.

13.

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THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET MONOGERM LINES DEPENDING ON CERCOSPORA (Cercospora beticola Sacc.) SUSCEPTIBILITY
SUMMARY The producing values of monogerm CMS lines of sugar beet and their tolerance on cercospora leaf spot are investigated in Osijek during two years (2001, 2002) under the following conditions: natural infection and full protection with fungicides. The parameters for evaluation were root quality and yield, just as visual review of leaf damages. Twenty eight genetically divergent CMS lines and two standards were confirmed by the examinations. The test results indicate achieved progress in breeding and monogerm CMS lines value which can be used for obtaining new hybrids and further improvements. Three investigated lines achieved high root yield on the level of standards and even ten lines had the same or higher digestion than better standard. It was found out that in the case of fungicide apply, root yield increased on the average by 7.09 t/ha (16%), sugar content by 0.81% (rel. 5%) and sugar yield by 1.38 t/ha (22.8%). Protection measures with fungicides had higher influence on production results of line being susceptible to cercospora and compared to cercospora tolerant lines. Key-words: sugar beet, yield, root quality, Cercospora beticola Sacc. (Primljeno 23. travnja 2003.; prihvaæeno 21. svibnja 2003. - Received on 23 April 2003; accepted on 21 May 2003)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 635.07:633.358

PROCJENA STABILNOSTI PRINOSA ZRNA GRA[KA (Pisum sativum L.)

T. ^upi} (1), S. Popovi} (1), Marijana Tucak (1), M. Stjepanovi} (2), Sonja Grlju{i} (1) Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak Original scientific paper
SA@ETAK Cilj rada bio je utvrditi prinos i procijeniti stabilnost prinosa zrna gra{ka novostvorene linije JSG-1 (sorta u priznavanju) te je usporediti sa sortama stranog porijekla u agroekolo{kom podru~ju Isto~ne Hrvatske. Pokus je bio postavljen na pokusnom polju Poljoprivrednog instituta Osijek po slu~ajnom blok rasporedu u ~etiri repeticije u razdoblju od pet godina (1998. – 2002.). U pokusu je kori{teno {est (pet stranih i jedna doma}a) sorti : Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1(u priznavanju), Törsz i Baccara. Parametri stabilnosti izra~unati su primjenom metode grupiranja po Francisu i Kannenbergu (1978.) i modelom individualnih procjena stabilnosti po Eberhart i Russel (1966.) metodi. Po Francis i Kannenberg metodi sorte Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 i Baccara bile su u grupi I, koja se odlikuje visokim prinosom i malim koeficijentom variranja svojstva te predstavljaju sorte stabilnog prinosa. Prema koeficijentu regresije i varijanci odstupanja od regresije najstabilnija je bila sorta JSG-1 (bi=1,06 i S2di=0,010), dok je najmanju stabilnost pokazala sorta Törsz (bi=0,67 i S2di=0,160). U skupinu nestabilnih sorti, adaptabilnih na visokoprinosne okoline, svrstana je Baccara (bi=1,22 i S2di=0,034 ). Klju~ne rije~i: gra{ak, prinos zrna, parametri stabilnosti

UVOD
Jari sto~ni gra{ak (Pisum sativum L.) je kultura koja se, zbog visoko vrijednih bjelan~evina u zrnu (Kolak, 1994.), ~esto koristi u hranidbi stoke (Kalivoda, 1990.), a naro~ito svinja (^erny i sur., 1994.). Po sadr`aju bjelan~evina u zrnu nalazi se izme|u soje i `itarica (Gatel i sur., 1990.). Cilj ve}ine oplemenjiva~kih programa je kreiranje sorti visokog i stabilnog prinosa u razli~itim okolinama. Vrijednost neke sorte u proizvodnji ne ovisi samo o ekspresiji genetskog potencijala za prinos, ve} i o sposobnosti zadr`avanja vrijednih svojstava u razli~itim uvjetima okoline. Rezultat interakcije genotipa (sorte) i okoline odra`ava se u adaptabilnosti i stabilnosti sorte (Borojevi}, 1992.). Sorte {iroke adaptabilnosti daju stabilne prinose u {irokom uzgojnom podru~ju, dok one uske adaptabilnosti ostvaruju visoke prinose u povoljnim okolinama, a niske prinose u nepovoljnim (Oka, 1967.). Postoji nekoliko metoda koje omogu}uju analizu prilagodljivosti genotipa okolinama (Linn i sur., 1986.), a temelje se na dva razli~ita koncepta stabilno-

sti (biolo{ki i agronomski), koje je definirao Becker (1981.). Stabilan genotip prema biolo{kom konceptu odlikuje se {to manjom varijancom u svim istra`ivanim okolinama, tj. varijanca mu je nula. Prema agronomskom konceptu, stabilan genotip odlikuje se {to manjim odstupanjem od prosje~ne reakcije okoline. U Republici Hrvatskoj ve} nekoliko godina raste interes za proizvodnjom jarog sto~nog gra{ka zbog relativno niskih tro{kova proizvodnje, kratke vegetacija i zadovoljavaju}eg prinosa zrna (Popovi} i sur., 2002.). Na sortnoj listi RH sve priznate sorte su introdukcije (Sortna lista 2002.), a u {iroj proizvodnji najzastupljenija je sorta Baccara. U 2002. godini prijavljena je proizvodnja sjemena te sorte na 95 ha (podaci Zavoda za sjemenarstvo i rasadni~arstvo RH). Klimatske prilike u isto~noj Hrvatskoj (regija uzgoja svinja) jako variraju, a

(1) Mr sc. Tihomir ^upi}, dr.sc. Svetislav Popovi}, mr.sc. Marijana Tucak i mr.sc. Sonja Grlju{i} - Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, Ju`no predgra|e 17, 31000 Osijek, (2)Prof. dr.sc. Mirko Stjepanovi} – Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Trg Sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek

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time utje~u na visinu prinosa zrna, koja se kre}e od 1,164 do 4,630 kg/ha (Popovi} i sur., 1985. i 1992., Stjepanovi} i sur., 1996.). Jedan od osnovnih ciljeva oplemenjivanja gra{ka je visok prinos, koji ovisi o genetskom potencijalu sorte. Sorte najbolje iskori{tavaju genetski potencijal u uvjetima okoline kreiranja i selekcije te se mogu ciljano kreirati za odre|eno agroekolo{ko podru~je. Stoga smo u okviru programa oplemenjivanja gra{ka u ranim fazama selekcije izdvojili i testirali najperspektivniju liniju (JSG-1).

Prinos zrna istra`enih sorti statisti~ki je obra|en analizom varijance kombiniranom po godinama istra`ivanja. Zna~ajnosti razlika prinosa izme|u sorata i godina testirane su LSD testom. Za procjenu parametara stabilnosti kori{tene su metoda grupiranja sorti po Francisu i Kannenbergu (1978.) i analiza regresije (koeficijent regresije bi i varijanca odstupanja od regresije S2di) po modelu Eberharta i Russella (1966.). Stabilne sorte po metodi grupiranja nalaze se u grupi I, dok su po modelu koeficijenta regresije stabilne sorte, kod kojih

Tablica 1. Srednje mjese~ne temperature zraka ( °C) i koli~ina oborina (mm) po godinama istra`ivanja Table 1. Mean month air temperature ( °C) and rainfall amount (mm) for years

Cilj ovoga rada bio je utvrditi visinu i stabilnost prinosa zrna gra{ka novostvorene linije i usporediti je sa standardom Baccara i drugim sortama stranog porijekla u klimatskim uvjetima isto~ne Hrvatske.

je bi =1, a odstupanje od regresije S2di = 0, uz {to ve}i prosje~ni prinos sorte. Radi utvr|ivanja korelacije istra`ivanog svojstva i stabilnosti izra~unata je korelacija ranga (r).

MATERIJAL I METODE
Istra`ivanje je provedeno na pokusnom polju Poljoprivrednog instituta Osijek (tip tla eutri~ni kambisol), po slu~ajnom blok rasporedu u ~etiri ponavljanja, a trajalo je pet godina (1998., 1999., 2000., 2001. i 2002. godine). Veli~ina osnovne parcele bila je 10 m2 (5 m x 2 m). Istra`ivano je {est sorti jarog sto~nog gra{ka iz razli~itih geografskih podru~ja. U pokusu su bile sorte: Eiffil (Francuska), Erbi (Austrija), JP-5 i Törsz (Ma|arska), JSG-1 (Hrvatska, u priznavanju) i Baccara (Francuska, standard u Hrvatskoj).

Klimatske prilike tijekom istra`ivanja
Klimatski podaci (srednje mjese~ne temperature i koli~ina oborine) za razdoblje od 1998.-2002. godine, tijekom vegetacije gra{ka, prikazane su u Tablici 1. Prosje~na mjese~na temperatura zraka u o`ujku 2001. godine bila je vi{a nego u ostalim godinama, {to je omogu}ilo pravovremeno i brzo nicanje gra{ka. Koli~ina oborina tijekom perioda vegetacije gra{ka po godinama istra`ivanja jako se razlikovala, a posebno se isticala 2000. godina kao izrazito su{na. Najvi{e oborina bilo je u 2001. godini, koja je ujedno imala i najbolji raspored oborina tijekom vegetacije gra{ka.

Tablica 2. Rezultati analiza varijance kombinirane za jednu lokaciju u pet godina Table 2. Results of combined analysis variance for one location in five year

*,** F-test zna~ajnosti na razini P=0,05, odnosno P=0,01. / *,** F- significancy test at P=0,05 and P=0,01 level

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Tablica 3. Prosje~ni prinos zrna gra{ka (t/ha) po sortama i godinama istra`ivanja Table 3. Mean pea grain yield (t/ha ) per cultivars and years

REZULTATI I RASPRAVA
Analiza varijance (Tablica 2.) pokazala je zna~ajnu fenotipsku varijabilnost za prinos zrna izme|u istra`ivanih sorti gra{ka. Zna~ajne razlike izme|u godina pokazuju da su godine u kojima su provedena istra`ivanja bile klimatski razli~ite. Analizom varijance utvr|eno je postojanje interakcije izme|u prinosa sorata i godina te je bilo mogu}e analizirati stabilnost prinosa zrna i adaptabilnost. Prosje~an prinos (Tablica 3.) zrna gra{ka za sve sorte u 1998. godini iznosio je 2,545 t/ha, a po sortama se kretao od 1,410 t/ha (Törsz ) do 3.205 t/ha (Erbi). U 1999. godini prosje~an prinos zrna gra{ka iznosio je 1,623 t/ha, dok je prinos sorti varirao od 0,990 t/ha (Törsz) do 1,895 t/ha (JSG-1). Prosje~an prinos zrna u 2000. godini kretao se od 1,840 t/ha (JP-5) do 2,885 t/ha (Erbi), odnosno u prosjeku 2,472 t/ha. U 2001. godini ostvaren je prosje~an prinos zrna gra{ka 5,410 t/ha, dok je variranje po sortama iznosilo od 3,5726,353 t/ha (Törsz – Baccara). Prosje~an prinos svih sorti u 2002. godini iznosio je 3,098 t/ha, dok se po sortama kretao od 1,600 t/ha (JP-5) do 3,750 t/ha (Baccara). Razlike u prinosu po godinama istra`ivanja bile su zna~ajne na razini P=0,01, a zna~ajno najvi{i prosje~an prinos zrna ostvaren je 2001. godine. Zna~ajno najni`i prinos ostvaren je 1999. godine, dok je prosjek za pet godina istra`ivanja iznosio 3,030 t/ha. Dobivene razlike u prinosu zrna treba povezati s razli~itim klimatskim prilikama po godinama, a naro~ito pri usporednoj analizi 1999. i 2001. godine, koje su sli~ne po prosje~nim mjese~nim temperaturama i oborinama. Razlike u klimi izme|u navedenih godina mogu se uo~iti tek pri analizi srednjih dnevnih i ekstremnih temperatura. U prosjeku pet godina prinos gra{ka po sortama opravdano se razlikovao na razini P=0,01. Najvi{i prinos zrna ostvarila je sorta Erbi (3,493 t/ha), koji se nije zna~ajno razlikovao od prinosa sorti Baccara, JSG-1 i Eiffil na razini P=0,01(Tablica 3.). Opravdano najni`i prinos zrna na razini P=0,01 imao je Törsz (2,116 t/ha), osim u odnosu na sortu JP-5. Razlike izme|u sorata u

prinosu zrna su o~ekivane, jer se radi o materijalu (sorta) razli~itog geografskog porijekla. Razlozi ovoj tvrdnji mogu se potkrijepiti i statisti~ki opravdanom interakcijom sorta x godina na razini zna~ajnosti P=0,01. Procjena stabilnosti sorti na prinos zrna gra{ka izvr{ena je metodom grupiranja testiranih materijala u razli~ite grupe stabilnosti, na osnovu prosje~ne vrijednosti i koeficijenta varijabilnosti sorata (Frances i Kannenberg, 1978.). Prema dobivenim procjenama stabilnosti testirane sorte razlikuju se u prosje~noj visini prinosa i stabilnosti te su na osnovu toga svrstane u ~etiri grupe. Grupa I. karakterizira se kao najpo`eljnija, tj. grupa visokog i stabilnog prinosa, a prema dobivenim rezultatima u nju svrstavamo sorte: Erbi, Eiffil, JSG-1 i Baccara (Dijagram 1.). Jedino se sorta JP-5 mo`e uvrstiti u grupu IV., grupa vrlo velike varijabilnosti i niskog prinosa, tj. grupa niskog i nestabilnog prinosa. Grupa III. je postojana, ali prema navodima autora metode smatra se nestabilnom zbog toga {to je karakterizira nizak prinos u ve}ini okolina. U grupi III. prema dobivenim rezultatima nalazi se sorta Törsz. Ako promatramo individualne reakcije sorti gra{ka unutar grupe I., a posebno sorte JSG-1 i sorte Baccara, primje}ujemo male razlike izme|u prinosa zrna testiranih sorti bez obzira na
Dijagram 1. Frances i Kannenberg dijagram stabilnosti za istra`ivane sorte gra{ka Diagram 1. Frances and Kannenberg stability diagram at investigated Field pea cultivars

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Tablica 4. Procijenjeni parametri stabilnosti i prosje~an prinos zrna za pet godina istra`ivanja Table 4. Estimated stability parameters and mean grain yield for five years investigations

razli~itost okolina u kojima su testirane, {to je obilje`je sorti stabilnog prinosa i {iroke adaptabilnosti. Promatranjem individualnih reakcija sorata gra{ka na raznolike okoline, pomo}u koeficijenta regresije bi i odstupanja od regresije S2di , mo`e se zapaziti da neke sorte imaju ve}u a neke manju stabilnost prinosa zrna (Grafikon 1.). Prema dobivenim prosje~nim vrijednostima i parametrima stabilnosti, najstabilnija sorta po prinosu zrna bila je sorta JSG-1 (bi=1,06 i S2di=0,010). Vrijednosti koeficijenta regresije bi>1 ukazuju na specifi~no adaptabilan genotip u povoljnim uvjetima okoline, tj. ispod prosje~nu stabilnost i ve}u prilagodljivosti visokoprinosnim okolinama. Sorte Erbi (bi=1,12 i S2di=0,034 ), Eiffil (bi=1,13 i S2di=0,025) i Baccara (bi=1,22 i S2di=0,034 ) mogu se opisati kao sorte koje daju izrazito visoke prinose u povoljnim uvjetima okolina, kao {to su bile 2001. i 2002. godina, ali ve} male
Grafikon 1. Odnos prosje~nog prinosa (t/ha) i parametara stabilnosti Graph 1.The relation of average yield and stability parameters

promjene uvjeta okoline utje~u na smanjenje prinosa (1998. i 1999. godina). U skupinu nestabilnih sorti, ili bolje re~eno specifi~no adaptabilnih na nepovoljne i niskoprinosne okoline, svrstane su sorte JP-5 (bi=0,80 i S2di=0,257) i Törsz (bi=0,67 i S2di=0,160). Iste ostvaruju iznadprosje~ne prinose u niskoprinosnim okolinama, ali ostaju neosjetljive na promjene uvjeta okoline, te se pokazuju kao nestabilne promatraju}i oba parametra stabilnosti (Tablica 4.). Izra~unata korelacija ranga bila je srednje jaka za prinos zrna i iznosila je r= 0,457 n.s. ,ali nije bila zna~ajna, {to zna~i da sorte vi{eg prinosa nisu ispoljile ve}u stabilnost za istra`ivano svojstvo. ZAKLJU^AK Na osnovu dobivenih rezultata prinosa zrna i analize stabilnosti {est sorata gra{ka na lokaciji Osijek u razdoblju od pet divergentnih godina (1998.-2002.), mogu se donijeti sljede}i zaklju~ci: Zna~ajnost varijabilnosti prinosa zrna gra{ka uvjetovana je varijabilno{}u sorte, varijabilno{}u godina istra`ivanja i varijabilno{}u interakcije sorte i godine. Najvi{i prosje~an prinos imala je sorta Erbi (3,493 t/ha), a najni`i sorta Törsz (2,116 t/ha), dok je po godinama najvi{i prinos postignut u 2001. godini (5,401 t/ha), a najni`i u 1999. godini (1,623 t/ha). Najstabilnije sorte za prinos zrna po biolo{kom konceptu (Fransis i Kannenberg metoda) bile su sorte Erbi, Eiffil, JSG-1 i Baccara iz grupe I., dok se sorta Törsz pokazala nestabilnom (grupa IV.). Prema agronomskom konceptu (Eberhart i Russel model) sorta JSG-1 ispoljila je najve}u stabilnost (bi=1,06 i S2di=0,010), a najve}u nestabilnost sorta Törsz (bi=0,67 i S2di=0,160). Korelacija ranga izme|u visine prinosa i stabilnosti svojstva nije bila zna~ajna (r= 0,457n.s), {to pokazuje da sorte visokog prinosa nisu i najstabilnije.

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Dobiveni rezultati ukazuju na visok i stabilan prinos zrna doma}e “sorte” JSG-1 (u priznavanju), {to ovoj sorti otvara mogu}nost komercijalnog {irenja nakon priznavanja.

8.

LITERATURA
1. Becker, H.C. (1981): Correlations Among Some Statistical Measures of Phenotypic Stability. Euphytica 30: 835-840. Borojevi} , S. (1992.): Principi i metodi Oplemenjivanja bilja. Nau~na knjiga - Beograd. ^erny Tajana, ^erny, Z., Grbe{a, D., Homen Biserka, Pintar, A. (1994.): Hranidbena vrijednost gra{ka u tovu svinja. Krmiva 36(5 ): 211.-216. Eberhart, S.A., Russell, W.A. (1966): Stability Parameters for Coparing Varieties. Crop Science, 6: 36–40. Francis, T.R., Kannenberg, L.W. (1978): Yield Stability Studies in Short – Season Maize. I. A Descriptive Method for Grouping Genotypes. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Num. 58, 10291034. Gatel, F., Grosjean, F. (1990): Composition and Nutritive Value of Peas for Pigs: A Review of Europiean Results. Livestock Prod. Sci., 26:155-175. Kalivoda, M. (1990.): Krmiva. [kolska knjiga – Zagreb, 40.

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

Kolak, I. (1994.): Sjemenarstvo ratarskih i krmnih kultura. P .451, Zagreb. 9. Linn, C.S., Binns, M.R., Lefkovitch, L.P . ( 1986.): Stability Analysis: Where Do We Stand? Crop Sci. 26:894–900. 10. Oka, J.I. (1967): Adaptability for seasons and locations and yield stability in crop varieties. Recent Adv. In Breeding (Tokyo) 8: 42-47. 11. Popovi}, S., Stjepanovi}, M., Bo{njak, D., Zori} J. ( 1985.): Bob, Slatka Lupina i Sto~ni Gra{ak u proizvodnji zrnenih proteinskih hranjiva. V. Jugoslavenski simpozijum o Krmnom Bilju, Banja Luka 5.- 8. juna. Sinopsisi Referata knjiga I; 120.-123. 12. Popovi}, S., Stjepanovi}, M. (1992.): Genetski potencijal razli~itih sorti sto~nog gra{ka u proizvodnji zrna. Sjemenarstvo 9 (2-3):105.-110. 13. Popovi}, S., Stjepanovi}, M., Grlju{i} S., ^upi}, T., Tucak, M., Bukvi}, G. (2002.): Prinos i kakvo}a zrna jarog sto~nog gra{ka. Krmiva 44 (4):191.-197. 14. Stjepanovi}, M., Popovi}, S., Grlju{i}, S., Bukvi}, G. (1996): Peas production and productions possibilities in Croatia. Szarvas 1996. Conference of the Production Field Pea in Hungary May, 20. – 22. 1996. Oral presentation. 15. Sortna Lista za 2002. Godinu. Sto~ni gra{ak. Zavod za sjemenarstvo i rasadni~arstvo, str. 65, 2002.

7.

ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.)
SUMMARY The paper aimed to determine yield and estimate pea grain yield stability of newly-created lines JSG-1 (cultivar in recognition process) as well as compare with foreign origin cultivars in agroecological area of east Slavonia. The trial was set up by a randomized block design on the experimental field of Agricultural Institute Osijek in four replicates in the five-year period (1998 – 2002). Six (five foreign and one inland) cultivars were included by the trial: Eiffil, Erbi, JP-5, JSG-1 (in a recognition process), Torsz and Baccara. Stability parameters were calculated by the grouping method after Francis and Kannenberg (1978) and by the model of individual stability estimation after Eberhart and Russel method (1966). According to Francis and Kannenberg, cultivars Eiffil, Erbi, JSG-1 and Baccara belonged to group I known for high yield and low trait varying coefficient, thus, represent stabile yield cultivars. According to regression coefficient and regression deviation variance the most stabile cultivar appeared to be cultivar JSG-1 (bi =1.06 and S2di=0.010) and the lowest one was Torsz (bi =0.67 and S2 di =0.160). Cultivar Baccara (bi = 1.22 and S2 di =0.034) was comprised by the group of unstabile and adaptible for high-yielding environments. Key- words: pea, grain yield, stability parameters (Primljeno 12. velja~e 2003.; prihva}eno 4. travnja 2003. - Received on 12 February 2003; accepted on 4 April 2003)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 634.55(560)

DETERMINATION OF THE POMOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALMONDS (Prunus amygdalus Batsh) GROWN IN MALATYA (TURKEY)
T. Karadeniz (1), A. Kazankaya (2), T. Yarilgaç (2) Preliminary communication Prethodno priopæenje
SUMMARY About 500 types of Almond were taken under investigated with the view of fruit characteristics grown in Malatya. In these types, the nut shell weights between 2.73 and 10.74 g, kernel weights were 0.71 and 1.40 g, the percentage of kernel 11.17 and 50.91 %, the shell thickness 3.5 and 8.1 mm, the nut width 12.0 and 28.6 mm, the nut length 18.2 and 48.2 mm, the fruit hight 7.1 and 20.3 mm were determined. Key-words: Prunus amygdalus, almond, pomological, Malatya

MATERIAL AND METHODS INTRODUCTION
The commercial orchards have been planted in Anatolia for more than 4000 years. Almond is grown in almost every region of Anatolia, except the North-East and higher elevations of Eastern Anatolia (Dokuzoðuz and Gülcan, 1973; Özbek, 1978). Although there is a great diversity within these populations Turkey almond production is at present, 50000 tones of nuts from 18000 ha area (Anonymous, 2002). Almond kernels concentrate energy sources due to their high oil content. The oil is primarily unsaturated, mostly oleic and linoleic, fatty acid. The kernels also contain considerable protein, minerals, and some vitamins (Kester and Asay, 1975). The first attempt for the evaluation of seedling population of Turkey, a selection program was started in 1966 covering the western part of the country. Similar selection studies were carried out in near last days by different resources (Kalyoncu and Þen, 1990; Bostan et al., 1995; Aslantaþ and Güleryüz, 1995; Karadeniz et. al., 1996). Aim of the study was to determine pomological characteristics of almonds grown in Malatya. Cultivation is usually extensive in this area most of trees are from seedlings. Vegetative propagation by budding or grafting on almond seedlings are insufficient in the area. Therefore, the present study was undertaken for the selection of superior types. This study was conducted in Malatya-Elazýð overland route. About 500 types were evaluated in the two years (1996-1997). Pomological characteristics of selected almond genotypes were examined for shell weight, kernel weight, kernel ratio, shell thickness, shell color, kernel color. After the investigations had been completed, 18 types were determined by some important quality characteristics as shown in Table 1 whereas fruit characteristics were evaluated based on the Weighted-Ranked Method (Karadeniz et al., 1996). The total point of each genotype was recorded with multiplication of these values. In addition, estimated age of trees and fruit maturity were determined. The measurements were realized on ten fruits randomly selected.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
At the end of the study, fruit characteristics were evaluated based on the Weighted–Ranked Method. Eighteen genotypes having a total of 360 points and were selected for general nut quality and higher. Important fruit traits of these promising genotypes were presented in Table 2, Weighted-Ranked Method scores were showed in Table 3.
(1) Ph.D Turan Karadeniz, Assoc.Prof. - Karadeniz Technical University, Ordu Agricultural Faculty, Dept. Of Horticultural, Ordu-Turkey; (2) Ph.D Ahmet Kazankaya, Assist.Prof., Ph.D Tarýk Yarilgaç, Asist.Prof. - Yüzüncü Yýl University, Agricultural Faculty, Dept. Of Horticultural, Van-Turkey

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Table 1. The scores of the characteristics and their relative values Tablica 1. Rezultati znaèajki i njihove relativne vrijednosti

Nutshell weight of these types ranged between 2.73 g and 10.74 g. The weight of nut in similar studies were between 3.00-6.10 g (Cangi and en, 1991), 3.37-5.24 g (Kalyoncu and en, 1990), 2.89-6.14 g (Aslanta and Güleryüz, 1995), 3.43-5.86 g (Bostan et al., 1995), 1.99-4.32 g (Martins et.al., 2000). Kernel weight changed between 0.71 g and 1.40 g. According to the reported in similar study, these values evaluated between 0.60-1.40 g (Dokuzouz and Gülcan, 1973), 0.68-1.20 g (Cangi and en, 1991), 0.64-1.00

(Kalyoncu and en, 1990), 0.65-1.15 g (Aslanta and Güleryüz, 1995), 1.01-1.80 g (Karadeniz and Erman, 1995), 0.45-1.20 g (Karadeniz et.al., 1995). In the examined, kernel ratio was between 11.17 % and 50.91 %. It is understood that from kernel ratio standpoint, these values are comparable to domestic and foreign literatures. These values in similar studies were between 17.80-28.20% (Dokuzouz and Gülcan, 1973), 14.29-20.04% (Kalyoncu and en, 1990), 14.61-24.28% (Bostan et.al., 1995), 14.20-22.76 % (Karadeniz et.al., 1995), 26.7-64.5% (Assaf, 2000). The results related to nut weight, kernel weight and kernel ratio of the present study are in agreement with the findings of previous reports. Shell thickness ranged between 3.5 mm and 8.1 mm in the selected types and shell colour was between extremely light and intermediate. Kernel colour intensity was between light and dark. Almond trees and nuts in this study were shown in Photos 1-4.

Photo 1. The old almond tree Foto 1. Staro stablo badema

Photo 2. Almond nuts Foto 2. Plodovi badema

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Photo 3. Almond trees in Malatya (Turkey) Foto 3. Stabla badema u Malatyai (Turska)

Photo 4. Almond orchard growing in Malatya (Turkey) Foto 4. Voænjak badema u Malatyai (Turska)

Table 2. Pomological characteristics of different almonds types grown in Malatya province (Turkey) Tablica 2. Pomološke znaèajke razlièitih tipova badema uzgojenih u provinciji Malatyai (Turska)

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Table 3. Weighted-Ranked Method scores taken of almond types Tablica 3. Rezultati dobiveni metodom vaganja za tipove badema

4.

CONCLUSION
In the investigation the pomological characteristics of different types were determined and found very prospective from fruit characteristics standpoint. Almond selection studies in Malatya province was important since most of trees were grown from seedlings.

REFERENCES
1. 2. Anonymous (2002): Faostat Agriculture Database Collections.htm. Aslanta, R., Güleryüz, M. (1995): Selection study on native Almonds (Amygdalus communis L.) in Kemaliye District of Erzincan. Second National Agricultural Congress. Vol. I, 375-379, Adana. Assaf, R. (2000): Increasing Yields and Profitability of Almond Culture in Israel. Information Bulletin of the Research Network on Nuts (FAO-CIHEAM): Number: 9, pp.13-15.

3.

Bostan, S.Z., Cangi, R., Ouz, H.Ý. (1995): Research On Breeding By Selection of Wild Almond Types (Amygdalus communis L.) In Akdamar Island (Van Lake). Second National Agricultural Congress. Vol. I, 370-374, Adana. 5. Cangi, R., en, S.M. (1991): The studies on Breeding Almond (P . amygdalus L.) by The Selection in Vezirköprü. Yüzüncü Yýl J. of Agric. Fac., 1(3):131-152. 6. Dokuzouz, M., Gülcan, R. (1973): Researches on Selection and Adaptation of Almond (Amygdalus communis L.) in Aegean Region. TOAG, No: 22. 7. Kalyoncu, Ý.H., en, S.M. (1990): The Determination by Selection of Almond Types (Amygdalus communis L.) in Apa Dam Lake (Konya). Ondokuzmayýs Univ. of Agric. Fac., M.S.Thesis, (In Turkish). 8. Karadeniz, T., Balta, F., Cangi, R., Yarýlgaç, T. (1996): Selection Study on Native Almonds (Amygdalus communis L.) in Adýr Island (Van Lake)-I. Symposium on Hazelnut and Other Nuts. Ondokuzmayýs Univ. of Agric. Fac,. Symposium Book:338-343 (In Turkish). 9. Karadeniz, T., Erman, P . (1996): The selection of Almond (Amygdalus communis L.) Grown in Siirt. Symposium on Hazelnut and Other Nuts. Ondokuzmayýs Univ. Agric. Fac, Symposium Book:324-331 (In Turkish). 10. Kester, D.E., Asay, R. (1975): Almonds. Advances in Fruit Breeding. Purdue Univ. Press, West Lafayette, Indiana,387-419 p. 11. Martins, A.N., Gomes, C., Ferreira, L. (2000): Almond Production and Characteristics in Algarve, Portugal. Information Bulletin of the Research Network on Nuts (FAO-CIHEAM): Number:9, pp.6-9. 12. Özbek, S. (1978): Specific Fruit Growing. Çukurova Univ., J. of Agric. Fac., No:128, (In Turkish).

ODREÐIVANJE POMOLOŠKIH ZNAÈAJKI BADEMA (Prunus amygdalus Batsh) U MALATYI (TURSKA)
SA@ETAK Istra`ivanje je obavljeno na 500 vrsta badema uzgojenih u Malatyai. Utvrðena je debljina ljuske od 2,73-10,74 g, te`ina ljuske 0,71-1,40 g, postotak jezgre 11,17-50,91%, debljina ljuske 3,5-8,1 mm, širina badema 12,0-28,6 mm, du`ina badema 18,2-48,2 mm i opseg badema od 7,1 do 20,3 mm. Kljuène rijeèi: Prunus amygdalus, almond, pomological, Malatya (Received on 11 October 2002; accepted on 27 March 2003 – Primljeno 11. listopada 2002.; prihvaæeno 27. o`ujka 2003.)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 634.55.003(560)

PROFITABILTY OF DRIED FIG PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF TURKEY
M.Yercan (1), S. Engindeniz (2) Scientific review Pregledni znanstveni èlanak
SUMMARY Dried fig production has a great important in the western part of Turkey in terms of foreign trade, farmers income and employment. In this paper, dried fig produced by farmers has been analyzed to determine production costs and profitability level. For this, selected farmers had been interviewed to find out return, structure of costs and profitability level. This is an opportunity to make comparison between products and countries. This is also information for decision makers for subsidizing policies. The production costs and the net profit of dried fig was found to be US $ 1,428/hectar and US $ 372/hectar, respectively. Dried fig production was found more profitable comparing with some other dried fruits. Dried fig producers spend a unit of money and earn 1.25 unit of money. Profitability of dried fig was found to be 125%. This is an indicator for the farmers willing to produce dried fig in their convenient conditions. Key-words: dried fruit, fig, profitability, economic analysis, cost, Turkey

INTRODUCTION
Agriculture is a primary sector in most developing countries. Although the importance of agriculture in these countries has relatively decreasing tendency. It is still important in the fredd labor market, national income, foreign trade and nutrition. Fig - a tropic and subtropic plant produced in all Mediterranean basin and countries has similar climate conditions like to USA, South America, Australia and South-west Asia. Annual average temperature must be within range of 18-20 C degree. And the temperature must not be less than -9 C degree. Fresh fruit must be dried under the sunshine up to 40 C degree. The artifical dried methods are not used. Turkey has a great share in the world dried fig production. Dried fig is an important export product for western part of Turkey. Turkey has 50% of total world production of dried fig. In 1998, 72% of total dried fig production (51 000 ton) was exported (ww.fao.org; www.tarim.gov.tr). Importing countries are Germany, France, Italy, Switzerland and England.The local consumption of this product is not so much common. The value of exports was US $ 77.2 million in 1998. Value of exported dried fig was 2.87 % in terms of total agricultural export in Turkey.
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Dried fig production is an essential production branch in some area of western part of Turkey. Izmir, being the selected province is the second largest area for producing fig in Turkey. Izmir has a great share of the fig production in Turkey. It has 15.67 % of total fig production in Turkey and 13.71% of total fig plantations as well. This paper argues how level of dried fig production is profitable in Turkey. This is important for the producers, exporters and policy makers whose product has a comparative advantages. Producers aim to get maximum profit. Economic factors effect producers in the decision making process as well as natural and politics factors in the area and the country. Relating with the many researches done for the subject of fig economics imply that decision making is regarding mostly the marketing conditions of product and the supply conditions of inputs (Aksoy and Anac, 1994; Ilgin and Küden, 1997; Bülbül et al, 1998; Redonda, 2001). The purpose of this study was to provide a guide for dried fig growers to develop a budget identifies spe-

(1) Ph.D Murat Yercan, Asist. Prof., University of Ege, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, 35100 Bornova, Ýzmir, Turke,(2)Ph.D Sait Engindeniz - University of Ege, Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, 35100 Bornova, zmir, Turkey

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cific cost categories and estimating a net profit for the production and sale of dried figs in Turkey.

MATERIAL AND METHODS
Some economical aspects of dried fig production in Turkey and World were collected and compared from statistical reports in time periods. A case study consisted of surveyed data from fig producers in a selected area. This area was selected according to the production share in Izmir province. Three villages were selected from the province and data have been collected from 52 producers by randomly sampling method. All the data surveyed from the producers were the data of 2000. Selected producers were determined by the followed formula (Günes and Arikan, 1988):

on total variable costs were calculated by charging a simple interest rate of 12 % (annual average nominal interest rate) on one-half of the total variable costs. Management costs were estimated to be 3 % of the total variable costs. Annual depreciation cost was estimated by using the straight-line method. Fig orchards are exempted from property tax and were not insured. In this study, total production costs were subtracted from gross income to calculate net profit.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Some Features of Fig Production
In this study, total and sample fig orchards were determined to be 843.3 ha and 133.9 ha, respectively. Maximum, minimum, and average fig orchards were 5.5 ha, 0.3 ha, and 2.6 ha (Table 1). The most convenient planting space in fig orchards was 6 x 8 m (Kabasakal, 1990). It is preferred 6 x 6 m in the condition of ordinary soil quality and 8x8 m in the condition of extra-ordinary soil quality. This is also depends on the condition of climate and capacity of soil. The planting space is changeable by the orchards, too. In this research, the planting space was between 6 x 6 m and 9 x 9 m. The most common and preferable planting space is 7 x 7 m in the researched orchards (Table 2).

where n = The number of sample fig orchards =52 S = Standard deviation= 16.297 Z = 1.96 N = Total number of fig orchards=312 e = error term = 4,054 The general cost items of dried fig production were classified as variable costs and fixed costs. The variable costs associated with crop production were all inputs that directly relate to the production and covered labor, machine costs, material costs (fertilizer, pesticide, wrapping, etc.) as well as transport costs. In this study, Variable costs were calculated by using current input and labor wages. Fixed costs are named as indirect costs, supplementary costs, i.e. The costs of production do not vary significantly with the volume of output. Fixed costs included interest of total variable costs, management costs, annual depreciation costs and land rent. Interest

Establishment Costs
Establishment costs are spreading through eight years in this production. The items of them were given in Table 3. Establishment costs cover all the expenses relating to the period of the trees having productive capacity. These are generally related to the labor and machines costs (maintenance, energy, etc.).

Production Costs
Production costs consist of both operating (variable) and fixed cost. Productivity years of fig has been accepted 35-40 years. The labor costs rate on dried fig

Table 1. Some Statistical Characteristics of Total and Sample Fig Orchards Tablica 1. Neke statisti~ke zna~ajke vo}njaka smokava (ukupno i uzorak)

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Table 2. The distribution of orchards by planting space in researched land Tablica 2. Podjela voænjaka prema sklopu usjeva

is extremely high (Table 4). Labor is used for harvestings, dreving and classification in this production branch (Altindisli and Ertem, 1998).

Yields
Yields of dried fig vary between 1,650 kg/hectar and 1,900 kg/hectar (Kabasakal, 1990). The average yield of dried fig was found 1,860 kg per hectar and 9 kg per tree in researched area. Fig tree is fertile from 9th to 35th years (Graph 1). Yield of dried fig increases per year up to 15th year. There is increase from 15th to 30th. After the 30th year, yield decreases rapidly.

agricultural sales cooperatives in 65 locations in Aegean and Marmara Region and more than 127 900 producer members. Each product has separated agricultural sales cooperative union under the TARIS authority such as Fig Union, Sultana Raisins Union, Cotton Union, Olive and olive-oil Union. Thus, TARIS is so effective for pricing policy in the competitive market. Producer price of dried fig varied between US$ 0.6/kg and US$ 1.3/kg in research area.

Gross Income and Net profit
Gross income of fig orchards was shown in Table 5. The gross income was US$ 1,860 per hectar and US $ 9 per tree. Gross income is expressed by the total product multiply the average price of dried fig. Gross income and costs were as shown in graph 2 per year. Net profit was taken after 8 years. Maximum net profit has been realized between 15-30 year old trees. Net profit is calculated by deduction from the total gross income of all such costs within the production period. This value is the income of fix assets. Net profit was found US $ 372 /hectar and US $ 3/tree in examined fig orchards (Table 6).

Marketing and Pricing
Dried fig is marketed by the Sales Cooperatives, Whole salers, Comissioners, Companies and retailers in Turkey (Olgun and Akgüngör, 1998). Sales cooperatives have 6-7% market share and 3-4% of total export in all Turkish economy. In the selected area, most of producers are members of sales cooperative (TARIS), thus generally, the most of products are marketed by this cooperative. TARIS is the first and biggest Union of Agricultural Cooperatives in Turkey. TARIS carries on its activities with Fig, Raisin, Cotton, Olive and olive-oil Table 3. Structure of costs of fig orchards (US $/hectar) Tablica 3. Struktura tro{kova vo}njaka smokava (US $ / ha)

(*) Sapling, fertilizer, pesticide, etc. – Mladica, gnojivo, pesticid itd.

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Table 4. Production costs of fig orchards Tablica 4. Tro{kovi proizvodnje voænjaka smokava

(*) The economic life of fig plantations was estimated as 35 years – Gospodarski vijek planta`a smokve je 35 godina

Comparative Results of Dried Fig
Comparative results for dried fig were given to be compared with other dried fruits. The results of dried sultana and apricot were derived from other research papers. Comparative results were expressed by the proGraph 1. Relations between age and yield Grafikon 1. Odnosi izmeðu dobi i prinosa

tal. However, earnings are 0.66 and 0.55 unit of money in dried sultana (Akgüngör, 1996) and apricot (Olgun et al., 2002).

CONCLUSION
In this paper, we presented explanatory information for the production economics of dried fig in Turkey. So, we presented the comparison opportunities for other countries. This is completely related to comparative advantages between the countries. Dried fig production seems more profitable among the some other dried fruits. Each product is strictly dependent on its own condition (soil, climate and others). Dried fig production is almost organic. Using of fertilizer and chemicals are extremely rare compared to sultanas and apricot. The variable costs are lower comparing with other dried fruits. So, this is positive effect for the dried fig. Also, fixed cost of sultanas and apricot is relatively higher than the fig, because of more valuable land comparing with fig orchard and land. Generally, fig is produced in the sloping land. This is the evaluation of one-year data analysis. Prices vary from year to year depending on some other variables. The total costs cover both direct and indirect costs. Farmer doesn’t care about the indirect costs such as depreciation, interest of total variable cost. According to this study, dried fig production may be more profitable. Farmers should gather all the eco-

fitability criteria. This is the measure of profit between two or more profit making alternatives. Profitability is a relative measure and must not be confused with profit, being an absolute measure. Profitability was expressed by the ratio of return (price of product) on total cost per kg of product. Dried fig is more profitable among the dried sultana and apricot. It means while farmers invest 1 unit of capital for dried fig, they earn 1.25 unit of capiTable 5. Total gross income of fig orchards Tablica 5. Ukupan bruto prihod voænjaka smokava

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Table 6. Net profit of fig orchards Tablica 6. Neto dobit od vo}njaka smokava

Resource: derived from the survey – Izvor: Anketa

nomic data they can have about the production and market conditions of dried fig. Although cost and return estimates are believed to be typical and realistic. Individual farmers should adjust values to represent their specific situation and circumstances. Graph 2. The changing of gross ýncome and costs per age in fig orchards Grafikon 2. Promjene ukupnog prihoda i tro{kova prema starosti voænjaka smokava

9.

Olgun, A. K.Peker and H.Adanacýoglu, 2002, Policies Directed to Apricot Production In Turkey, Fifth Turkish Agricultural Economisc Congress, Erzurum, Turkey, pp: 242-250. 10. Redonda, M., 2001, Economics and Marketing of Dried Fig, Second International Symposium on Fig ( May 710, 2001), Caceres, Spain (http:// www.iamz.chiam.org/caceres2001.htm). 11. …… FAO Statistics. www.fao.org 12. …… Turkish Republic Ministry of Agriculture (www.tarim.gov.tr)

REFERENCES
1. 2. Altindisli, A., Ertem, A. (1998): Organic Fig Production in Turkey, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 480:227-232. Akgüngör, S. (1996): Yield, Costs and Marketing of Organic Dried Sultanas In Turkey: A Case Study of salihli and Kemalpaºa, Izmir, Turkey, 54 p. Aksoy, U., Anac, D. (1994): Factors Affecting Quality of Fresh and Dried Fig Fruits, ISHS Acta Horticulturea 368: 763-766. Bülbül, S., Atil, H., Hepaksoy, S. (1998): A General Study of Commercial Dried Fig Production in the Big Meander Valley of Turkey, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 480 :317-320. Günes, T., Arikan, R. (1988): The Statistic of Agricultural Economics, The University of Ankara, The Publication of Faculty of Agriculture, No. 1049, Ankara, 293 p. Ilgin, M., Küden, A.B. (1997): Table Fig Selection Study in the Kahramanmaras Province in Turkey, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 441: 351-358 Kabasakal, A. (1990): The Planting of Fig, The Foundation of Development And Support of Agricultural Research, No:20, Yalova, Turkey, 35 p. Olgun, A., Akgüngör, S. (1998): Fig Production and Marketing Policies in Turkey With Special Emphasis on Alternative Marketing Possibilities, ISHS Acta Horticulturae 480:321-323.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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PROFITABILNOST PROIZVODNJE SUHIH SMOKAVA (PRIMJER U TURSKOJ)

SA@ETAK Proizvodnja suhih smokava zna~ajna je za zapadni dio Turske glede inozemne trgovine, prihoda farmera i zaposlenosti. U ovom radu govori se o suhim smokvama koje proizvode farmeri, a analizirane su kako bi se utvrdili tro{kovi proizvodnje i razina profitabilnosti. To je prilika za one koji donose odluke o politici poticaja. Tro{kovi proizvodnje i neto dobit od suhih smokava iznosi 1428/ha i 372/ha USD, slijedom. Utvr|eno je da je proizvodnja suhih smokava profitabilnija u usporedbi s nekim drugim suhim vo}em. Proizvo|a~i suhih smokava potro{e jedinicu novca, a zarade 1,25 jedinica. Procijenjeno je da dobit od suhih smokava iznosi 125%. To je pokazatelj farmerima koji `ele proizvoditi suhe smokve u svojim uvjetima. Klju~ne rije~i: su{eno vo}e, smokva, profitabilnost, ekonomska analiza, tro{kovi, Turska

(Received on 19 December 2002; accepted on 21 March 2003 – Primljeno 19. prosinca 2002.; prihvaæeno 21. o`ujka 2003.)

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NOVI NA^IN VREDNOVANJA KRAVLJEG MLIJEKA U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ

P. Miji}, I. Kne`evi} Stru~ni ~lanak Professional paper
SA@ETAK Va`nost govedarske proizvodnje u ukupnoj vrijednosti sto~arske i poljoprivredne proizvodnje vrlo je velika. Mo`e se s pravom re}i da je govedarstvo “generator” sto~arstva, odnosno cjelokupne poljoprivrede. Stavljanjem naglaska na kvalitetu proizvoda, razvijene govedarske zemlje, kao i zemlje ~lanice EU uvele su nove pravilnike kontrole i vrednovanja mlijeka i mlije~nih proizvoda. Broj somatskih stanica, broj mikroorganizama i fizikalno-kemijski parametri postali su vrlo bitni elementi u valorizaciji i klasifikaciji mlijeka. Republika Hrvatska tako|er je usvojila novi “Pravilnik o kakvo}i svje`eg sirovog mlijeka” i “Uredbu o ciljnoj cijeni svje`eg sirovog mlijeka”. Zbog {irokog spektra parametara koji se kontroliraju i pla}aju prema Pravilniku i Uredbi, svaka pogre{ka i nepravovremena reakcija proizvo|a~a ili veterinara u zdravstvenoj za{titi tijekom laktacijskog ciklusa odrazit }e se i na krajnje financijsko poslovanje. Struka treba {to prije zapo~eti s kori{tenjem doma}ih i svjetskih znanstvenih spoznaja u sto~arstvu, pri ~emu }e zdravlje `ivotinje i kvaliteta mlijeka imati prioritetno mjesto. Klju~ne rije~i: proizvodnja mlijeka, pravilnik, somatske stanice, fizikalno-kemijski parametri

UVOD
Va`nost govedarske proizvodnje je velika i u okviru sto~arske i u okviru ukupne poljoprivredne proizvodnje. Govedarska proizvodnja u RH temelj je razvoja ukupne sto~arske proizvodnje u kojoj sudjeluje s oko 40%. Na primjeru Njema~ke ta je va`nost jo{ izra`enija, jer govedarska proizvodnja participira s 45% u vrijednosti ukupne poljoprivredne proizvodnje (Uremovi} i sur., 2002.). Zato mo`emo s pravom re}i da je govedarstvo «generator» sto~arske, odnosno cjelokupne poljoprivredne proizvodnje. Proizvodnja mlijeka najzahtjevnija je proizvodnja u govedarstvu, za koju je potrebno ostvariti niz preduvjeta (kvalitetno stado, osmi{ljene i efikasne objekte, dovoljno obradive povr{ine i sl.). Proizvo|a~i mlijeka do sada nisu imali problema s plasmanom mlijeka. Razlog je u nedostatnosti proizvedenog mlijeka. Postavlja se pitanje kolike su godi{nje potrebe RH za svje`im mlijekom, odnosno koliki je biolo{ki prag zasi}enja? Prema navodima (Caput, 1998.), biolo{ki prag zasi}enja mlijekom u Hrvatskoj je oko 250 litara. Kada tu koli~inu mlijeka pomno`imo s ukupnim brojem stanovnika, proizlazi da su aktualne potrebe Hrvatske oko 1,2 milijarde litara mli-

jeka. U svjetskim razmjerima kravlje mlijeko predstavlja oko 91% ukupnog mlijeka, {to zna~i da su potrebe za sirovim kravljim mlijekom u RH oko 1 milijardu litara. Prema slu`benim podacima za 2001. godinu, u Hrvatskoj je proizvedeno oko 634 milijuna litara kravljeg mlijeka (Statisti~ki ljetopis RH, 2002.), {to na temelju prethodnog izra~una navodi na zaklju~ak da se u RH ne proizvodi dovoljna koli~ina mlijeka.

NORMATIVI PRIHVA]ENI PRAVILNIKOM
Mlijeko i mlije~ni proizvodi svakodnevna su hrana ljudi i njihova kontinuirana proizvodnja predstavlja jedan od strate{kih zadataka za svaku zemlju. Zahtjevi kupaca i njihov pa`ljivi odabir, u prvi plan su stavili naglasak na kvalitetu mlijeka. Iz toga razloga, razvijene govedarske zemlje, kao i zemlje ~lanice EU, uvele su nove pravilnike kontrole i vrednovanja mlijeka i mlije~nih proizvoda. Kontrolira se cjelokupna proizvodnja mlijeka: od kontrole broja somatskih stanica i broja mikroorganizama u
Mr.sc. Pero Miji}, asistent i dr.sc. Ivan Kne`evi}, red.prof. – Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Zavod za zootehniku, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek

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Tablica 1. Minimalni kriteriji za kakvo}u svje`eg kravljeg mlijeka u Republici Hrvatskoj prema Pravilniku (Izvor: Narodne novine, 102/2000.) Table 1. Minimal criterions for quality of fresh cow milk in Republic of Croatia by Book of regulations (Source: Narodne novine, 102/2000)

mlijeku neposredno pri samoj mu`nji, zatim prerada u mljekari, pa do skladi{tenja i prodaje u trgovini. Me|unarodno priznati parametar za ocjenu zdravstvenog stanja vimena krava je broj somatskih stanica u mlijeku. Prema zakonskim propisima donesenim 1995. godine, u zemljama EU sirovo mlijeko krava ne smije sadr`avati vi{e od 400.000 somatskih stanica/ml (Sarrazin i Scotti, 1995.). Sli~no pravilniku koji je va`e}i u zemljama EU i Ministarstvo poljoprivrede i {umarstva RH 2000. godine usvojilo je novi “Pravilnik o kakvo}i svje`eg sirovog mlijeka” (Narodne novine, 102/2000.). Pravilnikom su navedeni sljede}i parametri koji }e se pratiti: mlije~na mast, mlije~ne bjelan~evine, suha tvar bez masti, gusto}a, kiselost, to~ka ledi{ta, alkoholna proba sa 72% etil alkoholom te prisustvo inhibitornih tvari. Nakon uspostave rada Sredi{njeg dr`avnog laboratorija u Kri`evcima, koncem 2002. godine usvojena je “Uredba o ciljnoj cijeni svje`eg sirovog mlijeka” (Narodne novine, 156/2002.). Uredbom je utvr|eno mlijeko standardne kvalitete, kao i cijena pojedinih kemijskih parametara mlijeka. Pod mlijekom standardne kvalitete prema Uredbi smatra se ono koje ima najmanje 3,7% mlije~ne masti, 3,2% bjelan~evina, do 100.000 mikroorganizama/ml i do 400.000 somatskih stanica/ml. Obra~un pla}anja mlijeka proizvo|a~ima prema Pravilniku i Uredbi primjenjuje se od 1. sije~nja 2003. godine i prili~no je kompliciran. Temelji se na vrijednosti mlije~nih bjelan~evina i mlije~ne masti (omjer 55% :

45%), a zatim na klasifikaciji mlijeka prema broju somatskih stanica i broju mikroorganizama u mlijeku. U Tablicama 1. i 2. prikazani su parametri koji su prihva}eni Pravilnikom te klasifikacija mlijeka prema Uredbi temeljena na broju mikroorganizama/ml i broju somatskih stanica/ml mlijeka. Prema prvim slu`benim izvje{}ima iz Sredi{njeg laboratorija u Kri`evcima (Kuterovac i sur., 2002.), najve}i problem za proizvo|a~e predstavlja veliki broj mikroorganizama i somatskih stanica u mlijeku. Ostali parametri (kemijsko-fizikalni pokazatelji) ve}im dijelom ispunjavaju minimalne uvjete. Po~etni rezultati analize mlijeka i nisu iznena|uju}i, jer su istra`ivanja koja su do sada bila provedena na mlije~nim govedarskim farmama i obiteljskim gospodarstvima u Hrvatskoj upu}ivala na pove}ani broj somatskih stanica u mlijeku (Kalit i Luka~-Havranek, 1998.; Miji} i sur., 2001.). Tako|er i zemlje EU u po~etku primjene sli~nog pravilnika imale su problema s pove}anim brojem somatskih stanica u mlijeku. Prema istra`ivanjima (Emanuelson i Funke, 1991.) u [vedskoj je utvr|eno 26,7% mastiti~nog mlijeka, dok su u Njema~koj (Roth i sur., 1998.) ustanovili u 45% istra`ivanih krava patogene mikroorganizme u najmanje jednoj ~etvrti vimena. Ti rezultati pokazuju da je problem velikog broja somatskih stanica i mikroorganizama velik i zato je potreban dugotrajan rad te kori{tenje svih mogu}nosti u pobolj{anju zdravlja vimena: od selekcijskih do veterinarskih.

Tablica 2. Klasifikacija svje`eg kravljeg mlijeka u RH prema broju mikroorganizama i broju somatskih stanica mlijeka (Izvor: Narodne novine, 156/2002.) Table 2. The fresh cow’s milk classification in the Republic of Croatia according to the number of microorganisms and somatic cells (Source: Narodne novine, 156/2002)

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Mastiti~no mlijeko, pored financijskih gubitaka koje nanosi proizvo|a~u mlijeka, tako|er uzrokuje zna~ajne gubitke i prera|iva~u mlijeka. Prema literaturnim navodima (Antunac i sur., 1997.), mlijeko s velikim brojem somatskih stanica najve}e gubitke nanosi industriji proizvodnje sira, a gubici se o~ituju u nepovoljnim odnosima kazeinskih frakcija, pove}anju pH vrijednosti, promjeni koagulacijskih osobina, smanjenju randmana i kvalitete gotovog proizvoda. Zato je za proizvodnju zdravstveno ispravnih mlije~nih proizvoda, od posebne va`nosti ~isto}a ruku muza~a, vimena krave, prostora za mu`nju i ostalog mljekarskog pribora, zatim tehni~ka ispravnost muzne opreme, obavezno lije~enje oboljelih `ivotinja, odnosno potrebna je dosljedna edukaciju proizvo|a~a (Pavi~i} i Ha|ina, 2001.). Zbog nepovoljnih gospodarskih prilika zadnjih desetak godina i neadekvatnih tehnolo{ko-tehni~kih postupaka na mnogim mlije~nim farmama u Hrvatskoj tijekom pretvorbe poljoprivrednih kombinata u poljoprivredna poduze}a, proizvodnja mlijeka nije se zna~ajnije pove}ala. Samim tim do{lo je i do odre|ene stagnacije u kvaliteti mlijeka. Me|utim, proizvodnja kvalitetnog mlijeka zbog nedostatnosti u Republici Hrvatskoj imat }e brzi razvoj, ali samo uz uvjet da se proizvo|a~i prilagode novim standardima kvalitete mlijeka.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9. 10.

11. 12.

ZAKLJU^AK
Proizvo|a~i }e trebati posvetiti vi{e vremena tehni~kim fazama proizvodnje mlijeka, pravilnoj hranidbi i zdravstvenoj za{titi. Zbog {irokog spektra parametara koji se mjere i kontroliraju po novom Pravilniku, svaka pogre{ka i nepravovremena reakcija proizvo|a~a ili veterinara u zdravstvenoj za{titi tijekom laktacijskog ciklusa, odrazit }e se i na krajnje financijsko poslovanje. Nu`no je da se u Hrvatskoj {to prije izradi programe razvoja govedarstva na temelju zahtjeva tr`i{ta i suvremenih marketin{kih ciljeva, koriste}i vlastita i svjetska znanstvena dostignu}a u sto~arstvu, pri ~emu }e zdravlje `ivotinje i kvaliteta mlijeka imati va`no mjesto.

13.

Kuterovac, K., Daki}, A., Dra`i}, M. (2002.): Prvi izvje{taj o kvaliteti mlijeka u RH kontroliranog u HSSCSredi{njem laboratoriju za kontrolu mlijeka. 35. Hrvatski simpozij mljekarskih stru~njaka s me|unarodnim sudjelovanjem, Lovran, 13.-15. studeni, Zbornik sa`etaka., str. 24.-26. Miji}, P ., Kne`evi}, I., Rimac, D., Doma}inovi}, M., Kralik, D., Baban, Mirjana, Bagari}, D. (2001.): Usporedba parametara mlijeka s novim pravilnikom o kakavo}i svje`eg sirovog mlijeka. Poljoprivreda, 77(2):33.-38. Pavi~i}, @., Ha|ina, S. (2001.): Zna~enje primijenjene dezinfekcije u higijenskoj kakvo}i mlijeka. Sto~arstvo, 55(4):269.-280. Roth, S., Reinsch, N., Nieland, G., Schallenberger, E. (1998.): Untersuchungen über Zusammenhänge zwischen Eutergesundheit, Melkbarkeitsparametern und Milchflußkurven an einer Hochleistungsrinderherde. Züchtungskunde, 70(4):242.-260. Sarrazin, P ., Scotti, O. (1995): Raw milk and Europe. Dairy Science Abstracts, 75(4):2091. Uremovi}, Z., Uremovi}, M., Pavi}, V., Mio~, B., Mu`ic, S., Janje~i}, Z. (2002.): Sto~arstvo. Ud`benik, 91. Agronomski fakultet u Zagrebu. ……… Pravilnik o kakvo}i svje`eg sirovog mlijeka. Narodne novine, 102/2000. od 17. listopada 2000. ……… Statisti~ki ljetopis Republike Hrvatske (2002). Dr`avni zavod za statistiku, 259. Zagreb. ……… Uredba o ciljnoj cijeni svje`eg sirovog mlijeka. Narodne novine, 156/2002. od 24. prosinca 2002.

LITERATURA
1. Antunac, N., Luka~-Havranek J., Samar`ija, D. (1998.): Somatske stanice i njihov utjecaj na kakvo}u i preradu mlijeka. Mljekarstvo, 47(3):183.-193. Caput, P . (1998.): Aktualnosti u proizvodnji i plasmanu svje`eg kravljeg mlijeka u Hrvatskoj. Sto~arstvo, 52(5):379-385. Emanuelson, U., Funke, H. (1991): Effect of milk yield on relationship between bulk milk somatic cell count and prevalence of mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 74:2479-2483. Kalit, S., Luka~-Havranek, Jasmina (1998): Current status of somatic cell count (SCC) in the milk from individual farms in Croatia. Milchwissenschaft, 53(4):183184.

2.

3.

4.

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NEW WAY OF EVALUATING COW MILK IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

SUMMARY It can be rightfally said that cow breeding is the «generator» of livestock and therefore of the hole agronomy. Stressing the quality of the product developed countries as well as the EU countries have introduced the new control regulations and evaluations of milk and dairy products. The number of somatic cells, microorganisms, protein and milk fat contents have become very important elements in valorisation and classification of milk. The Republic of Croatia also has the «New standard of the Quality of Fresh and Raw Milk» and the «Regulation of the Target Price of Fresh Raw Milk». Due to the wide spectre of the parameters controlled and paid by the new Standards and Regulations, every error and inadequate reaction of the manufacturer or the veterinarian during the health protection over the lactation cycle will have a reflection on a financial aspect of the business. The branch should start as earlier as possible using the domestic and international knowledge about livestock thereby animal health and better quality of milk will be in the priority. Key-words: milk production, standard, somatic cells, physical and chemical parameters (Primljeno 7. o`ujka 2003.; prihva}eno 10. travnja 2003. - Received on 7 March 2003; accepted on 10 April 2003)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 636.033:636.4

TOVNOST I MESNATOST SVINJA NEKIH DVOPASMINSKIH KRI@ANACA
\. Sen~i} (1) Marcela [peranda (1), Z. Antunovi} (1), T. [peranda (2) Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak Original scientific paper
Sa`etak Istra`ivanje tovnih i klaoni~kih svojstava provedeno je na kri`ancima izme|u {vedskog landrasa i velikog jork{ira ([L x VJ), {vedskog landrasa i pietrena ([L x P) te velikog jork{ira i pietrena (VJ X P). Svinje su tovljene u istim uvjetima. Hranjene krmnom smjesom s 15,36% sirovih proteina i 13,22 MJ ME/kg. Vrijednost pH mesa odre|ena je pHmetrom Mettler Toledo, sposobnost vezanja vode mesa prema Grau-Hammu (1952.), a boja i mramoriranost mesa prema ameri~koj NPCC-metodi. Izme|u istra`ivanih genotipova svinja nije bilo statisti~ki zna~ajnih razlika (P>0,05) u veli~ini dnevnih prirasta (640 g, 680 g i 680 g), ali su utvr|ene razlike u konverziji hrane. Najmanji utro{ak hrane za kilogram prirasta imali su kri`anci VJ x P (2,04 kg), a zatim kri`anci [L x VJ (3,22 kg) i kri`anci [L x P (3,63). Najve}u mesnatost polovica (55,15%) i najbolju konformaciju polovica imali su kri`anci VJ x P, a zatim prema mesnatosti sljede kri`anci [L x VJ (54,71%) i kri`anci [L x P (54,08%). Kvaliteta mesa svinja istra`ivanih genotipova bila je zadovoljavaju}a. Kri`anci s pietrenom ([L x P i VJ x P) imali su ne{to slabiju sposobnost vezanja vode mesa (9,70 cm2 i 9,80 cm2) u odnosu na kri`ance VJ x [L (8,51 cm2). Kri`anci s pietrenom tako|er su imali slabiji intenzitet boje mesa (2,50 i 2,33) i slabiju mramoriranost mesa (1,38 i 1,50) u odnosu na intenzitet boje i mramoriranost mesa kri`anaca VJ x [L (2,75 i 2,50). Klju~ne rije~i: svinje, kri`anci, tovna svojstva, klaoni~ka svojstva

Uvod
Genotip svinja, uz hranidbu, najvi{e utje~e na njihovu tovnost i mesnatost. Kri`anjem svinja nastoji se posti}i heterozis u~inak za va`na proizvodna svojstva. Iznala`enje najboljih kombinacija kri`anja je neprekidan proces, s obzirom na to da se selekcijom frekvencija pojedinih gena neprekidno mijenja. U ranijim istra`ivanjima (Pellois i Runavot, 1991.; Demo i sur., 1994.; Sen~i} i sur., 2000.a i b; Sen~i} i sur., 2002.), ukazano je na obilje`ja svinja tropasminskih kri`anaca s njema~kim landrasom ili pietrenom kao terminalnim pasminama. U ovom istra`ivanju ukazuje se na neka tovna i klaoni~ka svojstva svinja dvopasminskih kri`anaca.

skog landrasa i pietrena (n=16) te s kri`ancima velikog jork{ira i pietrena (n=27), na farmi «Caritas», kod Osijeka. Skupine svinja bile su ujedna~ene prema omjeru spolova. Svinje su tovljene istovremeno i u istim uvjetima, tijekom prolje}a i ljeta. Hranjene su ad libitum, krmnom smjesom s 15,36% sir. bjelan~evina i 13,22 MJ ME/kg tijekom cijelog tova. Na liniji klanja utvr|ena je masa toplih polovica i njihova mesnatost prema Pravilniku (1999.) uz pomo} metode «dvije to~ke». Nakon 24 sata hla|enja polovica na +40C, odre|en je udjel (%) najvrijednijih dijelova (but, le|a i ple}ka) u desnim svinjskim polovicama, prema metodi Wenigera i sur. (1963.).
(1) Prof.dr.sc. \uro Sen~i}, mr.sc. Marcela [peranda i doc.dr.sc. Zvonko Antunovi} – Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, (2) Mr.sc. Tomislav [peranda – Farmacija d.d., Vinkova~ka cesta b.b., 31000 Osijek

Materijal i metode
Istra`ivanje je provedeno s kri`ancima {vedskog ladrasa i velikog jork{ira (n=21), s kri`ancima {ved-

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Vrijednost pH1 mesa odre|ena je 45 minuta post mortem, kontaktnim pH-metrom Mettler Toledo, a vrijednost pH2 mesa, 24 sata post mortem, nakon hla|enja mesa na +4 0 C. Kvaliteta mesa odre|ivana je na uzorku dugog le|nog mi{i}a (MLD) uzetom u visini izme|u 13 i 14 rebra. Sposobnost vezanja vode mesa odre|ena je prema Grau-Hammu (1952.), a boja i mramoriranost prema ameri~koj NPPC-metodi. Statisti~ka obrada rezultata istra`ivanja bila je pomo}u kompjutorskog programa Stat Soft, Inc. (2001.).

Rezultati i rasprava
Tovna svojstva kri`anaca vidljiva su iz Tablice 1. Izme|u prosje~nih po~etnih, kao i zavr{nih tjelesnih masa svinja pojedinih kri`anaca, nisu utvr|ene statisti~ki zna~ajne razlike (P>0,05). S tim u vezi, nisu utvr|ene niti razlike u dnevnim prirastima izme|u pojedinih genotipova svinja, u pojedinim razdobljima tova. Utro{ak hrane za kilogram prirasta bio je najmanji (2,04 kg) kod kri`anaca s najve}om mesnato{}u, tj. kod onih izme|u velikog jork{ira i pietrena, a najve}i (3,63 kg) kod kri`anca s najni`om mesnato{}u, tj. onih izme|u {vedskog landrasa i pietrena. Klaoni~ka svojstva svinja, vidljiva su iz Tablice 2. Ujedna~enost masa toplih polovica omogu}ila je

pravilno uspore|ivanje klaoni~kih svojstava svinja izme|u genotipova. Najve}u mesnatost polovica (55,15%) imali su kri`anci izme|u velikog jork{ira i pietrena. Taj genotip svinja imao je i najve}i udjel buta (31,95%) u polovicama. Obje skupine kri`anaca s pietrenom imale su ve}i udjel butova, a manji udjel ple}ki u polovicama u odnosu na kri`ance izme|u {vedskog landrasa i velikog jork{ira. Kri`anje s pietrenom povoljno je djelovalo na konformaciju svinjskih polovica, tj. na zastupljenost komercijalno vrjednijih dijelova. Na navedenu pojavu ukazuju istra`ivanja i drugih autora (@ivkovi} i sur., 1992., Demo i sur., 1994.) Kvaliteta mesa svinja istra`ivanih kri`anaca (Tablica 2.), bila je u prosjeku zadovoljavaju}a. Vrijednosti pH1 i pH2 mesa kretale su se u prosjeku u optimalnim granicama, iako je po~etni pH mesa, kod svinja s najve}om mesnato{}u (VJ x P), bio najni`i (6,19), ali ne i statisti~ki zna~ajno (P>0,05). Kri`anci izme|u velikog jork{ira i {vedskog landrasa imali su meso s boljom sposobno{}u vezanja vode (8,51 cm2) u odnosu na kri`ance s pietrenom (9,70 cm2 i 9,80 cm2). Najja~i intenzitet boje (2,75) imalo je meso kri`anaca izme|u velikog jork{ira i {vedskog landrasa, a njamanji intenzitet boje (2,33), meso kri`anaca izme|u velikog jork{ira i pietrena, tj. najmesnatijeg genotipa. Granica pH1 vrijednosti za utvr|ivanje blijedog, mekanog i vodnjikavog (BMV) mesa je prema Hoffmanu

Tablica 1. Tovna svojstva svinja nekih dvopasminskih kri`anaca Table 1. Fattening traits in pigs of some two crossbreeds

#

VJ-veliki jork{ir (LW-Large White); [L-{vedski landras (SL- Swedish Landrace); P-pietren (P-Pietrain)

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TABLICA 2. KLAONI~KA SVOJSTVA SVINJA NEKIH DVOPASMINSKIH KRI`ANACA Table 2. Slaughter traits in pigs of some two crossbreeds

#

VJ-veliki jork{ir (LW-Large White); [L-{vedski landras (SL- Swedish Landrace); P-pietren (P- Pietrain)

(1994.) 6,0, a prema Kallweitu (1980.) ispod 5,8. Ako se uzme pH2 vrijednost kao kriterij za odre|ivanje BMVmesa, tada je granica, prema Forrestu (1998.) 5,5, a prema Kallweitu (1980.) je 5,4. Kri`anci s pietrenom imali su i slabiju pro`etost mesa masno}om (mramoriranost) u odnosu na kri`ance izme|u velikog jork{ira i {vedskog landrasa. I drugi su autori (Pellois i Runavot, 1991.; @ivkovi} i sur., 1992.; Wasmuth i Glodek, 1992.; Sen~i} i sur., 2000.a i b; 2002.) utvrdili da pietren u kri`anju mo`e pogor{ati kvalitetu mesa svinja kri`anaca.

prema mesnatosti sljede kri`anci [L x VJ (54,71%) i kri`anci [L x P (54,08%), - kvaliteta mesa svinja istra`ivanih genotipova bila je zadovoljavaju}a. Kri`anci s pietrenom ([L x P i VJ x P) imali su ne{to slabiju sposobnost vezanja vode mesa (9,70 cm2 i 9,80 cm2) u odnosu na kri`ance VJ x [L (8,51 cm2). Kri`anci s pietrenom tako|er su imali slabiji intenzitet boje mesa (2,50 i 2,33) i slabiju mramoriranost mesa (1,38 i 1,50) u odnosu na intenzitet boje i mramoriranost mesa kri`anaca VJ x [L (2,75 i 2,50).

Literatura Zaklju~ak
Na temelju istra`ivanja tovnih i klaoni~kih svojstava dvopasminskih kri`anaca izme|u {vedskog landrasa i velikog jork{ira ([L x VJ), {vedskog landrasa i pietrena ([L x P) te velikog jork{ira i pietrena (VJ X P) utvr|eno je: - izme|u istra`ivanih genotipova svinja nije bilo statisti~ki zna~ajnih razlika (P>0,05) u veli~ini dnevnih prirasta (640 g, 680 g i 680 g), ali su utvr|ene razlike u konverziji hrane. Najmanji utro{ak hrane za kilogram prirasta imali su kri`anci VJ x P (2,04 kg), a zatim kri`anci [L x VJ (3,22 kg) i kri`anci [L x P (3,63), - najve}u mesnatost polovica (55,15%) i najbolju konformaciju polovica imali su kri`anci VJ x P , a zatim
Poljoprivreda

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2.

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4.

Demo, P , Poltarsky, J., Rehak, A. (1994): Use of the Pietrain breed for production of terminal slaughter hybrid. Zivocisna Vyroba, 39: 865-879. Forrest, I.C. (1998): Line speed implementation of various pork quality measures. Record of Proceedings, NSIF Conference and Animal Meeting. December 4-5, 1998, Vol. 23, East Lansing Marriot, Michigan. Grau, R., Hamm, R. (1952.): Eine einfache Methode zur Bestimmung der Wasser bildung in Fleisch. Die Fleischwirtschaft, 4:295.-297. Hoffman, K. (1994): What is quality? Definition, measurement and eculation of meat quality. Meat Focus International, 3, 2, February, 1994.

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5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Kallweit, E. (1980.): Fleischfülle und Fleischbeschaffenheit. Schweinezucht und Schweinemast, 28(5):148.155. Pellois, H., Runavot, J.P . (1991): Comparaison des performances d’ engraissement de carcasse et de qualite de riande de 4 types de porcs ayant une proportion variable de sang Pietrain. In 23 mes Journees de la Recherche Porcine en France, Paris, 1991, pp. 23. Sen~i}, \., Fazeka{, J., Maltar Z., Antunovi}, Z., Knapi}, A. (2000.a): Obilje`ja mesnatosti svinja kri`anaca s pietrenom. Sto~arstvo, 54:175.-182. Sen~i}, \. Kralik G., Ku{ec, G., Margeta, V. (2000 b): Slaughtering quality of crossed pigs with German Landrace and Pietrain as terminal breeds. Agriculture, 6:157-159. Sen~i}, \., Antunovi}, Z., [peranda Marcela (2002): Meatiness and meat quality in pigs crossed with pietrain. Sto~arstvo, 56:191-196.

10. Wassmuth, R., Glodek, P . (1992): Einfluß des «Hampshirefaktors» und der Standzeit auf das glykolitische Potential und die Fleischbeschaffenheit bei Schweinen. Fleichwirtschaft, 72: 1299.-1302. 11. Weniger, H., I., Steinhauf, D. und Pahl, G. (1963): Topography of Carcasses. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München. 12. @ivkovi}, J., Bukovi} B., Njari, B. (1992.): Utjecaj pasminskog sastava na prinos i kakvo}u svinjskog mesa. Sto~arstvo, 46: 25.-31. 13. ... .. Pravilnik o utvr|ivanju kategorija i klasa svinjskih trupova i polovica (1999.), N.N. br. 119. 14. ….. Stat Soft. Inc. Statistica for Windows (Computer program manual), Tulsa, OK, 2001.

FATTENING AND MEATINESS OF SOME TWO CROSSBREEDS IN PIGS
SUMMARY Investigation of fattening and slaughter traits was conducted with crossbreeds between Swedish Landrace and Large White (SL x LW), Swedish Landrace and Pietrain (SL x P) as well as between Large White and Pietrain (LW x P). The pigs were fed in the same conditions. They were fed mixture containing 15.36% crude proteins and 13.22 MU/kg. Values of meat pH were determined by pH –meter Mettler Toledo, ability of meat water fixation according to GrauHamm (1952) whereas colour and meat marbling by an American NPCC method. No statistically significant differences were found (P>0.05) in terms of daily gain (640 g, 680 g and 6880 g) among the investigated pig genotypes. However, feed conversion differences were determined. The lowest feed consumption per gain kg was characterized by crossbreeds LW x P (2.04 kg) followed by crossbreeds SL x LW (3.22 kg) and crossbreeds SL x P (3.63). The highest meatiness of pork sides (55.15%) and their conformation were known by crossbreeds LW x P followed by (by the meatiness) crossbreeds SL x LW (54.71%) and crossbreeds SL x P (54.08%). Pig meat quality of the investigated genotypes was satisfactory. Crossbreeds with Pietrain (SL x P and LW x P) had slightly lower meat water fixation ability (9.70 cm2 and 9. 80 cm2) compared to the crossbreeds LW x SL (8.51cm2). Crossbreeds with Pietrain were also characterized by lower meat colour intensity (2.50 and 2.33) and meat marbling (1.38 and 1.50) compared to colour intensity and meat marbling in crossbreeds LW x SL (2.75 and 2.50). Key-words: pigs, crossbreeds, fattening traits, slaughtering traits (Primljeno 14. o`ujka 2003.; prihva}eno 3. travnja 2003. - Received on 14 March 2003; accepted on 3 April 2003)

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ISSN 1330-7142 UDK = 636.127:636.064

RAZVIJENOST I KORELACIJSKA POVEZANOST SEDMODNEVNE I [ESTOMJESE^NE LIPICANSKE @DREBADI
T. Rastija (1), Z. Antunovi} (1), Mirjana Baban (1), I. Mandi} (2) Izvorni znanstveni ~lanak Original scientific paper
SA@ETAK Pra}enje razvoja `drebadi, naro~ito u prvim mjesecima njihovog `ivota, ukazuje na mogu}nost njihovog uspje{nog izbora. Pravilan postupak s podmlatkom te kvalitetna hranidba dojnih kobila osigurava uspje{an uzgoj `drebadi, koji ima pozitivan utjecaj i na njihov kasniji razvoj. Istra`ivanja su provedena na 82 {estomjese~ne `drebadi. Mjerenja visine grebena, opsega prsa i opsega cjevanice obavljena su sedmi dan nakon `drijebljenja i u dobi od {est mjeseci. Podaci o mjerenju obra|eni su prema statisti~kom programu SPSS/PC (Nie i sur., 1975.). Izra~unata je i korelacijska povezanost izme|u tjelesnih mjera sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne `drebadi. Visina grebena {estomjese~ne u odnosu na sedmodnevnu `drebad pove}ala se je za 35%, opseg prsa za 69%, a opseg cjevanice za 34%. Korelacijska povezanost izme|u navedenih svojstava bila je visoko signifikantna na razini P=0,01 s korelacijskim koeficijentima, a koji su se kretali izme|u r=0,363 i r=0,820. Cilj tih istra`ivanja bio je spoznaja o me|usobnoj povezanosti razvoja `drebadi u ranoj fazi, tj. u fazi sisanja. Klju~ne rije~i: lipicanska pasmina, podmladak, rast i razvoj, korelacije

UVOD
Poznavanje rasta i razvoja podmlatka u konja, naro~ito u prvim mjesecima nakon `drijebljenja, i me|usobni utjecaj pojedinih tjelesnih dimenzija omogu}ava br`i i sigurniji uzgojno selekcijski rad. Prema podacima dostupne literature iz toga podru~ja, intenzivan rast i razvoj pojedinih tjelesnih mjera i njihova me|usobna povezanost u ranijoj `ivotnoj dobi ima pozitivan utjecaj i na kasniji razvoj. Istra`ivanjima o razvoju podmlatka lipicanske i ostalih pasmina konja bavili su se Romi} (1951.), Green (1961.), Stipi} (1980.), Rastija i sur. (1986., 1988., 1995., 1999., 2000., 2001., 2002.), Saastamoinen (1990.), Baban i sur. (1995.) i drugi. Ta istra`ivanja ukazuju na pozitivan me|usobni utjecaj tjelesnih mjera u `drebadi iste i razli~ite dobi.

jednosti, izra~unali smo i korelacijsku povezanost izme|u obra|enih svojstava `drebadi iste i razli~ite dobi. Statisti~ku zna~ajnost koeficijenata korelacije testirali smo “t” testom na razini 5% i 1% signifikantnosti.

REZULTATI I RASPRAVA
Vrijednosti istra`ivanja tjelesnih mjera sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne `drebadi prikazane su u Tablici 1. Vrijednosti istra`ivanja tjelesnih mjera sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne `drebadi lipicanske pasmine prikazane su u Tablici 1. Visina grebena sedmodnevne `drebadi u granicama je karakteristi~nim za lipicansku pasminu. Prema podacima Rastije i sur. (2001.), `drebad na{ih istra`ivanja bila su ni`a za 2,64 cm. Podaci Romi}a (1951.) znatno su slabije vrijednosti od na{ih istra`ivanja (92,82 cm za mu{ku i 92,58 cm za `ensku `drebad). Istra`ivanja Stipi}a (1980.) podudaraju se s na{im vrijednostima, kao i vrijednosti Rastije i sur. (1995. a). Tako|er i vrijednosti drugih istra`ivanja kre}u se u okviru granica za lipicansku pasminu, {to potvr|uje konsolidiranost uzgoja. Opseg prsa od 80,49 cm je manji od vrijednosti do kojih su u svojim
(1) Dr.sc. Tomo Rastija, red. prof., dr.sc. Zvonko Antunovi}, docent i dr.sc. Mirjana Baban, asistent – Sveu~ili{te Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, (2) Ivica Mandi}, dipl.ing. - direktor ergele \akovo.

MATERIJAL I METODE
Istra`ivanja su provedena na 82 `drebadi lipicanske pasmine oba spola. Mjerenja visine grebena Lydtinovim {tapom, opsega prsa i opsega cjevanice obavljena su sto~nom vrpcom na sedmodnevnoj i {estomjese~noj `drebadi. Vrijednosti dobivene mjerenjem obra|ene su prema statisti~kom programu SPSS/PC (Nie i sur., 1975.). Na temelju dobivenih vriPoljoprivreda

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Tablica 1. Tjelesne mjere sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne lipicanske `drebadi (n = 82) Table 1. The physical measures of the seven-day-old and six-month-old Lippizaner foals (n=82)

istra`ivanjima do{li Rastija i sur. (1986., 1995.a, 2001.), Romi} (1951.) i Stipi} (1980.), dok se vrijednosti Mirjane Baban i sur. (1995.) podudaraju s na{im istra`ivanjima. Opseg cjevanice sedmodnevne `drebadi u Tablici 1. bio je manji za 0,40 cm, odnosno 1,35 cm od vrijednosti Stipi}a (1980.), dok se vrijednosti Romi}evih (1951) istra`ivanja podudaraju s na{im podacima. Tako|er su i vrijednosti dobivene po Rastiji i sur. (1986, 2001) neznatno ve}e od vrijednosti u Tablici 1. Navedena istra`ivanja ukazuju na konsolidirani uzgoj i uspje{no provo|enje uzgojno-selekcijskog rada, {to potvr|uju rezultati dosada{njih istra`ivanja. Korelacijska povezanost u Tablici 2. kretala se izme|u slabe do potpune, s korelacijskim koeficijentima od r = 0,363 do 0,824. Najslabija povezanost (r = 0,363) utvr|ena je izme|u opsega prsa sedmodnevne i opsega cjevanice {estomjese~ne `drebadi, dok je najja~a povezanost (r = 0,824) izra~unata izme|u visine grebena i opsega prsa {estomjese~ne `drebadi. Testiranjem dobivenih korelacijskih koeficijenata Tablica 2. Korelacijska povezanost tjelesnih mjera sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne lipicanske `drebadi Table 2. A correlation of physical measures of the sevenday-old and six-month-old Lippizaner foals

utvr|ene su visoko signifikantne povezanosti. Navodi Rastije i sur. (1988.) ukazuju na pozitivan utjecaj visine grebena nakon poroda na visinu grebena u kasnijoj dobi, dok su vi{a `drebad imala ne{to slabije razvijen prsni ko{ u odnosu na ni`u `drebad. Saastamoinen (1990.) ukazuje na visoku korelacijsku povezanost tjelesnih mjera `drebadi u razvoju. Prema podacima Mc Canna i sur. (1988.), korelacijska povezanost tjelesnih mjera `drebadi u razvoju kretala se izme|u slabe i jake. Do sli~nih vrijednosti u svojim istra`ivanjima do{li su Hintz i sur. (1979.), Rastija i sur. (1995.b) utvrdili su pozitivnu povezanost visine grebena i opsega cjevanice podmlatka lipicanaca, koja je ja~e izra`ena kod iste nego razli~ite dobne strukture. Po istra`ivanjima Rastije i sur. (2001.), korelacijska povezanost mu{ke i `enske kao i oba spola lipicanske `drebadi kretala se izme|u slabe i vrlo jake. Rezultati dobivenih istra`ivanja, kao i vrijednosti u dostupnoj literaturi, ukazuju na mogu}nost uspje{nog provo|enja selekcije ve} kod podmlatka `drebadi, zbog pozitivne povezanosti tjelesnih mjera istodobne i `drebadi razli~ite dobi.

ZAKLJU^AK
Na temelju provedenih istra`ivanja razvoja podmlatka lipicanske pasmine, mo`e se zaklju~iti: - Visina grebena sedmodnevne lipicanske `drebadi iznosila je 100,988 cm, a {estomjese~ne 136,683 cm, odnosno 35,43% ve}a u odnosu na visinu sedmodnevne `drebadi. - Opseg prsa {estomjese~ne `drebadi u odnosu na sedmodnevnu `drebad pove}ao se za 69,20%, a opseg cjevanice za 33,67%. - Korelacijska povezanost izme|u navedenih svojstava sedmodnevne i {estomjese~ne lipicanske `drebadi kretala se izme|u slabe i vrlo jake, s korelacijskim koeficijentima od r = 0,363 do r = 0,824. - Povezanost je ja~e izra`ena izme|u tjelesnih mjera `drebadi iste dobi nego izme|u razli~ite dobi. - Testiranjem je utvr|ena visoko signifikantna povezanost izme|u tjelesnih mjera `drebadi. - Poznavanje povezanosti izme|u tjelesnih mjera iste i razli~ite dobi omogu}ava uspje{no provo|enje selekcije u uzgoju konja.
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1 = visina grebena sedmodnevne `drebadi – withers height of the seven-day-old foals 2 = opseg prsa sedmodnevne `drebadi – chest girth of the seven-day-old foals 3 = opseg cjevanice sedmodnevne `drebadi – cannon bone circumference of the seven-day-old foals 4 = visina grebena {estomjese~ne `drebadi – withers height of the six-month old foals 5 = opseg prsa {estomjese~ne `drebadi – withers height of the six- month old foals 6 = opseg cjevanice {estomjese~ne `drebadi - cannon bone circumference of the six- month old foals

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Baban, M., Rastija, T., Kne`evi}, I., Ljube{i}, J. (1995.): Komparacija razvoja tjelesnih mjera lipicanske `drebadi po linijama. Poljoprivreda, 1(1):1.-7. Butler, I., Kelnhofer, R., Pirchner, F. (1986): Phenotypic correlations between conformation and performance traits of trotters. 37 th Ann. Meet. of Eur. Assoc. for Anim. Prod. Green, D.A. (1961): A review of studies on the growth rate of the horse. Br. Vet. J. 117, 181-191. Hintz, R.L., Hintz, H.F., Vleck, L.D. (1979): Growth rate of Thoroughbreds. Effect of age of dam, year and month of birth, and sex of foal. J. Anim. Sci. 48, 480-487. McCann, J.S., Heird, J.C., Ramsey, C.B., Long, R.A. (1988): Skeletal bone and muscle proportionality in small-and large-framed mature horses of different muscle thickness. Equine Vet. Sci. 8, 255-261. Nie, N., H., Hul, C.H., Jenkins, G. J., Steinbrenner, K., Dole, H.B. (1975): Statistical Package for the Society Sciences 2 nd ed New York, Mc Grow-Hill. Rastija, T., Ljube{i}, J., Mandi}, I. (1986.): Komparativni prikaz razvoja `drebadi lipicanske pasmine. Sto~arstvo, 40(7-8):249.-253. Rastija, T., Kne`evi}, I., Bari{i}, A. (1988.): Korelacijska povezanost razvoja tjelesnih mjera `drebadi lipicanske pasmine. Znan. prak. poljop. tehnol. 18(3-4):309.-315. Rastija, T., Baban, M., Kne`evi}, I. (1995.a): Usporedba nekih svojstava rasta mu{ke i `enske lipicanske `drebadi. Sto~arstvo, 49(3-4):89.-93.

10. Rastija, T., Kne`evi}, I., Jovanovac, S., Mandi}, I., (1995 b): Heritability and phenotypic correlations among measurements of lipizzaner horses. Sto~arstvo, 9-12, 299-302. 11. Rastija, T., Ljube{i}, J., Sukali}, M., Baban Mirjana, Kne`evi}, I. (1999.): Tjelesne mjere `drebadi holstein pasmine u razvoju. Poljoprivreda 5(1):27.-30. 12. Rastija, T., Ljube{i}, J., Antunovi}, Z., Baban Mirjana, Sele{, J. (2000.): Utjecaj visine grebena, opsega prsa i opsega cjevanice nakon poroda na razvoj `drebadi holstein pasmine. Sto~arstvo, 54(6):419.-426. 13. Rastija T., Kne`evi}, I., Antunovi}, Z., Bukvi}, @., Gutzmirtl D., Mandi}, I. (2001.): Povezanost razvoja `drebadi lipicanske pasmine u fazi sisanja. Sto~arstvo, 55(1):3.-12. 14. Rastija, T. Antunovi}, Z., Bukvi}, @., Baban Mirjana, Bogut. I. (2001.): Povezanost tjelesnih mjera {estomjese~ne i dvogodi{nje `drebadi holstein pasmine. Sto~arstvo 55(2):83.-89. 15. Rastija, T., Ljube{i}, J., Antunovi}, Z., Baban Mirjana, Bogut. I. (2002): Effect of some holstein foals birth body measurements on later development. Sto~arstvo 56(1):3-13. 16. Romi}, S. (1951.): Razvoj lipicanca do tri godine. Veterinarski arhiv, 7-8. 17. Saastamoinen, M. (1990): Heritabilities for body size and growth rate and phenotypic correlations among measurements in young horses. ActaAgriculturae Scandinavica 40(4):377-386. 18. Stipi}, L. (1980.): Ispitivanje populacije i uzgojnog procesa |akova~kog lipicanca. Sto~arstvo, 34: 291.-300.

THE DEVELOPMENT AND CORRELATION OF THE SEVEN-DAY-OLD AND SIX-MONTH-OLD LIPPIZANER BREED FOALS
SUMMARY Observation at he foals development, especially in their first months of life, gives a possibility of their successful selection. A correct offspring treatment from the early age and a quality feeding of lactating mares ensures a successful foals breeding, which has a positive influence on their further development. Eighty two six-month-old foals were included into the research. Measuring of the withers height, chest girth and cannon bone circumference were done seven days after foaling and at the age of six months. The measuring data were processed by the statistical program SPSS/PC (Nie et al., 1975). A correlation between physical measures of the seven-day-old and six-monthold foals was summed. Withers height of the six-month-old in relation to the seven-day-old foals increased by 35%, the chest girth by 69% and the cannon bone circumference by 34%. The correlation among attained values was highly significant at the level P=0.01 with correlation coefficients ranging between r=0,363 and r=0,820. The aim of this research was to get an insight of the mutual connection of foals development in the early phase, i.e. in the suckling phase. Key-words: the Lippizaner breed, offspring, growth and development, correlation (Primljeno 20. o`ujka 2003.; prihva}eno 7. travnja 2003. - Received on 20 March 2003; accepted on 7 April 2003)
Poljoprivreda

9 (2003)

UPUTE AUTORIMA
"POLJOPRIVREDA znanstveno-stru~ni ~asopis" (ISSN 1330-7142), kojega publiciraju Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku i Poljoprivredni institut Osijek, objavljuje znanstvene i stru~ne radove na hrvatskom i engleskom jeziku. Objavljuju se radovi koji nisu tiskani u drugim ~asopisima, niti predani u tisak. Izvodi, sa`eci, sinopsisi, magistarski radovi, disertacije te izlaganja na znanstvenim i stru~nim skupovima ne smatraju se objavljenim radovima. U dodatku ~asopisa mogu se objaviti prikazi knjiga ili njihove recenzije, kra}i prijevodi, osvrti i vijesti iz podru~ja poljoprivrede. Radovi se {alju u Uredni{tvo ~asopisa u 2 primjerka, a moraju zadovoljiti sljede}e tehni~ke propozicije: • Maksimalni obujam rada (uklju~uju}i tablice, grafikone, slike i sheme) je 10 stranica A-4 formata (max. znakova 30000, uklju~uju}i razmake izme|u rije~i), sa`etka disertacije 2 stranice, a sa`etka magistarskog rada 1 stranica. • Tekst mora biti pisati u Microfoft Word for Windows, verzija 6.0 ili vi{a, Font Times New Roman, s duplim proredom. Sve margine su 2,5 cm. • Cijeli rad treba pisati veli~inom slova 11, osim naslova rada (12), naslova i sadr`aja tablica (10) te sa`etaka (10). Naslov rada i poglavlja treba pisati velikim podebljanim slovima. • Grafikoni, slike i sheme trebaju biti ~isti, pregledni i snimljeni u Winword obliku te editirani kao integralni dio rada tj. u tekstu gdje dolaze. Radi sigurnije izvedbe tiskanja rada potrebito ih je tako|er dostaviti i u jednom od grafi~kih ili slikovnih formata (*.xls, *.tiff ili *.jpg), isklju~ivo u crno-bijeloj tehnici. Naslovi i sadr`aji tablica, grafikona, slika i shema u radu moraju biti prevedeni i na engleski jezik, i obrnuto. Ako je rad na hrvatskom jeziku, naslove tablica, grafikona, slika i shema treba pisati podebljanim slovima, a engleske prijevode njihovih naslova, kao i sadr`aja, treba pisati u kurzivu neboldiranim slovima, i obrnuto. • Po~etak odlomka (pasusa) u tekstu ne smije se uvla~iti tabelator tipkom, a odlomke treba razdijeliti tipkom ENTER. Treba koristiti automatsku numeraciju stranica (pozicija dolje desno). • Puna imena i prezimena autora, sa zvanjima i adresama ustanova u kojima rade (veli~ina slova 10, kurziv) stavljaju se na kraju prve stranice ispod crte duge 3 cm i ne smiju se pisati u programu automatske fusnote. U slu~aju da rad zahtijeva pisanje fusnota, po`eljno je koristiti automatske fusnote. • Citirani autori u radu ne smiju biti podebljani, pisani u kurzivu niti velikim slovima. • Za pisanje decimalnih brojeva u tekstovima i tablicama na hrvatskom jeziku treba koristiti isklju~ivo zareze, odnosno u engleskoj verziji isklju~ivo to~ke. U hrvatskim tekstovima i tablicama, kao i u popisu literature, iza svih spomenutih godina obvezno dolazi to~ka. Radovi }e biti recenzirani od najmanje 2 recenzenta iz odgovaraju}eg podru~ja i lektorirani. Recenzenti obavljaju kategorizaciju radova: izvorni znanstveni ~lanak (original scientific paper), pregledni znanstveni ~lanak (scientific review), prethodno priop}enje (preliminary communication), izlaganje na znanstvenom skupu (conference paper), stru~ni ~lanak (professional paper). Svi radovi dobivaju UDK klasifikacijski broj (rad se kategorizira prema odre|enim podru~jima). Radovi tiskani na hrvatskom jeziku moraju imati kurzivom napisane engleske prijevode Naslova, Sa`etka, Klju~nih rije~i te tablica i grafikona, i obrnuto. U radu tiskanom na hrvatskom jeziku engleske verzije Sa`etka i Klju~nih rije~i dolaze na kraju rada, iza poglavlja Literatura, i obrnuto. Radovi u pravilu sadr`e: NASLOV: treba biti {to kra}i, informativan, pisan velikim tiskanim (podebljanim) slovima, font 12. Ispod naslova dolaze inicijali imena (`enski autori puno ime) i prezime autora bez akademske titule, a iza svakog prezimena ozna~iti eksponentom ukoliko autori nisu iz iste ustanove (podebljanim slovima u kurzivu font 11). SA@ETAK: jezgrovit prikaz rada koji ~itatelju omogu}ava procjenu zanimljivosti rada. Sa`etak treba biti napisan podebljanim slovima u kurzivu (font 10) i da se bez ve}e prerade mo`e tiskati u referalnim ~asopisima. Optimalna du`ina je oko 100 rije~i. Sa`etak mora sadr`avati klju~ne rije~i bitne zbog uklju~ivanja u informacijske sustave, a koje tako|er treba pisati podebljanim slovima u kurzivu (font 10). UVOD: izla`e se ideja i cilj provedenih istra`ivanja, a mo`e se dati vrlo selektivan osvrt na literaturu, ako nema posebnog poglavlja "Pregled literature". MATERIJAL I METODE: detaljno se opisuju samo nove ili modificirane metode. Za poznate metode i postupke daje se samo literaturni izvor. REZULTATI I RASPRAVA: opisuju se utvr|ene ~injenice i zakonitosti, obja{njavaju pojave te potvr|uje ili negira postavljena hipoteza. U raspravi treba usporedbom s radovima drugih autora potkrijepiti zna~aj vlastitih istra`ivanja. Treba voditi ra~una da se isti podaci ne ponavljaju u tablicama, grafikonima te ponovno u tekstu. ZAKLJU^AK: sadr`i sintezu istra`ivanja i rezultata. Pri njegovom pisanju va`na je postupnost u izlaganju. LITERATURA: pi{e se abecednim redom s rednim brojem ispred prvog autora, s punim podacima (autori, godina, naziv reference, izdava~, mjesto izdavanja, stranice). Autore ne pisati velikim slovima. Zadnju verziju rada, ispravljenu prema primjedbama recenzenata, treba poslati Uredni{tvu u jednom primjerku, kao i snimak rada na disketi. Rukopisi radova i diskete se ne vra}aju. Adresa: Uredni{tvo ~asopisa "Poljoprivreda", Poljoprivredni fakultet u Osijeku, Trg sv.Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek Kontakt osobe i tehni~ki urednici: Manda Antunovi}, tel. +385 31 224 255; Fax: +385 31 207 017; E-mail: Manda.Antunovic@pfos.hr i Danica Han`ek, tel. +385 31 224 240; E-mail: dhanzek@pfos.hr
Poljoprivreda

9 (2003)

GUIDELINES FOR CONTRIBUTORS
"AGRICULTURE Scientific and Professional Review" (ISSN 1330-7142) is published by The Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek and The Osijek Agricultural Institute. Scientific and professional papers are published in both Croatian and English language. Papers are accepted on the understanding that they have not been or will be published elsewhere. Inferences, summaries, synopses, master's theses, dissertations as well as presentations at symposia are not considered as published papers. Book surveys or their reviews, short translations and communications covering agriculture field will also be published in the journal supplement. The manuscripts submitted to Editorial Board in2 copies and should meet propositions as follows: • Maximum paper scope (including tables, graphs, figures and other supplements) is 10 printed pages of A-4 format (30 000 characters, including spaces between words), dissertation summary 2 pages and master's one 1 page. • Text should be written in Microsoft Word for Windows version 6.0 or higher, Font Times New Roman, with line spacing 2. All margins should be 2.5 cm • The whole text should be written in letters sized 11 except head title (size 12), authors' names and addresses, summaries and graphs and tables description (size 10). Headtitle and subtitles of the sections should be written in bolded capital letters. • Initial paragraph must not be drawn in, neither key tabulator can be used, paragraphs should be divided by ENTER key. 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Papers are classified by reviewers into: original scientific paper, scientific review, preliminary communication, conference paper and professional paper. All papers have UDK classification number (a paper is classified per certain fields). Titles, summaries, key-words, tables and graphs of the papers printed in Croatian language must be written in English (italic) and vice versa. English version of summary and key-words in the Croatian printed text is placed at the end of the paper after Literature chapter and vice versa. Generally, all papers should be divided into the following sections: TITLE: Should be as short as possible, informative, written in capital (bolded) letters, font 12. Initials of authors' name (full name for females) and surname without academic titles should be placed below the title. Each surname should be followed by an exponent if authors do not work in the same institution (bolded letters in italic font 11). 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Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia Contact persons and technical editors: Manda Antunovi}, Tel.: +385 31 224 255; Fax: +385 31 207 017; E-mail: Manda.Antunovic@pfos.hr and Danica Han`ek, Tel. + 385 31 224 240; E-mail: dhanzek@pfos.hr

Poljoprivreda

9 (2003)

UDK 63

ISSN 1330-7142

AGRICULTURE
Scientific and Professional Review

Volume 9; Number 1; June, 2003
CONTENTS Z. Zduni}, D. [imi}, I. Brki}, A. Jambrovi}, Renata Zduni}, Tatjana Leden~an ESTIMATION OF GENETIC EFFECTS ON PLANT HEIGHT IN TWO SPECIFIC PAIRS OF INBRED LINES AND ITS SIX BASIC GENERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Manda Antunovi}, V. Kova~evi}, Mirta Rastija, Z. Zduni} INFLUENCES OF SOIL AND GENOTYPES ON MICRONUTRIENTS STATUS IN MAIZE PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 V. Kova~evi}, I. Brki} INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM CHLORIDE ON YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CORN HYBRIDS . . . . . . . . . 15 B. [imi}, V. Kova~evi}, Zorica Jurkovi} RESPONSE OF MAIZE GENOTYPES TO FERTILIZATION ON HYDROMORPHIC SOIL OF SAVA VALLEY . . . . . . . . 20 Mira Kne`evi}, Marija \urki}, I. Kne`evi}, K. Hajba INFLUENCE OF SOIL TILLAGE AND LOW HERBICIDE DOSES ON WEED POPULATIONS AND SPRING BARLEY YIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 A. Kristek, Zvjezdana Magud, Manda Antunovi}, Suzana Kristek THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET MONOGERM LINES DEPENDING ON CERCOSPORA (Cercospora beticola Sacc.) SUSCEPTIBILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 T. ^upi}, S. Popovi}, Marijana Tucak, M. Stjepanovi}, Sonja Grlju{i} ESTIMATION OF PEA GRAIN YIELD STABILITY (Pisum sativum L.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 T. Karadeniz, A. Kazankaya, T. Yarilgaç DETERMINATION OF THE POMOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALMONDS (Prunus amygdalus Batsh) GROWN IN MALATYA (TURKEY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 M.Yercan, S. Engindeniz PROFITABILTY OF DRIED FIG PRODUCTION (A CASE STUDY OF TURKEY) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 P . Miji}, I. Kne`evi} NEW WAY OF EVALUATING COW MILK IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 \. Sen~i}, Marcela [peranda, Z. Antunovi}, T. [peranda FATTENING AND MEATINESS OF SOME TWO CROSSBREEDS IN PIGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

T. Rastija, Z. Antunovi}, Mirjana Baban, I. Mandi} THE DEVELOPMENT AND CORRELATION OF THE SEVEN-DAY-OLD AND SIX-MONTH-OLD LIPPIZANER BREED FOALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

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OSIJEK 2003. Vol. 9