Guide for Building and Classing Floating Production Installations

GUIDE FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING
FLOATING PRODUCTION INSTALLATIONS

JULY 2009 (Updated July 2012 – see next page)
American Bureau of Shipping
Incorporated by Act of Legislature of
the State of New York 1862
Copyright  2009
American Bureau of Shipping
ABS Plaza
16855 Northchase Drive
Houston, TX 77060 USA

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Updates
July 2012 consolidation includes:
• November 2010 version plus Notice No. 1 and Corrigneda/Editorials
November 2010 consolidation includes:
• April 2010 version plus Corrigneda/Editorials
April 2010 consolidation includes:
• November 2009 version plus Corrigneda/Editorials
November 2009 consolidation includes:
• July 2009 version plus Corrigneda/Editorials


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Foreword
F o r e w o r d
Foreword
This Guide specifies the ABS requirements for building and classing Floating Production Installations
(FPIs) that should be used by designers, builders, Owners and Operators in the offshore industry. The
requirements contained in this Guide are for design, construction, and survey after construction of the
floating installation (including hull structure, equipment and marine machinery), the position mooring
system and the hydrocarbon production facilities. Floating installations of the ship-type, column-
stabilized-type, tension leg platforms and spar installations are included, as well as existing vessels
converted to FPIs. The requirements for optional notations for disconnectable floating installations,
dynamic positioning systems and import/export systems are also provided. This Guide is to be used in
conjunction with other ABS Rules and Guides, as specified herein.
The effective date of this Guide is 1 July 2009. In general, until the effective date, plan approval for
designs will follow prior practice unless review under this Guide is specifically requested by the party
signatory to the application for classification.
The 2009 edition of the Guide for Building and Classing Floating Production Installations is a reorganization
of the September 2007 edition of the FPI Guide with modifications and updates for ship-type Floating
Production Installations. The 2009 edition consists of the seven (7) Parts as shown in Table 1 below. In
general these seven Parts subdivide the Guide into parts that are more consistent with other ABS Rules.
The primary modifications are described in the following:
a) PART 5A “Ship-Type Installations” reflects changes in the requirements for both new builds and
conversions to FPI. There are changes to the loading conditions, strength and fatigue assessment
procedures and hull interface structure analysis procedures. Conversions to FPI also require finite
element analysis of the converted hull structure.
b) PART 5B “Other Installation Types” which address Column-Stabilized units, Tension-Leg
Platforms and Spars essentially remains unchanged from the 2007 edition.
The primary changes from the September 2007 edition of the Guide are for Ship-Type Conversions to
Floating Production Installations as identified and listed below.
• Analysis and Design of Other Major Hull Structural Features (Section 5A-1-4).
• Steel Renewal Assessment (Section 5A-2-2)
• Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life) (Section 5A-2-3).
• Finite Element Analysis (5A-1-3/3.3, 3.5, 3.7 and Appendix 5A-3-A4).
• Loading patterns in 5A-3-2/Figures 1A to 1D.
• Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Strength Members (Appendix 5A-2-A1).
• Hull Girder Ultimate Strength (5A-3-3/3.5 and Appendix 5A-3-A3).
• Fatigue Assessment – Loading Conditions (5A-3-A2/7.5).
• Fatigue Assessment of Structures Considering Low Cycle Fatigue (5A-3-A2/15).
• Column-Stabilized Installations (Sections 5B-1-1 and 5B-1-2).
• Wave Impact Criteria (Appendix 5B-A1).
• Hull Surveys (Part 7, Chapter 2).


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TABLE 1
Applicable Editions of Booklets Comprising the 2009 Guide
Part 1: Conditions of Classification (Supplement to the ABS
Rules for Condition of Classification – Offshore Units
and Structures)
2009
Part 2: Materials and Welding 2009
Part 3: Installation Types, Functions, Features and General
Requirements
2009
Part 4: Units Systems (Process and Import/Export) 2009
Part 5A: Ship-Type Installations 2009
Part 5B: Other Installation Types 2009
Part 6: Mooring Systems 2009
Part 7: Surveys After Construction 2009

Changes to Conditions of Classification (1 January 2008)
For the 2008 edition, Part 1, Chapter 1, “Scope and Conditions of Classification” was consolidated into a
generic booklet, entitled Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) for
all units, installations, vessels or systems in offshore service. The purpose of this consolidation was to
emphasize the common applicability of the classification requirements in “Part 1, Chapter 1” to ABS-
classed offshore units, pipelines, risers, and other offshore structures, and thereby make “Conditions of
Classification” more readily a common Rule of the various ABS Rules and Guides, as appropriate.
Thus, Part 1, Chapter 1 of this Guide specifies only the unique requirements applicable to floating
production installations. These supplemental requirements are always to be used with the aforementioned
Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).


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Table of Contents
GUIDE FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING
FLOATING PRODUCTION INSTALLATIONS

CONTENTS
PART 1 Conditions of Classification (Supplement to the ABS Rules for
Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures) .......... 1
Chapter 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification ................................. 2
[See also separately published booklet ABS Rules for Conditions of
Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1)]

PART 2 Materials and Welding ......................................................................... 20
[See separately published booklet ABS Rules for Materials and Welding (Part 2)]

PART 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General
Requirements ....................................................................................... 21
Chapter 1 General Description ............................................................. 22
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading ........................... 31
Chapter 3 General Requirements ......................................................... 42
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up and Commissioning ........................... 46

Appendix 1 Abbreviations and References ............................................. 60

PART 4 Process and Import/Export Systems .................................................. 64
Chapter 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems .................. 65
Chapter 2 Import and Export Systems ................................................. 80

PART 5A Ship-Type Installations ........................................................................ 88
Chapter 1 Design Considerations ......................................................... 90
Chapter 2 Conversions to FPI ............................................................ 114
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements ........................................ 143
Chapter 4 Ship-Type Installations Under 150 meters (492 feet) in
Length ................................................................................ 410

PART 5B Other Installation Types .................................................................... 439
Chapter 1 Column-Stabilized Installations .......................................... 440
Chapter 2 Tension Leg Platforms ....................................................... 458
Chapter 3 Spar Installations ............................................................... 485

Appendix 1 Wave Impact Criteria ......................................................... 512

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PART 6 Mooring Systems................................................................................ 518
Chapter 1 Position Mooring Systems ................................................. 519
Chapter 2 Single Point Moorings ........................................................ 529
Chapter 3 Mooring Systems Surveys ................................................. 532

PART 7 Surveys ............................................................................................... 534
Chapter 1 Surveys During Installation and Commissioning ............... 535
Chapter 2 Surveys After Construction ................................................ 548

Appendix 1 Guidance for the Class Notation, Storage Service ............ 603

APPENDIX 1 Comparison of the Numbering System of the 2007 Guide vs.
the 2009 Guide .................................................................................... 607



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PART Part 1: Conditions of Classification (Supplement to the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures)
1
Conditions of Classification
(Supplement to the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units
and Structures)
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification ............................................... 3
Section 1 Classification .......................................................................... 4
Section 2 System Classification, Symbols and Notations ..................... 5
Section 3 Rules and the Criteria Presented for Classification ............. 14
Section 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations ....................... 16



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PART C h a p t e r 1 : S c o p e a n d C o n d i t i o n s o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
1
CHAPT ER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Classification .......................................................................................... 4

SECTION 2 System Classification, Symbols and Notations ................................... 5
1 Classification Boundaries .................................................................... 5
3 Classification Symbols and Notations ................................................. 5
3.1 New Construction ............................................................................ 5
3.3 Conversion to FPI ............................................................................ 6
3.5 Floating Offshore Installation ........................................................... 6
5 Additional Class Notations .................................................................. 7
5.1 Disconnectable System ................................................................... 7
5.3 Classification of Dynamic Positioning Systems ............................... 7
5.5 Classification of Additional Equipment and Systems ....................... 7
5.7 Dynamic Loading Approach (DLA) .................................................. 7
5.9 Strength Criteria for Ship-Type Installations .................................... 8
5.10 Strength Criteria for Other Installation Types ................................... 9
5.11 Design Life and Design Fatigue Life .............................................. 10
5.12 Spectral Fatigue Analysis .............................................................. 12
5.13 Additional Corrosion Margin .......................................................... 12
5.15 Hull Construction Monitoring Program ........................................... 13
7 À AMS Notation ................................................................................ 13
9 Notations for Automatic or Remote Control and Monitoring
Systems ............................................................................................ 13
9.1 À ACC or À ACCU Notations ........................................................ 13
9.3 À AMCC or À AMCCU Notations .................................................. 13
11 Temporary Mooring Equipment Symbol ........................................... 13
13 Conversion of Existing Vessels or Floating Structures ..................... 13
15 Significant Change of Operating Conditions Affecting Safety of
Unit or Personnel .............................................................................. 13

SECTION 3 Rules and the Criteria Presented for Classification .......................... 14
1 Application ......................................................................................... 14
1.1 General .......................................................................................... 14
1.3 Application ..................................................................................... 14
3 Reference Standards ........................................................................ 14
5 Risk Evaluations for Alternative Arrangements and Novel
Features ............................................................................................ 14


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SECTION 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations ..................................... 16
1 Design Plans and Data ..................................................................... 16
3 Position Mooring System Design Documentation ............................ 17
5 Production Facilities and Production Support Facilities .................... 17
7 Marine Systems and Machinery Plans ............................................. 18
9 Additional Plans ................................................................................ 19
11 Manuals and Procedures .................................................................. 19
11.1 Operations Manual ........................................................................ 19
11.3 Procedures .................................................................................... 19



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PART S e c t i o n 1 : C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
1
CHAPT ER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECT I ON 1 Classification (1 January 2008)

The requirements for conditions of classification are contained in the separate, generic ABS Rules for
Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).
Additional requirements specific to floating production installations are contained in the following
Sections.


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PART Section 2: System Classification, Symbols and Notations
1
CHAPT ER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECT I ON 2 System Classification, Symbols and Notations
(1 January 2008)

A listing of Classification Symbols and Notations available to the Owners of vessels, offshore drilling and
production units and other marine structures and systems, “List of ABS Notations and Symbols” is
available from the ABS website “http://www.eagle.org”.
The following classification boundaries, symbols and notations are specific to floating production installations.
1 Classification Boundaries (1 July 2012)
The classification of a Floating Production Installation (FPI) includes three major items: the installation, its
position mooring system, and its production facilities.
Classification of additional equipment and systems may be offered if requested by the Owner. (See 3-1-1/3.)
Where Import and or Export Risers provide substantial mooring restraint, the design, construction and
classification of the Riser(s) providing restraint and their connection to the seabed will require special
consideration.
3 Classification Symbols and Notations (1 July 2012)
The Maltese Cross, À, symbol is assigned to Floating Production Installations for which the hull construction
and/or the manufacture and installation of its machinery and components and any associated required testing,
as applicable, and the on-site installation (for site specific FPIs) and commissioning tests and trials of the
FPI is carried out under ABS survey. For FPIs constructed under survey of another recognized Classification
Society or Authority, the Maltese Cross, À, symbol will be omitted from the applicable classification
notations.
A1 is a classification symbol that, together with the Maltese Cross À symbol, indicates compliance with
the hull requirements of the ABS Rules, Guides, or their equivalent for service and survey by ABS during
construction of the vessel. The symbols À A1 may be followed by appropriate FPI type notation such as
the notations shown in 1-1-2/3.1 of this Guide.
3.1 New Construction
Systems that have been built, installed and commissioned to the requirements of the Rules and to the satisfaction
of the ABS Surveyors, where approved by ABS for service for the specified design environmental conditions,
are to be classed and distinguished in the ABS Record by the symbol À A1, followed by the appropriate
notation for the intended service and hull type given below:
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System (hull type)
Floating Production (and Offloading) System (hull type)
Floating Storage and Offloading System (hull type)
The above class notations cover the following components:
i) Floating Production Installation, including its hull structure, applicable marine systems and associated
equipment and machinery, safety systems and associated equipment, life saving appliances machinery
under one of the above notations, subject to the requirements of this Guide.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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ii) Position Mooring System according to the requirements of this Guide.
iii) Topside Production Facilities according to the requirements of the ABS Guide for Building and
Classing Facilities on Offshore Installations (Facilities Guide) and this Guide.
The service notation will be appended by one of the following (Ship-Type), (Column-Stabilized), (TLP),
or (Spar) to indicate the hull type. The hull structural configurations of these installations are described in
Section 3-1-2.
Examples of notations for installations are:
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System (Ship-Type)
Floating Production (and Offloading) System (Ship-Type)
Floating Offshore Installation (Spar)
Floating Production (and Offloading) System (TLP)
Floating Offshore Installation (Column Stabilized)
3.3 Conversion to FPI
3.3.1 Conversion of Existing Vessel
An existing vessel is a vessel that has been issued a Certificate of Classification. When an existing
vessel is converted to an FPI, and is classed under the provisions of Section 5A-2-1, it will be
distinguished in the ABS Record by the symbol A1, followed by the appropriate notation for the
intended service, the notation (Ship-Type) and the qualifier (CI). If the existing vessel being
converted is currently in ABS class with À, then the À would be maintained for the converted FPI.
Examples of notations are:
À Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System (Ship-Type) (CI)
À Floating Offshore Installation (Ship-Type) (CI)
3.3.2 Conversion of Vessel Design or Vessel Under Construction
3.3.2(a) A vessel's design that has been approved by ABS or another IACS member and is to be
converted to an FPI, can either be classed under the provisions of 1-1-2/3.3.1 and Section 5A-2-1
as an FPI conversion, or it can be classed as a new build FPI under the provisions of 1-1-2/3.1.
3.3.2(b) A vessel under construction that has not been issued a Certificate of Classification, and
its design has been approved by ABS or another IACS member, can either be classed under the
provisions of 1-1-2/3.3.1 and Section 5A-2-1 as an FPI conversion, or it can be classed as a new
build FPI under the provisions of 1-1-2/3.1.
3.5 Floating Offshore Installation
Where an installation is fitted with production facilities, but the optional classification of the topside production
facilities is not requested, the installation will be classed and distinguished in the ABS Record by the symbol
À A1, followed by the notation Floating Offshore Installation (hull type), provided the installation
and its position mooring system comply with the applicable requirements. On a Floating Offshore Installation
(FOI), certain systems and equipment for the production facilities are to be in compliance with 4-1-1/3 of
this Guide.
Where an installation is fitted with production facilities, but the optional classification of the topside production
facilities is not requested, but the essential safety features of the production facilities in compliance with
4-1-1/5 are approved by ABS, the installation will be classed and distinguished in the ABS Record by the
symbol À A1, followed by the notation Floating Offshore Installation (hull type). “Production Facilities”
will be indicated in the Record. Compliance with the applicable requirements for the installation and
position mooring system is required.
In either case, the scope of classification for an FOI includes the shipboard systems, including the electrical
system circuit protection for the production facilities and production fire fighting equipment. In addition,
topside structures and modules are to comply with Section 5A-1-5, 5B-1-2/1.3, 5B-3-3/5.3, 5B-2-3/5.1 or
5B 2 3/5.3 as appropriate.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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5 Additional Class Notations
5.1 Disconnectable System
A floating installation system that has a propulsion system and a means of disengaging the installation
from its mooring and riser systems to allow the installation to ride out severe weather or seek refuge under
its own power for a specified design environmental condition will be classed with the above designations
and with notations (Disconnectable) À AMS at the end. One example of such class designation is:
À A1 Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System (Ship-Type)
(Disconnectable), À AMS
See 1-1-2/7 of this Guide for À AMS notation.
5.3 Classification of Dynamic Positioning Systems (1 July 2012)
Dynamic positioning systems installed for station keeping purposes, will be denoted by the notation DPS
(see 4-3-5/15 of the Steel Vessel Rules).
5.5 Classification of Additional Equipment and Systems (1 July 2012)
Additional equipment and systems, such as the subsea template, Import (or Export) PLEMs and the Import
(or Export) system may be considered at the Owner’s request. Where the import and export systems are
built in full compliance with the requirements of Part 4, Chapter 2 of this Guide, the installation will be
classed and distinguished in the Record by the notation IMP-EXP. The notations IMP or EXP will be
applied to the installation when only the import system or the export system, respectively, is built in full
compliance with the requirements of Part 4 Chapter 2 of this Guide. These notations for import and export
systems are optional.
5.7 Dynamic Loading Approach (DLA) (1 July 2012)
Where the system’s hull structure has been built to plans reviewed in accordance with the procedure and
criteria in the ABS Guide for “Dynamic Loading Approach” for Floating Production, Storage and Offloading
(FPSO) Systems for calculating and evaluating the behavior of hull structures under dynamic loading
conditions, in addition to compliance with other requirements of the Rules, the installation will be classed
and distinguished in the Record by the notation DLA. The DLA notation will be placed after the
appropriate hull classification notation. The application of the dynamic loading approach is optional.
The dynamic load components considered in the evaluation of the hull structure are to include the external
hydrodynamic pressure loads, internal dynamic loads (fluids stored onboard, ballast, major equipment items,
etc.) and inertial loads of the hull structure. The magnitude of the load components and their combinations
are to be determined from appropriate ship motion response calculations for loading conditions that represent
the envelope of maximum dynamically-induced stresses in the installation. The adequacy of the hull structure
for all combinations of the dynamic loadings is to be evaluated using an acceptable finite element analysis
method. In no case are the structural scantlings to be less than those obtained from other requirements in
this Guide.
The basic notation DLA is applied when the hydrodynamic loads have been determined using the wave
environment of the North Atlantic as if the installation is a trading vessel with a 20- to 25-year service life.
If the wave environment of the intended site is used during the analysis, the notation will include an S
qualifier, followed by the design return period at the defined site. For example, if the 100-year return
period was used, the following may apply: DLA (S100). Transit conditions to the intended site are also to
be included in the DLA evaluation.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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5.9 Strength Criteria for Ship-Type Installations (1 July 2012)
Ship-type installations of 150 meters (492 feet) or more in length that are designed and built to the
requirements of Part 5A of this Guide and Section 5C-1-7 of the Steel Vessel Rules will be identified in the
Record by the notation as given in 1-1-2/3 of this Guide.
The basic notation of 1-1-2/3 of this Guide is applied when the dynamic loads have been determined using
the wave environment representative of unrestricted service, i.e., for North Atlantic exposure as if the
installation is a trading vessel with a 20- to 25-year service life. There are several additional qualifiers,
described in the following sub sections, covering site-specific wave environment, definition of the site and
whether the installation has been converted from an existing vessel.
5.9.1 New Construction
For new-build ship-type installations where transit condition and site-specific environmental data
have been used per this Guide in lieu of North Atlantic data, the basic notation is to be followed
by the (S) qualifier. This qualifier will then be followed by the definition of the site. For example,
(S) Brazil Santos Basin.
5.9.2 Conversion of Existing Vessel to FPI
For a converted installation where the trading vessel and site-specific environmental data have
been used per this Guide, the basic notation is followed by the qualifier (CI). The (CI) qualifier
will be followed by the definition of the site. For example, (CI) Brazil Santos Basin.
5.9.3 Relocation of FPI
As site specific units, FPIs are designed and classed taking into consideration the location where
they will operate and the intended period of operation. When the FPI is relocated to a new site, either
within the same field or in a different operating area, or when the intended period of operation is
extended, the strength of the unit is to be reassessed to satisfy that the unit will remain in compliance
with applicable requirements as described below.
5.9.3(a) Relocation within the Same Field. When an FPI is relocated within the same field or the
same operating area, the environmental conditions are expected to remain identical to those considered
during the original classification process for the current site.
If the environmental conditions for the field or operating area have been revised since the original
approval due to new environmental data or changing environmental conditions (e.g., new
environmental data in the Gulf of Mexico after hurricanes Rita and Katrina), the Coastal State may
require the use of new environmental conditions for the relocation, in which case the same
requirements as relocation to a different operating area will apply.
The expected operating life in the new location may be within the originally considered design life
or otherwise, it may extend beyond the original design life period. In the latter case, in addition to
the requirements for relocation, the requirements for life extension will apply.
It is expected that relocation within the same field will require at least a new position mooring and
anchoring system for the new site and probably, modifications to the process facilities.
For the relocation within the same field, without exceeding the original design life of the unit, the
following actions will to be required:
• Design review and surveys related to the new position mooring system and anchoring.
• Design review and surveys related to the modifications to the process facilities, if applicable.
• Design review and surveys related to any other modifications affecting class items.
• Drydocking survey, including gauging, with steel renewals as necessary to bring the unit to a
satisfactory condition to complete the remaining design life at the specific site.
Structural strength analysis and fatigue life re-evaluation for the hull structure, turret, module
structures, etc. will not to be required, unless structural modifications are performed.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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Design review and surveys will be based on the current ABS requirements at the time of the contract
for the relocation of the unit.
For minor modifications of structures, systems or equipment, special consideration may be made
in a case-by-case basis for the use of the original ABS requirements applied to the unit, when the
majority of the particular structure, system or equipment remains unchanged.
5.9.3(b) Relocation to a Different Operating Area. When an FPI is relocated to an operating area
where the environmental conditions are different than those at the original site, the structural strength
and fatigue life of the unit will need to be reassessed for the new conditions. However, if the new
location has milder environmental conditions than the current site, the reassessment may not need
to be performed provided that the unit is kept under the same structural condition as in the original
site and the design fatigue life of the unit is not extended.
Relocation to a different operating area will require a new position mooring and anchoring system
for the new site and most probably, extensive modifications to the process facilities.
For the relocation to a different operating area, the following actions will be required:
• Structural strength analysis and fatigue life re-evaluation for the hull structure, turret, module
structures, etc. (except as noted above).
• Design review and surveys related to the new position mooring system and anchoring.
• Design review and surveys related to the modifications to the process facilities.
• Design review and surveys related to any other modifications affecting class items.
• Drydocking survey, including gauging, with steel renewals as necessary to bring the unit to a
satisfactory condition to complete the remaining design life at the specific site.
Design review and surveys are to be based on the current ABS requirements at the time of the
contract for the relocation of the unit.
For minor modifications of structures, systems or equipment, special consideration may be made
in a case-by-case basis for the use of the original ABS requirements applied to the unit, when the
majority of the particular structure, system or equipment remains unchanged.
5.10 Strength Criteria for Other Installation Types (1 July 2012)
Installations (other than ship-type, see 1-1-2/5.9 above) that are designed and built to the requirements of
Part 5B of this Guide will be identified in the Record by the notation as given in 1-1-2/3 of this Guide
followed by additional qualifiers, described in the following Subparagraphs, covering site-specific wave
environment and definition of the site.
5.10.1 New Construction
Site-specific environmental data will be indicated by the (S) qualifier following the basic notation
of 1-1-2/3. This qualifier will then to be followed by the definition of the site. For example, À A1
Floating Offshore Installation (Spar) (S) in Mississippi Canyon Block 779.
5.10.2 Relocation of FPI
As site specific units, FPIs are designed and classed taking into consideration the location where
they will be operated and the intended period of operation. When the FPI is relocated to a new site,
either within the same field or in a different operating area, or when the intended period of operation
is extended, the strength of the unit is to be reassessed to satisfy that the unit will remain in
compliance with applicable requirements.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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5.11 Design Life and Design Fatigue Life (1 July 2012)
5.11.1 Design Life – New Construction
Floating installations designed and built to the requirements in this Guide and maintained in
accordance with the applicable ABS requirements are intended to have a structural design life of
not less than 20 years for a new build hull structure. Where the structural design life is greater
than 20 years and the floating installation is designed for uninterrupted operation on-site without
any drydocking, the nominal design corrosion values (NDCV) of the hull structure are to be increased
in accordance with 5A-3-1/1.7 for ship-type installations or an acceptable equivalent criteria for
non-ship-type installations. When the design life is greater than 20 years (in 5-year increments)
the increased life will be identified in the Record by the notation HL(number of years). The
(number of years) refers to a design life different than 20 years.
5.11.2 Design Fatigue Life – New Construction
Where a floating installation’s design calls for a minimum design fatigue life of 20 years or in
excess of the minimum design life of 20 years, the design fatigue life is to be verified to be in
compliance with the fatigue criteria in this Guide. The “design fatigue life” refers to the target
value set by the owner or designer, not the value calculated in the analysis.
The required fatigue strength analysis of critical details and welded joints in floating installations
is to be in accordance with the criteria in Appendix 5A-3-A2 of this Guide for ship-type
installations or an acceptable equivalent criteria for non-ship-type installations.
Only one design fatigue life value notation is to be assigned and published in the Record for the
hull, hull interface structure, position mooring system and components. The hull interface structural
requirements for ship-type installations are described in 5A-1-4 of this Guide and the position
mooring system requirements in Part 6 of this Guide. When only the required fatigue analysis of
Appendix 5A-3-A2 for ship-type installations or 5B-1-2/5, 5B-2-3/5 or 5B-3-3/5 for non-ship-type
installations is performed for either unrestricted service wave environment or the transit and site
specific wave environment, the class notation FL(number of years) and the Year of maturation
of fatigue life in the defined site location is assigned. The fatigue life will be identified in the
Record by the notation FL(number of years),Year; for example, FL(30), 2041 for an FPI built
in 2011 if the minimum design fatigue life specified is 30 years.
If in addition, spectral fatigue analysis (see 1-1-2/5.11) is requested by the owner or designer, only
the design fatigue life notation, SFA(number of years),Year will be assigned and published in
the Record for the hull and hull interface structural system. Although only the SFA notation is
assigned, and not the FL notation for ship-type installations, the required fatigue analysis of Appendix
5A-3-A2 is to be performed and the calculated fatigue life is to satisfy the design fatigue life.
The (number of years) refers to the design fatigue life equal to 20 years or more (in 5-year
increments), as specified by the applicant. Where different design fatigue life values are specified
for different structural elements within the installation, such as hull structure components, hull
interface structures and position mooring system components, the (number of years) refers to
the least of the target values. In the case when spectral fatigue analysis is also applied the least of
the fatigue life values calculated by the required fatigue strength analysis for the FL notation and
the spectral fatigue analysis must satisfy the design fatigue life. The “design fatigue life” refers to
the target value set by the applicant, not the value calculated in the analysis.
For example if the design fatigue life is specified as 25 years, the fatigue calculations of hull
structural components must satisfy a fatigue life of 25 years. The fatigue calculations of the position
mooring hull interface structures and hull mounted equipment interface structures, and position
mooring system must also satisfy fatigue lives of (25 × FDF) years, where FDF are the fatigue
safety factors specified in 5A-1-4/Table 1, 5B-1-2/Table 2, 5B-2-3/Table 2 or 5B-3-3/Table 2, as
applicable, for hull interface structures and in 6-1-1/Table 1 for mooring lines.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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5.11.3 Conversion of Existing Vessel to FPSO, FPS or FSO
When an existing vessel is converted to an FPSO, FPS or FSO in the process referred to as an FPI
vessel conversion, and the ship-shaped FPSO, FPS or FSO is classed under the provisions of
Section 5A-2-1, the expected minimum remaining fatigue life of the structure is to be assessed
according to Section 5A-2-3 and documented by recording its value in the Record. The RFL
notation will be followed by the value of the expected minimum remaining fatigue life in years,
and the year of maturation of fatigue life in the defined site location in accordance with 1-1-2/5.9.2.
For example, RFL(15), 2018 indicates that the expected minimum remaining fatigue life of the
structure is 15 years, which will be reached in the year 2018. The RFL(number of years),
Year notation as applied to an FPI vessel conversion is mandatory.
5.11.4 Relocation of FPI
When an FPI is relocated to a new site, either within the same field or in a different operating area,
the fatigue life of the unit is to be reassessed to satisfy that the unit’s remaining fatigue life for the
new operating conditions is within the design fatigue life of the unit. The position mooring system
including chain and other mooring components is also subject to reassessment if it is to be used at
the new site.
5.11.5 Life Extension of FPI on the Same Site
When an FPI exceeds the design fatigue life specified in the FL (number of years), Year or
RFL (number of years), Year notation for which it was classed, an evaluation is to be made
and appropriate actions are to be taken to extend the fatigue life up to the new operating life of the
unit under the site-specific environmental conditions.
For conversions, the design fatigue life will depend on the minimum remaining fatigue life expected
from the time of the conversion. For conversions before October 2001, the remaining fatigue life
is only documented in the original calculations submitted at the time of the conversion. For
conversions on or after October 2001, the remaining fatigue life is indicated with the FL notation
(before July 2003) or the RFL notation (on or after July 2003).
For both original build FPIs and conversions, the remaining fatigue life of the unit may be extended
during the operating life of the FPI by renewals or modifications of those structural details with
lower fatigue life.
For the life extension of the unit remaining in the same location, the following actions will be required:
• Verification from the original fatigue analysis that the actual fatigue values of all the structural
elements of the unit are still higher than the proposed extended fatigue life; or
• New fatigue analysis covering all the structural elements (hull, turret, hull interfaces, position
mooring system) in accordance with SFA, FL or RFL requirements, as applicable. Risers (if
classed) are also to be analyzed for the extended fatigue life.
• Identification of structural elements or details with a fatigue life below the new intended design
fatigue life of the unit and proposed actions to increase the fatigue life of those elements or
details.
• Design review and surveys of structural modifications proposed as a consequence of the
fatigue analysis.
• Enhanced survey program to monitor those structural elements or details with lower fatigue
life which cannot be modified or renewed on site.
• Special Periodical survey, including Underwater Inspection, to determine the structural
condition of the unit at the time of the life extension.
The new fatigue analysis and related design review and surveys, when necessary, will be based on
the current ABS requirements at the time of the life extension.
For minor modifications of structures, systems or equipment, special consideration may be made
in a case-by-case basis for the use of the original ABS requirements applied to the unit, when the
majority of the particular structure, system or equipment remains unchanged.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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Once the life extension is approved, the existing SFA, FL or RFL notation with year of maturation
will is to be updated accordingly.
When a fatigue notation is requested, and where none of the above notations was previously
assigned to the unit, the most appropriate fatigue notation for the unit will is to be assigned.
5.12 Spectral Fatigue Analysis (1 July 2012)
5.12.1 Design Fatigue Life – New Construction
Where more extensive use of Spectral Fatigue Analysis is performed in accordance with criteria
established in Part 5A, Chapter 1 of this Guide and the ABS Guide for the Fatigue Assessment of
Offshore Structures, the installation is to be identified in the Record by the notation SFA (number
of years), Year. The fatigue analysis is performed for either unrestricted service wave environment
or the transit and site specific wave environment in accordance with 1-1-2/5.9. The (number of
years) refers to the design fatigue life equal to 20 years or more (in 5-year increments), as specified
by the applicant. The Year is the year of maturation of fatigue. For example, SFA (30), 2041 if
the design fatigue life specified is 30 years, and the FPI is built in 2011. Only one minimum
design fatigue life value is applied to the entire structural system. For a structural location required
to have an additional factor applied to the minimum design fatigue life (say, due to safety critical
function or relative difficulty of inspection, see for example, 6-2-1/13), the required minimum
fatigue life for such a location is the minimum design fatigue life being applied in the project
multiplied by the additional factor. The ‘design fatigue life’ refers to the target value set by the
designer and not the value calculated in the analysis. The calculated values are usually much higher
than the target value specified for design. The application of spectral fatigue analysis is optional.
5.12.2 Conversion of Existing Vessel to FPSO, FPS or FSO
When spectral fatigue analysis is applied to an existing vessel that is converted to an FPSO, FPS
or FSO, the expected minimum remaining fatigue life of the structure is to be assessed according
to Section 5A-2-3/3 and documented by recording its value in the Record. The SFA notation will
be followed by the value of the expected minimum remaining fatigue life in years preceded by the
letter R, and the year of maturation of fatigue life in the defined site location in accordance with
1-1-2/5.9.2. For example, SFA (R15), 2018 indicates that the expected minimum remaining
fatigue life of the structure is 15 years, which will is to be reached in the year 2018 at the defined
site location. The application of spectral fatigue analysis for FPI conversions is optional.
5.13 Additional Corrosion Margin (1 March 2006)
Where the installation incorporates additional plate thicknesses above the required scantlings, the installation
will be identified in the Record by the notation AT, followed by the description of the major hull girder
component(s) that has the additional thickness. This notation will also include a number to indicate the
magnitude of the additional thickness (rounded down to the nearest 0.5 mm) that has been applied, i.e.,
AT(DK+0.5). In order to apply the notation AT, the additional thickness must be applied to the complete
structural element throughout the tank area of the installation. This notation documents major areas of the
structure that have an additional “as-built” margin on thickness to address areas subject to significant
corrosion or areas where it may be desirable to increase normal corrosion margins to extend a structural
member’s anticipated service life. This notation is optional and is only available to new construction FPIs.
The major structural components are defined as follows:
DK Upper deck (including stringer plate)
BS Bottom shell (including bilge)
IB Inner-bottom
SS Side shell (including shear strake)
IS Inner skin (including “hopper” sloping plating)
LB Longitudinal bulkheads other than the inner skin
TB Transverse Bulkhead

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 2 System Classification Boundaries, Symbols, and Notations 1-1-2

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5.15 Hull Construction Monitoring Program (1 July 2012)
Ship-type installations designed and reviewed to the FPI Guide are to comply with the requirements of the
Offshore Hull Construction Monitoring Program in Appendix 5A-3-A5 of this Guide and have the notation
OHCM.
7 À AMS Notation (1 July 2012)
Machinery and boilers for self-propulsion which have been constructed and installed to the satisfaction of
the Surveyors to ABS‘s Rule requirements, when found satisfactory after trial and approved by ABS, will
be classed and distinguished in the Record by the notation À AMS. This notation is mandatory for
classification of self-propelled floating production installations.
9 Notations for Automatic or Remote Control and Monitoring Systems
9.1 À ACC or À ACCU Notations (October 2001)
For automatic or remote control and monitoring systems of the propulsion machinery, ABS will consider
additional classifications with symbols À ACC or À ACCU, as appropriate, provided that the applicable
requirements of Part 4, Chapter 9 of the Steel Vessel Rules are satisfied.
9.3 À AMCC or À AMCCU Notations (March 2003)
For automatic or remote control and monitoring systems of the machinery other than the propulsion machinery
as referenced in Subsection 1/1 of the ABS Guide for Remote Control and Monitoring for Auxiliary
Machinery and Systems (other than Propulsion) on Offshore Installations, ABS will consider additional
classifications with symbols À AMCC or À AMCCU, as appropriate, provided that the applicable
requirements of the ABS Guide for Remote Control and Monitoring for Auxiliary Machinery and Systems
(other than Propulsion) on Offshore Installations are satisfied.
11 Temporary Mooring Equipment Symbol
The symbol Á will be placed after the symbols of classification to signify that the equipment for
temporary mooring of the floating installation complies with 3-4-1/3 of the MODU Rules or Part 3,
Chapter 5 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
13 Conversion of Existing Vessels or Floating Structures
Modifications of existing vessels or floating structures intended for classification as Floating Installations
are to be converted under ABS design review and survey.
15 Significant Change of Operating Conditions Affecting Safety of Unit
or Personnel (1 July 2012)
In a few occasions, the operating conditions of the FPI initially considered during the classification of the
unit change with time. For example, the composition of the oil coming from the well may turn sour (high
concentration of hydrogen sulfide, H
2
S). If these changes affect the safety of the unit or the personnel on
board, the owner/operator needs to approach ABS as the changes may have an effect in the compliance
with the applicable Rules and Guides and therefore, in the maintenance of class.
If it is confirmed that the changes are affecting the compliance with the applicable Rules and Guides, there
are two options:
• To identify the Rule requirements that the unit has to comply with in order to maintain classification
and to verify compliance by design review and survey, as applicable; or
• To perform a risk assessment with ABS participation in order to analyze the new hazards due to the
changes and determine the mitigation actions required to bring the unit to an equivalent level of safety
to the applicable Rules and Guides.

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PART S e c t i o n 3 : R u l e s a n d t h e C r i t e r i a P r e s e n t e d f o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
1
CHAPT ER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECT I ON 3 Rules and the Criteria Presented for
Classification (1 January 2008)
1 Application
1.1 General (1 July 2009)
The criteria in this document are applicable to Floating Production, Storage and Offloading installations
(FPSOs), as defined in Section 3-1-1 of this Guide. The criteria are also applicable to Floating Production
Systems (FPSs), as defined in 3-1-1/3, Floating Storage and Offloading systems (FSOs), as defined in 3-1-1/3,
or Floating Offshore Installation (FOI), as defined in 3-1-1/3, with corresponding classification notation, as
indicated in Section 1-1-2 of this Guide.
The application of the criteria to systems other than the above will be considered on a case-by-case basis.
The criteria are applicable to those features that are permanent and can be verified by plan review,
calculation, physical survey or other appropriate means. Any statement in the Rules and the criteria in this
document regarding other features are to be considered as guidance to the designer, builder, Owner, et al.
1.3 Application (1 July 2009)
This Guide has an effective date of 1 July 2009. The application of this Guide is, in general, based on the
contract date for construction or conversion between the shipbuilder and the prospective owner (e.g., Rules
which became effective on 1 July 2009 are not applicable to a floating production installation for which the
contract for construction was signed on 30 June 2009). See also 1-1-4/3 of the ABS Rules for Conditions of
Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).
In the case of conversions, structures other than hull structures (such as deckhouses), machinery equipment
and/or marine systems which will remain unchanged or with minor modifications during the conversion
will be considered on the basis of the original Rules used for the vessel construction as well as the safety
features of the converted unit.
3 Reference Standards
Reference is made in this Guide to ABS Rules and other criteria issued by ABS and other organizations.
Appendix 3-A1-2 contains a listing of such Reference Standards.
5 Risk Evaluations for Alternative Arrangements and Novel Features
(April 2004)
Risk assessment techniques may be used to demonstrate that alternatives and novel features provide
acceptable levels of safety in line with current offshore and marine industry practice. The ABS Guide for
Risk Evaluations for the Classification of Marine-Related Facilities provides guidance to ABS clients on
how to prepare a risk evaluation to demonstrate equivalency or acceptability for a proposed Floating
Production Installation.
Risk evaluations for the justification of alternative arrangements or novel features may be applicable either
to the installation as a whole, or to individual systems, subsystems or components. ABS will consider the
application of risk evaluations for alternative arrangements and novel features in the design of the floating
production installations, Verification Surveys during construction, and Surveys for Maintenance of Class.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 3 Rules and the Criteria Presented for Classification 1-1-3

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Portions of the floating production installation or any of its components thereof not explicitly included in
the risk evaluation submitted to ABS are to comply with any applicable part of the ABS Rules and Guides.
If any proposed alternative arrangement or novel feature affects any applicable requirements of Flag and
Coastal State, it is the responsibility of the Owner to discuss with the applicable authorities the acceptance
of alternatives based on risk evaluations.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : S u b m i s s i o n o f P l a n s , D a t a a n d C a l c u l a t i o n s
1
CHAPT ER 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification
SECT I ON 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations
1 Design Plans and Data (1 March 2006)
Plans showing the scantlings, arrangements and details of the principal parts of the hull structure of each
installation to be built under survey are to be submitted and approved before the work of construction has
commenced. These plans are to clearly indicate the scantlings, joint details and welding, or other methods
of connection. In general, plans are to be submitted that include the following, where applicable:
i) General Arrangement
ii) Body Plan, lines, offsets, curves of form, inboard and outboard profile
iii) Wind heeling moment curves of equivalent data
iv) (1 July 2012) Arrangement plan of watertight, firetight and gastight compartmentation
v) Diagrams showing the extent to which the watertight and weathertight integrity is intended to be
maintained, the location, type and disposition of watertight and weathertight closures
vi) Capacity plan and tank sounding tables
vii) Summary of distributions of weights (fixed, variable, ballast, etc.) for various conditions
viii) Type, location and quantities of permanent ballast, if any
ix) Loadings for all decks
x) Transverse section showing scantlings
xi) Longitudinal sections showing scantlings
xii) Decks, including helicopter deck
xiii) Framing, shell plating, watertight bulkheads and flats, structural bulkheads and flats, tank bulkheads
and flats with location of overflows and air pipes
xiv) Pillars, girders, diagonals and struts
xv) Stability columns, intermediate columns, hulls, pontoons, superstructure and deck houses
xvi) (1 July 2012) Arrangement and details of watertight and weathertight doors and hatches
xvii) Foundations for anchoring equipment, industrial equipment, process, and process support modules,
etc., where attached to hull structure, superstructures or deckhouses
xviii) Mooring turrets and yoke arms, including mechanical details
xix) Corrosion control arrangements
xx) (1 July 2012) Methods and locations for nondestructive testing (submitted to attending Surveyor
for review and agreement)
xxi) The plans listed in 5B-1-4/11 for column-stabilized units
xxii) (1 March 2006) Plans and calculations/analyses for the module structures to support production
facilities
xxiii) (1 March 2006) Plans and calculations/analyses for module support structures
xxiv) (1 July 2009) Construction Monitoring Plan

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations 1-1-4

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3 Position Mooring System Design Documentation
The design documentation for the mooring system is to include the following, when applicable:
i) Mooring Arrangement or Pattern.
ii) Details of winching equipment.
iii) Details of anchoring system.
iv) Details of mooring line segments.
v) Connections at anchors and between mooring line segments.
vi) Details of in-line (spring) buoys.
vii) Details of buoy for CALM system.
viii) Details of SALM structures, if appropriate.
ix) Details of Turret System to show turret structure, swivel, turntable and disconnecting device.
x) Details of yoke (hard or soft) connecting the installation and CALM/SALM structure.
xi) Environmental Report.
xii) Mooring Analysis describing method of load calculations and analysis of dynamic system to
determine the mooring line design loads.
xiii) Model Test report when the design loads are based on model tests in a wave basin.
xiv) Thruster specifications and calculations of a system with dynamic positioning system for thruster
forces and power to counteract environmental forces. (See Sections 3-2-3 and 3-2-4.)
5 Production Facilities and Production Support Facilities (1 July 2012)
The following design documentation of a floating production and installation is required to be submitted, as
applicable, depending on the classification notation:
i) General Arrangements showing arrangements and locations of storage tanks, machinery, equipment,
living quarters, fire walls, emergency shutdown (ESD) stations, control stations, crude loading and
discharge stations and the flare (see 4-1-7/3).
ii) Hazardous Area Classification Plans, as defined in 3-1-3/7 herein.
iii) Details of Storage Tank Venting and Inerting indicating arrangements for storage tank venting and
inerting.
iv) Arrangements for Use of Produced Gas as Fuel showing piping and control arrangements for use
of produced gas as fuel showing details of double wall or ducting arrangements for the pipe runs
in way of the safe space.
v) A design specification that is to include design parameters (environmental conditions, geographical
location of the unit, external loads, pressures, temperatures, etc.), standards and codes adopted
throughout the design, construction and testing stages and the process description.
vi) A description of the field development plan, including well fluid properties, production rates, gas
oil ratios, processing scheme, well shut-in pressures.
vii) Process flow sheets showing major process equipment components, process piping, material
balance, normal pressures and temperatures at the inlet and outlet of each major component.
viii) Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) indicating location of all sensing and controlling
elements on the process and production support systems, sizing and material specification of
piping and the associated components, maximum design pressure and temperature ratings, piping
strength and flow calculations.
ix) List of electrical equipment located in hazardous areas together with the certificates issued by an
independent testing laboratory to show suitability of their use in the intended location.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations 1-1-4

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x) Electrical one line diagram showing ratings of all generators, motors, transformers, type and size
of wires and cables. Types and rating of circuit breakers with the setting, interrupting capacity of
circuit breakers and fuses.
xi) Short circuit current calculations and coordination data giving the maximum calculated short
circuit current available at the main bus bars and at each point in the distribution system in order
to determine the adequacy of the interrupting capacities of the protective device. A system
coordination study is to be included.
xii) Safety Analysis, including Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) charts.
xiii) Emergency shutdown system (ESD) relating to all sensing devices, shutdown valves, shutdown
devices and emergency support system to their functions and showing ESD logic for the complete
process and the subsea valves system.
xiv) Emergency backup and uninterrupted power source, supply and the consumers.
xv) Pressure vessel (fired and unfired) and heat exchangers, design dimensional drawings, design
calculations, material specifications, pressure and temperature ratings, together with weld details
and the details of their support.
xvi) Pressure relief and depressurization vent systems showing arrangements sizing of the lines,
capacities of the relief valve, materials, design capacity, calculations for the relief valves, knock
out drums, anticipated noise levels and gas dispersion analyses.
xvii) Complete details of flares, including pilots, igniters and water seal and design calculations, including
stability and radiant heat analyses.
xviii) Schematic plans for the production support systems, including the size, wall thicknesses, maximum
design working pressure and temperature and materials for all pipes and the type, size and material
of valves and fittings.
xix) Compressors, pumps selection and control arrangements, including specification data sheet.
xx) Fire and gas detection system showing the location and detailed description of all power sources,
sensors, annunciation and indication, set point for the alarm system.
xxi) Passive and active fire protection system indicating locations of fire walls, fire pumps and their
capacities, main and backup power supply, fixed and portable fire extinguishing, and fire fighting
systems and equipment. In this regard, supportive calculations are to be submitted to show the
basis of capacities and quantities of fire extinguishing equipment.
xxii) Escape route plan showing escape routes to abandonment stations and survival embarkation areas.
xxiii) (1 July 2012) Startup and commissioning procedures detailing sequence of events for inspection,
testing and startup and commissioning of equipment and system (submitted to attending Surveyor
for review and agreement).
xxiv) (1 July 2012) Installation, Hook-up and Commissioning Procedures (submitted to attending Surveyor
for review and agreement, also See Part 3, Chapter 4.)
Above items i), ii), ix), xiii), xx), xxi), and xxii), are required to be submitted for any type of a floating
production installation that is classed with or without its topsides production facilities.
7 Marine Systems and Machinery Plans (1 July 2012)
Plans showing marine piping systems, electrical systems, fire fighting systems and equipment, and
machinery and equipment not associated with the process facilities are to be submitted (see Section 5A-1-6,
5B-1-4, 5B-2-6 or 5B-3-6 depending on the type of installation).
Where applicable, machinery plans listed in Part 4 of the Steel Vessel Rules or MODU Rules are to be
submitted. Machinery general arrangements, installation and equipment plans, are also to be submitted and
approved before proceeding with the work.

Part 1 Conditions of Classification
Chapter 1 Scope and Condition of Classification
Section 4 Submission of Plans, Data and Calculations 1-1-4

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9 Additional Plans
Submission of additional plans and calculations may be required when additional classification designations
or certifications are requested:
Additional classification designations under 1-1-2/5, 1-1-2/9, 1-1-2/11, 1-1-2/13 of this Guide or Part 4,
Chapter 2. (See Section 4-2-2 for import/export system submission requirements.)
Certifications under 1-1-2/5, 1-1-2/9, 1-1-2/11 or 1-1-2/13 of this Guide or 1-1-5/3 or 1-1-5/5 of the ABS
Rules for Conditions of Classification – Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1).
11 Manuals and Procedures
11.1 Operations Manual
The Operations Manual is to be submitted, providing guidance information for operating personnel
regarding the following, when applicable:
Subject References in this Guide
Loading Manual 3-3-1/7, 5B-1-1/5
Trim and Stability 3-3-1/9, 3-3-1/11, 5B-1-3/1
11.3 Procedures (1 July 2012)
Procedures are to be submitted for the following:
Subject References in this Guide
Disconnecting Procedure, if applicable 3-4-1/13
Drydocking Procedure* Section 7-3-1
Hook Up Procedures Section 3-4-2
Installation Procedures Section 3-4-1
Installation Manual 3-4-1/11
Import/Export System 4-2-4/7, 3-4-1/11
Lay-up and Reactivation, if applicable* 7-1-1/15
Startup and Commissioning Procedures* Section 3-4-3
Survey and Inspection Planning Document* 7-1-1/21
* Submitted to attending Surveyor for review and agreement


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PART P a r t 2 : M a t e r i a l s a n d We l d i n g
2
Materials and Welding
The independent booklet, ABS Rules for Materials and Welding (Part 2), for steels, irons, bronzes, etc., is
to be referred to. This booklet consists of the following Chapters:

Rules for Testing and Certification of Materials
CHAPTER 1 Materials for Hull Construction
CHAPTER 2 Materials for Equipment
CHAPTER 3 Materials for Machinery, Boilers, Pressure Vessels, and Piping

APPENDIX 1 List of Destructive and Nondestructive Tests Required in Part 2,
Chapters 1, 2 and 3 and Responsibility for Verifying
APPENDIX 4 Scheme for the Approval of Rolled Hull Structural Steel
Manufacturer
APPENDIX 5 Scheme for the Approval of Manufacturers of Hull Structural Steels
Intended for Welding with High Heat Input
APPENDIX 6 Guide for Nondestructive Examination of Marine Steel Castings
APPENDIX 7 Guide for Nondestructive Examination of Hull and Machinery Steel
Forgings

Rules for Welding and Fabrication
CHAPTER 4 Welding and Fabrication

APPENDIX 2 Requirements for the Approval of Filler Metals
APPENDIX 3 Application of Filler Metals to ABS Steels


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PART Part 3: Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
3
Installation Types, Functions, Features and General
Requirements
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 General Description ............................................................................. 22
Section 1 Basic Configurations ............................................................ 24
Section 2 Installation ............................................................................ 26
Section 3 Production Facilities ............................................................. 27
Section 4 Position Mooring System ..................................................... 28
Section 5 Subsea System .................................................................... 29

CHAPTER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading ......................................... 31
Section 1 General Design Basis .......................................................... 32
Section 2 Design Documentation......................................................... 33
Section 3 Design Conditions ................................................................ 34
Section 4 Environmental Conditions .................................................... 37

CHAPTER 3 General Requirements ......................................................................... 42
Section 1 All Installations ..................................................................... 43

CHAPTER 4 Installation, Hook-up and Commissioning ......................................... 46
Section 1 General ................................................................................ 47
Section 2 Hook-up Procedures Submittal ............................................ 50
Section 3 Start-up and Commissioning Procedures Submittal ............ 51
Section 4 Surveys During Installation of the Mooring Systems ........... 52
Section 5 Surveys During Installation of the Import/Export System .... 54
Section 6 Surveys During Hook-up ...................................................... 56
Section 7 Demonstration of the Disconnectable Mooring System ....... 57
Section 8 Surveys During Start-Up and Commissioning ..................... 58

APPENDIX 1 Abbreviations and References ............................................................ 60
Section 1 Abbreviations ....................................................................... 61
Section 2 References ........................................................................... 62


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PART Chapter 1: General Description
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Basic Configurations ........................................................................... 24
1 Purpose ............................................................................................. 24
3 Major Elements ................................................................................. 24

SECTION 2 Installation ............................................................................................ 26
1 General ............................................................................................. 26
3 Ship-Type Installations ...................................................................... 26
5 Column-Stabilized Installations ......................................................... 26
7 Tension Leg Platform Installations .................................................... 26
9 Spar Installations .............................................................................. 26
11 Other Types ...................................................................................... 26

SECTION 3 Production Facilities ............................................................................ 27
1 General ............................................................................................. 27
3 Production Support Systems ............................................................ 27
5 Manned Facility ................................................................................. 27
7 Hazardous Areas: Classified Areas and Area Classification
Plan ................................................................................................... 27
9 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) ................................. 27
11 Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts .................... 27

SECTION 4 Position Mooring System .................................................................... 28
1 General ............................................................................................. 28
3 Spread Mooring ................................................................................ 28
5 Single Point Mooring (SPM) .............................................................. 28
5.1 CALM (Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring) .......................................... 28
5.3 SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring) .............................................. 28
5.5 Turret Mooring ............................................................................... 28
5.7 Yoke Arm ....................................................................................... 28
7 Dynamic Positioning and Thruster Assisted Systems ...................... 28

SECTION 5 Subsea System ..................................................................................... 29
1 General ............................................................................................. 29
3 Floating Hose .................................................................................... 29
5 On Bottom Flexible Flow Lines ......................................................... 29

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7 Pipe Line End Manifold (PLEM) ........................................................ 29
7.1 Import PLEM ................................................................................. 29
7.3 Export PLEM ................................................................................. 29
9 Riser .................................................................................................. 29
11 Riser System ..................................................................................... 29
13 Riser Support .................................................................................... 29
15 Submerged Jumper Hoses ............................................................... 30


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : B a s i c C o n f i g u r a t i o n s
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
SECT I ON 1 Basic Configurations
1 Purpose
A Floating Installation provides hydrocarbon processing and/or hydrocarbon storage and offloads
hydrocarbons. Where discussion of the various component systems supporting hydrocarbon processing
and/or storage may cause confusion with the total system, Floating Installation is used to generically
identify the combination under discussion and refers to a site-specific installation.
The notations:
Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System
Floating Production (and Offloading) System
Floating Storage and Offloading System
Floating Offshore Installation
are based on accepted industry practice and were chosen to provide a clear description of the function of
each configuration.
• Floating Production, Storage and Offloading System – This installation processes, stores and
offloads hydrocarbons.
• Floating Production (and Offloading) System – This installation processes and offloads
hydrocarbons without storage capacity.
• Floating Storage and Offloading System – This installation stores and offloads hydrocarbons
without hydrocarbon processing facilities.
• Floating Offshore Installation – This installation may process and offload hydrocarbons and may
or may not have storage capacity, but the production facilities are not classed.
3 Major Elements
A Floating Installation consists of several of the following major elements that are addressed in this Guide:
i) Installation
ii) Position mooring (or station keeping system)
iii) Production processing facilities
iv) Import/export system
Classification boundaries encompass the installation and position mooring system and may include the
production facilities. Import/export systems may be classed, as well. (See Section 1-1-2 of this Guide.)
A Floating Installation classed as an FPSO, FPS, FSO or FOI includes the following elements:



Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 1 General Description
Section 1 Basic Configurations 3-1-1

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Installation Position
Mooring
System
Storage Hydrocarbon
Process
System(s)
Import/Export
System
FPSO     Optional
FPS   ---  Optional
FSO    --- Optional
FOI (Production Facilities not
classed)
  Safety Features Only
See 4-1-1/3
Optional
FOI (with Production
Facilities indicated in
Column 5)
  Safety Features Only
See 4-1-1/5
Optional



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PART S e c t i o n 2 : I n s t a l l a t i o n
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
SECT I ON 2 Installation
1 General
Installation, as used in this Guide, refers to a floating structure and the machinery, equipment and systems
necessary for safety, propulsion (if fitted) and auxiliary services. The structural configurations of these
installations may be ship-shaped or barge-shaped (with or without propulsion), column stabilized or any
other configuration of a purpose-built floating installation.
3 Ship-Type Installations
Ship-type installations are single displacement hulls, either ship-shaped or barge-shaped, which have been
designed or converted to a floating production and/or storage system. They may have propulsion machinery
and/or station keeping systems.
5 Column-Stabilized Installations
Column-stabilized installations consist of surface piercing columns, submerged pontoons and a deck supported
at column tops. Buoyancy is provided by the submerged pontoons, surface piercing columns and braces, if any.
7 Tension Leg Platform Installations (1 July 2009)
Tension leg platform (TLP) installations are vertically moored, buoyant structural systems wherein the
excess buoyancy of the platform maintains tension in the mooring system. The TLPs consist of buoyant
pontoons and columns, a column top frame or a topside deck and a tendon system with its seafloor
foundations.
9 Spar Installations (1 July 2009)
Spar installations are deep draft, vertical floating structures, usually of cylindrical shape, supporting a
topside deck and moored to the seafloor. The hull can be divided into upper hull, mid-section and lower
hull.
11 Other Types (1 July 2009)
Purpose-built and new configurations belong to this category.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : P r o d u c t i o n F a c i l i t i e s
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
SECT I ON 3 Production Facilities
1 General (1 July 2009)
The production facilities typically consist of the processing, safety and control systems, production support
systems and auxiliary equipment for processing hydrocarbon liquid and gas mixtures from wells or other
sources. Generally, a production facility includes all elements located onboard the Floating Installation
unit. These elements are located from (and including) the first inlet flange of the well fluid flow line above
the water level inboard to (and including) the last onboard flange. Some important items related to
production facilities are defined in the following paragraphs.
3 Production Support Systems
The production support systems include power generation and distribution, instrument and service air,
potable water, fuel oil systems, HVAC, instrumentation, communication systems and firewater systems
required to support hydrocarbon production and processing.
Production support systems may be in addition to or extensions of the normal marine utility systems found
on MODUs, barges or ship-type installations. (See Part 4, Chapter 1 of this Guide and Chapter 3, Section
6 of the Facilities Guide.)
5 Manned Facility
A manned facility is one with permanent occupied living accommodations or one that requires the continuous
presence of personnel for more than 12 hours in successive 24 hour periods.
7 Hazardous Areas: Classified Areas and Area Classification Plan
A classified area is an area in which flammable gases or vapors are or may be present in the air in quantities
sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures. See 3-6/15 of the Facilities Guide.
An area classification plan is a set of drawings indicating extent, boundaries and classification of all classified
areas.
9 Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs)
P&IDs show the size, design and operating conditions of each major process component, piping and valve
designation and size, sensing and control instrumentation, shutdown and pressure relief devices with set
points, signal circuits, set points for controllers, continuity of all line pipes and boundaries of skid units and
process packages.
11 Safety Analysis Function Evaluation (S.A.F.E.) Charts
The S.A.F.E. charts list all process components and emergency support systems with their required sensing
devices and the functions to be performed by each device and relate all sensing devices, shutdown valves,
shutdown devices and emergency support systems to their functions.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : P o s i t i o n M o o r i n g S y s t e m
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
SECT I ON 4 Position Mooring System
1 General
A Position Mooring System keeps the installation on station. The Position Mooring System includes
mooring lines, connectors and hardware, winches, piles, anchors and thrusters. For a single point mooring
system, the turret, turntable, disconnecting system, buoy, anchoring legs, etc., are also part of the system.
3 Spread Mooring
A spread mooring is a system with multiple catenary mooring lines anchored to piles or drag anchors at the
sea bed. The other end of each line is individually attached to winches or stoppers on the installation
through fairleads as necessary. A catenary mooring line may have one or more line segments, in-line
buoy(s) (spring buoy) or sinker(s) (clumped weight) along the line.
5 Single Point Mooring (SPM)
A single point mooring allows the installation to weathervane. Three typical types of single point mooring
systems that are commonly used are described below:
5.1 CALM (Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring)
A catenary anchor leg mooring system consists of a large buoy anchored by catenary mooring lines. The
installation is moored to the buoy by soft hawser(s) or a rigid yoke structure.
5.3 SALM (Single Anchor Leg Mooring)
A single anchor leg mooring system consists of an anchoring structure with built-in buoyancy at or near
the water surface and is itself anchored to the seabed by an articulated connection.
5.5 Turret Mooring
A turret mooring system consists of a number of mooring legs attached to a turret that is designed to act as
part of the installation, allowing only angular relative movement of the installation to the turret, so that the
installation may weathervane. The turret may be mounted internally within the installation or externally
from the installation bow or stern. Typically, a spread mooring arrangement connects the turret to the seabed.
5.7 Yoke Arm
A yoke arm is a structure at the end of the installation that only allows angular relative movement between
the installation and the mooring attachment to the seabed.
7 Dynamic Positioning and Thruster Assisted Systems
A dynamic positioning system is defined as all of the equipment necessary to provide a means of controlling
the position and heading of a Floating Installation within predetermined limits by means of vectored thrust.
A thruster-assisted system provides controlled thrust to assist the main (usually static) mooring system and
reduce component loading of the main mooring system.

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PART S e c t i o n 5 : S u b s e a S y s t e m
3
CHAPT ER 1 General Description
SECT I ON 5 Subsea System
1 General
A subsea system is a flexible/articulated piping system providing a conduit for the hydrocarbons from the
subsea pipeline to the surface components. It includes subsea pipelines, subsea well system and risers.
The definitions in this Section describe the various aspects of the classification procedure in this Guide.
3 Floating Hose
A floating hose is a floating conduit used to export hydrocarbons from a point of storage/production, either
an SPM or installation’s manifold to a receiving installation’s manifold for transport.
5 On Bottom Flexible Flow Lines
These lines are conduit used to connect one subsea location to another subsea location prior to a vertical
conveyance by the riser system to the surface.
7 Pipe Line End Manifold (PLEM)
A PLEM is the assemblage of valves and components or equipment performing the equivalent function
connecting the production facilities to the pipeline carrying product to or from the shore, an offloading
system or to another facility.
7.1 Import PLEM
Import PLEM is the equipment connecting to the Import Riser and the import supply line or wellhead. (In
some configurations, the wellhead may provide the function of the Import PLEM.)
7.3 Export PLEM
Export PLEM is the equipment connection between the Export Riser and the product discharge line.
9 Riser
A riser is a subsea rigid and/or flexible pipe that connects the surface facilities with the sea floor and is
thus the conduit for fulfilling the desired function of conveying fluids, gas, electrical power, etc.
11 Riser System
The riser system includes the entire assemblage of components, control systems, safety systems and tensioning
devices that ensure the integrity of the riser throughout its operation. Riser classification boundaries are defined
in Section 4-2-1 of this Guide.
13 Riser Support
Riser support comprises any structural attachments, including buoyancy devices that are used to give structural
integrity to the riser or transfer load to the supporting structure.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 1 General Description
Section 5 Subsea Systems 3-1-5

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15 Submerged Jumper Hoses
Jumper hoses are flexible lines used in conjunction with rigid risers to accommodate the relative motion
between the Floating Installation and the submerged top of the riser. Jumper hoses may also be used to
connect the subsea manifold to the wellhead.



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PART Chapter 2: Design Basis and Environmental Loading
3
CHAPT ER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General Design Basis .......................................................................... 32

SECTION 2 Design Documentation ........................................................................ 33

SECTION 3 Design Conditions ............................................................................... 34
1 Position Mooring System .................................................................. 34
1.1 Design Environmental Condition (DEC) ........................................ 34
1.3 Design Operating Condition (DOC) ............................................... 34
1.5 Design Installation Condition (DIC) ............................................... 35
1.7 Angular Separation of Wind, Current and Waves .......................... 35
3 Structural Strength and Fatigue Life ................................................. 35
3.1 Project Site .................................................................................... 35
3.3 Transit ........................................................................................... 36
3.5 Disconnectable Installations .......................................................... 36
3.7 Strength and Fatigue Life .............................................................. 36

SECTION 4 Environmental Conditions ................................................................... 37
1 General ............................................................................................. 37
3 Environmental Loads ........................................................................ 37
5 Current .............................................................................................. 38
7 Wind .................................................................................................. 38
7.1 Wind Load ..................................................................................... 38
9 Waves ............................................................................................... 39
9.1 Wave Forces ................................................................................. 40
9.3 Wave-induced Motion Responses ................................................. 40
11 Directionality ..................................................................................... 40
13 Soil Conditions .................................................................................. 41

TABLE 1 Shape Coefficients C
s
for Windages ....................................... 41
TABLE 2 Height Coefficients C
h
for Windages ....................................... 41
TABLE 3 Wind Velocity Conversion Factor ............................................ 41


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l D e s i g n B a s i s
3
CHAPT ER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
SECT I ON 1 General Design Basis

(1 July 2009) The design basis of a Floating Installation identifies, among other items, the production rate,
storage capacity and loading capabilities. Since the system operation is site-specific, the environmental
conditions of the site directly influence the design of such a system.
The effects of prevailing winds are to be considered to minimize the risk of vented or flared hydrocarbons
to personnel, living quarters and evacuation means. Generally, atmospheric vents, flare systems and
emergency gas release vents are to be arranged in such a way so that prevailing winds will carry heat
and/or unburned gases away from potential ignition sources on the installation. See API RP 14J.
The design environmental conditions are to include those for the operation, installation and transit portions
of the Floating Installation’s design life. This Chapter specifically covers the environmental design criteria
for:
i) Position Mooring System.
ii) Structural Strength and Fatigue Life Assessments.


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PART S e c t i o n 2 : D e s i g n D o c u m e n t a t i o n
3
CHAPT ER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
SECT I ON 2 Design Documentation

The design documentation submitted is to include reports, calculations, plans and other documentation
necessary to verify the structural strength of the installation itself and adequacy of the mooring system,
production and other utility facilities and riser system (if included in the classification) for the intended
operations.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : D e s i g n C o n d i t i o n s
3
CHAPT ER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
SECT I ON 3 Design Conditions

The FPI is to be designed for load scenarios encountered during transit and site-specific conditions. Site-
specific conditions are to include both the Design Environmental Condition and the Design Operating
Condition.
1 Position Mooring System
The position mooring system of a Floating Installation is to be designed to survive in the Design Environmental
Condition and operate in the Design Operating Condition. For a disconnectable mooring system, the
limiting condition at which the mooring system is to be disconnected or reconnected is to be specified.
1.1 Design Environmental Condition (DEC) (1 March 2006)
The Design Environmental Condition (DEC) is defined as the extreme condition with a specific combination
of wind, waves and current for which the system is to be designed.
The DEC is to be one of the following combinations that results in the most severe loading case:
• 100-year waves with associated wind and current.
• 100-year wind with associated waves and current.
• 100-year current with associated waves and wind.
In areas with high current, additional design environmental load cases may need to be considered.
The 100-year waves are normally characterized by a significant wave height with a spectral shape type and
a range of associated peak wave periods.
A minimum return period of 100 years for the DEC is required for Floating Installations. A minimum return
period of 50 years will be specially considered if it is accepted by the coastal state. Any environmental
combinations with return periods shorter than that of the DEC which induce larger mooring load responses
are also to be used in the design.
For a Floating Installation with a Disconnectable notation (see 1-1-2/5.1 of this Guide), the DISconnecting
Environmental Condition (DISEC) of the mooring system is the limiting extreme environmental condition
at which the installation is to be disconnected from the mooring system. However, the permanent mooring
system, i.e., the mooring system alone (without the installation), is to be designed to withstand an
environmental condition based on a 100-year recurrence period. An acceptable monitoring system is to be
provided for tracking environmental conditions or mooring line tensions in order to assist in the decision to
disconnect the installation from the mooring system.
1.3 Design Operating Condition (DOC) (1 July 2009)
The Design Operating Condition (DOC) is defined as the limiting environmental condition that would
require suspension of normal operations. The return period associated with the DOC shall be the larger of:
a) the value as specified by the Operator, or b) one year.


Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 3 Design Conditions 3-2-3

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1.5 Design Installation Condition (DIC)
The Design Installation Condition (DIC) is defined as the limiting environmental condition that would
require suspension of installation operations. Specific limits on environmental conditions affecting safe
operation during the installation phases described in Part 3, Chapter 4 are to be established and documented.
1.7 Angular Separation of Wind, Current and Waves
For single point mooring systems, which allow the installation to weathervane, both collinear and non-collinear
directions among wind, current and waves are to be considered. Proper angular separation for the DEC of
wind, current and waves is to be determined based on the site-specific environmental study. If this information
is not available, the following two angular combinations for non-collinear environments can be considered
as a minimum:
i) Wind and current are collinear and both at 30 degrees to waves.
ii) Wind at 30 degrees to waves and current at 90 degrees to waves.
For spread mooring systems with limited change in installation heading angles (less than 20 degrees) under
design environmental loads, the collinear environments of wind, current and waves, which are generally
controlling, can be used in design.
For each design sea state, a long-crested sea without spectral energy spreading in direction is normally
considered in the mooring analysis.
3 Structural Strength and Fatigue Life
3.1 Project Site (December 2008)
The site-specific environmental conditions, including both 100-year return period environmental events
and wave scatter diagram data of wave height/period joint occurrence distribution, are to be considered for
the installation’s hull strength and fatigue life assessment. Fatigue life assessment is also to include the
effects of on-site operational loading and unloading cycles. A minimum return period of 100 years for the
design response should be used for the DEC criteria per API RP 2T. A minimum return period of 50 years
for the structural response may be specially considered, provided that it is accepted by the Coastal State.
Different environmental conditions may induce different worst responses on various parts of the hull
structure. The wave-induced maximum motion responses and maximum structural load effects may result
from different wave periods. Therefore, the following two environmental conditions are to be considered to
derive the maximum motion responses and maximum structural load effects. The larger of the two values
obtained from i) and ii) is to be considered the maximum response:
i) 100-year return period waves characterized by a significant wave height with a range of associated
peak wave periods. Both winter storms and tropical cyclones (hurricanes or typhoons), if any,
need to be considered.
ii) Wave scatter diagram data of wave height/period joint occurrence distribution. The length of time
on which the data base for the wave scatter diagram data is constructed is long enough to be a
reliable basis for design (preferably at least five years). The occurrence distribution is to be
annualized with equal probability of occurrence for each data point. Each data point is to represent
a sea state of approximately three hours in a continuous time duration of the database.
For both of the above environmental conditions the following are also to be considered:
iii) Wave directions of head seas and other directions relative to the installation heading, including the
effects of wind and current, with proper probability distribution are to be considered, irrespective
of the type of mooring system utilized.
iv) As appropriate, either long-crested seas or short-crested seas with spreading function are to be
considered for various design issues.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 3 Design Conditions 3-2-3

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3.3 Transit
The wind and wave conditions representing the environment for the transit route from the building or
outfitting site (or the shipyard where the conversion modifications are made) to the project site and the time
of the year are to be determined for the design of a floating installation. Except for floating installations that
qualify for the Disconnectable classification notation, any other transit conditions occurring during the
operational life of the floating installation are to be submitted for review. Prior to commencement of such
a voyage, an ABS Surveyor is to attend and survey the installation to assess its condition.
As a minimum, the wind speed and significant wave height of 10-year return period are to be considered,
unless a weather routing plan is to be implemented for the voyage. Seasonal effects on the design
environments as appropriate for the proposed transit duration can be considered.
In addition to the check on the installation’s hull strength during transit, special attention is to be paid to
items such as the flare boom, crane pedestal and process equipment supports that will be subject to motion-
induced loading and/or effects of green water. Motion-induced loads during transit are to be calculated
and the superstructures and their supports, which are included in the scope of classification, shall be
verified against these loads.
If fitted with an internal turret, special consideration is to be given to bottom slamming to preclude damage
to the turret supports and bearings.
3.5 Disconnectable Installations (1 July 2012)
For disconnectable floating installations that are disconnected from its mooring and riser systems due to
the occurrence of a limiting extreme environmental condition, the structural strength of the installation
shall comply with unrestricted service (North Atlantic) conditions. However, if the disconnectable floating
installation is restricted to a specific service area in proximity to its operating site location, reduced design
load parameters may be applied with an appropriate limited area of disconnected service notation
Disconnectable-R (from site to designated port) or (from site to geographic area Lat. X1,
Long. Y1; Lat. X2, Long. Y2; Lat. X3, Long. Y3; Lat. X4, Long. Y4), where permitted by local
authorities or regulations.
3.7 Strength and Fatigue Life (December 2008)
Hull strength and fatigue life assessment are calculated according to Part 5A or 5B of this Guide for a
given project site and transit route.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n d i t i o n s
3
CHAPT ER 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
SECT I ON 4 Environmental Conditions
1 General
The environmental conditions for various design conditions described in Section 3-2-3 are to be submitted
with adequate data for the specific site of operation. Statistical data and mathematical models that describe
the range of pertinent expected variations of environmental conditions are to be employed. All data used
are to be fully documented with the sources and estimated reliability of data noted.
An environmental report describing methods employed in developing available data into design criteria is
to be submitted in accordance with 1-1-4/3 of this Guide. Probabilistic methods for short-term, long-term
and extreme-value prediction are to employ statistical distributions appropriate to the environmental
phenomena being considered, as evidenced by relevant statistical tests, confidence limits and other
measures of statistical significance. Hindcasting methods and models are to be fully documented.
Generally, data and analyses supplied by recognized consultants will be accepted as the basis of design.
Published design standards and data, if available for the location of interest, may be cited as documentation.
Specifically, the following environmental data are normally to be provided:
i) Extreme events of 100-, 10- and 1-year return period data for wind speed, significant wave height
and current. A range of associated wave periods is to be considered for each specified significant wave
height. Both winter storms and tropical cyclones (hurricanes or typhoons), if any, need be considered.
ii) Directional data and angular separation for extreme values of wind, waves and current.
iii) Wave spectral shape formulation.
iv) Current speed and directional variation through the water depth.
v) Wave height/period joint occurrence distribution (wave scatter diagram data with equal annual
probability of occurrence for each data point).
vi) Long-term wave statistics by direction.
vii) Water depth and tidal variations, including wind and pressure effects of storms.
viii) Air and sea temperature.
ix) Ice, iceberg and snow, if any.
3 Environmental Loads
The design of a Floating Installation requires the establishment of environmental loads considering the
following parameters:
Air and sea temperatures Tides and storm surges
Currents Waves
Ice and Snow Wind

Other phenomena such as loop currents, tsunamis, submarine slides, seiche, abnormal composition of air
and water, air humidity, salinity, ice drift and icebergs may require special considerations.
Wind tunnel and towing tank tests on the project-specific submerged hull and superstructures are preferred
in determining current and wind loads. Alternatively, the following calculation procedures can also be applied.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 4 Environmental Conditions 3-2-4

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5 Current
The current forces on the submerged hull, mooring lines, risers or any other submerged objects associated
with the system are to be calculated using a current profile established in accordance with 3-2-3/1. In areas
where relatively high velocity currents occur, load amplification due to vortex shedding is to be considered.
Current force, F
current
, on the submerged part of any structure is calculated as the drag force by the following
equation:
F
current
= 1/2 ρ
water
C
D
A
current
u
c
|u
c
| kN (lbf)
where
ρ
water
= density of sea water, 0.1045 tonnes/m
3
(1.99 Slugs/ft
3
)
C
D
= drag coefficient, in steady flow (dimensionless)
u
c
= current velocity vector normal to the plane of projected area, in m/s (ft/s)
A
current
= projected area exposed to current, in m
2
(ft
2
)
For a Floating Installation using a ship-type configuration (e.g., tankers), current forces may be calculated
(as appropriate) by using coefficients based on model test data as presented in Prediction of Wind and
Current Loads on VLCCs, published by Oil Companies International Marine Forum (OCIMF), 1994.
7 Wind
The wind conditions for various design conditions are to be established from collected wind data and
should be consistent with other environmental parameters assumed to occur simultaneously. In general,
the wind speed is to be based on a recurrence period of 100 years.
The environmental report is to present wind statistics for the site of installation. The statistics are to be
based on the analysis and interpretation of wind data by a recognized consultant. The report is to include a
wind rose or table showing the frequency distributions of wind velocity and direction and a table or graph
showing the recurrence period of extreme winds. The percentage of time for which the operational phase
limiting wind velocity is expected to be exceeded during a year and during the worst month or season is to
be identified.
7.1 Wind Load
The wind loading can be considered either as a steady wind force or as a combination of steady and time-
varying load, as described below:
i) When wind force is considered as a constant (steady) force, the wind velocity based on the
1-minute average velocity is to be used in calculating the wind load.
ii) Effect of the wind gust spectrum can be taken into account by considering wind loading as a
combination of steady load and a time-varying component calculated from a suitable wind spectrum.
For this approach, the wind velocity based on 1-hour average speed is to be used for steady wind
load calculation. The first approach is preferred to this approach when the wind energy spectrum
cannot be derived with confidence.
Wind pressure, p
wind
, on a particular windage of a floating installation may be calculated as drag forces
using the following equations:
P
wind
= 0.610 C
s
C
h
2
ref
V N/m
2
V
ref
in m/s
= 0.0623 C
s
C
h
2
ref
V

kgf/m
2
V
ref
in m/s
= 0.00338 C
s
C
h
2
ref
V

lbf/ft
2
V
ref
in knots

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 4 Environmental Conditions 3-2-4

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where
C
s
= Shape Coefficient (dimensionless)
C
h
= Height Coefficient (dimensionless)
The height coefficient, C
h
, in the above formulation accounts for the wind velocity (V
wind
) profile in the
vertical plane. The height coefficient, C
h
, is given by the following equation:
β 2 2
or








=








=
ref
h
ref
z
h
Z
z
C
V
V
C , but C
h
(≥ 1)
where the velocity of wind, V
z
, at a height, z, is to be calculated as follows:
β








=
ref
ref z
Z
z
V V
V
ref
= velocity of wind at a reference elevation, Z
ref
, of 10 m (33 feet)
ß = 0.09 - 0.16 for 1-minute average wind
= 0.125 for 1-hour average wind.
The corresponding wind force, F
wind
, on the windage is:
F
wind
= p
wind
A
wind

where
A
wind
= projected area of windage on a plane normal to the direction of the wind, in m
2
(ft
2
)
The total wind force is then obtained by summing up the wind forces on each windage.
Representative values of C
h
are given in 3-2-4/Table 2 of this Guide. Wind profiles for the specific site of
the Floating Installation should be used.
The shape coefficients for typical structural shapes are presented in 3-2-4/Table 1 of this Guide. To
convert the wind velocity, V
t
, at a reference of 10 m (33 feet) above sea level for a given time average, t, to
velocity of another time average, the following relationship may be used:
V
t
= fV
(1 hr)

Example values of the factor f, based on API RP 2A, for U.S. waters are listed in 3-2-4/Table 3 of this
Guide. Values specific to the site of the Floating Installation are to be used.
Wind forces can be calculated for large ship-type installations with relatively small superstructure (e.g.,
tankers) using the coefficients presented in the document Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs,
OCIMF, 1994. Additional forces due to superstructures and equipment can be calculated by the above
formula and added to these results.
Wind forces on Floating Installations other than ship-type are to be calculated by the summation of wind
forces on individual areas using the above formulas.
If the 1-hour average wind speed is used, the wind’s dynamic effect should be separately considered. The
wind energy spectrum, as recommended in API RP 2A, may be used.
9 Waves
Wave criteria are to be described in terms of wave energy spectra, significant wave height and associated
period for the location at which the Floating Installation is to operate. Waves are to be considered as
coming from any direction relative to the installation. Consideration is to be given to waves of less than
the maximum height because the wave-induced motion responses at waves with certain periods may be
larger in some cases due to the dynamic behavior of the system as a whole.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 4 Environmental Conditions 3-2-4

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9.1 Wave Forces
The wave forces acting on a floating installation consist of three components, i.e., first order forces at wave
frequencies, second order forces at frequencies lower than the wave frequencies and a steady component of
the second order forces. This steady component of the wave force is called Mean Drift Force. The
calculation of wave loading is necessary for assessing the installation motion responses and the mooring
system. It requires calculations of dynamic characteristics of the installation and the hydrodynamic
loading on the installation for a given environmental condition.
For structures consisting of slender members that do not significantly alter the incident wave field, semi-
empirical formulations, such as Morison’s equation, may be used. For calculation of wave loads on
structural configurations that significantly alter the incident wave field, appropriate methods which account
for both the incident wave force (e.g., Froude-Krylov force) and the forces resulting from wave diffraction
are to be used. In general, application of Morison’s equation may be used for structures comprising slender
members with diameters (or equivalent diameters giving the same cross-sectional areas parallel to the
flow) less than 20 percent of the wave lengths.
For a column-stabilized type of installation consisting of large (columns and pontoons) and small (brace
members) cylindrical members, a combination of diffraction and Morison’s equation can be used for calculation
of hydrodynamic characteristics and hydrodynamic loading. The designer may refer to 3-1-2/1.5 of the
MODU Rules. Alternatively, the suitable model test results or full scale measurements can be used.
Wave force calculations should account for shallow water effects which increase current due to blockage
effects, change the system natural frequency due to nonlinear behavior of moorings and alter wave kinematics.
9.3 Wave-induced Motion Responses
The wave-induced response of an installation consists of three categories of response (i.e., first order (wave
frequency) motions, low frequency or slowly varying motions and steady drift).
9.3.1 First Order Motions
These motions have six degrees of freedom (surge, sway, heave, roll, pitch and yaw) and are at
wave frequencies that can be obtained from model tests in regular or random waves or by computer
analysis in frequency or time domain.
9.3.2 Low Frequency Motions
These motions are induced by low frequency components of second order wave forces. The low
frequency motions of surge, sway and yaw can be substantial, particularly at frequencies near the
natural frequency of the system.
The low frequency motion-induced mooring line tension in most systems with a tanker-type
installation is a dominating design load for the mooring system. The low frequency motions are to
be calculated for any moored installation by using appropriate motion analysis software or by
model test results of a similar vessel.
9.3.3 Steady (Mean) Drift
As mentioned above, an installation subjected to waves experiences a steady drift along with the
first and second order motions. The mean wave drift force and yawing moment are induced by the
steady component of the second order wave forces. Mean drift forces and yawing moments are to
be calculated using appropriate motion analysis computer programs or extrapolated from model
test results of a similar vessel.
11 Directionality
The directionality of environmental conditions can be considered if properly documented by a detailed
environmental report.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 2 Design Basis and Environmental Loading
Section 4 Environmental Conditions 3-2-4

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13 Soil Conditions (1 July 2009)
Site investigation in general should be in accordance with Part 3, Section 6 of the ABS Rules for Building
and Classing Offshore Installations. Soil data should be taken in the vicinity of the foundation system site.
An interpretation of such data is to be submitted by a recognized geotechnical consultant. To establish the
soil characteristics of the site, the foundation system borings or probings are to be taken at all foundation
locations to a suitable depth of at least the anticipated depth of any piles or anchor penetrations plus a
consideration for the soil variability. As an alternative, sub-bottom profile runs may be taken and correlated
with at least two borings or probings in the vicinity of anchor locations and an interpretation may be made by
a recognized geotechnical consultant to adequately establish the soil profile at all anchoring locations.

TABLE 1
Shape Coefficients C
s
for Windages
Shape C
s

Sphere 0.40
Cylindrical Shapes 0.50
Hull above waterline 1.00
Deck House 1.00
Isolated structural shapes
(Cranes, channels, beams, angles, etc.)
1.50
Under deck areas (smooth) 1.00
Under deck areas (exposed beams and girders) 1.30
Rig derrick 1.25

TABLE 2
Height Coefficients C
h
for Windages
Height above Waterline C
h

Meters Feet 1-min 1-hr
0.0 - 15.3 0 - 50 1.00 1.00
15.3 - 30.5 50 - 100 1.18 1.23
30.5 - 46.0 100 - 150 1.31 1.40
46.0 - 61.0 150 - 200 1.40 1.52
61.0 - 76.0 200 - 250 1.47 1.62
76.0 - 91.5 250 - 300 1.53 1.71
91.5 - 106.5 300 - 350 1.58 1.78

TABLE 3
Wind Velocity Conversion Factor*
Wind Duration Factor "f"
1 Hour 1.000
10 Min 1.060
1 Min 1.180
15 Sec 1.260
5 Sec 1.310
3 Sec 1.330
* The values of 3-2-4/Table 3 are most representative
of U.S. waters. Site-specific data should be used.
(See 3-2-4/7.1 of this Guide)

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PART Chapter 3: General Requirements
3
CHAPT ER 3 General Requirements
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 All Installations ..................................................................................... 43
1 General ............................................................................................. 43
3 Lightweight Data ............................................................................... 43
5 Maximum Draft .................................................................................. 43
7 Loading Manual (Operating Manual) ................................................ 44
9 Trim and Stability Booklet (Operating Manual) ................................. 44
11 Stability .............................................................................................. 44
13 Engineering Analysis ........................................................................ 44
15 Mooring Systems and Equipment ..................................................... 45
17 Onboard Computers for Stability Calculations .................................. 45


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : A l l I n s t a l l a t i o n s
3
CHAPT ER 3 General Requirements
SECT I ON 1 All Installations
1 General (1 July 2009)
This Chapter covers the requirements for installations (ship-type, column-stabilized, tension leg platform
and spar) as defined in Section 3-1-2. Other types, as defined in 3-1-2/7, will be considered on a case-by-
case basis.
This Chapter covers the requirements for installations that are newly designed or are undergoing a major
conversion that affects the principal dimensions of the floating installation, or an existing vessel that is
undergoing conversion to a floating installation. The application of these requirements to existing vessels
undergoing conversions will be considered by ABS based on the service history, age, condition of the
existing floating installation, etc.
The designer is required to submit to ABS for review all applicable design documentation, such as reports,
calculations, plans and other documentation necessary to verify the structural strength of the floating
installation itself (see Section 1-1-4 of this Guide). The submitted design documentation is to include the
design environmental conditions (see Section 3-2-4).
3 Lightweight Data (1 July 2012)
The lightweight and center of gravity are to be determined for installations of all types. An inclining test
will be required for the first floating installation of a series, when as near to completion as practical, to
determine accurately the lightweight and position of center of gravity. An inclining test procedure is to be
submitted for review prior to the test, which is to be witnessed by an ABS Surveyor. For specific requirements
related to non-ship-type installations, refer to Section 5B-1-3, 5B-2-2, or 5B-3-2.
5 Maximum Draft (1 July 2012)
Every installation is to have marks that designate the maximum permissible draft to which the installation
may be loaded. Such markings are to be placed at suitable visible locations on the hull or structure to the
satisfaction of ABS. On column-stabilized installations, where practical, these marks are to be visible to
the person in charge of liquid transfer operations.
Where a Load Line certificate, issued in accordance with the International Convention of Load Lines,
1966, as amended by the 1988 Protocol, is not required, marks shall be affixed to the hull that clearly show
the maximum draft permitted.
Maximum draft marks are to be established under the terms of the International Convention of Load Lines,
1966. Only the summer freeboard should be applied, unless other freeboards are necessary for disconnectable
ship-type units. Where minimum freeboards cannot be computed by the normal methods laid down by the
convention, such as in the case of a column stabilized installation, they are to be determined on the basis of
compliance with strength and stability criteria in the Rules and applicable statutory regulations.
The installation’s arrangements are to comply with all applicable regulations of the International Convention
on Load Lines. Where alternative method of establishing the maximum draft has been based on strength
and stability calculations as described above, arrangements are to be consistent with watertight and weathertight
integrity assumptions in those calculations.


Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 3 General Requirements
Section 1 All Installations 3-3-1

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7 Loading Manual (Operating Manual)
For a ship-type installation, a loading manual is to be prepared and submitted for review pertaining to the
safe operation of the installation from a strength point of view. This loading manual is to be prepared for
the guidance of and use by the personnel responsible for loading the installation. The manual is to include
means for determining the effects of various loaded, transitional and ballasted conditions upon the hull
girder bending moment and shear force and is to be furnished to the master of the installation for guidance.
In addition, a loading instrument suitable for the intended service is to be installed on the installation. The
check conditions for the loading instrument and other relevant data are to be submitted for review.
An operating manual is required for the marine operation of all Floating Installations, containing the information
listed in Section 1-1-5 of the MODU Rules Supplement to the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification –
Offshore Units and Structures (Part 1) and 5B-1-4/11 of this Guide, as applicable. The above mentioned
loading manual may be included in the overall operating manual or issued as a separate document. The
loading manual, if issued as a separate document, is to be referenced in the overall operating manual.
Further, where Disconnectable is requested as an additional classification notation, the operating manual
is to include procedures for disconnection and reconnection of the installation to its mooring and riser
system. (See 3-4-1/13 and 3-4-7/3.)
See Parts 5A and 5B and for additional requirements pertaining to each installation type.
9 Trim and Stability Booklet (Operating Manual)
In addition to the loading manual described in 3-3-1/7, a ship-type floating installation is to be provided
with sufficient information to guide the master and other responsible personnel in the safe loading, transfer
and discharge of cargo and ballast with respect to the hull’s trim and stability. The information is to include
various loaded, transitional and ballasted example conditions over the full range of operating drafts together
with stability criteria to enable the responsible personnel to evaluate the intact and damage stability of any
other proposed condition of loading.
This information may be prepared as a separate trim and stability booklet or may be included in the overall
operating manual. If issued as a separate document, the trim and stability booklet is to be referenced in the
overall operating manual. In addition to the booklet or section of the operating manual, the stability
guidance information also may be incorporated as part of the loading instrument described in 3-3-1/7. (See
3-2-1/7 and Part 3, Chapter 3, of the Steel Vessel Rules, Regulation 10 of the 1966 Load Line Convention,
Regulation 25 of MARPOL 73/78.)
See Parts 5A and 5B and for additional requirements pertaining to each installation type.
11 Stability (1 July 2012)
The intact and damage stability of the installation are to be evaluated in accordance with the requirements
of the Flag and Coastal States. Ship-type installations are to comply with the IMO Code on Intact Stability,
the 1966 Load Line Convention, SOLAS Convention or IMO MODU Code as applicable, and MARPOL
73/78. Non-ship-type installations are to meet the requirements in Section 5B-1-3, 5B-2-2, or 5B-3-2 of
this Guide. See 3-3-1/9 of this Guide for general requirements pertaining to the makeup and issuance of
loading guidance with respect to stability.
13 Engineering Analysis (December 2008)
Documentation necessary to verify the adequacy of the hull structure is to be submitted for review. The
needed extent and types of analyses and the sophistication of such analyses vary, depending on one or a
combination of the following factors:
i) The design basis of the hull structure versus the conditions to be encountered at the site for the
installation.
ii) The relative lack of experience with the hull structure’s arrangement, local details, loading patterns,
failure mode sensitivities.
iii) Potential deleterious interactions with other subsystems of the floating offshore installation.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 3 General Requirements
Section 1 All Installations 3-3-1

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The required structural analyses are to employ the loads associated with the environmental conditions
determined in association with Part 3, Chapter 2. These conditions include those expected during the
operational life of the Floating Installation on site and those expected during the transport of the structure
to the site of the installation.
For sites with relatively mild environmental conditions, it may be possible, depending on the intended
service of the structure, to reduce the structural analysis effort where it is demonstrated that the hull structure
satisfies the unrestricted criteria of the pertinent ABS Rules applicable to the installation type being
considered. However, it may still be deemed necessary to perform and submit for review specific analyses
for such considerations as the interface between the position mooring system and the hull structure, or the
effects of structural support reactions from deck mounted (or above-deck) equipment modules or both,
potential sloshing load effects and fatigue strength assessments of hull components where the other applied
ABS Rules do not address that consideration to the extent needed for a floating offshore installation. More
specific information on required structural analyses is given in Parts 5A and 5B for each type of hull
structure covered by these criteria.
15 Mooring Systems and Equipment
Position mooring systems are to meet the requirements of Part 6. For temporary mooring equipment, see
1-1-2/11 and 5A-1-3/1.17 of this Guide.
17 Onboard Computers for Stability Calculations (1 July 2012)
The use of onboard computers for stability calculations is not a requirement of class. However, if stability
software is installed onboard floating installations contracted on or after 1 July 2005, it needs to cover all
stability requirements applicable to the floating installation and is to be approved by ABS for compliance
with the requirements of Appendix 3-3-A2, “Onboard Computers for Stability Calculations” of the MODU
Rules.


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PART C h a p t e r 4 : I n s t a l l a t i o n , H o o k - u p a n d C o m m i s s i o n i n g
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General .................................................................................................. 47
1 General Description .......................................................................... 47
3 Pre-installation Verification ............................................................... 47
5 Pile or Anchor and Mooring Line Installation .................................... 47
7 Tensioning and Proof Load Testing .................................................. 48
9 Hook-up of the Anchor Chain System .............................................. 48
11 Import/Export System Installation ..................................................... 48
11.1 Rigid and Flexible Risers ............................................................... 48
11.3 Export Vessel Transfer System ..................................................... 49
13 Disconnecting Procedure .................................................................. 49

SECTION 2 Hook-up Procedures Submittal ........................................................... 50

SECTION 3 Start-up and Commissioning Procedures Submittal ......................... 51

SECTION 4 Surveys During Installation of the Mooring Systems ........................ 52

SECTION 5 Surveys During Installation of the Import/Export System ................ 54

SECTION 6 Surveys During Hook-up ..................................................................... 56

SECTION 7 Demonstration of the Disconnectable Mooring System .................. 57

SECTION 8 Surveys During Start-up and Commissioning ................................... 58



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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 1 General

The requirements in this Chapter apply to the procedures to be submitted and the surveys to be performed
for all ABS-classed Floating Installations.
Prior to carrying out the installation, the installation procedures are to be submitted for review. The
installation procedures to be submitted are to include the following, where applicable.
1 General Description
General description of the entire layout of the mooring system and of the Floating Installation with risers,
subsea pipelines and, as applicable, pipeline end manifolds (PLEMs).
3 Pre-installation Verification
Pre-installation verification procedures for the seabed condition in way of the installation site and
contingency procedures for removing any obstacles found on site.
5 Pile or Anchor and Mooring Line Installation
Pile or anchor and mooring line installation procedures which are to include, but are not limited to, the
following:
i) General preparations for installation.
ii) Rigging arrangements for piles, chaser pile and driving hammers.
iii) Work barge setup during the various phases of installation, taking into consideration the prevailing
weather conditions.
iv) Anticipated pile driving resistance.
v) Pile penetration acceptance criteria established by design and pile refusal and overdrive contingency
procedures.
vi) Procedure for positioning of the pile orientation toward the center of the Position Mooring System
and the criteria for allowable deviations of position and orientation.
vii) Procedure for installation of the mooring line and the precautions to be taken in order to prevent
any twisting of the mooring chains during installation.
viii) Procedure for installation of anchors, including piggyback anchors, if applicable, and procedure
for determining the installed positions and orientations of the anchors. Criteria for allowable
deviations in positioning and orientation are also to be included.


Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
Section 1 General 3-4-1

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7 Tensioning and Proof Load Testing
Tensioning and proof load testing procedures of the anchor piles or anchors and chain system are to
include the following:
i) Rigging arrangements for proof load tension testing of the mooring chains, anchor or pile system.
ii) Work barge setup to perform the proof load testing of the chains and anchor or pile system.
iii) Detailed tensioning procedure, including type of tensioning device to be utilized and tensioning
operations.
iv) Chain retrieval and abandonment procedures during tensioning.
v) Procedure for chain proof load tensioning by ballasting the Floating Installation, if applicable.
9 Hook-up of the Anchor Chain System
Procedure for hook-up of the anchor chain system to the Floating Installation, which is to include the
following:
i) Rigging and towing procedures for positioning of the Floating Installation for hook-up to the
mooring system.
ii) Preferred ballast condition of the Floating Installation prior to the hook-up.
iii) Procedure for sequential hook-up of the chains, repositioning of the Floating Installation and
tensioning of the chains.
iv) Method of determining the correct tension of the chains and the acceptable design tolerance.
v) Procedure for determining the positioning of the SPM system relative to the PLEM or wellhead
and the acceptable design tolerance for the position of the SPM center relative to the PLEM or
wellhead.
vi) Method of securing the chain turntable from movement and the overall safety precautions for the
entire hook-up installation.
vii) Procedure for chain tensioning by ballasting the Floating Installation, if applicable.
11 Import/Export System Installation
The Import/Export System Installation Procedure is to be submitted for review in conjunction with the
design review so that it can be verified that all appropriate installation loadings have been considered. The
manual is to describe procedures to be employed during the installation of the import/export systems. In
addition, the manual is to include a list of allowable environmental limits under which system installation
may proceed. Abandonment procedures, retrieval procedures and repair procedures are to be supplied,
when deemed necessary.
11.1 Rigid and Flexible Risers
The procedure to hook-up the import/export risers to the Floating Installation is to include the following
items, where applicable:
i) Handling and rigging of the rigid and flexible riser during installation.
ii) Positioning of the work barge for the various phases of the installation.
iii) Procedure for installation of the buoyancy tank and arch support and clump weight, if applicable,
including steps to avoid riser interference and precautions against damaging the riser during
installation.
iv) Tie-in rigging technique for hook-up of both ends of the risers.
v) Procedure for hydrostatic testing of the risers. Hydrotest pressure and test duration are to be in
accordance with API or other recognized code of practice.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
Section 1 General 3-4-1

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11.3 Export Vessel Transfer System
The procedure for installing the export system is to include the following items, as applicable.
i) Rigging, handling and make-up of the export hose system and precautions against damage during
installation.
ii) Fitting of all the necessary accessory and navigational aids.
iii) Procedure for paying out of the hose string into the sea.
iv) Procedure for filling and testing the hose string. The required design and testing pressure and
testing duration are to be provided.
13 Disconnecting Procedure
For disconnectable mooring systems, the procedures for the disconnecting and connecting of the Floating
Installation’s mooring system are to be submitted. These procedures are to include the abandonment and
retrieval of the import and export systems. (Also see 1-1-4/11 of this Guide for Operating Manual
requirements.)


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PART S e c t i o n 2 : H o o k - u p P r o c e d u r e s S u b m i t t a l
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 2 Hook-up Procedures Submittal

Any system component installation intentionally left incomplete to ease the installation of the Floating
Installation at site is to be documented and a procedure for site hook-up and testing is to be submitted.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : S t a r t - u p a n d C o m m i s s i o n i n g P r o c e d u r e s S u b m i t t a l
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 3 Start-up and Commissioning Procedures
Submittal

Start-up and commissioning procedures for the production system are to be submitted for review per the
Facilities Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : S u r v e y s D u r i n g I n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e M o o r i n g S y s t e m s
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 4 Surveys During Installation of the Mooring
Systems

During installation, the requirements as contained in the following paragraphs are to be verified or
witnessed, where applicable, by the attending Surveyor.
1
All mooring components are to be examined for transit damages prior to installation. Any damages found
are to be dealt with to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor.
3
All applicable components required to be certified at the manufacturers’ facilities have received certification.
5
The area at and in the vicinity of the mooring site is to be surveyed by divers or remotely operated vehicles
(ROVs) to ensure that there are no obstructions or debris prior to installation.
7
During the installation of the anchors or anchor piles, the following are to be verified in order, where
applicable:
i) Proper locking of all connecting shackles from chains to piles or anchors and chains to chains.
ii) Sealing of all Kenter shackle locking pins.
iii) All complements of anchor chains for correct sizes and lengths.
iv) All anchor pile or anchors are installed in the designed positions and orientations and are within
the allowable design tolerance.
9
The paying out of the anchor chains after the installation of the piles is to be performed in accordance with
the approved procedures.
11
Unless otherwise approved by the attending Surveyor, the first pair of anchor chains to be cross-tensioned
is the first pair to be installed.
13
The cross-tensioning is to be verified to ensure all pretensioning loads are in accordance with the design
and there is no movement or pullout of the anchor piles.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
Section 4 Surveys During Installation of the Mooring Systems 3-4-4

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15
Upon successful completion of the pretensioning, the subsequent hooking up of all of the chain legs to the
chain stoppers in the turntable is to be verified.
17
During tensioning of the chains for the position mooring system, the relative position of the mooring
system’s center to the PLEM is to be verified for compliance with the design specifications and tolerance.
19
Upon completion, the chain tension is to be verified by measuring the catenary angles of the chains for
compliance with the design specifications and tolerance. Any excess length of chain above the chain
stoppers is to be removed, unless it is designed to be retained in the chain well.


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PART Section 5: Surveys During Installation of the Import/Export System
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 5 Surveys During Installation of the Import/Export
System

During installation of the import/export system, the following items are to be witnessed by the Surveyor, as
applicable.
1
The riser is to be examined for damage as it is being paid out, and sufficient tension is to be maintained to
ensure the riser is free of deformations or buckles. The buoyancy tank and arch support are to be verified
as being installed in the correct position relative to the water surface end of the riser.
3
The installation of the riser clamps on the buoyancy tank and arch support are to be monitored to ensure
that the riser is adequately secured and not damaged due to excessive tightening of the clamps.
5
The installation of the end flanges of the riser is to be monitored for compliance with the approved
procedures.
7
Upon completion of installation, the entire underwater complement of components is to be generally
examined and verified by divers or ROVs for compliance with the reviewed design specifications and
configurations. At a site with limited visibility, alternative means of verifying the installation are to be
submitted for review and are to be performed to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor.
9
Hydrotesting of the import/export system is to be performed in accordance with the approved procedure.
The test pressure and duration of the hydrotest should follow the appropriate codes, such as ANSI/ ASME
B31.8, API RP 2RD and RP 17B.
11
The make-up of the export floating hose string is to be verified for compliance with the approved
procedures. Suitable gaskets for the hose flanges, positioning of all navigational aids, correct location of
the breakaway couplings and tightening of the flange bolts are also to be verified.
13
During the paying out of the hose string, verification is to be made that the hose string bend radii are not
smaller than the manufacturer’s recommended limits.

Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
Section 5 Surveys During Installation of the Import/Export System 3-4-5

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15
Upon completion of installation, the entire export hose string is to be hydrostatically tested in accordance
with the approved procedure and codes, such as the OCIMF Guidelines for the Handling, Storage, Inspection,
and Testing of Hoses in the Field.
17
Subsea controls, if installed, are to be satisfactorily tested.
19
All navigational aids are to be functionally tested and proven in working order.


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PART S e c t i o n 6 : S u r v e y s D u r i n g H o o k - u p
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 6 Surveys During Hook-up

Survey during hook-up is to be performed following reviewed procedures and is to include the following,
where applicable:
1
Piping hook-up is to be verified for compliance with the reviewed drawings and procedures. Welds are to
be visually inspected and nondestructive testing (NDT) performed as required. Upon completion of hook-
up, the affected sections are to be hydrostatically tested to 1.5 times the design working pressure and
proven tight.
3
Electrical hook-up is to be verified for compliance with the approved drawings and procedures. Proper
support for cables and proper sealing of cable entries to equipment are to be verified. Upon completion of
the hook-up, the affected sections of the equipment and cabling are to be insulation tested and proven in
order. All grounding is also to be verified as being in order.
5
Instrumentation hook-up is to be verified for compliance with the reviewed drawings and procedures.
Tubing supports are to be verified. Upon completion, all systems are to be functionally tested and proven
as being in order. The manufacturer’s limits on bend radii for any component of the instrumentation
system are to be observed.
7
Mechanical equipment hook-up is to be verified for compliance with the reviewed drawings and procedures,
including the grounding of the equipment. Upon completion, all equipment is to be functionally tested and
proven as being in order.


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PART S e c t i o n 7 : D e m o n s t r a t i o n o f t h e D i s c o n n e c t a b l e M o o r i n g S y s t e m
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 7 Demonstration of the Disconnectable Mooring
System
1
For a disconnectable mooring system, the system’s capability to disconnect free from its mooring system is
to be demonstrated to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor, in accordance with approved test procedures.
3
During the disconnect operation, the time taken to effectively free the Floating Installation from the
mooring system is to be recorded in the operation manual.


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PART S e c t i o n 8 : S u r v e y s D u r i n g S t a r t - u p a n d C o m m i s s i o n i n g
3
CHAPT ER 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
SECT I ON 8 Surveys During Start-up and Commissioning

The start-up and commissioning of hydrocarbon production systems are to be verified by the attending
Surveyor. The scope of the start-up and commissioning to be verified by the Surveyor is to include the
following items:
1
The start-up and commissioning operations are to be in accordance with the reviewed procedures.
3
Verify precautions for safety of personnel during commissioning, including checks of operational
readiness of all life saving equipment, fire and gas detection systems, fire fighting equipment, Emergency
Shutdown systems and unobstructed escape routes.
5
Verify establishment of communication procedures prior to the start of commissioning operations.
7
Verify that emergency procedures are provided to deal with contingencies, such as spillage, fire and other
hazards. Drills may have to be performed to demonstrate readiness to these procedures.
9
Verify start-up and testing of all support utility systems, including main and auxiliary sources, for the
process system prior to commissioning.
11
Verify proper hook-up and testing of the entire process system prior to commissioning, including the
testing of entire system for leaks, the process control functions and emergency shutdown system.
13
Verify purging of the entire production system of oxygen to an acceptable level prior to the introduction of
hydrocarbons into the production system.
15
Verify the introduction of hydrocarbon into the process system and the system’s capability to control the
flow of the well effluent in the system in a stabilized manner without undue control upsets.


Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Chapter 4 Installation, Hook-up, and Commissioning
Section 8 Surveys During Start-Up and Commissioning 3-4-8

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17
Verify the start-up of the flare system, if applicable, including the necessary precautions taken to eliminate
the risk of explosion or fire. The functional capability of the flare system is to be verified.
19
Verify that the post-commissioned process system is functioning satisfactorily for a duration of at least 12 hours.
Equipment required to be verified but not used during the initial start-up and commissioning is to be identified
for verification at the next Annual Survey.


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PART A p p e n d i x 1 : A b b r e v i a t i o n s a n d R e f e r e n c e s
3
APPENDI X 1 Abbreviations and References
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 Abbreviations ....................................................................................... 61

SECTION 2 References ............................................................................................ 62


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : A b b r e v i a t i o n s
3
APPENDI X 1 Abbreviations and References
SECT I ON 1 Abbreviations

API American Petroleum Institute Appendix 3-A1-2
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers Appendix 3-A1-2
DEC Design Environmental Condition 3-2-3/1.1
DIC Design Installation Condition 3-2-3/1.5
DOC Design Operating Condition 3-2-3/1.3
FOI Floating Offshore Installation 3-1-1/1
FPS Floating Production (and Offloading) System 3-1-1/1
FPSO Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System 3-1-1/1
FSO Floating Storage and Offloading System 3-1-1/1
HSE Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom Appendix 3-A1-2
MODU Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Appendix 3-A1-2
OCIMF Oil Company International Marine Forum Appendix 3-A1-2
PLEM Pipe Line End Manifold 3-1-5/7
P&ID Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams 3-1-3/9
S.A.F.E. Chart Safety Analysis Function Evaluation Charts 3-1-3/11
SB Steel Barges Appendix 3-A1-2
SPM Single Point Mooring Appendix 3-A1-2
SV Steel Vessel Appendix 3-A1-2
UWILD Underwater Inspection in Lieu of Drydocking Survey 7-3-1/3 &
Appendix 3-A1-2


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PART S e c t i o n 2 : R e f e r e n c e s
3
APPENDI X 1 Abbreviations and References
SECT I ON 2 References (1 July 2012)

ABS:
Facilities Rules The ABS Rules for Building and Classing Facilities on Offshore Installations
MODU Rules The ABS Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units
Offshore Chain Guide The ABS Guide for Certification of Offshore Mooring Chain
Single Point Mooring Rules The ABS Rules for Building and Classing Single Point Mooring Systems
Steel Vessel Rules The ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels
UWILD The ABS Rules for Survey After Construction (Appendix 7-A-1)
Synthetic Rope Guidance
Notes
The ABS Guidance Notes on the Application of Synthetic Ropes for Offshore Mooring
Risk Guidance Notes The ABS Guidance Notes on Risk Assessment Application for the Marine and Offshore
Oil and Gas Industries
Fatigue Guide Guide for the Fatigue Assessment of Offshore Structures
Remote Control and
Monitoring Guide
Guide for Remote Control and Monitoring for Auxiliary Machinery and Systems (other
than Propulsion) on Offshore Installations
Risk Guide Guide for Risk Evaluations for the Classification of Marine-Related Facilities
Buckling Guide Guide for Buckling and Ultimate Strength Assessment for Offshore Structures
SFA Guide Guide for Spectral-Based Fatigue Analysis for Floating Production, Storage and
Offloading (FPSO) Installations
DLA Guide Guide for “Dynamic Loading Approach” for Floating Production, Storage and
Offloading (FPSO) Installations

American Institute of Steel Construction:
AISC Code Manual of Steel Construction - ASD, latest edition

American Society of Mechanical Engineers/American National Standards Institute:
B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping
B31.4 Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous
Ammonia, and Alcohol
B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
Boiler Code Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, latest edition.

American Petroleum Institute:
API RP 2A Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Constructing Fixed Offshore
Platforms
API RP 2 SK Recommended Practice for the Design and Analysis of Stationkeeping Systems for
Floating Structures, Third Edition - 2005
API RP 2Q Replaced by API RP 16Q
API RP 2RD Recommended Practice for Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPSs)
and Tension-Leg Platforms (TLPs)


Part 3 Installation Types, Functions, Features and General Requirements
Appendix 1 Abbreviations and References
Section 2 References 3-A1-2

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API RP 2T Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing, and Construction Tension Leg
Platforms, Third Edition - 2010
API Bull 2U Bulletin on Stability Design of Cylindrical Shells, Third Edition - 2004
API Bull 2V Bulletin on Design of Flat Plate Structures, Third Edition - 2004
API Spec 9A Specification for Wire Rope Twenty-fifth Edition - 2004
API RP 9B Recommended Practice on Application, Care, and Use of Wire Rope for Oil Field
Service Twelfth Edition - 2005
API RP 14C Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Basic Surface
Safety Systems on Offshore Production Platforms Seventh Edition - 2001
API RP 14E Recommended Practice for Design and Installation of Offshore Production Platform
Piping Systems, Fifth Edition - 1991 (ANSI/API RP 14E-1992)
API RP 14J Recommended Practice for Design and Hazards Analysis for Offshore Production
Facilities, Second Edition - 2001
API RP 17B/ISO 13628-11 Recommended Practice for Flexible Pipe, Fourth Edition - 2008
API RP 500 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at
Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I Division 1 and Division 2, Second Edition –
1997 (ANSI/API RP 500-1998)
API RP 505 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at
Petroleum Facilities Classified as Class I, Zone 0, Zone 1 and Zone 2, First Edition –
1997
API RP 520 Recommended Practice for Sizing, Selection, and Installation of Pressure-Relieving
Devices in Refineries
Part I Sizing and Selection, Eighth Edition - 2008
Part II Installation, Fifth Edition - 2005
API Std 521/ISO 23251 Pressure-Relieving And Depressuring Systems Fifth Edition - 2007
API Spec 17J Specification for Unbonded Flexible Pipe

Oil Companies International Marine Forum:
Guide for Prediction of Wind and Current Loads on VLCCs, 2nd Edition, 1994
Guide to Purchasing, Manufacturing, and Testing of Loading and Discharge Hoses
The OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide
Guidelines for Handling, Storage, Inspection, and Testing of Hoses in the Field

United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive:
HSE Guidance Notes Offshore Installations: Guidance on DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND
CERTIFICATION, Fourth Edition, 1991, as amended


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PART P a r t 4 : P r o c e s s a n d I m p o r t / E x p o r t S y s t e m s
4
Process and Import/Export Systems
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems ............................... 65
Section 1 General ................................................................................ 67
Section 2 Scope ................................................................................... 69
Section 3 Installations .......................................................................... 70
Section 4 Subsea Equipment ............................................................... 71
Section 5 Other Codes and Standards ................................................ 72
Section 6 Non-Standard Equipment .................................................... 73
Section 7 Design and Construction ...................................................... 74
Section 8 Process System ................................................................... 75
Section 9 Hazardous Area Classification ............................................. 77
Section 10 Fire Protection ...................................................................... 78
Section 11 Fabrication and Testing ....................................................... 79

CHAPTER 2 Import and Export Systems ................................................................. 80
Section 1 General ................................................................................ 81
Section 2 Submission of Plans and Design Data ................................ 82
Section 3 Environmental Considerations ............................................. 83
Section 4 System Design Analysis ...................................................... 84
Section 5 Materials............................................................................... 87


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PART C h a p t e r 1 : H y d r o c a r b o n P r o d u c t i o n a n d P r o c e s s S y s t e m s
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General .................................................................................................. 67
1 Installations Classed as FPSO or FPS ............................................. 67
3 Installations Classed as FSO or FOI (Production Facilities not
Classed) ............................................................................................ 67
5 Installations Classed as FSO or FOI (with Production Facilities
Indicated in the Record) .................................................................... 68

SECTION 2 Scope .................................................................................................... 69

SECTION 3 Installations .......................................................................................... 70
1 Ship-Type Installations – Oil Carriers ............................................... 70
3 Column-Stabilized Installations, Tension Leg Platforms, and Spar
Installations ....................................................................................... 70

SECTION 4 Subsea Equipment ............................................................................... 71

SECTION 5 Other Codes and Standards ................................................................ 72

SECTION 6 Non-Standard Equipment .................................................................... 73

SECTION 7 Design and Construction ..................................................................... 74
1 General ............................................................................................. 74
3 Arrangements ................................................................................... 74
5 Structural Considerations.................................................................. 74

SECTION 8 Process System ................................................................................... 75
1 Submittals ......................................................................................... 75
3 Piping System and Manifolds ........................................................... 75
5 Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems ............................... 75
7 Process Equipment and Vessels ...................................................... 75
9 Prime Movers .................................................................................... 75
11 Safety Systems ................................................................................. 75
13 Control System ................................................................................. 76
15 Quick Disconnect System ................................................................. 76
17 Electrical Installations ....................................................................... 76


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SECTION 9 Hazardous Area Classification ............................................................ 77

SECTION 10 Fire Protection ...................................................................................... 78

SECTION 11 Fabrication and Testing ....................................................................... 79
1 Pressure Vessels, Accumulators, Heat Exchangers, Separators
and Manifolds .................................................................................... 79
3 Pumps, Compressors and Diesel/Gas Engines ................................ 79
5 Motors and Generators ..................................................................... 79
7 Switchboards and Control Panels ..................................................... 79
9 Process and Process Support Piping ............................................... 79


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 1 General
1 Installations Classed as FPSO or FPS
Hydrocarbon production and processing systems are to comply with the requirements of the Facilities
Guide and Sections 4-1-2 through 4-1-11 of this Guide.
3 Installations Classed as FSO or FOI (Production Facilities not
Classed) (1 July 2012)
The entire production facility need not comply with the requirements of this Chapter. However, the following
systems and equipment for the production facilities are to be in accordance with the requirements of the
Facilities Guide.
System/Equipment Facilities Guide Section
Facility Layout 3-3/5
Area Classification 3-6/15
Electrical System Circuit Protection 3-6/5.9
Electrical Installations in Classified Areas 3-6/15
Fire Water Systems 3-8/5.1
Dry Chemical Systems, as applicable 3-8/5.3
Fixed Fire Extinguishing Systems 3-8/5.5
Paint Lockers, Laboratory Spaces, and Flammable Material Store Rooms 3-8/5.7
Emergency Control Station 3-8/5.11
Operation After Facility Total Shutdown 3-8/5.13
Portable and Semi-portable Extinguishers 3-8/5.15
Gas and Fire Detection Systems 3-8/7
Structural Fire Protection 3-8/9
Muster Areas 3-8/11
Means of Escape 3-8/13
Lifesaving Requirements 3-8/15
Personnel Safety Equipment and Safety Measures 3-8/17

For installations with the FOI classification symbol equipment certification is required for equipment in
the above listed systems.


Part 4 Process and Import/Export Systems
Chapter 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
Section 1 General 4-1-1

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5 Installations Classed as FSO or FOI (with Production Facilities
Indicated in the Record)
The entire production facility need not comply with the requirements of this Chapter. However, safety
features are to be in accordance with the following requirements of the Facilities Guide in addition to the
requirements in 4-1-1/3.

System/Equipment Facilities Guide Section
Facility Layout 3-3/5
Safety System 3-3/7.3
Process Shutdown Systems 3-7/13



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PART S e c t i o n 2 : S c o p e
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 2 Scope

This Chapter is applicable to the following:
i) Systems that process hydrocarbon liquids, gases or mixtures from completed wells.
ii) Production support systems associated with the process system, such as water, steam, hydraulics,
pneumatics and power supply to the process.
iii) Fire protection systems for the protection of the process equipment and the process area.
iv) Systems that are utilized for stimulation of a completed well, such as chemical, gas or water
injection downhole through a Christmas tree.
v) Power generation systems for export purposes.
vi) Electrical systems and components associated with the process facilities.
vii) Systems other than those mentioned above, such as methanol production and/or processing, and
desalination, will be the subject of special consideration.
The scope of the hydrocarbon process system is defined in Section 3-1-3 of this Guide. The scope of the
hydrocarbon process system may also include the controls for the well head and subsurface safety valve, if
these are included in the process safety shutdown system.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : I n s t a l l a t i o n s
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 3 Installations

Hydrocarbon production systems are typically installed on the following types of installations.
1 Ship-Type Installations – Oil Carriers
Where tankers are to retain the propulsion capability for rapid deployment in the event of environmental
conditions exceeding the approved design environmental criteria, the flow lines and the export lines are to
be fitted with quick disconnect systems. The documentation regarding the disconnecting procedure is to be
submitted for review. For detailed requirements for the disconnect system of the process lines and the
mooring systems, see 4-1-8/15.
3 Column-Stabilized Installations, Tension Leg Platforms, and Spar
Installations (1 July 2009)
These installations may be used simultaneously for operations other than hydrocarbon processing, such as
drilling.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : S u b s e a E q u i p m e n t
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 4 Subsea Equipment (1 July 2012)

Subsea equipment is not a part of the classification boundaries as defined in 1-1-2/1 of this Guide.
However, subsea equipment may be classed if desired by the Owner, provided these items are approved by
ABS for compliance with the requirements of the Facilities Guide and applicable Sections of this Guide.
ABS is prepared to certify the subsea equipment if the manufacturers/owners wish to obtain ABS certification.
The design, construction and testing of the subsea equipment are to be in accordance with 3-3/17.19 of the
Facilities Guide.
For a unit that has the riser system classed by ABS, the riser installation winch needs to comply with the
following:
i) For a winch that is on board for the installation of the risers only (and removed after installation),
the equipment does not need to be reviewed by ABS. However, the supporting structure needs to
be designed to provide satisfactory strength for the reaction forces specified by the manufacturer
or the maximum anticipated loads during the installation process.
ii) If the riser installation winch is to remain on board after the installation, the equipment will need
to be in compliance with recognized industry standards. The manufacturer will need to submit
details to demonstrate compliance with the industry standards, either in the form of certificates
issued by recognized certification bodies or by submitting details and calculations to ABS for
review and approval.

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PART S e c t i o n 5 : O t h e r C o d e s a n d S t a n d a r d s
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 5 Other Codes and Standards

Use of national or international standards or codes other than those listed herein in the design and
construction of the equipment and components is subject to prior approval and acceptance by ABS. The
standards or codes being applied are to be adhered to in their entirety.


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PART S e c t i o n 6 : N o n - S t a n d a r d E q u i p m e n t
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 6 Non-Standard Equipment

Equipment not designed to a recognized standard may be accepted based on approval of detailed design
calculations and testing results that verify the integrity of the equipment which is submitted for review and
found satisfactory.


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PART S e c t i o n 7 : D e s i g n a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 7 Design and Construction
1 General
Hydrocarbon process systems and associated equipment are to be designed to minimize the risk of hazards
to personnel and property. This criterion is implemented by complying with the Facilities Guide, as well
as this Guide. The implementation of this criterion is intended to:
i) Prevent an abnormal condition from causing an upset condition.
ii) Prevent an upset condition from causing a release of hydrocarbons.
iii) Safely disperse or dispose of hydrocarbon gasses and vapors released.
iv) Safely collect and contain hydrocarbon liquids released.
v) Prevent formation of explosive mixtures.
vi) Prevent ignition of flammable liquids or gasses and vapors released.
vii) Limit exposure of personnel to fire hazards.
3 Arrangements
General arrangement drawings are to be submitted for review, in accordance with 1-1-4/5 of this Guide.
The arrangements depicted are to comply with Subsections 3-3/5 and 3-8/9 of the Facilities Guide, applicable
Sections of this Guide, and the Steel Vessel Rules or the MODU Rules, as applicable.
5 Structural Considerations (1 March 2006)
Structure that supports production facilities or forms an integral part of the equipment is to be designed to a
recognized standard. Plans and calculations are to be submitted for ABS review. Process liquid weights
and dynamic loads due to installation motions and other loads, such as wind imposed loads, are to be
considered. (See Section 5A-1-5.)



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PART S e c t i o n 8 : P r o c e s s S y s t e m
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 8 Process System
1 Submittals
The various data and plans that are to be submitted to ABS for review are listed in 1-1-4/5 of this Guide.
3 Piping System and Manifolds
Piping of the process and process support systems are to comply with the requirements of API 14E and
ASME/ANSI B31.3 and B31.1, as applicable. Refer to Chapter 3, Sections 3 and 4 of the Facilities Guide.
5 Pressure Relief and Depressurization Systems
Pressure relief and depressurization systems are to comply with API RP 520 and API RP 521. Refer to
3-3/11 of the Facilities Guide.
7 Process Equipment and Vessels
Process equipment and vessels are to comply with the applicable requirements in 3-3/17 and 5-1/3 of the
Facilities Guide.
9 Prime Movers
Internal combustion engines and gas or steam turbines are to comply with 3-4/3.9 and 5-1/3 of the Facilities
Guide.
11 Safety Systems
Safety systems are to comply with 3-3/7.3 and 3-3/9 of the Facilities Guide. Specific items to be addressed
are as follows:
i) The process safety and shutdown system is to comply with API RP 14C.
ii) Fire detection and gas detection is to comply with API RP 14C and API RP 14G, respectively.
The location of the fire and gas detectors is to be to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyors.
iii) The process safety shutdown system is required to shut down the flow of hydrocarbon from all
wells and process systems. The discharge of processed hydrocarbons to the export lines is also to
be controlled by the process safety shutdown system. Redundancy is to be provided in the power
source to the process safety shutdown system such that upon failure of the main power source, the
secondary power source is brought online automatically.


Part 4 Process and Import/Export Systems
Chapter 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
Section 8 Process System 4-1-8

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13 Control System
Control systems, in general, are to comply with Chapter 3, Section 7 of the Facilities Guide. Additionally,
computer based control systems are to comply with the following:
i) The control system is to be totally independent of the alarm and monitoring system.
ii) Where computers are utilized for monitoring, alarm and control, the arrangements are to be such
that a fault in one of these functions will not impair the capability of other functions.
iii) The computer system for monitoring alarms and control is to include redundancy arrangements in
order to maintain continued operation of the hydrocarbon process system.
15 Quick Disconnect System
Where the Floating Installation is fitted with a quick disconnect system, the control of this system is to be
totally independent of the process safety shutdown system required for the hydrocarbon process system.
However, the source of power for the process safety shutdown system and controls for the quick
disconnect system need not be totally independent, provided that the failure in one system does not render
the other system ineffective, e.g., failure through leakage in the hydraulic or pneumatic control lines.
Means are to be provided for the activation of the quick disconnect system from the control station and
locally in the vicinity where the disconnect arrangements are located.
The disconnect arrangement is to be designed such that upon its activation, all process flow to the Floating
Installation is automatically stopped immediately without leakage of process fluids.
17 Electrical Installations
Electrical installations for the hydrocarbon process system are to comply with the requirements of Chapter 3,
Section 6 of the Facilities Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 9 : H a z a r d o u s A r e a C l a s s i f i c a t i o n
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 9 Hazardous Area Classification

Hazardous areas are to be delineated and classified, as required by 3-6/15 of the Facilities Guide. In
general, API RP 500 or 505 is to be applied to process areas, and the Steel Vessel Rules or the MODU
Rules are applied to non-process areas, as modified by 3-6/15 of the Facilities Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 1 0 : F i r e P r o t e c t i o n
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CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 10 Fire Protection

Fire extinguishing systems and fire fighting equipment associated with the hydrocarbon process facilities
are to comply with Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 1 1 : F a b r i c a t i o n a n d T e s t i n g
4
CHAPT ER 1 Hydrocarbon Production and Process Systems
SECT I ON 11 Fabrication and Testing

Inspection and testing of hydrocarbon process and associated equipment at the manufacturer’s facility are
to be in accordance with 5-1/Table 1 of the Facilities Guide. Construction and fabrication is to be performed in
accordance with approved plans and procedures. Representative survey interventions are listed as follows.
1 Pressure Vessels, Accumulators, Heat Exchangers, Separators and
Manifolds
i) The construction, fabrication and material are in accordance with design codes shown on the
approved plans.
ii) Witness weld procedure and welder performance qualification tests.
iii) Visual inspection of weld joints, witness nondestructive testing.
iv) Fit up and joining of all pipe connections and pipe supporting arrangement.
v) Dimensional inspection during fit-up and after completion.
vi) Internal examination.
vii) Witness calibration of hydrostatic testing equipment.
viii) Witness hydrostatic tests.
3 Pumps, Compressors and Diesel/Gas Engines
i) Witness mechanical running tests.
ii) Witness testing of auxiliary equipment and protective devices (controls, filters, coolers, oil pumps,
alarms, trips, governors).
5 Motors and Generators
i) Functional running test for machines greater than 100 kW.
ii) Witness testing of auxiliary equipment and protective devices.
7 Switchboards and Control Panels
Inspection and witness testing at the manufacturer’s facility is not required for switchboards and control
panels. These components will be accepted for use, provided they have been designed and constructed to a
recognized national or international code or standard.
Control and alarm panels for fire protection and safety systems are to be function-tested at the manufacturer’s
facility. These tests are to be conducted in the presence of the Surveyor.
9 Process and Process Support Piping
Fabrication, inspection and testing of process and utility piping is to be performed to the satisfaction of the
attending Surveyor.

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PART C h a p t e r 2 : I m p o r t a n d E x p o r t S y s t e m s
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General .................................................................................................. 81
1 Riser Classification Boundaries ........................................................ 81
1.1 The Import System ........................................................................ 81
1.3 The Export System ........................................................................ 81
3 Basic Design Considerations ............................................................ 81

SECTION 2 Submission of Plans and Design Data ............................................... 82

SECTION 3 Environmental Considerations............................................................ 83

SECTION 4 System Design and Analysis ............................................................... 84
1 General ............................................................................................. 84
3 Rigid Risers ....................................................................................... 84
3.1 Design Analysis ............................................................................. 84
3.3 Design Limits ................................................................................. 84
5 Flexible Risers................................................................................... 85
5.1 In-place Analysis ............................................................................ 85
5.3 Design Limits ................................................................................. 85
7 Export Vessel Transfer System ........................................................ 85
9 System Components ......................................................................... 85
11 Installation Analysis .......................................................................... 86

SECTION 5 Materials ................................................................................................ 87
1 Material for Rigid Risers .................................................................... 87
3 Material for Flexible Risers ............................................................... 87


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
SECT I ON 1 General
(1 July 2012) This Chapter applies to import and export systems utilized in Floating Installations when the class
notations specified in 1-1-2/5.5 are requested. These systems include rigid and flexible risers, connecting flow
lines, submerged jumpers and floating offloading hoses. (See Section 3-1-5 for definitions of related items.)
1 Riser Classification Boundaries (1 July 2009)
The import/export system is assumed to consist of only rigid, flexible hose/pipe or a combination of both
rigid and flexible hose/pipe, and associated riser components, such as the tensioning system, buoyancy
modules, line buoys, permanent clamps, anchoring systems and safety control systems.
In a typical Floating Installation import (or export) system, the applicable starting and termination points
are the riser’s connection point to the PLEM and the riser’s connection point to the installation or floating
structure. The connection points are typically the discharge (or input) flange of the PLEM and the input
(or discharge) flange of the installation or floating structure.
For export vessel transfer systems, the connection points are the discharge flange of the installation or floating
structure and the end connection to the input flange onboard the export vessel (see 4-2-4/7 of this Guide).
1.1 The Import System
The Import System is to include the import risers starting from the Import PLEM, but not including the
Import PLEM.
For a typical flexible riser system, the import riser may start at the PLEM/wellhead flanges and terminate
at the input flange of the installation or floating structure.
1.3 The Export System
The Export System is to include the export risers that may start from the discharge flanges of the
installation or floating structure and terminate at the Export PLEM, but not including the Export PLEM.
The criteria given here for Import Risers are applicable to Export Risers where classification is requested.
Where Import and/or Export Risers induce mooring restraint to the floating installation, design, construction
and classification of the Riser(s) providing restraint and their connection to the seabed will require special
consideration.
3 Basic Design Considerations
The import/export system is to be designed to maintain its integrity under the most unfavorable
combination of external environmental loads, internal loads due to fluid contents, pressure and temperature
and accidental loads. This is accomplished by ensuring that riser system design is consistent and compatible
with the design philosophy used for the Floating Installation.
The dynamic response of the import/export system is to be investigated to the level of detail necessary to
ensure that interference between the floating production installation and the associated mooring system
does not affect the integrity of the installation or the import/export system. Where conditions are such that
analytical investigation (vortex induced vibration analysis, for example) is not adequate to account for
installation interference or interference due to multiple riser configurations, etc., model testing or other
means of verification are to be performed and requested documentation provided to ABS for review.
The riser is to survive the maximum installation offset, as defined in 6-1-1/3.3.

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PART S e c t i o n 2 : S u b m i s s i o n o f P l a n s a n d D e s i g n D a t a
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
SECT I ON 2 Submission of Plans and Design Data

Documentation outlining the design, manufacture, installation and operating assumptions applicable to the
project is to be submitted for review at the initiation of the project. The following summarizes the typical
information that is required to help ensure that the design basis and criteria selection is consistent with the
design philosophy. In general, the following are to be submitted for review:
i) Site plan indicating bathymetric features, the location of obstructions to be removed, the location
of permanent manmade structures and other important features related to the characteristics of the
sea floor.
ii) Material specifications for the import/export system, its supports and coatings.
iii) Pipe manufacture, testing and quality control procedures.
iv) Flow diagrams indicating temperature and pressure profiles.
v) Specifications and plans for instrumentation, control systems and safety devices.
vi) Specifications and plans for installation, field testing, inspection, anticipated component replacement
and continued maintenance of the riser system.
vii) Environmental and geotechnical report.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
SECT I ON 3 Environmental Considerations

The environmental loadings are to be calculated in accordance with the methods in Part 3, Chapter 2.


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PART S e c t i o n 4 : S y s t e m D e s i g n a n d A n a l y s i s
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
SECT I ON 4 System Design and Analysis
1 General
The design of the import/export system should consider all modes of operating, testing, survival and accidental
events. The import/export system should be analyzed to determine its response to the design events. Each
individual component should be examined for its strength and suitability for the service conditions.
3 Rigid Risers
3.1 Design Analysis
The analysis of a rigid riser is to follow the appropriate sections of API RP 2RD and API RP 2T for all
relevant design load cases. The establishment of the critical design condition must be verified by a suitable
verified program that properly simulates the dynamic response of the entire system operating under the
required design condition.
The following items, as applicable, are to be appropriately accommodated in the analysis:
i) Environmental conditions
ii) Boundary conditions
iii) Riser configuration
iv) Riser joint properties
v) Buoyancy devices
vi) Installation motion (RAOs)
vii) Applicable site conditions
viii) Effects of internal contents
ix) Pressure testing and accidental conditions
3.3 Design Limits
Rigid risers are to be designed against the following limits based on the design load cases being
investigated.
Maximum Stress, Stability and Buckling. Allowable stresses in plain pipe are to be limited, per API RP
2RD. Overall stability of the riser and local pipe buckling should be evaluated.
Maximum Deflection. Acceptable limits of maximum deflection are to be determined considering the
inherent limitations of riser components, equipment used in the riser and the need to avoid interference
with the Floating Installation.
Fatigue and Fracture. The riser system is to be designed to ensure that an adequate margin of safety is
available for critical components to counteract the effects of fatigue caused by cyclic fluctuations (due to
both internal and external loads) over the anticipated life of the system.
The cumulative damage calculated by the use of Miner’s Rule is to be 0.1 or less for a critical component
which cannot be easily inspected or repaired. For non-critical components which can be easily inspected,
the cumulative damage should be 0.3 or less.

Part 4 Process and Import/Export Systems
Chapter 2 Import and Export Systems
Section 4 System Design and Analysis 4-2-4

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5 Flexible Risers
5.1 In-place Analysis
The in-place analysis is to address all design load cases using motions consistent with the mooring analysis.
The scope of the in-place analysis, as a minimum, should include the following:
i) On-bottom stability for flexible flow lines
ii) Static and dynamic analysis for flexible riser
iii) A system dynamic analysis to ensure:
1. Maximum tension and minimum radius of curvature are within the manufacturer’s
recommendations.
2. Suspended portions of the flexible pipe (e.g., sag bends) are not allowed to bounce on the
sea floor or experience compression that might cause kinks.
3. Suspended flexible pipes are not allowed to chafe against each other, the installation body
or mooring lines.
iv) Flow-induced motion analysis.
v) Flexible pipe layer stress analysis.
vi) The stresses in the flexible pipe layers shall comply with the requirements of API SPEC 17J for
the applicable design load cases.
vii) Mechanical gripping devices should not cause damage to the weaker exterior layer.
viii) Service life analysis.
ix) Corrosion protection system design.
5.3 Design Limits
Design limits established for the riser system are to be determined in accordance with API RP 17B and
confirmed by performance/acceptance testing during the manufacture of the flexible riser and the associated
components. Where sufficient test data and service history exist to confirm a component’s capability, ABS
may consider the acceptance of this documentation in lieu of performance/ acceptance testing.
7 Export Vessel Transfer System (December 2008)
This system may be classed if requested. Export of fluid to an export vessel is usually limited to stabilized
crude oil and is usually accomplished by: (1) Side-by-side transfer, (2) Tandem transfer, or (3) Single Point
Moored Buoy via, for example, a floating hose or riser. For certification of these systems, ABS requires
compliance to OCIMF Standards and MARPOL. The OCIMF Standard is applicable for operating
pressures not greater than 15 bar gauge. In complying with these standards, ABS requires the Owner to
observe the guidelines as given in The OCIMF Guide to Purchasing, Manufacturing, and Testing of
Loading and Discharge Hoses for Offshore Moorings. The operation and safety considerations for transfer
of crude are to be contained in the Floating Installation’s operations manual and be consistent with the
requirements outlined in The OCIMF Ship to Ship Transfer Guide and Chapter 6.
9 System Components
All system components are to be designed in accordance with the appropriate criteria issued by the API.
The specification for the design and manufacture of the components is to be submitted. The specification
is to include at a minimum the performance criteria established from the riser design and analysis and give
explicit acceptance criteria needed to ensure the compliance to these criteria.

Part 4 Process and Import/Export Systems
Chapter 2 Import and Export Systems
Section 4 System Design and Analysis 4-2-4

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11 Installation Analysis
The installation analysis is to address all aspects of the installation procedure discussed in 3-4-1/11.
Calculations to demonstrate the structural integrity of the riser and its auxiliary components are to be
submitted for review.
The riser pipe is to be checked for all installation loads, tension and bending combination (bending from
chute, sleeve, roller or drum) and loads caused by the installation of auxiliary components.
Loads from mechanical gripping devices, such as clamps and tensioners, are to be checked and are not to
cause damage to the weaker exterior layer of the flexible pipe.


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PART S e c t i o n 5 : M a t e r i a l
4
CHAPT ER 2 Import and Export Systems
SECT I ON 5 Materials
1 Material for Rigid Risers
Material and dimensional standards for steel pipe are to be in accordance with ANSI/ASME B31.4 and
B31.8, API RP 2RD and/or other suitable standards approved for the intended application by ABS with
respect to chemical composition, material manufacture, tolerances, strength and testing requirements.
3 Material for Flexible Risers
The guidelines in API RP 17B and API SPEC 17J may be used to assess the adequacy of the material
standards for flexible risers.


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PART P a r t 5 A : S h i p - T y p e I n s t a l l a t i o n s
5A
Ship-Type Installations
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 Design Considerations ........................................................................ 90
Section 1 General ................................................................................ 92
Section 2 Longitudinal Strength ........................................................... 96
Section 3 Structural Design and Analysis of the Hull ........................... 97
Section 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural
Features ............................................................................. 104
Section 5 Modules on Deck ............................................................... 112
Section 6 Other Systems ................................................................... 113

CHAPTER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI ............. 114
Section 1 General .............................................................................. 116
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment ............................................... 126
Section 3 Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life) ............... 134

Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to
Reassessed Scantling Determination
(See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) ........................................................ 137

CHAPTER 3 Structural Design Requirements ....................................................... 143
Section 1 General .............................................................................. 154
Section 2 Loads ................................................................................. 165
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation ................................................. 216
Section 4 Total Strength Assessment ................................................ 277
Section 5 Hull Structure Beyond 0.4L Amidships .............................. 301
Section 6 Application to Single Hull Ship-Type Installations ............. 316

Appendix 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors ............. 333
Appendix 2 Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type
Installations ........................................................................ 337
Appendix 3 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength ............................................. 380
Appendix 4 Guide for Finite Element Analysis of Ship-Type
Installations ........................................................................ 388
Appendix 5 Offshore Hull Construction Monitoring Program ................ 408


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CHAPTER 4 Ship-Type Installations Under 150 meters (492 feet) in Length ..... 410
Section 1 Introduction ........................................................................ 413
Section 2 Hull Structure ..................................................................... 419
Section 3 Cargo Oil and Associated Systems ................................... 434

Appendix 1 Guide for Hull Girder Shear Strength for Ship-Type
Vessels .............................................................................. 435


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PART Chapter 1: Design Considerations
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General .................................................................................................. 92
1 Introduction ....................................................................................... 92
3 Definitions ......................................................................................... 92
3.1 Ship-type Installation ..................................................................... 92
3.3 Environmental Severity Factor ....................................................... 93
3.5 Hull Interface Structure .................................................................. 93
5 Structural Arrangement ..................................................................... 93
7 Limit States ....................................................................................... 93
7.1 General .......................................................................................... 93
7.3 Limit States .................................................................................... 94
7.5 Strength Criteria............................................................................. 94
7.7 Strength Check for Impact Loads .................................................. 95

TABLE 1 Structural Strength Assessment ............................................. 93

SECTION 2 Longitudinal Strength .......................................................................... 96
1 Longitudinal Hull Girder Strength ...................................................... 96
3 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength ............................................................ 96

SECTION 3 Structural Design and Analysis of the Hull ........................................ 97
1 Structural Design of the Hull ............................................................. 97
1.1 Hull Design for Additional Loads and Load Effects ........................ 97
1.3 Superstructures and Deckhouses .................................................. 98
1.5 Helicopter Decks............................................................................ 98
1.7 Protection of Deck Openings ......................................................... 98
1.9 Bulwarks, Rails, Freeing Ports, Ventilators and Portlights ............. 98
1.11 Equipment ..................................................................................... 98
1.13 Materials and Welding ................................................................... 99
1.15 Machinery and Equipment Foundations ........................................ 99
1.17 Additional Considerations for Disconnectable Systems ................. 99
1.19 Bilge Keels ..................................................................................... 99
1.21 Sea Chests .................................................................................... 99
3 Engineering Analyses of the Hull Structure .................................... 100
3.1 General ........................................................................................ 100
3.3 Strength Analysis of the Hull Structure ........................................ 100
3.5 Three Cargo Tank Length Model ................................................. 100
3.7 Fatigue Analysis .......................................................................... 102
3.9 Acceptance Criteria ..................................................................... 102
3.11 Renewal Scantlings ..................................................................... 103

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SECTION 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural Features ....... 104
1 General ........................................................................................... 104
3 Hull Interface Structure ................................................................... 104
3.1 Position Mooring/Hull Interface Modeling .................................... 105
3.3 Hull Mounted Equipment Interface Modeling ............................... 106
5 Loads .............................................................................................. 107
5.1 Load Conditions .......................................................................... 107
5.3 Inertial Load Cases ..................................................................... 108
5.5 Hull Girder Load Cases ............................................................... 108
7 Acceptance Criteria ......................................................................... 108
7.1 Yielding Checks ........................................................................... 108
7.3 Buckling Checks .......................................................................... 109
7.5 Fatigue Calculations .................................................................... 110

TABLE 1 Safety Factors for Fatigue Life of Hull Interface
Structures .............................................................................. 110

FIGURE 1 Loading Pattern 1 with 2/3 Scantling Draft ........................... 106
FIGURE 2 Loading Pattern 2 with Scantling Draft ................................. 106

SECTION 5 Modules on Deck ................................................................................ 112
1 General ........................................................................................... 112

SECTION 6 Other Systems .................................................................................... 113
1 Other Systems ................................................................................ 113
1.1 Marine Piping Systems ................................................................ 113
1.3 Electrical Systems ....................................................................... 113
1.5 Fire Fighting Systems and Equipment ......................................... 113
1.7 Machinery and Equipment ........................................................... 113
1.9 Hydrocarbon Storage in Hull Tanks ............................................. 113


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 1 General
1 Introduction (1 July 2012)
The design and construction of the hull, superstructure and deckhouses of ship-type installations that are
new builds or conversions are to be based on the applicable requirements of Part 5A of this Guide and
where referenced in the Steel Vessel Rules. Part 5A of this Guide reflects the different structural performance
and demands expected for an installation transiting and being positioned at a particular site on a long-term
basis compared to that of a vessel engaged in unrestricted seagoing service.
The design criteria for new build or conversions of ship-type installations are located in Part 5A, Chapters
1 and 3, with additional design criteria for ship-type conversions in Part 5A, Chapter 2 of this Guide, which
are applicable to installations of 150 meters (492 feet) or more in length. Part 5A, Chapter 4 applies to
installations under 150 meters in length. In addition, the applicable criteria contained in the Load Line,
SOLAS and MARPOL Conventions issued by the International Maritime Organization are to be considered.
It is further suggested that the local authorities having jurisdiction where the installation is to operate be
contacted to obtain any further criteria that are applicable to the floating installations.
Note: This Guide is applicable to installations not exceeding 500 m (1640 ft) in length, L, having breadths not exceeding
one-fifth of the length nor 2.5 times the depth to the strength deck. Installations beyond these proportions will be
reviewed on a case-by-case basis.
The design criteria contained in Part 5A, Chapter 3 are applied in two phases. The first phase provides the
basic hull design to reflect overall hull girder and local structural component strength, including fatigue
strength. This is referred to as the Initial Scantling Evaluation (or ISE) phase. For ship-type conversions,
the reassessed and renewal scantlings are calculated in the ISE phase, as described in Section 5A-2-2. The
reassessed scantlings are the required scantlings for the site-specific location and transit condition, and are
used to establish the minimum renewal scantlings of an FPI conversion. The second phase requires the
performance of finite element structural analyses using either a three cargo tank-length model or cargo
block-length model to validate the selected scantlings from the first phase. This is referred to as the Total
Strength Assessment (or TSA) phase. For ship-type conversions, the TSA phase is used to validate the
reassessed scantlings obtained in the ISE phase.
Performance of additional structural analyses can lead to the granting of the optional DLA classification
notation, which signifies that the design meets the Dynamic Load Approach criteria. Also, the optional
SFA classification notation can be granted, which signifies that the design satisfies fatigue strength criteria
based on Spectral Fatigue Analysis.
The application of the design criteria in Part 5A, Chapter 3 to reflect the site-dependent nature of the
floating offshore installation is accomplished through the introduction of a series of Environmental Severity
Factors (ESFs). Reference is to be made to 5A-1-2/1 and Section 5A-3-2 for the applicable structural
design and analysis criteria that have been modified to reflect site-specific service conditions.
3 Definitions (1 July 2009)
3.1 Ship-type Installation
See Section 3-1-2 for the description of a ship-type installation. For installations that are considered ship-type,
the definitions of primary characteristics of the installation can be found in Section 3-1-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 1 Design Considerations
Section 1 General 5A-1-1

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3.3 Environmental Severity Factor
Environmental Severity Factors are adjustment factors for the dynamic components of loads and the
expected fatigue damage that account for site-specific conditions as compared to North Atlantic unrestricted
service conditions. See Sections 5A-3-2 and 5A-3-A1 for description of the concept, application and
determination of Environmental Severity Factors.
3.5 Hull Interface Structure
The interface between the position mooring system and the hull structure, and between deck-mounted
equipment modules and the hull structure, is the hull interface structure. The interface structure is defined
as the attachment zone of load transmission between the main hull structure and hull-mounted equipment.
See Section 5A-1-4 for additional information on hull interface structure.
5 Structural Arrangement (1 July 2009)
The general arrangement and subdivision of the installation are to comply with applicable requirements of
Section 3-2-9 of the Steel Vessel Rules and Part 5A, Chapter 3 of this Guide. Reference should also be
made to the 1966 Load Line Convention and MARPOL 73/78.
7 Limit States (1 July 2009)
7.1 General
The structural strength assessments indicated in 5A-1-1/Table 1 are covered by the requirements of this Guide.
In the case of installations sited at locations where the environmental conditions are less than that used for
unrestricted service conditions, adjustments to the loadings and load effects produced by the site-specific
long-term environment at the installation site can be applied to the assessment of hull strength and fatigue
life. This is done by incorporating the Environmental Severity Factors (ESFs) for a given project site and
the proposed transit route.

TABLE 1
Structural Strength Assessment (1 July 2009)

Yielding Check Buckling Check
Ultimate
Strength Check
Fatigue Check
Local
Structures
Plating   
(1)
──
Stiffeners   
(2)

(3)

Primary supporting members    
(3)

Hull girder  
(4)
 ──
Hull interface structures  
(5)

(6)

(7)

Notes:
 indicates that the structural assessment is to be carried out.
1 The ultimate strength check of plating is included as part of the buckling check of plating.
2 The ultimate strength check of stiffener is included as part of the buckling check of stiffeners.
3 The fatigue check of longitudinal stiffeners and primary supporting members is the fatigue check
of connection details of these members.
4 The buckling check of stiffeners and plating included in hull girder strength is performed against
stress due to hull girder bending moment and hull girder shear force.
5 The buckling check is to follow the ABS Guide for Buckling and Ultimate Strength Assessment for
Offshore Structures.
6 The ultimate strength check of plating and stiffeners is included as part of the buckling check of
plating and stiffeners, in accordance with the ABS Guide for Buckling and Ultimate Strength
Assessment for Offshore Structures.
7 The fatigue check is to follow the ABS Guide for Fatigue Assessment for Offshore Structures.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 1 Design Considerations
Section 1 General 5A-1-1

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7.3 Limit States
The verification that the structural design is in compliance with the Guide requires that the design be
checked against a set of limit states beyond which the installation’s hull structure and mooring system are
no longer considered adequate.
7.3.1 Serviceability Limit State
Serviceability limit state, which addresses the structure’s performance during its normal use, includes:
• Local damage which may reduce the working life of the structure or affect the efficiency of
structural members
• Unacceptable deformations which affect the efficient use of structural members or the functioning
of equipment
• Motions or accelerations that can exceed the range of effective functionality of topside equipment
7.3.2 Ultimate Limit State
Ultimate limit state, which corresponds to the maximum load-carrying capacity, or in some cases,
the maximum applicable strain or deformation, includes:
• Attainment of the maximum resistance capacity of sections, members or connections by rupture
or excessive deformations
• Instability of the whole structure or of a significant part of it.
7.3.3 Fatigue Limit State
Fatigue limit state relates to the possibility of failure due to cyclic loads.
7.5.4 Accidental Limit State
Accidental limit state considers the flooding of any one cargo tank without progression of the
flooding to the other compartments
7.5 Strength Criteria
7.5.1 Serviceability Limit State
For the serviceability limit state design check in accordance with the partial factor design format,
all partial safety factors are equal to unity. See 5A-3-4/3 and 5A-3-4/5.
• For the yielding check of the hull girder, the stress corresponds to a load at 10
-8
probability
level.
• For the yielding check and buckling check of plating constituting a primary supporting member,
the stress corresponds to a load at 10
-8
probability level.
• For the yielding and buckling check of stiffeners, the stress corresponds to a load at 10
-8

probability level
7.5.2 Ultimate Limit State
For the ultimate limit state design check of the strength of the hull girder in accordance with the
partial factor design format, the ultimate strength of the hull girder is to withstand the maximum
total still-water and wave sagging and hogging vertical bending moments obtained by multiplying
a partial safety factor on the maximum still water sag and hog bending moments and a partial safety
factor on the maximum sag and hog vertical wave bending moments as specified in 5A-3-3/3.5.
• The ultimate strength of the plating between ordinary stiffeners and primary supporting members
is to withstand the loads due to the maximum total bending moment.
• The ultimate strength of the ordinary stiffener is to withstand the loads due to the maximum
total bending moment.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 1 Design Considerations
Section 1 General 5A-1-1

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7.5.3 Fatigue Limit State
For the fatigue limit state design check in accordance with the partial factor design format, all
partial safety factors are equal to unity. The fatigue life of representative structural details, such as
connections of ordinary stiffeners and primary supporting members, is obtained from reference
pressures at 10
-4
probability level. See 5A-3-4/9 and 5A-3-A2.
7.5.4 Accidental Limit State
Longitudinal strength of hull girder in cargo tank flooded condition is to be assessed in accordance
with 5A-2-1/5.5.2.
7.7 Strength Check for Impact Loads
Structural strength shall be assessed against impact loads such as forward bottom slamming, bow impact,
green water on deck and sloshing loads in cargo or ballast tanks.


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PART S e c t i o n 2 : L o n g i t u d i n a l S t r e n g t h
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 2 Longitudinal Strength (1 July 2009)
1 Longitudinal Hull Girder Strength (1 July 2012)
Longitudinal strength is to be based on Section 3-2-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules. The required hull girder
section modulus for 0.4L amidships is to be the greater of the values obtained from the following equation
or the minimum section modulus SM
min
in the table below:
SM = M
t
/f
p
cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
where
M
t
= total bending moment, as described below
f
p
= nominal permissible bending stress
= 17.5 kN/cm
2
(1.784 tf/cm
2
, 11.33 Ltf/in
2
)
The total bending moment, M
t
is to be considered as the maximum algebraic sum of the maximum still water
bending moment (M
sw
) for operation on site or in transit combined with the corresponding wave-induced
bending moment (M
w
) expected on-site and during transit to the installation site. Due account is to be given
to the influence of mooring loads and riser weights in calculating the vertical still water bending moments
and shear forces.
In lieu of directly calculated wave-induced hull girder vertical bending moments and shear forces, recourse
can be made to the use of the Environmental Severity Factor (ESF) approach (see 5A-3-2/1.1 and Appendix
5A-3-A1) , which can be applied to modify the Steel Vessel Rules wave-induced hull girder bending moment
and shear force formulas (see 5A-3-2/5.2 and 5A-3-2/5.2).
Depending on the value of the Environmental Severity Factor, β
vbm
, for vertical wave-induced hull girder
bending moment (see 5A-3-A1/3 of this Guide), the minimum hull girder section modulus, SM
min
, of the
installation, as specified in 3-2-1/3.7.1(b) of the Steel Vessel Rules, may vary in accordance with the following:
β
vbm
SM
min

<0.7 0.85SM
svr

0.7 to 1.0 (0.5 + β
vbm
/2)SM
svr

> 1.0 SM
svr

Where SM
svr
= minimum hull girder section modulus as required in
3-2-1/3.7.1(b) of the Steel Vessel Rules

3 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength (1 July 2009)
The hull girder ultimate longitudinal bending capacities for either hogging or sagging conditions are to be
evaluated in accordance with Appendix 5A-3-A3. The hull girder ultimate bending capacity for the design
environmental condition (DEC) is to satisfy the limit state specified in 5A-3-3/3.5.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : S t r u c t u r a l D e s i g n a n d A n a l y s i s o f t h e H u l l
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 3 Structural Design and Analysis of the Hull (1 July
2009)
1 Structural Design of the Hull (December 2008)
The design of the hull is to be based on the applicable requirements of Part 5A, Chapters 3 or 4 of this
Guide, depending on the hull length and where referenced the Steel Vessel Rules. For ship-type installations
over 150 meters (492 feet) in length, Part 5A, Chapter 3 is the primary reference. Where the conditions at
the installation site are less demanding than those for unrestricted service that are the basis of the Steel
Vessel Rules, the design criteria for various components of the hull structure may be reduced, subject to the
limitations indicated below to reflect these differences. However, when the site conditions produce
demands that are more severe, it is mandatory that the design criteria are to be increased appropriately.
5A-3-2/1.1 presents an explanation of the Environmental Severity Factor (ESF) concept, which is used to
adjust the unrestricted service criteria of the Steel Vessel Rules.
In the application of the modified criteria, no minimum required value of any net scantling is to be less
than 85 percent of the value obtained had all the ESF Beta values been set equal to 1.0 (which is the
unrestricted service condition). In view of this, for an FPSO converted from a vessel, where the total
bending moment for unrestricted service conditions is used for determination of the minimum required value
of any net scantling, the total bending moment should consist of the maximum still water bending moment
of the existing vessel and the wave-induced bending moment with all the beta values set equal to 1.0.
The loads arising from the static tank testing condition are also to be directly considered in the design. In
some instances, such conditions might control the design, especially when the overflow heights are greater
than normally encountered in oil transport service, or the severity of environmentally-induced load
components and cargo specific gravity are less than usual.
1.1 Hull Design for Additional Loads and Load Effects
The loads addressed in this Subsection are those required in the design of an installation in Part 5A,
Chapters 3 or 4, depending on the length of the installation. Specifically, these loads are those arising from
liquid sloshing in hydrocarbon storage or ballast tanks, green water on deck, bow impact due to wave
group action above the waterline, bowflare slamming during vertical entry of the bow structure into the
water, bottom slamming and deck loads due to on-deck production facilities. All of these can be treated
directly by reference to Part 5A, Chapters 3 or 4. However, when it is permitted to design for these loads
and load effects on a site-specific basis, the formulations given in Section 5A-3-2 reflect the introduction
of the Environmental Severity Factors (ESFs-Beta-type) into the Rule criteria. The paragraphs below give
the location in Section 5A-3-2 where the adjusted load formulations are presented.
1.1.1 Sloshing of Produced or Ballast Liquids (December 2008)
For ship-type installations, it is typical that the tanks may be subjected to partial filling levels. For
tanks where partial filling is intended, sloshing analyses are to be performed. Firstly, the sloshing
analysis is to determine if the sloshing natural periods of the anticipated filling levels in each tank
are close to the installation’s pitch and roll motion periods. It is recommended that the periods of
the fluid motions in each tank for each anticipated filling level are at least 20 percent greater or
smaller than those of the relevant installation’s motion. This range of installation natural periods
constitutes the “critical” range. If the natural periods of the tanks and installation are sufficiently
separated, then no further analyses are required. However, when the tanks are to be loaded within
“critical” filling levels, then additional analyses are to be performed in order to determine the
adequacy of the structure for the internal pressures due to sloshing.

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The extent of sloshing analyses is indicated in 5A-3-2/11. Reference can be made to Section
5A-3-2 on adjustments that could be used to modify the amplitudes of the ocean-based sloshing
criteria. However, it should be borne in mind that the sloshing assessment criteria of Section
5A-3-2 are derived considering an unrestrained freely floating hull subjected to wave energy
spectra representing the open ocean. Mooring restraints, potential hull weathervaning and
different wave energy characterizations (e.g., energy spectra for ocean swells, tropical cyclonic
storms and water depth effects) may need to be additionally considered by the designer when
establishing the installation’s motions for sloshing-induced loading analysis.
1.1.2 Green Water Loads on Deck
When it is permitted to base the design on a site-specific modification of the Steel Vessel Rules,
reference is to be made to 5A-3-2/13.7 of this Guide.
1.1.3 Bow Impact
When it is permitted to base the design on a site-specific modification of the Steel Vessel Rules,
reference is to be made to 5A-3-2/13.1 of this Guide.
1.1.4 Slamming
When it is permitted to base the design on a site-specific modification of the Steel Vessel Rules,
reference is to be made to 5A-3-2/13.3 and 5A-3-2/13.5 of this Guide.
1.1.5 Deck Loads (December 2008)
Deck loads due to on-deck production facilities for on-site and transit conditions are referenced in
5A-3-2/15 of this Guide.
1.3 Superstructures and Deckhouses (December 2008)
The designs of superstructures and deckhouses are to comply with the requirements of Section 3-2-11 of
the Steel Vessel Rules. The structural arrangements of 3-2-11/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules for forecastle decks
are to be satisfied.
The design of buildings on top of the topside module is to be in accordance with the applicable requirements
of the Offshore Installation Rules.
1.5 Helicopter Decks (1 July 2009)
The design of the helicopter deck structure is to comply with the requirements of 3-2-2/3 of the MODU
Rules. In addition to the required loadings defined in 3-2-2/3 of the MODU Rules, the structural strength
of the helicopter deck and its supporting structures are to be evaluated considering the DOC and DEC
environments, if applicable.
1.7 Protection of Deck Openings
The machinery casings, all deck openings, hatch covers and companionway sills are to comply with 5A-3-1/3
and 5A-4-1/3 of this Guide.
1.9 Bulwarks, Rails, Freeing Ports, Ventilators and Portlights
Bulwarks, rails, freeing ports, portlights and ventilators are to meet the requirements of Section 3-2-17 of
the Steel Vessel Rules.
1.11 Equipment
The provision of equipment on the installation is optional. For guidance on the requirements for temporary
mooring equipment (anchor, chains, windlasses or winches, hawse pipe, etc.), refer to Section 3-5-1 of the
Steel Vessel Rules.

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1.13 Materials and Welding (December 2008)
For a minimum design service temperature of 0°C and above, ship-type installations are to be constructed from
steel selected in accordance with Part 3 of the Steel Vessel Rules. For a minimum design service temperature
lower than 0°C, ship-type installations are to be constructed from steel selected in accordance with Part 3 of the
MODU Rules with the provision that the steel selection is not to be less conservative than that of Part 3 of the
Steel Vessel Rules. The structural application categories defined in Part 3 of the Steel Vessel Rules are to be
used with the steel selection criteria in Part 3 of the MODU Rules by applying the following correlations:
i) Class I correlates with Secondary
ii) Class II correlates with Primary
iii) Class III correlates with Special
The steel selection criteria footnotes of Part 3 of the Steel Vessel Rules are to be implemented, as appropriate,
and are to supplant less severe steel selection criteria of Part 3 of the MODU Rules for equivalent structure.
Underdeck and hull interface plating or bracket structures attached to the deck or hull should have the
same or compatible material grade as the deck or hull structure, respectively.
The topside facilities (production deck) are to be constructed from steel selected in accordance with the
ABS Rules for Building and Classing Offshore Installations (Offshore Installations Rules).
Turret and SPM buoy mooring systems are to be constructed from steel selected in accordance with the
MODU Rules.
Tower mooring systems are to be constructed from steel selected in accordance with the Offshore Installations
Rules.
All fabrication and welding are to comply with the requirements in Chapter 4 of the ABS Rules for Materials
and Welding (Part 2). The weld type and sizing are to be shown on the scantling drawings or in the form
of a welding schedule and are to comply with the requirements that govern the steel selection.
1.15 Machinery and Equipment Foundations
Foundations for equipment subjected to high cyclic loading, such as mooring winches, chain stoppers and
foundations for rotating process equipment, are to be analyzed to verify they provide satisfactory strength
and fatigue resistance. Calculations and drawings showing weld details are to be submitted to ABS for review.
1.17 Additional Considerations for Disconnectable Systems
1.17.1 Machinery Space and Tunnel
Requirements for machinery spaces with regard to engine foundations, tunnels and tunnel recesses
are given in Section 3-2-12 of the Steel Vessel Rules, as modified by 5A-3-1/5.33 and 5A-4-1/5.31
of this Guide.
1.17.2 Keels, Stems, Stern Frames and Rudder Horns
Requirements for stems, stern frames, shoe pieces, rudder horns and gudgeons are given in Section
3-2-13 of the Steel Vessel Rules. Additional requirements for ice strengthening are given in Part 6
of the Steel Vessel Rules.
1.17.3 Rudders and Steering Gears
For installations with steering capabilities, the requirements for rudder stocks, couplings, pintles,
plating, steering gears, etc., are given in Section 3-2-14 and Part 4, Chapter 3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
Ice-strengthened installations are to comply with 6-1-1/43 or 6-1-2/27 of the Steel Vessel Rules, as
applicable.
1.19 Bilge Keels (December 2008)
Requirements for bilge keels are given in Part 5A, Section 11/3.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
1.21 Sea Chests (December 2008)
Structural requirements for sea chests are given in 3-2-4/17.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.

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3 Engineering Analyses of the Hull Structure
3.1 General (1 July 2009)
The criteria in this Subsection relate to the analyses required to verify the scantlings selected in the hull
design in 5A-1-3/1. Depending on the specific features of the offshore installation, additional analyses to
verify and help design other portions of the hull structure will be required. Such additional analyses include
those for the deck structural components supporting deck-mounted equipment and the hull structure interface
with the position mooring system. Analysis criteria for these two situations are given in Section 5A-1-4.
3.3 Strength Analysis of the Hull Structure (1 July 2012)
For installations of 150 m (492 feet) in length and above, the required strength assessment of the hull
structure is to be based on a three cargo tank length finite element model amidships where the strength
assessment is focused on the results obtained from structures in the middle tank. For FPI conversions, as
an alternative, a complete hull length or full cargo block length finite element model can be used in lieu of
the three cargo tank length model as described in 5A-2-1/5.6. Details of the required Finite Element Method
(FEM) strength analysis are indicated in 5A-3-4/11 and Appendix 5A-3-A4 of this Guide. The net scantlings
used in the strength analysis of new build FPI and conversions to FPI differ as follows:
i) For new build FPI, a three cargo tank length finite element strength analysis is performed using the
new build net scantlings obtained by deducting the nominal design corrosion values in 5A-3-1/Table 1
from the new build design scantlings.
ii) For FPI conversions, a three-cargo tank length, or alternatively a complete hull length or full cargo
block length finite element strength analysis is performed using the reassessed net scantlings obtained
by deducting the nominal design corrosion values in 5A-3-1/Table 1 from the reassessed scantlings
as determined in Section 5A-2-2.
When mooring and riser structures are located within the extent of the FE model, the static mass of the
mooring lines and risers may be represented by a mass for which gravity and dynamic accelerations can be
calculated and added to the FE model. The resulting dynamic loads shall be compared to the mooring and
riser analysis results to verify that the dynamic effects are conservatively assessed in the hull FE analysis.
For installations less than 150 m (492 feet) in length, it is recommended that a Finite Element Method (FEM)
analysis be performed if the installation is of double hull construction or of unusual design (see 5A-4-1/1.3.3
of this Guide). When the design is permitted to be based on site-specific environmental conditions, the
load components to be used in the strength analyses can be determined using 5A-1-2/1, 5A-1-3/1 and
Section 5A-3-2 of this Guide.
Generally, the strength analysis is performed to determine the stress distribution in the structure. To determine
the local stress distribution in major supporting structures, particularly at intersections of two or more members,
fine mesh FEM models are to be analyzed using the boundary displacements and load from the 3D FEM model.
To examine stress concentrations, such as at intersections of longitudinal stiffeners with transverses and at
cutouts, fine mesh 3D FEM models are to be analyzed.
The accidental load condition, where a cargo tank is flooded, is to be assessed for longitudinal strength of
the hull girder consistent with load cases used in damage stability calculations.
3.5 Three Cargo Tank Length Model (1 July 2009)
3.5.1 Structural FE Model (1 July 2012)
The three cargo tank length FE model is considered representative of cargo and ballast tanks
within the 0.4L amidships. The same FE model may be used for hull structures beyond 0.4L
amidships with modifications to the hull geometry, plate and stiffener properties and the applied
loads, provided that the structural configurations are considered as representative of the location
under consideration. Where the tanks in the 0.4L amidships are of different lengths, the middle
tank of the FE model is to represent the cargo tank of the greatest length.
The assessment of the hull structure to resist hull girder vertical shear loads in the forward and aft
cargo block regions may be based on the midship cargo tank finite element model with
modifications to the structural properties, where appropriate. The strength assessment is calculated
according to Section 5A-3-4 for the load cases described in 5A-1-3/3.5.3.

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For FPI conversions, reassessed net scantlings are to be used in the finite element model, and are
obtained by deducting the nominal design corrosion margins from the reassessed scantlings of the
structure. For FPI conversions, as an alternative, a complete hull length or full cargo block length
finite element model can be used in lieu of the three cargo tank length model.
Details of the modeling, mesh size, element types used and boundary conditions are described in
Appendix 5A-3-A4. Detailed local stress assessment using fine mesh models to evaluate highly
stressed critical areas are to be in accordance with 5A-3-A4/21.
3.5.2 Load Conditions
In the strength analyses of the three cargo tank length model, the following loading conditions are
to be used:
General Loading Patterns. The FEM analysis is to be performed in accordance with the loading
patterns specified in Section 5A-3-2 of this Guide. The loading patterns included in Section 5A-3-
2 are intended to represent the envelope of worst case loading patterns for local load structural
design purposes and may not necessarily represent the actual operating loading patterns of the FPI.
The actual loading patterns for the installation are to be reviewed to verify that there are no other
patterns producing more severe loading. If any worse governing loading patterns than those
specified in Section 5A-3-2 exist, these loading patterns are to be included in the analyses. The
structural responses for the still water conditions are to be calculated separately to establish
reference points for assessing the wave-induced responses. Topside loads are also to be included
in the load cases.
Loading patterns to be used for double hull, double side with single bottom and single hull
installations are specified in Section 5A-3-2 of this Guide. In addition to the specified loading
patterns and cargo densities, inspection and repair, transit, and static conditions representing tank
testing, inspection and repair, and transit are also to be investigated.
Static Loading Conditions for New Construction. The tank loading patterns of Load Cases No. 9
and 10 specified in Part 5A, Chapter 3 of this Guide are to be analyzed considering static conditions
and seawater (Specific Gravity = 1.025) at minimum draft. The tanks are to be loaded considering
the actual height of the overflow pipe, which is not to be taken less than 2.44 m (8 feet) above the
deck at side. The external drafts for these load cases are to be taken as 25 percent of the scantling
draft. However, Notes (1) and (2) below are applicable.
Notes:
1 Where the actual minimum static condition with the tank loading pattern as the center row of
tanks results in a draft less than specified, the actual loading condition draft is to be used.
2 For an installation with two outer longitudinal bulkheads only (inner skin), i.e., one tank across
between the inner skin bulkheads, the minimum actual loading condition draft is to be used.

Static Loading Conditions

for FPI Conversions. The tank loading patterns of Load Cases No. 9
and 10 specified in Part 5A, Chapter 3 of this Guide are to be analyzed considering static
conditions and seawater (Specific Gravity = 1.025) at minimum draft. The tanks are to be loaded
to the top of access hatches for cargo tanks, or 760 mm above deck for ballast tanks. If the actual
tank condition results in a static pressure head higher than specified, the actual pressure head is to
be used. The external drafts for these load cases are to be taken as 30 percent of the scantling
draft. However, Notes (1) and (2) of the above paragraph are applicable.
Inspection and Repair Conditions. Loading patterns representing inspection and repair conditions
are also to be investigated. Inspection and repair conditions are to be analyzed using a minimum
1-year return period design operating condition load and a minimum specific gravity of cargo fluid
of 0.9. Other aspects of the loading pattern, modeling, acceptance criteria, etc., indicated in Part
5A, Chapter 3 of this Guide are to be followed
Transit Conditions. The transit condition is to be analyzed using the actual tank loading patterns
in association with the anticipated environmental conditions based on a minimum 10-year return
period to be encountered during the voyage (see 3-2-3/3.3 of this Guide).

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3.5.3 Load Cases
The tank loading patterns as described above and specified in Section 5A-3-2 are to be applied.
These loading patterns are intended to represent the envelope of worst case loading patterns for
local load structural design purposes and may not necessarily represent the actual operating
loading patterns of the FPI. The structural responses for the still water conditions are to be
calculated separately to establish reference points for assessing the wave-induced responses.
Additional loading patterns may be required for special or unusual operational conditions or
conditions that are not covered by the loading patterns specified in Section 5A-3-2. Topside loads
are also to be included in the load cases.
3.7 Fatigue Analysis (1 July 2009)
For all installations of 150 m and above, the extent of fatigue analysis required is indicated in 5A-3-4/9 of
this Guide. For installations of less than 150 m, the requirements are indicated in 5A-4-1/1.5 of this Guide.
For the three cargo tank length model, the fatigue assessment is to be performed applying Appendix 5A-3-A2
of this Guide.
For the cargo block model, the fatigue assessment is to be performed based on spectral fatigue analysis
applying the latest edition of the ABS Guide for Spectral-Based Fatigue Analysis for Floating Production,
Storage and Offloading (FPSO) Installations.
The fatigue strength of welded joints and details at terminations located in highly stressed areas and in
fatigue prone locations are to be assessed, especially where higher strength steel is used. These fatigue
and/or fracture mechanics analyses, based on the combined effect of loading, material properties, and flaw
characteristics are performed to predict the service life of the structure and determine the most effective
inspection plan. Special attention is to be given to structural notches, cutouts, bracket toes, and abrupt
changes of structural sections.
Consideration is also to be given to the following analyses:
i) The cumulated fatigue damage during the transit voyage from the fabrication or previous site for
an existing FPI to the operation site is to be included in the overall fatigue damage assessment.
ii) The stress range due to loading and unloading cycles is to be accounted for in the overall fatigue
damage assessment. See 5A-3-A2/15.
3.9 Acceptance Criteria
The total assessment of the structure is to be performed against the failure modes of material yielding,
buckling, ultimate strength and fatigue. The reference acceptance criteria of each mode are given as follows:
3.9.1 Material Yielding
For installation lengths of 150 m and above, the criteria are indicated in 5A-3-4/3.1 of this Guide.
For installation lengths of less than 150 m, the criteria are indicated in 5A-4-2/13.3 and 5A-4-2/13.7
of this Guide.
3.9.2 Buckling and Ultimate Strength of Plate Panels, Stiffeners and Longitudinals
For installation lengths of 150 m and above, the criteria is indicated in 5A-3-4/5 of this Guide.
For installation lengths of less than 150 m, the criteria are indicated in 3-2-1/19 of the Steel Vessel
Rules and Appendix 5A-2-A1 of this Guide.

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3.9.3 Fatigue
The required target fatigue life as indicated in 1-1-2/5.10.1 and 5A-3-A2/5.1 of this Guide is 20
years. Appendix 5A-3-A2 is also referred to for installations with lengths less than 150 m. Direct
application of the Appendix will result in the evaluation of members for stress ranges of an
unrestricted trading service vessel. In the absence of more detailed environmental data, stress
ranges are to be obtained in consideration of the unrestricted service environment. When the site-
specific wave environment is used and produces less severe fatigue demand than the unrestricted
service environment, credit can be given to the less severe environment by increasing the expected
fatigue life. For site-specific environmental conditions producing more severe fatigue demand
than the unrestricted service environment, the site-specific environmental data are to be used, and
the calculated fatigue life is to be not less than 20 years.
Due to the structural redundancy and relative ease of inspection inherent in typical hull structures
of ship-type installations, there is generally no further need to apply additional factors of safety
above what is already built into the fatigue classification curves cited in Appendix 5A-3-A2.
However, for areas of the structure which are non-inspectable or “critical,” such as in way of the
connections to the mooring or production systems (see Section 5A-1-4), additional factors of
safety should be considered.
For existing installations that are employed in floating installation service, the estimated remaining
fatigue lives of the critical structural details are to be assessed and the supporting calculations
submitted for review. Special consideration is to be given to the effects of corrosion and wastage
on the remaining fatigue life of existing structures.
Any areas determined to be critical to the structure are to be free of cracks. The effects of stress
risers should be determined and minimized. Critical areas may require special analysis and survey.
3.11 Renewal Scantlings (1 July 2012)
3.11.1 New Construction
Future steel renewals are to be based on the FPI required new build scantlings considering the
wastage allowance as determined by the smaller of the % wastage allowance (see 5A-2-2/Table 1) or
the allowable wastage based on buckling strength (see Appendix 5A-2-A1).
3.11.2 Conversion of Existing Vessel to FPI
Future steel renewals for FPI conversions are to be based on the FPI required scantlings, regardless
of the original design renewal scheme. The process of determining the required and renewal scantlings,
as described in 5A-2-2 for an FPI vessel conversion, requires a reassessment of the vessel’s scantlings
based on transit condition and the specific site of the installation.


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PART Section 4: Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural Features
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull
Structural Features (1 July 2009)
1 General (December 2008)
The design and analysis criteria to be applied to the other pertinent features of the hull structural design are
to conform to this Guide or to recognized practices acceptable to ABS. For many ship-type installations,
the hull design will need to consider the interface between the position mooring system and the hull structure
or the effects of structural support reactions from deck-mounted (or above-deck) equipment modules, or
both. The interface structure is defined as the attachment zone of load transmission between the main hull
structure and hull mounted equipment, such as topside module stools, crane pedestals and foundations, riser
porches, flare boom foundation, gantry foundation, mooring and offloading, etc. The zone includes components
of the hull underdeck structures in way of module support stools and foundations, such as deck transverse
web frames, deck longitudinals and upper parts of longitudinal and transverse bulkhead structures, as well
as foundations of the hull-mounted equipment. These components of the interface structure should comply
with the criteria indicated in 5A-1-4/7.
The criteria to be applied for the interface structures are presented below. When it is permitted to base the
design of the ship-type offshore installation on site-specific environmental conditions, reference is to be made
to 5A-1-3/1, 5A-1-2/1.1 and Section 5A-3-2 of this Guide regarding how load components can be adjusted.
Criteria applicable to the position mooring (e.g., turret) structure itself is given in Section 6-2-1, and the
above (or on) deck equipment or module structure is referred to in 4-1-7/5.
3 Hull Interface Structure
The basic scantlings in way of the hull interface structure is to be designed based on the first principle
approach and meet the requirements of Section 3-2-1 of the MODU Rules strength criteria, the ABS Guide
for Buckling and Ultimate Strength Assessment for Offshore Structures and the ABS Guide for the Fatigue
Assessment of Offshore Structures, or equivalent national industry standards recognized and accepted by
ABS, such as API Standards. Welding design of hull interface structure connections is to be developed
based on Section 3-2-6 of the MODU Rules or a direct calculation approach. Material grades for the above-
deck interface structure are to be selected as per Section 3-1-3 of the MODU Rules requirements. The
material grades for the hull structure components, such as deck and frame structures, are to be selected as
per Part 3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
The verification of the hull interface structure as defined above is to be performed using direct calculation
of local 3-D hull interface finite element models, developed using gross scantlings and analyzed with load
conditions and load cases described in the following sections.


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3.1 Position Mooring/Hull Interface Modeling
A FEM analysis is to be performed and submitted for review:
3.1.1 Turret or SPM Type Mooring System, External to the Installation’s Hull
If the mooring system is of the turret or SPM type, external to the installation’s hull, the following
applies:
i) Fore end mooring. The minimum extent of the model is from the fore end of the
installation, including the turret structure and its attachment to the hull, to a transverse
plane after the aft end of the foremost cargo oil tank in the installation. The model can be
considered fixed at the aft end of the model. The loads modeled are to correspond to the
worst-case tank loads, seakeeping loads as determined for both the transit condition and
the on-site design environmental condition (DEC), ancillary structure loads, and mooring
and riser loads for the on-site DEC, where applicable. The design operating condition
(DOC) may also need to be considered for conditions which may govern.
ii) Aft end mooring. The minimum extent of the model is from the aft end of the installation,
including the turret structure and its attachment to the hull structure, to a transverse plane
forward of the fore end of the aft most cargo oil tank in the hull. The model can be
considered fixed at the fore end of the model. The loads modeled are to correspond to the
worst-case tank loads, seakeeping loads as determined for both the transit condition and
the on-site design environmental condition (DEC), ancillary structure loads, and mooring
and riser loads for the on-site DEC, where applicable.
3.1.2 Mooring System Internal to the Installation Hull (Turret Moored)
If the mooring arrangement is internal to the installation hull (turret-moored), the following
applies:
i) Fore end turret. The model is to extend from the fore end of the installation to the after
end of the cargo tank or hold aft of the one containing the turret. The model can be
considered fixed at the aft end of the model. The loads modeled are to correspond to the
worst-case tank loads, seakeeping loads as determined for either the transit condition or
the on-site design environmental condition (DEC), ancillary structure loads, and mooring
and riser loads for the on-site DEC, where applicable. The design operating condition
(DOC) may also need to be considered for conditions which may govern.
ii) Midship turret. The model can be a 3-tank model similar to that described in 5A-3-4/11
of this Guide where the turret is located in the center tank of the model. Hull girder loads
are to be applied to the ends of the model. The loads modeled are to correspond to the
worst-case tank loads, seakeeping loads as determined for either the transit condition or
the on-site design environmental condition (DEC), ancillary structure loads, and mooring
and riser loads for the on-site DEC, where applicable. The design operating condition
(DOC) may also need to be considered for conditions which may govern.
iii) As a minimum, the following two cargo loading patterns that result in the worst load
effects on the hull structure are to be considered:
• Maximum internal pressure for fully filled tanks adjacent to the hold containing the
turret, with the other tanks empty and minimum external pressure, where applicable.
(See 5A-1-4/Figure 1)
• Empty tanks adjacent to the hold containing the turret, with the other tanks full and
maximum external pressure, where applicable. (See 5A-1-4/Figure 2)
The interface structure is to be assessed for yielding, buckling and fatigue strength, and
should include all structural members and critical connections within the hold containing
the turret as well as the hold boundaries and their attachments.


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FIGURE 1
Loading Pattern 1 with 2/3 Scantling Draft (December 2008)


FIGURE 2
Loading Pattern 2 with Scantling Draft (December 2008)


3.1.3 Spread Moored Installations
The local foundation structure and installation structure are to be checked for the given mooring
loads and hull structure loads, where applicable, using an appropriate FEM analysis. The mooring
loads to be used in the analysis are to be based on the on-site design environmental condition
(DEC) for hull structure, and the mooring loads for the on-site DEC and breaking strength of the
mooring lines. The design operating condition (DOC) may also need to be considered for conditions
which may govern.
3.3 Hull Mounted Equipment Interface Modeling
3.3.1 Topside Module Support Stools and Hull Underdeck Structures[p1]
The topside module support stools and hull underdeck structures in way of module support stools,
such as deck transverse webs, deck longitudinals, longitudinal and transverse bulkheads, are to be
assessed for the most unfavorable load combinations of topside stool reactions and hull structure
loads, where applicable, using an appropriate FEM analysis. The load combinations of topside
stool reactions and hull structure loads are to be consistent with those assumed in the module
analysis (refer to Section 5A-1-5). The finite element model extent is to be sufficiently large to
minimize the cut boundary effects. The openings in way of critical areas are to be incorporated
into the FEM model to investigate their effects. The loads for the on-site design operating condition
(DOC), on-site design environmental condition (DEC) and transit condition are to be taken into
account. Topside production and support systems are to be empty in transit condition. Special
attention is to be given to the cutouts in deck transverse webs in way of topside module stools.
The strength analysis for the typical cutout with the maximum topside stool reactions using a local
fine mesh FEM model is to be carried out and submitted for review.
3.3.2 Other Hull Mounted Equipment Foundation Structures[p2]
Other hull mounted equipment foundations, such as crane pedestals and foundations, riser porches,
flare boom foundations, gantry foundations, offloading equipment foundations, etc., and hull
vessel structure in way of the foundations are to be checked for the given functional loads,
environmental loads and hull structure loads, where applicable, using an appropriate FEM analysis.
The finite element model extent is to be sufficiently large to minimize the cut boundary effects.
Openings such as cutouts in way of critical areas are to be incorporated into the FEM model. The
loads for the on-site design operating condition (DOC), on-site design environmental condition
(DEC) and transit condition are to be taken into account in the analysis. All equipment is to be in
the stowed position for the transit condition.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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Section 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural Features 5A-1-4

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5 Loads
5.1 Load Conditions
For all conditions, the primary hull girder load effects are to be considered, where applicable.
5.1.1 Site Design Environmental Condition (DEC)
For non-disconnectable FPSOs or FSOs:
• Site DEC with hull design return period, and severe storm functional dead and live loads, as
applicable, with
1
/
3
stress increase allowable (i.e., 0.8*f
y
)
For disconnectable FPSOs and FSOs:
• Site Disconnectable Environmental Condition (DISEC), Client-specified site year return loads
(See 3-2-3/1.1), and severe storm functional, dead and live loads (i.e., excluding tropical cyclones),
as applicable, with
1
/
3
stress increase allowable (i.e., 0.8*f
y
)
For the DEC and DISEC load conditions, the following assumptions are applicable:
• Topside Production Facility modules are in wet condition for all site conditions and in dry
conditions for unrestricted service and transit conditions.
• Cranes are in stowed position
• Mooring loads in the most severe hull loading condition are determined from the site mooring
load analysis for the following conditions:
- All lines are intact
- One line is damaged
- For each individual line and associated fairlead, chock, chain stopper etc., the strength is
to be assessed under the breaking strength of the line/chain with a Utilization Factor,
UF = 0.8 for component stress, 0.9 for Von Mises element stress and 0.8 for buckling stress,
in the case that the mooring loads in the above two conditions are not available.
Note: FE analysis requirements for the position mooring/hull interface described 5A-1-4/3.1 are to be met. In
addition for the internal turret, the longitudinal strength calculations (i.e., Hull Girder longitudinal
bending & shear strength and IACS buckling strength checks (UR S11.5), as per 5A-1-2/1 of this Guide
and Section 3-2-1 and Appendix 3-2-A4 of the Steel Vessel Rules, for the hull girder section in way of
the internal turret), for all applicable conditions, are to be submitted for review and approval.
5.1.2 Site Design Operating Condition (DOC)
Site DOC with maximum functional live loads under site operation without
1
/
3
stress increase
allowable (i.e., 0.6*f
y
). Special consideration should be given to the following:
• Limiting environmental condition, specified by designer/operator, that would require suspension
of normal operations, is to be minimum 1-year return as per this Guide.
• Deck support stools for topside production facility modules are in wet condition.
• Crane functional loads are as per API RP 2A and API Spec 2C Practices.
• Position mooring hull interface
5.1.3 Transit Condition
For transit (topside production facility in dry condition), it is the shipyard’s and/or designer‘s
responsibility to specify the design parameters for the transit condition. There are generally four
approaches available:
• Specified maximum seasonal weather routing condition;
• Maximum 10-year return response based on the worst environmental conditions and associated
wave scatter diagram along the transit route,

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• Maximum 10-year return response based on a composite wave scatter diagram,
• North Atlantic service condition, with a minimum 10-year return period, using the IACS standard
wave data where the transit route is not yet defined or finalized.
5.1.4 Damage Condition
Damaged Conditions (as applicable) with static deadweight and functional loads only, for a minimum
1-year return period DOC caused by accidental flooding.
5.3 Inertial Load Cases
The long-term and short-term DLP (Dominant Load Parameter) values can be calculated either using the
ABS Eagle FPSO SEAS module or by using direct seakeeping/hydrodynamic calculations using 3D diffraction
radiation program. The DLP values are to be selected for the most unfavorable structural response. Maximum
accelerations are to be calculated at the center of gravity of the most forward and aft and midship topside
production facility modules. The load cases are to be selected to maximize each of the following DLPs
together with other associated DLP values.
• Max. Vertical Bending Moment
• Max. Shear Force
• Max. Vertical Acceleration
• Max. Lateral Acceleration
• Max. Roll
Alternatively, the number of load cases can be reduced by assuming that all maximum DLP values occur
simultaneously, which is a conservative assumption.
5.5 Hull Girder Load Cases
As a minimum, the following two hull girder load cases are to be analyzed:
• Maximum hull girder sagging moment (i.e., generally full load condition)
• Maximum hull girder hogging moment (i.e., generally ballast, tank inspection or partial loading condition)
7 Acceptance Criteria
7.1 Yielding Checks
7.1.1 For DEC 100-Years Return Periods, Transit 10-Year Return Period and/or North Atlantic Loads:
i) For one-stiffener spacing element size FE analysis:
f
e
(Von Mises) < 0.9f
y
plate membrane stresses at element centroid
f
1x
(axial stress) < 0.8f
y
bar and beam elements
f
xy
(shear) < 0.53f
y

ii) (1 July 2012) The effects of notches, stress risers and local stress concentrations are to be
taken into account when considering load carrying elements. When stress concentrations
are considered to be of high intensity in certain elements, the acceptable stress levels will
subject to special consideration. The following guidance may be used in such circumstances.
For local detail FE model analyses (localized highly stressed area, 50 × 50 mm approximate
element size):
• f
e
small area < 1.25S
m
f
y

• f
1x
element stress < 1.25S
m
f
y


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Section 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural Features 5A-1-4

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7.1.2 For DOC (Deadweight + Maximum Functional Loads), with 1-Year Minimum Return Period Loads
(1 July 2009):
i) For one-stiffener spacing element size FE analysis:
f
e
< 0.7f
y
plate membrane stresses at element centroid
f
1x
< 0.6f
y
bar and beam elements
f
xy
< 0.4f
y

Note: These load cases often govern for benign environmental loads.
ii) (1 July 2012) For local detail FE model analyses (localized highly stressed area, 50 × 50 mm
approximate element size):
• f
e
small area < 0.97S
m
f
y

• f
1x
element stress < 0.97S
m
f
y

7.1.3 For Damaged Condition (1 July 2009):
Same as above for a minimum 1-year return period, except for the following, as applicable:
i) For one-stiffener spacing element size FE analysis:
f
e
< 0.9f
y
plate membrane stresses at element centroid
f
e
< 0.8f
y
bar and beam elements
f
xy
< 0.53f
y

ii) (1 July 2012) For local detail FE model analyses (localized highly stressed area, 50 × 50 mm
approximate element size):
• f
e
small area < 1.25S
m
f
y

• f
1x
element stress < 1.25
m
f
y

where
S
m
= 1.0 for mild steel
= 0.95 for Grade HT32 steel
= 0.908 for Grade HT36 steel
= 0.875 for Grade HT40 steel
For material grades other than the above, the allowable stresses will be specially considered.
7.3 Buckling Checks
ABS buckling criteria included in the latest edition of the ABS Guide for Buckling and Ultimate Strength
Assessment for Offshore Structures are to be used with the following:
• Buckling strength to be calculated using gross scantlings,
• Utilization Factor, UF:
UF = 0.8 or SF =1.25 for onsite DEC, transit condition and/or North Atlantic condition
UF = 0.6 or SF =1.67 for onsite DOC
UF = 0.8 or SF =1.25 for damage condition
UF determined on a case-by-case basis for other special conditions

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7.5 Fatigue Calculations
7.5.1
The fatigue damage/life calculations are to be carried out as per the latest edition of the ABS
Guide for Fatigue Assessment of Offshore Structures. The fatigue calculations are to be carried out
for the intended design operating life of the installation. Where the external interface connections
are subjected to water immersion, the S-N curves in seawater with (CP) Cathodic Protection or
(FC) Free Corrosion are to be used, as applicable. If the simplified fatigue calculation approach is
to be used and the long-term Weibull distribution parameter is not available for the hull interface,
then a Weibull parameter is to be developed for the specific location under consideration.
The safety factors for fatigue life for hull interface connections are to be in accordance with
5A-1-4/Table 1 shown below.

TABLE 1
Safety Factors for Fatigue Life of Hull Interface Structures (1 July 2012)
Importance Inspectable and Repairable
Yes No
Non-Critical 2 5
Critical 3 10
Note: “Critical” implies that failure of these structural items would result in the rapid loss of structural
integrity and produce an event of unacceptable consequence.

7.5.2 Position Mooring Hull Interface
Structural members in way of the turret structure or other mooring structure are to be effectively
connected to the adjacent structure in such a manner as to avoid hard spots, notches and other
harmful stress concentrations.
Special attention is to be given to cutouts, bracket toes and abrupt changes of structural sections.
These areas are considered to be critical to the vessel and are to be free of cracks. The effects of
stress risers in these areas are to be determined and minimized.
The FE model used to perform the turret/hull integration strength analysis may also be used for the
fatigue screening evaluation of the turret/hull interface structure to identify the critical fatigue
details using the F or F2 Class S-N curves and appropriate safety factors. The refined stress
analysis should be performed for the critical areas that fail to meet the screening, and the use of
the hot spot approach as specified in the ABS Guide for the Fatigue Assessment of Offshore
Structures is considered to be acceptable.
The fatigue cyclic loads are to correspond to the worst-case tank dynamic loads, seakeeping loads,
inertia loads due to the vessel motion, and mooring and riser dynamic loads, where applicable.
Different wave headings and vessel tank loading patterns should be considered and the fraction of
the total time for each base wave heading and each tank loading pattern can be used directly.
The frequency difference between wave frequency stress response and low frequency stress response
imposed by mooring lines and risers should be considered. Although the low frequency stress response
has negligible effects on most hull structural details, it becomes significant and may have the dominant
contribution to the fatigue damage of structural components in the mooring system, risers and their
interface with the hull. When the wave frequency and low frequency stress responses are obtained
separately, the method of simple summation of fatigue damages from the two frequency stress
responses does not account for the coupling effects (i.e., the augmentation of the low frequency
response by the wave frequency response is non-conservative and therefore should not be used).

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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Section 4 Design and Analysis of Other Major Hull Structural Features 5A-1-4

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There is an alternative method, which is both conservative and easy to use, that is known as the
combined spectrum method. In this method, the stress spectra for the two frequency bands are
combined. The RMS and the mean up-crossing frequency of the combined stress process are given,
respectively, as follows:
σ
c
= (
2
w
σ +
2

σ )
1/2

f
0c
= (
2 2
w w
f σ +
2 2
0  
σ f )
1/2

c

where
σ
w
= RMS of the wave-frequency stress component
σ

= RMS of the low-frequency stress component
f
0w
= mean up-crossing frequency of the wave-frequency stress component
f
0
= mean up-crossing frequency of the low-frequency stress component
However, if both frequency components of stress range are significant, the above-mentioned
combination method may be too conservative since the wave-frequency contribution is expected
to dominate, thus controlling the mean up-crossing frequency of the combined stress process. To
eliminate the conservatism, a correction factor given below can be applied to the calculated fatigue
damage of the sea state:
2 /
0
0 1 ) 2 / (
0
0
λ
) 1 2 / ( Γ
) 2 / 1 2 / ( Γ
λ λ
λ
λ
1 λ
m
w
c
w
w
w m
c
p
f
f
m
m m
f
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

+



π
where
λ
l
=
2

σ /
2
c
σ

λ
w
=
2
w
σ /
2
c
σ

f
0p
= (
2
0
2
λ
 
f + λ

λ
w

2 2
0 w w
f δ )
1/2
with δ
w
= 0.1
m = slope parameter of the S-N curve
Γ( ) = complete gamma function
7.5.3 Hull-Mounted Equipment Interface
The procedure for the fatigue evaluation of the turret/hull integration structure can also be applied
to deck-mounted equipment interface structures in which the wave-induced hull girder loads,
external hydrodynamic pressure, and inertia loads due to the vessel motion as well as the specified
equipment fatigue loads should be taken into account.
Special attention is to be given to the cutouts in deck transverse webs in way of topside module
stools. Where applicable, the detail fatigue evaluation for the typical cutout with the maximum
topside stool dynamic reactions is to be carried out and submitted for review.


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PART S e c t i o n 5 : M o d u l e s o n D e c k
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 5 Modules on Deck (1 July 2009)
1 General (December 2008)
The structural strength design of deck modules on ship-type installations is to be in accordance with
5B-3-3/5.3.1 through 5B-3-3/5.3.4 and 5B-3-3/5.3.6, wherever applicable. The relative deformations among
module supports (e.g., stools) and the rigidity of supports and ship-type installation hull/deck, as well as
hull deformations, are to be included in the analysis if their effects on the module are significant.
The module structures above their supports are to be analyzed and shown explicitly on the drawings so that
the construction of the module supports can be consistent with those assumed in the structural analysis.
The module design reactions and conditions are to be assessed for the most unfavorable load combinations
of topside stool reactions and hull structure loads. The design requirements for module supports are given
in 5A-1-3/1.13 and 5A-1-4/5.
Fatigue analysis of the modules on ship-type installations is not required. However, fatigue analysis of the
topside module/hull interface is required (see 5A-1-4/7.5).
The structural fire protection aspects of the design of deck modules on a ship-type installation, including
the arrangement of the hydrocarbon process area, are to be in accordance with Chapter 3, Section 8 of the
Facilities Guide.
The designs of the piping system on the ship-type installation deck are to comply with Part 4, Chapter 2 of
the MODU Rules and applicable requirements of the Facilities Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 6 : O t h e r S y s t e m s
5A
CHAPT ER 1 Design Considerations
SECT I ON 6 Other Systems (1 July 2009)
1 Other Systems
Other systems are to comply with the applicable requirements as prescribed in the following Paragraphs.
1.1 Marine Piping Systems
Marine piping systems are those systems that are required to conduct marine operations and are not
associated with the process facilities. These systems include, but are not limited to, bilge, ballast, tank
venting, sounding and fuel oil. Marine piping systems on ship-type installations are to be in accordance
with the applicable requirements of Part 4, Chapter 6 of the Steel Vessel Rules and Chapter 3, Section 5 of
the Facilities Guide, as applicable.
1.3 Electrical Systems
Electrical systems on ship-type installations are to comply with the applicable requirements of Part 4,
Chapter 8 of the Steel Vessel Rules and Chapter 3, Section 6 of the Facilities Guide. For area classification
requirements, refer to Section 4-1-9 of this Guide.
1.5 Fire Fighting Systems and Equipment
Fire fighting systems and equipment for service functions not associated with the process facilities are to
be in accordance with the applicable requirements of Part 4, Chapter 7 of the Steel Vessel Rules. Fire
fighting systems and equipment for protection of hydrocarbon process and associated systems are to be in
accordance with Chapter 3, Section 8 of the Facilities Guide.
1.7 Machinery and Equipment
Machinery and equipment not associated with the process facilities are to be in accordance with the
applicable requirements of Part 4, Chapters 2, 4, and 6 of the Steel Vessel Rules. Machinery and
equipment forming a part of the hydrocarbon processing facilities are to be in accordance with applicable
requirements of the Facilities Guide. Refer to Part 4, Chapter 1 of this Guide regarding process-related
machinery and equipment.
1.9 Hydrocarbon Storage in Hull Tanks (1 July 2012)
If the ship-type installation is designed to store hydrocarbons in hull tanks, criteria for hull storage of
hydrocarbons are to meet flag and coastal state requirements and applicable international requirements.
The designs for scantlings and strength for such storage tanks are to be in accordance with Part 5A,
Chapter 3. See 3-5/5.9 of the Facilities Guide for the storage facility arrangement requirements.



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PART Chapter 2: Additional DesignConsiderations for Conversions to FPI
5A
CHAPT ER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions
to FPI
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General ................................................................................................ 116
1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 116
3 General ........................................................................................... 116
5 Acceptance Criteria for the Hull Structure ...................................... 117
5.1 General ........................................................................................ 117
5.3 Structural Evaluation of the Hull .................................................. 117
5.5 Engineering Analyses of the Hull Structure ................................. 117
5.6 Alternative Structural Model – Cargo Block or Full Length Ship
Model ........................................................................................... 118
5.7 Fatigue Analysis of the Hull Structure .......................................... 120
5.9 Acceptance Criteria ..................................................................... 120
5.11 Analysis and Design of Other Major Structures ........................... 121
5.13 Turret Mooring ............................................................................. 121
7 Assessing the Design of the Hull Structure .................................... 122
7.1 General ........................................................................................ 122
7.3 Hull Design Review Acceptance Criteria ..................................... 122
9 Survey Requirements for a Conversion .......................................... 123
9.1 Conversion Survey Requirements ............................................... 123
9.3 Structural Repairs/Steel Renewal ................................................ 123
9.5 Bottom Plate Pitting Repair .......................................................... 123

FIGURE 1 Procedure for Hull Structure Evaluation of Existing Vessel
Converting to FPI .................................................................. 125

SECTION 2 Steel Renewal Assessment ............................................................... 126
1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 126
3 Steel Renewal Assessment Procedure .......................................... 126
3.1 Minimum Renewal Scantlings within 0.4L .................................... 126
3.3 Minimal Renewal Scantlings at 0.125L from the Ends ................. 127
3.5 Minimum Renewal Scantlings between 0.4L Amidships
and 0.125L from the Ends ........................................................... 128

TABLE 1 Individual Wastage Allowances, Newbuilds and Vessels
Converted to FPI, 90 meters and Over ................................ 132

FIGURE 1 Determination of Reassessed and Renewal Scantlings for
Ship-Type FPI Conversions within 0.4L Amidships – Flow
Chart ..................................................................................... 129

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SECTION 3 Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life) ............................. 134
1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 134
3 Remaining Fatigue Life ................................................................... 134
5 Remaining Fatigue Life for Longitudinal Stiffener Connections...... 135
7 Remaining Fatigue Life for Connections of Transverses and
Girders ............................................................................................ 135

APPENDIX 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to
Reassessed Scantling Determination .............................................. 137
1 Application ...................................................................................... 137
3 Elastic Buckling Stresses ................................................................ 137
3.1 Elastic Buckling of Plates ............................................................ 137
3.3 Elastic Buckling of Longitudinals ................................................. 138
5 Critical Buckling Stresses ............................................................... 140
5.1 Compression ............................................................................... 140
5.3 Shear ........................................................................................... 141
7 Working Stress ................................................................................ 141
7.1 Longitudinal Compressive Stress ................................................ 141
7.3 Shear Stresses ............................................................................ 141
9 Scantling Criteria ............................................................................. 142
9.1 Buckling Stress ............................................................................ 142

TABLE 1 Number of Half Waves .......................................................... 140


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
5A
CHAPT ER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions
to FPI
SECT I ON 1 General
1 Introduction
The conversion of an existing vessel to a ship-type FPI is referred to as an FPI Conversion.
The direct application of the criteria contained in Sections 3-3-1 and Part 5A, Chapter 1 as the basis of
acceptance of the hull structure of an existing vessel for FPI service will result in classification notations as
described in 1-1-2/3.3 and 1-1-2/5. However, modified acceptance criteria, given in this Section, may be
used for some aspects of the vessel’s structural design as a conversion to FPI service. This Section applies
to both the ‘Change of Class Designation’ and ‘Transfer of Class’ situations where the acceptance of the
existing vessel’s hull structure as an FPI conversion is pursued. ‘Change of Class Designation’ refers to an
existing vessel classed by ABS which is being converted to FPI service. ‘Transfer of Class’ refers to a
vessel transferring into ABS’s classification from another IACS member Society.
5A-2-1/Figure 1 is a diagram depicting the conversion procedure given in this Section.
3 General (December 2008)
All applicable criteria contained in this FPI Guide are to be used in the classification of an FPI conversion,
except that some criteria (primarily in Section 3-3-1 and Part 5A, Chapter 1) can be modified. Specific
modifications are given below for the affected criteria.
The major criteria differences for the FPI conversion arise in the acceptance of the hull structure. The
design of the hull structure relates to hull girder longitudinal strength and local scantling selection. Specific
changes that will accommodate the use of the acceptance criteria for an FPI conversion are given in 5A-2-1/5.
The principal differences in the modified criteria are summarized as:
i) The hull girder strength and acceptability of local scantlings follow the Rule approach (it is noted
that there are several valid bases to do this under ABS’s Rules and procedures, which are discussed
in 5A-2-1/7); and
ii) The performance of strength analyses and stress checks, including finite element analyses are to be
based on reassessed net scantlings. The determination of the reassessed scantlings is given in Section
5A-2-2 and its purpose is to establish minimum renewal scantlings. The acceptance criteria for
the hull structure are defined in 5A-2-1/5.
The minimum fatigue life of the hull structure is also fundamentally different for a converted vessel. For a
new-build, the minimum design service life for fatigue is 20 years; for an existing vessel to be converted to FPI
service, the minimum intended on-site service life for fatigue can be less than 20 years (see 5A-2-1/5.9.3).


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5 Acceptance Criteria for the Hull Structure (December 2008)
5.1 General (1 July 2009)
For a vessel being converted to FPI service, the design and construction of the existing hull, superstructure
and deckhouses are to meet either the applicable criteria of the Steel Vessel Rules at the time of original
build, or as applicable, the criteria presented in 5A-2-1/7 below. In the case of the former approach in
which the acceptance criteria is the Steel Vessel Rules at the time of original build, the hull structure is also
to satisfy the hull interface structure criteria, as applicable, and the remaining fatigue life requirements in
5A-2-1/5.11. The second approach is based on criteria in 5A-2-1/7, where Environmental Severity Factors
(ESFs), as described in 5A-3-2/1.1 of this Guide (which reflect expected conditions from the long-term
mooring of the installation at an offshore site), are applied, and the required hull girder longitudinal strength
in Section 5A-1-2 and strength assessment in Sections 5A-3-3 and 5A-3-4 are satisfied. This results in
revised values of required local scantlings that reflect the site-specific nature of the structural design. In the
application of these criteria, no minimum required value of any scantling is to be less than 85 percent of
the value obtained with all the Beta Values set equal to 1.0.
To be eligible to apply the second approach based on criteria in 5A-2-1/7, it is to be demonstrated that the
β type Environmental Severity Factors (ESFs) β
VBM
and β
WHT
, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3, are 1.0 or less, and
the required hull girder longitudinal strength as specified in Section 5A-1-2 is satisfied.
In addition, it is expected that the applicable and most recent versions of the criteria contained in the Load
Line, SOLAS, MODU Code and MARPOL Conventions issued by the International Maritime Organization
are to be considered. It is further suggested that flag state and the local authorities having jurisdiction
where the installation is to operate be contacted to obtain any further applicable criteria.
See also 5A-1-1/1.
Note: The ABS Eagle FPSO computer software should be used to establish the limits on permissible reductions in the
scantling requirements as they are automatically accounted for in the software.
5.3 Structural Evaluation of the Hull (1 July 2009)
The hull structure that is to be converted is to satisfy renewal criteria that are to be established by a
reassessment calculation. A reassessment calculation as described in Section 5A-2-2 is first performed to
establish the minimum renewal scantlings of individual plates and structural members below which
renewals are required. For the uninterrupted operation of the installation on-site without any drydocking,
the anticipated corrosion predicted to occur over the proposed on-site life of the FPI is to be provided by
the designer or owner and considered in the design. Estimation of anticipated corrosion rates are to be
made, by taking into account any future corrosion protection measures to be used, previous service
experience, the type and temperatures of stored fluids and the other variables significantly affecting the
corrosion rate. In no case is this corrosion margin provided by the designer or owner for plates and
structural members to be less than 0.5 mm, except for bottom, deck and side shell plating where it is not to
be less than 1.0 mm.
For ABS classification of the FPI at the time of conversion, the rule required scantlings are the renewal
scantlings as determined by the reassessment calculation plus the minimum corrosion margins stated
above. However for surveys in service, if the gauged thickness is between the renewal thickness and the
substantial corrosion thickness as defined in 5A-2-2/3.1, either the affected areas are to be renewed or
repaired, or alternatively, subsequent annual surveys of these affected areas are required.
5.5 Engineering Analyses of the Hull Structure
5.5.1 General (1 July 2009)
This Subsection relates to the strength analyses required to verify the reassessed scantlings for the
hull structure.
Depending on the specific features of the offshore installation, additional analyses to verify and to
help design other portions of the hull structure will be required. Such additional analyses include
those for the hull interface structure such as the deck structural components supporting deck-
mounted equipment and the hull structure interface with the position mooring system. Analysis
criteria for these two situations are given in Section 5A-1-4.

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Provided a scantling of the existing vessel is not below its renewal limit, or if it is to be renewed at
the time of conversion, then it can be modeled in the structural analyses using the “reassessed net
scantling,” which is the “reassessed” value minus the “nominal design corrosion values” specified
in 5A-3-1/Table 1.
Documentation necessary to verify the structural adequacy of the installation is to be submitted for
review.
5.5.2 Strength Analysis of the Hull Structure (1 July 2012)
When the design of the hull is accepted based on the criteria in 5A-2-1/7 accounting for the on-site
environmental effects, finite element structural analysis using the reassessed net scantlings is to be
performed. The reassessed net scantlings are obtained by deducting the nominal design corrosion
values in 5A-3-1/Table 1 from the reassessed scantlings as determined in Section 5A-2-2.
A three cargo tank length model or full cargo block model as described in 5A-1-3/3.3 may be used
for finite element analyses. Finite element analyses should also be performed in areas where
structural configurations or novel features are present that affect the basic hull design.
The loading conditions to be analyzed for the three cargo tank length model or cargo block/full
ship model are described in 5A-1-3/3.5 and 5A-2-1/5.6, respectively.
The loads from the hull mounted top side production and support systems, and other equipment
are to be included in the strength analysis. The accidental load condition, where a cargo tank is
flooded, is to be assessed for longitudinal strength of the hull girder consistent with load cases
used in damage stability calculations.
The additional loads and load effects of 5A-1-3/1.1 are also to be considered in the strength analysis.
5.6 Alternative Structural Model – Cargo Block or Full Length Ship Model (1 July 2012)
5.6.1 Structural FE Model
As an alternative to the three cargo tank length model in 5A-1-3/3.5, the finite element strength
assessment for FPI conversions can be based on a full length or cargo block length of the hull
structure, including all cargo and ballast tanks. All main longitudinal and transverse structural elements
are to be modeled. These include outer shell, floors and girders, transverse and vertical web frames,
stringers and transverse and longitudinal bulkhead structures. All plates and stiffeners on the structure,
including web stiffeners, are to be modeled. Topside stools should also be incorporated in the
model. The modeling mesh and element types used should follow the principles that are described
in Appendices 5A-3-A4/9 and 5A-3-A4/11.
An acceptable alternative to the full length hull structure model analysis is the DLA analysis in
accordance with the ABS Guide for ‘Dynamic Loading Approach’ for Floating Production, Storage
and Offloading (FPSO) Installations provided that the loading conditions in 5A-2-1/5.6.2 are used.
Boundary conditions should be applied at the ends of the cargo block model for dynamic equilibrium
of the structure.
The strength assessment is calculated according to the loading conditions in 5A-2-1/5.6.2 associated
with each load case. The plates and stiffeners in the model are to be assessed against the yielding
and buckling requirements of 5A-3-4/3 and 5A-3-4/5, respectively.
Detailed local stress assessment using fine mesh models to evaluate highly stressed critical areas
are to be in accordance with Appendix 5A-3-A4/21.
5.6.2 Loading Conditions
In the strength analyses of the cargo block or full ship length model, the static on site FPI operating
load cases are to be established to provide the most severe loading of the hull girder and the
internal tank structures. The operating load cases found in the Loading Manual and Trim & Stability
Booklet provide the most representative loading conditions to be considered for analysis. The static
load cases should include as a minimum tank loading patterns resulting in the following conditions:

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i) Ballast or minimum draft condition after offloading
ii) Partial load condition (33% full)
iii) Partial load condition (50% full)
iv) Partial load condition (67% full)
v) Full load condition before offloading
vi) Transit load condition
vii) Inspection and repair conditions
viii) Tank testing condition – during conversion and after construction (periodic survey)
The tank testing condition is to be considered as a still water condition. The static load cases i) to
vii) are to be combined with environmental loading conditions to develop static plus dynamic load
cases that realistically reflect the maximum loads for each component of the structure.
5.6.3 Dynamic Loading
Hydrodynamic loading analysis of a full length model of the FPI hull in the static load conditions
is to be carried out using a recognized vessel motions and loads hydrodynamic seakeeping software.
In quantifying the dynamic loads, it is necessary to consider a range of wave environments and
headings at the installation site, which produce the considered critical responses of the FPI structure.
The maximum 100-year design response is to be determined based on the motion and structural
load effects from 3-2-3/3.1. The static and dynamics of the position mooring and topside module
loads contribution shall also be included.
Wave loads are to be determined based on an equivalent design wave approach where an equivalent
design wave is defined as a regular wave that gives the same response level as the maximum
design response for a specific response parameter. The equivalent design wave is characterized by
wave amplitude, wave length, wave heading, and wave crest position referenced to amidships of
the hull structure. This maximum design response parameter or Dominant Load Parameter is to be
determined for the site-specific environment with a 100-year return period, transit environment
with a 10-year return period, and inspection and repair condition with a 1-year return period. In
selecting a specific response parameter to be maximized, all of the simultaneously occurring dynamic
loads induced by the wave are also derived. These simultaneous acting dynamic load components
and static loads, in addition to the quasi-static equivalent wave loads, are applied to the cargo
block model. The Dominant Load Parameters essentially refer to the load effects, arising from
vessel motions and wave loads, that yield the maximum structural response for critical structural
members. Each set of Dominant Load Parameters with equivalent wave and wave-induced loads
represents a load case for structural FE analysis.
The wave amplitude of the equivalent design wave is to be determined from the maximum design
response of a Dominant Load Parameter (DLP) under consideration divided by the maximum RAO
amplitude of that DLP. RAOs are to be calculated using a range of wave headings and periods.
The maximum RAO occurs at a specific wave frequency and wave heading where the RAO has its
own maximum value. The equivalent wave amplitude for a DLP may be expressed by the following
equation:
a
w
=
max
max
RAO
R

where
a
w
= equivalent wave amplitude of the DLP
R
max
= maximum response of the DLP
RAO
max
= maximum RAO amplitude of the DLP
The following DLPs are identified as necessary to develop the load cases for the hull structure:

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• Vertical bending moment – sag and hog
• Vertical shear force
• Horizontal bending moment
• Horizontal shear force
• Vertical acceleration
• Lateral acceleration
• Roll angle
Vertical bending moment and shear force are to be evaluated in way of an internally mounted
mooring turret. Accelerations are to be determined at a sufficient number of process equipment
locations to represent accurately the load effects arising from their motion. As appropriate, roll
angle calculations may include simultaneous effects of waves and winds.
Other DLPs that may be deemed critical can also be considered in the analysis. The need to consider
other DLPs or additional DLPs is to be determined in consultation with ABS.
5.6.4 Load Cases
Load cases are derived based on the above static and dynamic loading conditions, and DLPs. For
each load case, the applied loads to be developed for structural FE analysis are to include both the
static and dynamic parts of each load component. The dynamic loads represent the combined effects
of a dominant load and other accompanying loads acting simultaneously on the hull structure,
including external wave pressures, internal tank pressures, deck loads and inertial loads on the
structural components and equipment. For each load case, the developed loads are then used in the
FE analysis to determine the resulting stresses and other load effects within the FPI hull structure.
5.7 Fatigue Analysis of the Hull Structure
Fatigue analysis is required considering the fatigue damage that has occurred during prior service as a
trading vessel, during transit and during on-site operations including operational loading and unloading cycles.
See 5A-1-3/3.9 and Section 5A-2-3.
5.9 Acceptance Criteria
The total assessment of the structure is to be carried out against the failure modes of material yielding,
buckling and ultimate strength, and fatigue. The reference acceptance criteria of each mode are given as
follows.
5.9.1 Material Yielding
See 5A-1-3/3.11.1.
5.9.2 Buckling and Ultimate Strength
See 5A-1-3/3.11.2.
5.9.3 Fatigue (1 July 2009)
For existing vessels that are employed in FPI service, the estimated remaining fatigue lives of the
critical structural details are to be assessed and the supporting calculations submitted for review.
Consideration is given to the effects of corrosion and wastage on the remaining fatigue life of
existing structures by using net scantlings.
The minimum acceptable fatigue life for the FPI conversion is the greatest of: the on-site service
life of the FPI, the time to the next Special Survey or five years. Whichever of these values controls,
it is to be documented in accordance with 1-1-2/5.10.2 (the FL classification notation) and used in
the Survey Planning Document referred to in 1-1-4/11.3.

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Appendix 5A-3-A2 of this Guide is also referred to for ship-type installations with lengths less
than 150 m. Application of the Appendix will result in the evaluation of members for stress ranges
of an unrestricted trading service vessel. In the absence of more detailed environmental data,
stress ranges are to be obtained in consideration of the unrestricted service environment.
The fatigue strength is based on a cumulative damage theory, which infers that the structure is
likely to experience a fatigue failure after a finite number of stress cycles occur. This is especially
important when looking at FPI conversions. The installation has already experienced cycles of
stress during the “ship” phase of its life and it will experience additional cycles during the “FPI”
phase of its life. The basic concept is to keep the total number of cycles below the number that
results in failure.
For FPI conversions, an analysis procedure accounting for the fatigue damage of the “ship” phase
and FPI phase, including transit, is acceptable. First, the historical cumulative fatigue damage up
to the time of conversion is to be calculated through realistic temporal weighting of wave environments
experienced along the service routes during the service life of the vessel.
Second, the expected cumulative fatigue damage is to be calculated using site-specific wave
environment and operational conditions, as well as transit condition. These will provide an estimate
of the remaining fatigue life of the structural members at the time of conversion. See Section 5A-2-3.
When the route and site-specific wave environments are used and they produce less severe fatigue
demands than the unrestricted service environment of the Steel Vessel Rules, credit can be given to
the less severe environment by increasing the expected fatigue life. For site-specific environmental
conditions producing more severe fatigue demand than the Steel Vessel Rule basis, the site-specific
environmental data are to be used.
Due to the structural redundancy and relative ease of inspection inherent in typical hull structures
of ship-type installations, there is no further need to apply additional factors of safety above what
is already built into the fatigue classification curves cited in the above reference. However, for
areas of the structure which are non-inspectable or “critical”, such as in way of the connections to
the mooring or production systems (see 5A-2-1/5.11), additional factors of safety should be considered.
Any areas determined to be critical to the structure are to be free of cracks, and the effects of stress
risers should be determined and minimized. Critical areas may require special analysis and survey.
For an existing classed vessel being converted to FPI service, the minimum fatigue lives of the
structural components covered in 5A-2-1/5.11 and 5A-2-1/5.13 can be less than 20 years as mentioned
above.
5.9.4 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength
See 5A-1-2/3.
5.11 Analysis and Design of Other Major Structures
See Section 5A-1-4 for required analysis of hull interface structures.
See also 5A-2-1/5.9.3 for revised target minimum fatigue life for an existing vessel being accepted as an
FPI conversion.
5.13 Turret Mooring
See 6-2-1/13 for required analysis of the turret mooring system.
See also 5A-2-1/5.9.3 for revised target minimum fatigue life for as existing vessel being accepted as an
FPI conversion.

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7 Assessing the Design of the Hull Structure (December 2008)
7.1 General (1 July 2012)
The FPI conversion approach relies on a review of the hull’s design. The review consists of an assessment
of the hull girder strength and cargo region scantling review including main supporting members, local
plating and stiffeners that directly contribute to the hull girder strength.
Two major purposes for this review are to assess the adequacy of the hull girder and local strength, and to
“benchmark” the values upon which local scantling renewals are to be based for future in-service surveys.
For this latter purpose, several approaches which can be applied are listed in 5A-2-1/7.3.
An existing vessel can be sorted into one of three basic categories, as follows.
a. Vessel satisfies ABS Rules from its original classification [À Maltese Cross in the classification
symbol and not accepted under 1-1-4/7.5 of the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification (Part 1)].
Note: ABS Rules also includes IACS Common Structural Rules for Double Hull Oil Tankers
(ABS Steel Vessel Rules Part 5A)
b. Vessel currently classed by an IACS member or taken into ABS classification under 1-1-4/7.5 of
the ABS Rules for Conditions of Classification (Part 1).
c. Vessel was never classed by an IACS member.
A vessel in category (a) or (b) can be considered for an FPI conversion. The acceptance criteria to be applied
to a category (c) vessel will based on special consideration determined in consultation with ABS.
7.3 Hull Design Review Acceptance Criteria (1 July 2012)
The review of the design of an existing hull structure, which is applicable to a vessel classed for unrestricted
service, does not account for the increased or reduced local structural element strength requirements that
could result from the long-term, moored operation of the installation at an offshore site. The approach to
the design review also allows variations in the acceptance criteria that can be based on:
i) ABS Rules from the year of build of the vessel with ABS permissible corrosion limits for renewal; or
ii) ABS current Rules with ABS permissible corrosion limits for renewal; or
iii) The prior IACS member’s approved scantlings (or as-built values) using that society’s permissible
corrosion limits for renewal. However the permissible corrosion limits for the longitudinal members
are to be based on ABS limits for the year of build of the vessel if the IACS member society's
limits are greater.
When the acceptance criteria is based on i), ii) or iii), the renewal scantlings for plates and stiffeners in the
deck and bottom structure, within 0.15 Depth from deck and bottom, and for plates in side shell and
longitudinal bulkheads must be established at the time of conversion. The allowable material diminution
of these plates and stiffeners is to be based on the smaller of:
a) The wastage allowance based on i), ii) or iii), or
b) The allowable wastage based on buckling strength. The allowable wastage based on buckling strength
is to apply to these plates and stiffeners subject to hull girder bending and shear stresses as required
by Appendix 5A-2-A1. When the acceptance criteria are based on iii), the IACS member's allowable
wastage based on buckling considerations may be used.
The combination of the variety of ways to review local scantlings and the permissibility to account for site-
dependent effects on global and local hull structural strength requirements can lead to a range of acceptable
procedures.
If it is desired to account for the on-site environmental effects and how these affect the required scantlings,
it will be necessary to establish the required renewal scantlings on this basis. This results in a reassessment
of the hull structure design to establish the converted structure’s renewal scantlings. The acceptance
criteria for the hull structure are defined in 5A-2-1/5.

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9 Survey Requirements for a Conversion (2003)
A Floating Installation is expected to remain permanently moored on site, and it is therefore without the
ready access to the repair and maintenance facilities used by a vessel. Considering these conditions, the
following minimum Hull survey requirements for conversion of an existing vessel to FPI service are to be
followed.
9.1 Conversion Survey Requirements
9.1.1 Drydocking Survey
When the vessel is to be placed on drydock and surveyed, the requirements of Section 7-4-1 of the
ABS Rules for Survey After Construction (Part 7) are to be followed.
9.1.2 Special Survey of Hull
A Special Periodical Survey of Hull, appropriate to the age of the installation, is to be carried out
in accordance with 7-3-2/5.13 of the ABS Rules for Survey After Construction (Part 7) for non-
Double Hull tankers and 7-3-2/5.14 of the referenced Part 7 for Double Hull tankers. All
requirements for Close-up Survey and thickness measurements are to be applied.
9.1.3 Modifications
All modifications to the vessel are to be carried out in accordance with ABS-approved drawings
and to the satisfaction of the attending Surveyor. In general, the IACS Shipbuilding and Repair
Quality Standard (SARQS) requirements are to be followed unless a recognized shipyard or
national standard is already established in the shipyard. Reference may be made to the ABS Guide
for Shipbuilding and Repair Quality Standard for Hull Structures During Construction, which
incorporates the IACS SARQS requirements.
9.3 Structural Repairs/Steel Renewal
Renewed material should be replaced by steel of the same or higher grade and to the approved design
scantling or greater. Workmanship is to be carried out in accordance with the ABS Guide for Shipbuilding
and Repair Quality Standard for Hull Structures.
9.5 Bottom Plate Pitting Repair
The following repair recommendations apply to pitting found in both ballast and cargo tank bottom plating.
9.5.1 Repair Recommendations
There are four main approaches used for dealing with severe bottom pitting.
9.5.1(a) Partially Crop and Renew Affected Bottom Plating. Partial cropping and renewal is
primarily a matter of: proper welding technique, selection of an adequately sized plate insert and
the appropriate nondestructive examination (NDE) of repaired areas.
9.5.1(b) Clean Pitted Areas and Cover with Special Coating. Cleaning out and covering with
special coating without use of filler or weld build-up need only be limited by the maximum allowable
depth of the pits (or allowable minimum remaining thickness of the bottom plating) permitted
from a strength or pollution risk standpoint. The allowable loss of bottom cross-sectional area
must also be considered.
9.5.1(c) Clean Pitted Areas and Fill with Plastic Compound. Use of plastic compound filler,
such as epoxy, can be considered similar to 5A-2-1/9.5.1(b) because no strength credit is given to
the filler material.
9.5.1(d) Fill by Welding. Filling with welding warrants more serious consideration. Suggested
welding practices for bottom plating are noted below.
9.5.2 Pitting up to 15% of Bottom Plating Thickness (t)
No immediate remedial action is necessary. However, if the surrounding tank bottom is specially
coated, corrosion progress in the pitted areas may be very rapid due to the area ratio effect of
protected versus non-protected surfaces, therefore, as applicable, the coating is to be repaired.

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9.5.3 Scattered Pitting Up To 33% (1/3t) of Bottom Plating Thickness
These pits may be filled with epoxy or other suitable protective compounds, provided the loss of
area at any transverse section of the strake in question does not exceed 10%. Any areas that have
been repaired by this method must be “mapped” and noted for close-up survey in the Survey and
Inspection Plan required by 1-1-4/11.3 of this Guide.
9.5.4 Pitting of Any Depth may be Welded, Provided:
Pitting may be welded, provided there is at least 6 mm (0.25 in.) remaining original plating
thickness at the bottom of the cavity and there is at least 75 mm (3 in.) between adjacent pit
welding areas. The maximum nominal diameter of any pit repaired by welding may not exceed
300 mm (12 in.).
9.5.5 Requirements for the Welding of Pits
9.5.5(a) Pit Welding. It is recommended that pit welding in bottom plating be built up at least
3 mm (0.125 in.) above the level of the surrounding plating and then ground flush. This is
mandatory for: higher-strength steels grades D and E, for very small areas (less than 75 mm (3 in.)
in diameter and for such welding done afloat.
9.5.5(b) Surface Preparation. Pitted areas are to be thoroughly cleaned of rust, oil and cargo
residues prior to welding.
9.5.5(c) Filler Metal. When welding, the filler metal grade appropriate to the pitted base metal
and preheating, if applicable, are to be employed.
9.5.5(d) Welding While Installation is Afloat. For welding below the waterline of an installation
afloat, properly dried low hydrogen electrodes are to be used. The pitted areas against water
backing are to be preheated sufficiently to drive off any moisture that might be present. The
preheat is to cover at least 102 mm (4 in.) of the material surrounding the welding or four times
the material thickness, whichever is greater.
9.5.5(e) Layer of Welding Metal. A layer of weld metal is to be deposited along a spiral path to
the bottom center of the pitted excavation. The slag is to be completely removed and the next
successive layer is to be similarly deposited to build up the excavation at least 3 mm (0.125 in.)
above the level of the surrounding plating.
9.5.5(f) Extensive Pit Repairs. For extensive pit repairs (i.e., greater than 20% intensity) of steel
grades D, E and higher strength steel, welding against water backing is not recommended.
9.5.5(g) Nondestructive Examination. All welds to pitted areas in bottom plating are to be
subject to nondestructive examination with particular attention to boundaries of the welded areas
and at intersections of the welded areas and existing structural welding. Also, for welds of higher-
strength steels, the NDE method is to be suitable for detecting sub-surface defects.
9.5.5(h) Coating. In order to reduce the likelihood of possible galvanic attack at the boundaries
of built-up areas, coating over the area with a compound such as epoxy/glass flake should be
considered. Also, where the pitting is in small areas of coating breakdown, it is essential to restore
the coating intact in order to avoid the possible rapid corrosion of small bare areas in large
protected areas (area ratio effect).
9.5.5(i) Doublers. Fitting of a doubler over pits is not considered a satisfactory repair.


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FIGURE 1
Procedure for Hull Structure Evaluation of
Existing Vessel Converting to FPI (December 2008)
Is the Existing
Vessel Classed by
the Bureau?
START
Is the Site-specific
Enviroment less severe than
North Atlantic & are Hull
Girder Strength requirements
satisfied?
Check if Hull
Structure fully complies
with ABS Rules from the
year of build of the vessel with the
Bureau's permissible corrosion limits for
renewal or complies with current ABS
Rules with Bureau's permissible
corrosion limits for renewal
(5A-2-1/7.3).
Check Hull Interface Structure (Section
5A-1-4) & Remaining Fatigue Life
Requirements (Section 5A-2-3) and
perform "Change of Class Designation"
procedure.
END
1
Y, upon request
N
Is the
Existing Vessel
accepted under Survey of
the Bureau but approved to the
Rules of another Recognized
Class Society
(5A-2-1/7.3)?
N
Y
N
Y
Is the Existing
Vessel Classed by Another
IACS Member?
1
N
Perform "Transfer of Class" Review
& see General Requirements for
Assessing the Desing of the Hull
Structure (5A-2-1/7).
Y
Y
1
N
N
N
LEGEND:
1: Apply Section 3-3-1 & Part 5A, Chapter 1 OR alternative criteria determined in consultation with the Bureau.
Y: Yes
N: No
Check Hull Structure using
On-site Environment and apply
General Requirements (5A-2-1/3)
and Acceptance Criteria (5A-2-1/5).
Y
Check if Hull
Sturcture can be accepted
based on prior IACS Class Society's
approved scantlings (or as-built values)
using that Society's permissible
corrosion limits for renewal
(5A-2-1/7.3)
Either Or
Is the Site-specific
Enviroment less severe than
North Atlantic & are Hull
Girder Strength requirements
satisfied?
Y, upon request
Or
Either



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PART S e c t i o n 2 : S t e e l R e n e w a l A s s e s s m e n t
5A
CHAPT ER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions
to FPI
SECT I ON 2 Steel Renewal Assessment (December 2008)
1 Introduction
Major aspects associated with a conversion include an existing vessel’s original design and the basis of the
design such as design criteria, vessel’s classification, etc., its age, condition, maintenance and operational
history as well as the design, survey and maintenance requirements for the converted structure.
The relative importance of these aspects are influenced by the structure’s intended service, strength and
fatigue requirements, and regulatory/certification requirements.
The minimum renewal values as described in 5A-2-1/5 provide a baseline condition for the FPI installation
as they are the minimum scantling requirements for classification. Also, based on the future anticipated
corrosion expected to occur over the design life at the FPI site, the required minimum scantlings at the time
of conversion can be determined.
3 Steel Renewal Assessment Procedure (1 July 2009)
The first step in determining the renewal scantlings for an FPI vessel conversion requires a reassessment of
the vessel’s scantlings based on the specific site of the installation. The ABS Eagle FPSO software can be
used to perform the Initial Scantling Evaluation (ISE) phase of the reassessment and to calculate the
renewal scantlings of an existing vessel converted to an FPI. The reassessed scantlings determined in the
ISE phase, which are used to establish the renewal scantlings, must also be confirmed by finite element
analysis as part of the Total Strength Assessment (TSA).
3.1 Minimum Renewal Scantlings within 0.4L (1 July 2009)
The Initial Scantling Evaluation assesses the strength of the longitudinal scantlings for the FPI conversion.
The strength evaluation is mainly applicable for the structure within the 0.4L midship region and consists
of performing the following steps:
1. ABS Eagle FPSO SEAS software is employed for calculation of Environmental Severity Factor
(ESFs) based on the environmental conditions as specified in 3-2-3/3.
2. Determination of reassessed scantlings:
a) Assign initial input scantlings by reducing deck and bottom plating by 15%-20% of the
as-built scantlings and using as-built scantlings for stiffeners.
b) Calculate the hull girder section modulus and individual stiffener section modulus.
c) Determine the hull girder and local strength requirements for the site specific offshore
location.
d) Check if the input scantlings meet both hull girder and local strength requirements. If not,
adjust input scantlings and go back to step 2b).
e) As an option, the input scantlings can be further adjusted provided hull girder and local
strength requirements are satisfied.
f) Determine the initial reassessed scantlings as the input scantlings.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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3. Establishing renewal scantlings:
a) Determine renewal scantlings of longitudinal structural members based on Rule permissible
percentage wastage allowances in 5A-2-2/Table 1.
b) Check if renewal scantlings of longitudinal members (i.e. plating and longitudinals) satisfy
local panel and stiffener buckling requirement. If not, adjust reassessed scantlings and go
back to step 2(b).
c) Calculate substantial corrosion scantlings (scantlings corroded to 75% of allowable wastage).
d) Input anticipated corrosion wastage and then calculate yard renewal value.
4. Verification of reassessed scantlings and renewal scantlings:
a) Check if reassessed scantlings meet hull girder bending strength requirement for inspection,
repair, and transit condition.
b) Check if reassessed scantlings meet global hull girder and local scantling requirements.
c) Check if reassessed scantlings meet hull girder ultimate strength requirement as per
5A-3-3/3.5.
d) Check if reassessed scantlings meet hull girder shear strength requirement.
e) Check if reassessed scantlings meet the sloshing strength requirements for tank boundary
members.
If any one of the above requirements of the ISE phase is not met, adjust reassessed scantlings and
go back to step 2(b)
5. Output renewal table, where the following information are at least included:
a) Reassessed & renewal hull girder SM for deck and bottom
b) Tabulate preliminary results of individual members as follows:
Member Identification, As-built Scantlings, Reassessed Scantlings (rounded to nearest
0.5 mm), Renewal Scantlings, Substantial Corrosion Scantlings, User-defined anticipated
corrosion and Yard Required Scantlings.
c) Check reassessed scantlings by finite element analysis (TSA)
d) Determine final results of individual members as per b)
The above procedure is an iterative procedure as it requires several strength and buckling requirements to
be satisfied. The flow chart in 5A-2-2/Figure 1 illustrates the iterative steps necessary to determine the
reassessed and renewal scantlings within 0.4L amidships
The procedure described above determines the reassessed and renewal scantlings within 0.4L amidships.
The reassessed and renewal scantlings for the entire cargo block can also be determined using a similar
procedure. To do so requires that the reassessed scantlings between 0.4L amidships and the ends of the cargo
block be calculated using the same procedure as described above, except that the bending moments and local
loads for scantling requirements at specific locations between 0.4L amidships and cargo block ends are applied
in the procedure rather than the bending moments and local loads for scantling requirements required amidships.
The reassessed scantlings in the cargo block region are to be verified by finite element analysis (TSA).
3.3 Minimal Renewal Scantlings at 0.125L from the Ends
If 0.125L from the ends is within the cargo block region, the reassessed and renewal scantlings at 0.125L
can be determined either by taking the as-built scantlings at 0.125L from the ends as the reassessed
scantlings at that location, or by applying the procedure described in 5A-2-2/3.1. If however 0.125L is
outside the cargo block region, then the as-built scantlings at 0.125L from the ends will be the reassessed
scantlings at that location. The renewal scantlings will then be determined from the reassessed scantlings
If there is an increase or decrease in vessel length due to conversion the scantlings 0.125L from the ends
should be assessed for the new length. Where an increase in length occurs it may be necessary to either
modify the structure or consider early renewal for the scantlings at the ends.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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3.5 Minimum Renewal Scantlings between 0.4L Amidships and 0.125L from the Ends
If the reassessed and renewal scantlings of the cargo block have been determined by the procedure described
in 5A-2-2/3.1, the reassessed and renewal scantlings have already been determined. If not, the continuous
longitudinal members of the hull girder are to be maintained throughout 0.4L amidships, and then may be
gradually tapered beyond 0.4L provided local strength and hull girder requirements are satisfied.
Where the scantlings are based on the still-water bending moment envelope curves, items included in the
hull girder section modulus amidships are to be extended as necessary to meet the hull girder section
modulus required at the location being considered.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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FIGURE 1
Determination of Reassessed and Renewal Scantlings for Ship-Type FPI Conversions
within 0.4L Amidships – Flow Chart
(1)
(1 July 2009)
Note 1: See 5A-2-2/Table 1 for Individual Wastage Allowances
Establish reassessed
scantlings
Calculate local scantling requirements, t
p,local gross
for plating
As-built Scantlings
A
Calculate required global SM
req
SM
req_1
(on-site) = M
s(on-site)
+ M
w(on-site, 100 yrs return)
σ
allowable
SM
req
= max(SM
req_1
, 5A-1-2/1 minimum SM
req
)
Global SM ≥ SM
req
and local
scantling requirements satisifed?
C
No
Yes
Calculate global SM
reassess
using reassessed gross scantlings
Revise input
scantlings of
plating and
longitudinals
Initial results:
 Reassessed scantlings:
t
p,reassess gross
for plating; t
w,reassess gross
, t
f,reassess gross
and SM
stf,reassess net
for longitudinals;
SM
reassess
for hull girder
 Rule Required scantlings:
Local scantling requirements, t
p,local gross
for plating; t
w,Ref gross
, t
f,Ref gross
and SM
stf,Req net
for
longitudinals; SM
req,gross
for hull girder
Assign initial input scantlings for plating and stiffeners by reducing deck and bottom plating thickness,
for example, by 15%-20% of as-built scantlings while using as-built scantlings for stiffeners.
Calculate the local Rule net SM, reference gross
scantlings for web and flange of stiffeners:
t
w,Ref gross
= min [t
w,Ref ren
/(1 − 20% or 25%), t
w,as built
]
t
f,Ref gross
= min [t
f,Ref ren
/(1 − 20% or 25%), t
f,as built
]
where reference renewal scantlings, t
w,Ref ren
and
t
f,Ref ren
, are calculated according to Note 1
Note 2: If the stiffener is
bulb type, the reassessed
scantling for flange of
stiffeners is taken as the
as-built scantling.
Further adjustment of
reassessed scantlings needed?
Yes
No
Initial determination of reassesed scantlings:
t
p,reassess gross
= t
p,input
t
w,reassess gross
= t
w,input
t
f,reassess gross
= t
f,input


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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FIGURE 1 (continued)
Determination of Reassessed and Renewal Scantlings for Ship-Type FPI Conversions
within 0.4L Amidships – Flow Chart (1 July 2009)
Calculate critical buckling stress based on renewal scantlings according
to 5A-2-A1/5.1, where f
c
is critical plate buckling stress, or the minimum
among critical buckling stresses of column buckling, torsional buckling,
and local buckling for longitudinals.
A
B
Calculate renewal thickness for plating and longitudinals
t
p,ren
= t
p,input
× (1 − 20% or 25%)
t
w,ren
= t
w,input
× (1 − 20% or 25%)
t
f,ren
= t
f,input
× (1 − 20% or 25%)
Establish renewal
scantlings
Check buckling strength
according to 5A-2-A1/9
No
Yes
Note 3: See 5A-2-2/
Table 1.
C
Calculate substantial corrosion scantlings based on the following:
t
p,substantial
= t
p,input
× (1 − 0.75 × 20% or 25%)
t
w,substantial
= t
w,input
× (1 − 0.75 × 20% or 25%)
t
f,substantial
= t
f,input
× (1 − 0.75 × 20% or 25%)
User inputs anticipated corrosion wastage for the intended FPSO life
t
p,anticip cor
, t
w,anticip cor
, t
f,anticip cor
Calculate yard required scantlings
t
p,yard required
= t
p,substantial
+ t
p,anticip cor
t
w,yard required
= t
w,substantial
+ t
w,anticip cor
t
f,yard required
= t
f,substantial
+ t
f,anticip cor


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

ABS

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FIGURE 1 (continued)
Determination of Reassessed and Renewal Scantlings for Ship-Type FPI Conversions
within 0.4L Amidships – Flow Chart (1 July 2009)
B
C
No
Yes
Check reassessed
scantlings against hull girder bending
strength for inspection, repair, and
transit conditions
Output preliminary renewal table
(4)
C
No
Yes
Check reassessed scantlings
against hull girder strength and local
scantling requiremetnts
C
No
Yes
Check hull girder ultimate
strength as per 5A-3-3/3.5
C
No
Yes
Check hull girder shear strength
C
No
Yes
Check reassessed scantlings
against sloshing loads
Notes:
4 Renewal table should include at least reassessed and renewal hull girder SM for deck and bottom as well as
the following individual member information: Member Identification, As-built Scantlings, Reassessed
Scantlings (rounded to the nearest 0.5 mm), Renewal Scantlings, Substantial Scantlings, User-defined
Anticipated Corrosion, Yard Required Scantlings.
5 Reassessed net scantlings used in finite element analysis are the net scantlings of the minimum of the
reassessed (round to the nearest 0.5 mm) and as-built scantlings.
Verify reassessed scantlings
and renewal scantlings
Check reassessed net scantlings
using finite element analysis
(5)
Yes
Final renewal table
Revise reassessed
scantlings
No



Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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FIGURE 1 (continued)
Determination of Reassessed and Renewal Scantlings for Ship-Type FPI Conversions
within 0.4L Amidships – Flow Chart (1 July 2009)
Note 1 Buckling Check of Longitudinal Stiffeners
Stiffener Web Plate Material
Steel
Mild HT32 HT36 HT40
Angle and T Profile d
w
/t
w,Ref ren
≤ 70 65 60 55
Bulb Profiles d
w
/t
w,Ref ren
≤ 36 34 31 28
Flat bars d
w
/t
w,Ref ren
≤ 20 19 18 17
Stiffener Flanges b
flg-out
/t
f,Ref ren
≤ 15 14 13 12
where
d
w
= depth of web plate, in mm
b
flg-out
= breadth of larger flange outstands, in mm

TABLE 1
Individual Wastage Allowances, Newbuilds and Vessels Converted
to FPI, 90 meters and Over
(1, 2, 3)
(1 July 2012)
Ordinary and High Strength Steel
Newbuilds or Vessels Converted
2009 or Later
Vessels Converted before 2009
Double Bottom
Single Bottom
with Single Side
or Double Side
Double Bottom
Single Bottom
with Single Side
or Double Side
Strength Deck Plating 20% 20% 20% 20%
Continuous Long’l Hatch Coamings & Above Deck
Box-Girders
20% ----- 20% -----
Deck Plates within Line of Hatches and at Ends. 30% 30% 30% 30%
Forecastle, Poop and Bridge Deck Plates;
Superstructure End Bulkheads
30% 30% 30% 30%
(December 2008) Tween Deck Plates ----- ----- ----- -----
Sheer Strake Plates 20% 20% 20% 20%
Side Shell Plates 20% 25% 25% 25%
Bilge Strake Plates 20% 20% 25% 20%
Bottom Plates 20% 20% 25% 20%
Keel Plates
(4)

Outermost Strake of Inner Bottom 20% ----- 20% -----
Other Plates of Inner Bottom 20% ----- 25% -----
Top Strake of Longitudinal Bulkheads and Top Strake
of Topside Tank Sloping Plating
20% 20% 20% 20%
Bottom Strake of Longitudinal Bulkheads 20% 20% 25% 20%
Other Plates of Longitudinal Bulkheads, Topside Tank
Sloping Plating, Hopper Tank Sloping Plating and
Transverse Bulkheads
20% 25%,
20% for
transverse
bulkheads only
25% 25%
Internals including Longitudinals, Girders,
Transverses, Struts, Bulkhead Webs and Stringers,
Brackets and Hatch Side Girders
20% 25% 25% 25%
Plates in way of Top of Tanks 25% 30% 30% 30%
Underdeck Box Girders (Long’l or Transverse) 20% ----- 20% -----
Hatch Covers, Hatch coamings and brackets 30% 30% 30% 30%

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 2 Steel Renewal Assessment 5A-2-2

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TABLE 1 (continued)
Individual Wastage Allowances, Newbuilds and Vessels Converted
to FPI, 90 meters and Over
(1, 2, 3)
(1 July 2012)
Notes:
1 (1 July 2009) The individual wastage allowances are acceptable, provided the SM is not less than 90% of the greater
SM required: a) at the time of new construction or conversion or b) by 5A-1-2/1 of this Guide.
2 For tankers 130 m in length and above and over 10 years of age, sectional area calculations are to be carried out by
an ABS Technical Office.
3 For vessels built to other society rules, the Technical Office carrying out the initial plan review is to be contacted
for wastage allowances.
4 Keel plates are to be renewed when they reach the minimum allowed thickness for adjacent bottom plating.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : F a t i g u e C o n s i d e r a t i o n ( R e m a i n i n g F a t i g u e L i f e )
5A
CHAPT ER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions
to FPI
SECT I ON 3 Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life)
(December 2008)
1 Introduction
An existing vessel structure will have accumulated some fatigue damage due to the prior service as well as
steel wastage due to corrosion and wear. In order to account for the fatigue damage that has occurred and
to determine the remaining fatigue life, a fatigue assessment of structural connection details shall be
performed by the following steps:
• Determine the fatigue damage that has occurred due to the prior service as a trading vessel, and at a
previous installation site, if applicable.
• Determine the fatigue damage that will occur during transit to the installation site.
• Calculate the total fatigue damage exerted by the connection details during the above service.
• Calculate the remaining fatigue life in the connection details of the longitudinal stiffeners for the site
specific operation of the FPI.
• Develop renewal or reinforcement requirements for any stiffener connection that does not show adequate
remaining fatigue life at the installation site.
3 Remaining Fatigue Life
Based on the application of the Palmgren-Miner cumulative damage rule when the cumulative fatigue
damage ratio is equal to 1.0, the connection detail is assumed to fail. Considering fatigue damage ratios
for the prior service to conversion and post conversion phases, this can be expressed as:
S
PriorConv
/L
P,PriorConv
+ L
R,PostConv
/L
P,PostConv
= 1
therefore
L
R,PostConv
= L
P,PostConv
× (1 – S
PriorConv
/L
P,PriorConv
)
where
L
R,PostConv
= remaining fatigue life for on-site operation, post conversion
L
P,PostConv
= predicted (design) fatigue life for on-site operation, post conversion
S
PriorConv
= service years prior to conversion
L
P,PriorConv
= predicted (design) fatigue life prior to conversion


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 3 Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life) 5A-2-3

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5 Remaining Fatigue Life for Longitudinal Stiffener Connections
(1 July 2009)
For a vessel converted to an FPI, where historical trade routes and intended site have been specified,
fatigue lives of both prior and post conversion phases can be calculated using the ABS Eagle FPSO Initial
Scantling Evaluation (ISE) and SEAS software. The Initial Scantling Evaluation Software is used to
evaluate the fatigue response of longitudinal stiffener connections. The ABS Eagle FPSO SEAS software
calculates the environmental severity factors for fatigue (α factors) for the historical routes and intended
site. When the α factor is greater than 1.0, it describes an increase in fatigue life due to reduced environmental
conditions when compared to the North Atlantic environment (where α equals to 1.0). Once these factors
have been established, the above equation can be modified to take into account environments other than
the North Atlantic environment (unrestricted service) as follows:
L
R,PostConv
= (20/DM
Comb
) × [1 – Σ(S
Route-i

Route-i
)/L
P,Tanker
– Σ(S
His Site-i

His Site i
)/L
P,Site

(S
Transit

Transit
)/L
P,Transit
]
where
L
R,PostConv
= site specific post conversion remaining fatigue life of the unaltered connection
S
Route-i
= number of service years for the i-th historical route
S
His Site-i
= number of service years for the i-th historical site
S
Transit
= number of service years for the transit phase
L
P,Tanker
= predicted fatigue life for the tanker phase based on North Atlantic environment
L
P,Site
= predicted fatigue life for the historical site based on North Atlantic environment
L
P,Transit
= predicted fatigue life for the transit phase based on North Atlantic environment
α
Route-i
= environmental severity factor for the i-th historical route, see 5A-3-A1/5
α
His Site i
= environmental severity factor for the i-th historical site, see 5A-3-A1/5
α
Transit
= environmental severity factor for the transit condition, see 5A-3-A1/5
DM
Comb

= combined fatigue damage post conversion, see 5A-3-A2/19
The expression Σ(S
Route-i

Route-i
) and Σ(S
His Site-i

His Site i
) are the weighted average for the various routes
and historical sites for each longitudinal stiffener connection calculated by the ABS Eagle FPSO ISE and
SEAS software.
The calculation of the remaining fatigue life is used only for the connection details that existed prior to
conversion and were not modified in any way during the conversion. For connection details on new
longitudinal members that are added or details that have been modified during the conversion, the predicted
or design fatigue life calculated for the post conversion site specific environment will be applicable.
7 Remaining Fatigue Life for Connections of Transverses and Girders
(1 July 2009)
Horizontal stringer or girder end connections on transverse bulkheads, bracket toes on side, bottom, deck
and longitudinal bulkhead should be screened for fatigue strength using a finite element based fatigue
assessment. For screening purposes the three tank length finite element model employed in the Total
Strength Assessment (TSA) can be used to estimate the nominal stress in the connections. By applying the
same nominal stress approach used for the fatigue evaluation of longitudinal stiffener connections, fatigue
lives are estimated for transverse member connections. Where details are deemed critical as a result of this
screening process, a more refined fatigue assessment based on the hot spot stress is performed using a fine
mesh finite element analysis of the connection detail. The method used to account for prior service and
remaining fatigue life is the same as described for longitudinal stiffener connections in 5A-2-3/3.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Section 3 Fatigue Consideration (Remaining Fatigue Life) 5A-2-3

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The remaining fatigue life is calculated as:
L
R,PostConv
= (20/DM
Comb
) × [1 – Σ((S
Route-i
/20) × DM
Route-i
) – Σ((S
His Site-i
/20) × DM
His Site-i
) –
(S
Transit
/20) × DM
Transit
]
The expression Σ((S
Route-i
/20) × DM
Route-i
) and Σ((S
His Site-i
/20) × DM
His Site-i
) are the weighted average for the
various routes and historical sites calculated based on weighted beta values from the ABS Eagle FPSO
SEAS software.


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PART Appendix 1: Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1)
5A
CHAPT ER 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions
to FPI
APPENDI X 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members
Applied to Reassessed Scantling Determination
(See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) (December 2008)
1 Application
These requirements apply to plate panels and longitudinals subject to hull girder bending and shear stresses.
3 Elastic Buckling Stresses
3.1 Elastic Buckling of Plates
3.1.1 Compression
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
σ
E
= 0.9mE
2
|
.
|

\
|
s
t
b
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)
For plating with longitudinal stiffeners (parallel to compressive stress):
m =
1.1
8.4
+ Ψ
for (0 ≤ Ψ ≤ 1)
For plating with transverse stiffeners (perpendicular to compressive stress):
m = c
1.1
2.1
1
2
2
+ Ψ
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+

s
for (0 ≤ Ψ ≤ 1)
where
E = 2.06 × 10
5
N/mm
2
(21,000 kgf/mm
2
, 30 × 10
6
psi)
t
b
= renewal thickness of plating, in mm (in.)
s = shorter side of plate panel, in mm (in.)
 = longer side of plate panel, in mm (in.)
c = 1.3 when plating stiffened by floors or deep girders
= 1.21 when stiffeners are angles or T-sections
= 1.10 when stiffeners are bulb flats
= 1.05 when stiffeners are flat bars
Ψ = ratio of smallest to largest compressive stress, σ
a
(see 5A-2-A1/7.1), varying
linearly across panel.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling
Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) 5A-2-A1

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3.1.2 Shear
The ideal elastic buckling stress is given by:
τ
E
= 0.9k
t
E
2
|
.
|

\
|
s
t
b
N/mm
2
( kgf/mm
2
, psi)
where
k
t
= 5.34 + 4
2
|
.
|

\
|

s

E, t
b
, s and  are as defined in 5A-2-A1/3.1.1.
3.3 Elastic Buckling of Longitudinals
3.3.1 Column Buckling without Rotation of the Cross Section (1 July 2009)
For the column buckling mode (perpendicular to plane of plating), the ideal elastic buckling stress
is given by:
σ
E
=
2
1
 A c
EI
a
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)
where
I
a
= moment of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of longitudinal, including plate flange and
calculated with renewal thickness, as specified in 5A-2-A1/3.1.1
A = cross-sectional area, in cm
2
(in
2
), of longitudinal, including plate flange and
calculated with renewal thickness, as specified in 5A-2-A1/3.1.1
 = unsupported span, in m (ft), of longitudinal
c
1
= 1000 (1000, 14.4)
E = as defined in 5A-2-A1/3.1.1
3.3.2 Torsional Buckling Mode (1 July 2009)
The ideal elastic buckling stress for the torsional mode is given by:
σ
E
= |
.
|

\
|
+
2
2
2
1
2
10 m
K
m
I c
EI
p
w

π
+ 0.385E
p
t
I
I
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)
where
K =
w
EI
C
c
4
4
2
π


m = number of half waves given by 5A-2-A1/Table 1
E = as defined in 5A-2-A1/3.1.1
c
2
= 10
6
(10
6
, 20736)
I
t
= St. Venant’s moment of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of profile (without plate flange)
=
3
3
3
w w
t h
c for flat bars (slabs)
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
− +
f
f
f f w w
b
t
t b t h c 0.63 1
3
1
3 3
3
for flanged profiles

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling
Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) 5A-2-A1

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c
3
= 10
-4
(10
-4
, 1.0)
I
p
= polar moment of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of profile about connection of stiffener
to plate
=
3
3
3
w w
t h
c for flat bars (slabs)
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
f f w
w w
t b h
t h
c
2
3
3
3
for flanged profiles
I
w
= warping constant, in cm
6
(in
6
), of profile about connection of stiffener to plate
=
36
3 3
4
w w
t h
c for flat bars (slabs)
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
12
2 3
4
w f f
h b t
c for “Tee” profiles
=
( )
2
2 3
4
12
w f
w f
h b
h b
c
+
[t
f
(
2
f
b + 2b
f
h
w
+ 4
2
w
h ) + 3t
w
b
f
h
w
] for angles and bulb
profiles
c
4
= 10
-6
(10
-6
, 1.0)
h
w
= web height, in mm (in.)
t
w
= web renewal thickness, in mm (in.)
b
f
= flange width, in mm (in.)
t
f
= flange renewal thickness, in mm (in.). For bulb profiles the mean thickness
of the bulb may be used.
 = unsupported span of profile, in m (ft)
s = spacing of profiles, in mm (in.)
C = spring stiffness exerted by supporting plate panel
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
3
3
3
1.33
1 3
w
p w p
p p
st
t h k
s
t E k
N (kgf, lbf)
k
p
= 1 − η
p
, not to be taken less than zero
t
p
= plate renewal thickness, in mm (in.)
η
p
=
Ep
a
σ
σ

σ
a
= calculated compressive stress. For longitudinals, see 5A-2-A1/7.1
σ
Ep
= elastic buckling stress of supporting plate, as calculated in 5A-2-A1/3.1
For flanged profiles, k
p
need not be taken less than 0.1.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling
Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) 5A-2-A1

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3.3.3 Web and Flange Buckling
For web plate of longitudinals the ideal buckling stress is given by:
σ
E
= 3.8CE
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
w
w
h
t
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)
where
C = 1.0 for angle or tee stiffeners
= 0.33 for bulb plates
= 0.11 for flat bars
For flanges on angles and T-sections of longitudinals, the following requirements will apply:
15 ≤
f
f
t
b

where
b
f
= flange width, in mm (in.), for angles, half the flange width for T-sections.
t
f
= flange renewal thickness, in mm (in.)

TABLE 1
Number of Half Waves (December 2008)
0 < K ≤ 4 4 < K ≤ 36 36 < K ≤ 144 144 < K ≤ 400 (m − 1)
2
m
2
< K ≤ m
2
(m + 1)
2

m 1 2 3 4 m

5 Critical Buckling Stresses
5.1 Compression
The critical buckling stress in compression, σ
c
, is determined as follows:
σ
c
= σ
E
when σ
E

2
F
σ

= σ
F

|
|
.
|

\
|

E
F
σ
σ
4
1 when σ
E
>
2
F
σ

where
σ
F
= yield stress of material, in N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi). σ
F
may be taken as 235 N/mm
2

(24 kgf/mm
2
, 34,000 psi) for mild steel.
σ
E
= ideal elastic buckling stress calculated according to 5A-2-A1/3

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling
Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) 5A-2-A1

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5.3 Shear
The critical buckling stress in shear, τ
c
, is determined as follows:
τ
c
= τ
E
when τ
E

2
F
τ

= τ
F

|
|
.
|

\
|

E
F
τ
τ
4
1 when τ
E
>
2
F
τ

where
τ
F
=
3
F
σ

σ
F
= as given in 5A-2-A1/5.1
τ
E
= ideal elastic buckling stress in shear calculated according to 5A-2-A1/3.1.2
7 Working Stress
7.1 Longitudinal Compressive Stress (1 July 2009)
The compressive stresses are given in the following formula:
σ
a
= c
5
y
I
M M
n
sw w VBM
+ β
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)
= minimum 30/Q N/mm
2
(3.1/Q kgf/mm
2
, 4400/Q psi)
where
M
sw
= maximum still water bending moment at installation site, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
M
w
= wave bending moment, as given in 3-2-1/3.7.1(a) of the Steel Vessel Rules, in kN-m
(tf-m, Ltf-ft)
I
n
= moment of inertia of the hull girder based on the reassessed gross scantlings, in cm
4
(in
4
)
y = vertical distance, in m (ft), from the neutral axis to the considered point
Q = as defined in 3-2-1/5.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules (1.0 for ordinary strength steel)
c
5
= 10
5
(10
5
, 322,560)
β
VBM
= ESF for vertical bending moment, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
M
w
and M
sw
are to be taken as sagging or hogging bending moments, respectively, for members above or
below the neutral axis.
7.3 Shear Stresses
7.3.1 Installations without Effective Longitudinal Bulkheads (1 July 2009)
The working shear stress, τ
a
, in the side shell of installations without effective longitudinal bulkheads is
given by the following formula:
τ
a
= c
6

( )
I t
m F F
s
s w VSF sw
2
β +
N/mm
2
(kgf/mm
2
, psi)

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 2 Additional Design Considerations for Conversions to FPI
Appendix 1 Buckling Strength of Longitudinal Members Applied to Reassessed Scantling
Determination (See 5A-2-2/Figure 1) 5A-2-A1

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2009
where
I = moment of inertia of the hull girder section based on the reassessed gross
scantlings, in cm
4
(in
4
), at the section under consideration.
m
s
= first moment, in cm
3
(in
3
), about the neutral axis of the area of the effective
longitudinal material between the horizontal level at which the shear stress is
being determined and the vertical extremity of effective longitudinal
material, taken at the position under consideration.
t
s
= gross thickness of the side shell plating, in cm (in.), at the position under
consideration.
F
sw
= hull girder shearing force in still water, in kN (tf, Ltf)
F
w
= F
wp
or F
wn
, in kN (tf, Ltf), as specified by 3-2-1/3.5.3 of the Steel Vessel
Rules, depending upon loading
c
6
= 10 (10, 2240)
β
VSF
= ESF for vertical shear force, as defined in 5A-3-1/3
7.3.2 Installations with Two or More Effective Longitudinal Bulkheads
The working shear stress, τ
a
, in the side shell or longitudinal bulkhead plating is to be calculated
by an acceptable method and in accordance with 3-2-1/3.9.4 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
9 Scantling Criteria
9.1 Buckling Stress
The design buckling stress, σ
c
, of plate panels and longitudinals (as calculated in 5A-2-A1/5.1) is to be
such that:
σ
c
≥ βσ
a

where
β = 1 for plating and for web plating of stiffeners (local buckling)
= 1.1 for stiffeners
The critical buckling stress, τ
c
, of plate panels (as calculated in 5A-2-A1/5.3) is to be such that:
τ
c
≥ τ
a

where
τ
a
= working shear stress in the plate panel under consideration, in N/mm
2

(kgf/mm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as determined by 5A-2-A1/7.3


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PART Chapter 3: Structural Design Requirements
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
CONTENTS
SECTION 1 General ................................................................................................ 154
1 Design Considerations and General Requirements ....................... 154
1.1 General........................................................................................ 154
1.3 Initial Scantling Requirements ..................................................... 154
1.5 Strength Assessment – Failure Modes ........................................ 154
1.7 Net Scantlings and Nominal Design Corrosion
Values (NDCV) ............................................................................ 154
1.9 Application ................................................................................... 158
1.11 Internal Members ........................................................................ 158
1.13 Breaks ......................................................................................... 160
1.15 Variations .................................................................................... 160
1.17 Loading Guidance ....................................................................... 160
1.19 Pressure-Vacuum Valve Setting .................................................. 160
1.21 Protection of Structure ................................................................. 160
1.23 Aluminum Paint ........................................................................... 160
3 Special Requirements for Deep Loading ........................................ 160
3.1 General........................................................................................ 160
3.3 Machinery Casings ...................................................................... 160
3.5 Access ......................................................................................... 161
3.7 Hatchways ................................................................................... 161
3.9 Freeing Arrangements ................................................................. 161
3.11 Flooding ....................................................................................... 161
3.13 Ventilators ................................................................................... 161
5 Arrangement ................................................................................... 161
5.1 General........................................................................................ 161
5.3 Subdivision .................................................................................. 161
5.5 Cofferdams .................................................................................. 161
5.7 Gastight Bulkheads ..................................................................... 161
5.9 Cathodic Protection ..................................................................... 162
5.11 Ports in Pump Room Bulkheads .................................................. 162
5.13 Location of Cargo Oil Tank Openings ......................................... 162
5.15 Structural Fire Protection ............................................................. 162
5.17 Allocation of Spaces .................................................................... 163
5.19 Access to Upper Parts of Ballast Tanks on Double Hull
Ship-type Installations ................................................................. 163
5.21 Access to All Spaces in the Cargo Area ...................................... 163
5.23 Duct Keels or Pipe Tunnels in Double Bottom ............................. 163
5.25 Ventilation .................................................................................... 163
5.27 Pumping Arrangements ............................................................... 164

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5.29 Electrical Equipment .................................................................... 164
5.31 Testing ......................................................................................... 164
5.33 Machinery Spaces ....................................................................... 164

TABLE 1 Nominal Design Corrosion Values (NDCV) .......................... 156

FIGURE 1 Nominal Design Corrosion Values (NDCV) .......................... 157
FIGURE 2 ..................................................................................................... 159

SECTION 2 Loads ................................................................................................... 165
1 General ........................................................................................... 165
1.1 The Concept and Application of Environmental Severity
Factors ......................................................................................... 165
1.3 Load Components ....................................................................... 165
3 Static Loads .................................................................................... 166
3.1 Still-water Bending Moment ......................................................... 166
5 Wave-induced Loads ...................................................................... 170
5.1 General ........................................................................................ 170
5.2 Vertical Wave Bending Moment and Shear Force ....................... 170
5.3 Horizontal Wave Bending Moment and Shear Force ................... 173
5.5 External Pressures ...................................................................... 174
5.7 Internal Pressures – Inertia Forces and Added Pressure
Heads .......................................................................................... 176
7 Nominal Design Loads .................................................................... 194
7.1 General ........................................................................................ 194
7.3 Hull Girder Loads – Longitudinal Bending Moments and
Shear Forces ............................................................................... 194
7.5 Local Loads for Design of Supporting Structures ........................ 194
7.7 Local Pressures for Design of Plating and Longitudinals ............. 195
9 Combined Load Cases ................................................................... 195
9.1 Combined Load Cases for Structural Analysis ............................ 195
9.3 Combined Load Cases for Failure Assessment ........................... 195
11 Sloshing Loads ............................................................................... 196
11.1 General ........................................................................................ 196
11.3 Strength Assessment of Tank Boundary Structures .................... 196
11.5 Sloshing Pressures ...................................................................... 197
13 Impact Loads .................................................................................. 206
13.1 Impact Loads on Bow .................................................................. 206
13.3 Bottom Slamming ........................................................................ 207
13.5 Bowflare Slamming ...................................................................... 209
13.7 Green Water on Deck .................................................................. 212
15 Deck Loads ..................................................................................... 213
15.1 General ........................................................................................ 213
15.3 Loads for On-Site Operation ........................................................ 214
15.5 Loads in Transit Condition ........................................................... 215


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TABLE 1A Combined Load Cases ......................................................... 186
TABLE 1B Combined Load Cases for Inspection Condition .................. 187
TABLE 1C Combined Load Cases for Repair Condition ........................ 188
TABLE 2 Load Cases for Sloshing ....................................................... 189
TABLE 3 Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Members ........... 190
TABLE 4 Values of α ............................................................................ 208
TABLE 5 Values of A
i
and B
i
................................................................. 209
TABLE 6 Values of A
i
and B
i
................................................................ 211
TABLE 7 Values of A
i
........................................................................... 213
TABLE 8 Correlation Factors c
v
, c
T
, c
L
, C
φ
and C
θ
................................. 214

FIGURE 1A Loading Pattern – Double Hull and Double Side Single
Bottom FPSO/FSO ............................................................... 167
FIGURE 1B Loading Pattern – Single Hull FPSO/FSO ............................ 168
FIGURE 1C Loading Pattern – Repair and Inspection Conditions for
Double Hull and Double Side Single Bottom FPSO/FSO ..... 169
FIGURE 1D Loading Pattern – Repair and Inspection Conditions for
Single Hull FPSO/FSO .......................................................... 170
FIGURE 2 Sign Convention .................................................................... 172
FIGURE 3 Distribution Factor M ............................................................. 172
FIGURE 4 Distribution Factor F
1
............................................................ 173
FIGURE 5 Distribution Factor F
2
............................................................ 173
FIGURE 6 Distribution Factor m
h
............................................................ 181
FIGURE 7 Distribution Factor f
h
.............................................................. 181
FIGURE 8 Distribution of h
di
................................................................... 182
FIGURE 9 Pressure Distribution Function k
o
......................................... 182
FIGURE 10 Illustration of Determining Total External Pressure .............. 183
FIGURE 11 Definition of Tank Geometry ................................................. 184
FIGURE 12 Location of Tank for Nominal Pressure Calculation.............. 185
FIGURE 13 Vertical Distribution of EquivalentSlosh Pressure
Head, h
e
................................................................................. 201
FIGURE 14 Horizontal Distribution of Simultaneous Slosh Pressure
Heads, h
c

s
θ
s
) or h
t

s
θ
s
) .................................................... 202
FIGURE 15 Definitions for Opening Ratio, α ............................................ 203
FIGURE 16 Opening Ratios ..................................................................... 203
FIGURE 17 Dimensions of Internal Structures ......................................... 204
FIGURE 18 Loading Patterns for Sloshing Load Cases .......................... 205
FIGURE 19 Definition of Bow Geometry .................................................. 207
FIGURE 20 Distribution of Bottom Slamming Pressure Along the
Section Girth ......................................................................... 209
FIGURE 21 Definition of Bowflare Geometry for Bowflare Shape
Parameter ............................................................................. 211
FIGURE 22 Ship-Type Installation Stem Angle, γ .................................... 212


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SECTION 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation ................................................................ 216
1 General ........................................................................................... 216
1.1 Strength Requirement .................................................................. 216
1.3 Calculation of Load Effects .......................................................... 216
1.5 Structural Details ......................................................................... 216
1.7 Evaluation of Grouped Stiffeners ................................................. 216
3 Hull Girder Strength ........................................................................ 220
3.1 Hull Girder Section Modulus ........................................................ 220
3.3 Hull Girder Moment of Inertia ....................................................... 220
3.5 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength ....................................................... 220
5 Shearing Strength ........................................................................... 221
5.1 General ........................................................................................ 221
5.3 Net Thickness of Side Shell Plating ............................................. 222
5.5 Thickness of Longitudinal Bulkheads ........................................... 222
5.7 Calculation of Local Loads ........................................................... 224
5.9 Three Dimensional Analysis ........................................................ 225
7 Double Bottom Structures ............................................................... 226
7.1 General ........................................................................................ 226
7.3 Bottom Shell and Inner Bottom Plating ........................................ 227
7.5 Bottom and Inner Bottom Longitudinals ....................................... 230
7.7 Bottom Girders/Floors .................................................................. 231
9 Side Shell and Deck – Plating and Longitudinals ........................... 238
9.1 Side Shell Plating......................................................................... 238
9.3 Deck Plating ................................................................................ 240
9.5 Deck and Side Longitudinals ....................................................... 241
11 Side Shell and Deck – Main Supporting Members ......................... 243
11.1 General ........................................................................................ 243
11.3 Deck Transverses and Deck Girders – Loading Pattern 1 ........... 243
11.5 Deck Transverses and Deck Girders – Loading Pattern 2 ........... 247
11.7 Web Sectional Area of Side Transverses .................................... 254
11.9 Minimum Thickness for Web Portion of Main Supporting
Members ...................................................................................... 254
11.11 Proportions .................................................................................. 255
11.13 Brackets ....................................................................................... 256
11.15 Web Stiffeners and Tripping Brackets ......................................... 256
11.17 Slots and Lightening Holes .......................................................... 257
13 Longitudinal and Transverse Bulkheads ......................................... 258
13.1 Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating ..................................................... 258
13.3 Transverse Bulkhead Plating ....................................................... 260
13.5 Longitudinals and Vertical/Horizontal Stiffeners .......................... 261
15 Bulkheads – Main Supporting Members ......................................... 262
15.1 General ........................................................................................ 262
15.3 Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead ....................................... 262
15.5 Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead .................................. 265
15.7 Vertical Web on Transverse Bulkhead ......................................... 266
15.9 Minimum Web Thickness, Proportions, Brackets, Stiffeners,
Tripping Brackets, Slots and Lightening Holes ............................ 268
15.11 Cross Ties ................................................................................... 268
15.13 Nontight Bulkheads ...................................................................... 268

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17 Corrugated Bulkheads .................................................................... 269
17.1 General........................................................................................ 269
17.3 Plating ......................................................................................... 269
17.5 Stiffness of Corrugation ............................................................... 270
17.7 Bulkhead Stools .......................................................................... 273
17.9 End Connections ......................................................................... 273

TABLE 1 Coefficient c
2
For Deck Transverses ..................................... 257
TABLE 2 Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Side Transverses ........................ 258
TABLE 3 Coefficient c for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkheads .... 264
TABLE 4 Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Vertical Web on Longitudinal
Bulkhead ............................................................................... 264

FIGURE 1 Scantling Requirement Reference by Subsection ................ 217
FIGURE 2A Definitions of Spans (A) ........................................................ 218
FIGURE 2B Definitions of Spans (B) ........................................................ 219
FIGURE 3 Center Tank Region .............................................................. 226
FIGURE 4 ..................................................................................................... 227
FIGURE 5 Unsupported Span of Longitudinal ....................................... 235
FIGURE 6 Effective Breadth of Plating b
e
............................................... 236
FIGURE 7 Definitions of α
3
, 
s
and b
s
...................................................... 237
FIGURE 8 Deck Transverse – Definition of Parameters ........................ 253
FIGURE 9 Effectiveness of Brackets ...................................................... 257
FIGURE 10 Definition of Parameters for Corrugated Bulkhead
(Ship-type Installations without Longitudinal
Bulkhead at Centerline) ........................................................ 274
FIGURE 11 Definition of Parameters for Corrugated Bulkhead
(Ship-type Installations with Longitudinal
Bulkhead at Centerline) ........................................................ 275
FIGURE 12 Corrugated Bulkhead End Connections ............................... 276

SECTION 4 Total Strength Assessment ............................................................... 277
1 General Requirements .................................................................... 277
1.1 General........................................................................................ 277
1.3 Loads and Load Cases ............................................................... 277
1.5 Stress Components ..................................................................... 277
3 Failure Criteria – Yielding ................................................................ 278
3.1 General........................................................................................ 278
3.3 Structural Members and Elements .............................................. 278
3.5 Plating ......................................................................................... 279
5 Failure Criteria – Buckling and Ultimate Strength ........................... 279
5.1 General........................................................................................ 279
5.3 Plate Panels ................................................................................ 280
5.5 Longitudinals and Stiffeners ........................................................ 282
5.7 Stiffened Panels .......................................................................... 283
5.9 Deep Girders and Webs .............................................................. 283
5.11 Corrugated Bulkheads ................................................................. 284

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7 Calculation of Critical Buckling Stresses ........................................ 285
7.1 General ........................................................................................ 285
7.3 Rectangular Plates ...................................................................... 285
7.5 Longitudinals and Stiffeners ........................................................ 288
7.7 Stiffened Panels........................................................................... 290
7.9 Stiffness and Proportions ............................................................. 293
9 Fatigue Life ..................................................................................... 294
9.1 General ........................................................................................ 294
9.3 Procedures .................................................................................. 295
9.5 Spectral Analysis ......................................................................... 295
11 Calculation of Structural Responses ............................................... 296
11.1 Methods of Approach and Analysis Procedures .......................... 296
11.3 3D Finite Element Models ............................................................ 296
11.5 Local Structural Models ............................................................... 296
11.7 Load Cases ................................................................................. 296
13 Critical Areas ................................................................................... 297
13.1 General ........................................................................................ 297
13.3 Strength Evaluation ..................................................................... 297
13.5 Fatigue Evaluation ....................................................................... 297

TABLE 1 Buckling Coefficient, K
i
......................................................... 286
TABLE 2 Allowable Stresses for Various Finite Element Fine Mesh
Sizes ..................................................................................... 297

FIGURE 1 Net Dimensions and Properties of Stiffeners ........................ 290
FIGURE 2 ..................................................................................................... 292
FIGURE 3 Critical Areas in Transverse Web Frame .............................. 298
FIGURE 4 Critical Areas in Horizontal Girder on Transverse
Bulkhead ............................................................................... 299
FIGURE 5 Critical Areas of Buttress Structure ....................................... 300

SECTION 5 Hull Structure Beyond 0.4L Amidships ............................................ 301
1 General Requirements .................................................................... 301
1.1 General ........................................................................................ 301
1.3 Structures within the Cargo Space Length .................................. 301
3 Forebody Side Shell Structure ........................................................ 301
3.1 Side Shell Plating......................................................................... 301
3.3 Side Frames and Longitudinals ................................................... 303
3.5 Side Transverses and Stringers in Forebody ............................... 304
5 Transition Zone ............................................................................... 311
7 Forebody Strengthening for Slamming ........................................... 311
7.1 Bottom Slamming ........................................................................ 311
7.3 Bowflare Slamming ...................................................................... 313
9 Forebody Deck Structures .............................................................. 314
9.1 Deck Plating ................................................................................ 314
9.3 Deck Longitudinals ...................................................................... 314
9.5 Deck Transverse and Deck Girders ............................................. 315

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FIGURE 1 Transverse Distribution of p
d
................................................. 304
FIGURE 2 Definition of Spans ................................................................ 306

SECTION 6 Application to Single Hull Ship-Type Installations .......................... 316
1 General ........................................................................................... 316
1.1 Nominal Design Corrosion Values ............................................... 316
1.3 Load Criteria ................................................................................ 316
1.5 Strength Criteria .......................................................................... 316
3 Main Supporting Structures ............................................................ 317
3.1 Bottom Transverses .................................................................... 317
3.3 Bottom Girders ............................................................................ 318
3.5 Side Transverses ........................................................................ 321
3.7 Deck Transverses – Loading Pattern 1 ....................................... 322
3.8 Deck Transverses – Loading Pattern 2 ....................................... 325
3.9 Longitudinal Bulkhead Vertical Webs .......................................... 328
3.10 Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead .................................. 330
3.11 Other Main Supporting Members ................................................ 332
3.13 Proportions .................................................................................. 332
5 Strength Assessment ...................................................................... 332
5.1 General........................................................................................ 332
5.3 Special Considerations ................................................................ 332

TABLE 1 Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Structures.......... 319
TABLE 2 Coefficient c for Side Transverse .......................................... 321
TABLE 3 Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Side Transverses ........................ 322
TABLE 4 Coefficient c
2
For Deck Transverse ....................................... 324
TABLE 5 Coefficient c for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead ...... 329
TABLE 6 Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Vertical Web on Longitudinal
Bulkhead ............................................................................... 330

FIGURE 1 Spans of Transverses and Girders ....................................... 320

APPENDIX 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors .......................... 333
1 General ........................................................................................... 333
3 ESFs of the Beta (β) Type .............................................................. 333
5 ESFs of the Alpha (α) Type ............................................................ 335

TABLE 1 The 13 Dynamic Load Parameters or ESFs (β
NN
) ................ 334

APPENDIX 2 Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type
Installations ........................................................................................ 337
1 General ........................................................................................... 337
1.1 Note ............................................................................................. 337
1.3 Applicability ................................................................................. 337
1.5 Loadings ...................................................................................... 337
1.7 Effects of Corrosion ..................................................................... 337
1.9 Format of the Criteria .................................................................. 337

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3 Connections to be Considered for the Fatigue Strength
Assessment..................................................................................... 338
3.1 General ........................................................................................ 338
3.3 Guidance on Locations ................................................................ 338
5 Fatigue Strength Assessment ......................................................... 344
5.1 Assumptions ................................................................................ 344
5.3 Criteria ......................................................................................... 344
5.5 Long Term Stress Distribution Parameter, γ ................................ 344
5.7 Cumulative Fatigue Damage ....................................................... 345
7 Fatigue Inducing Loads and Determination of Total Stress
Ranges ............................................................................................ 349
7.1 General ........................................................................................ 349
7.3 Wave-induced Loads – Load Components .................................. 349
7.5 Fatigue Assessment – Loading Conditions .................................. 349
7.7 Primary Stress f
d1
......................................................................... 356
7.9 Secondary Stress f
d2
.................................................................... 356
7.11 Additional Secondary Stresses f*
d2
and Tertiary Stresses f
d3
...... 356
9 Resulting Stress Ranges ................................................................ 359
9.1 Definitions .................................................................................... 359
11 Determination of Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs) ................. 360
11.1 General ........................................................................................ 360
11.3 Sample Stress Concentration Factors (SCFs) ............................. 360
13 Stress Concentration Factors Determined From Finite Element
Analysis ........................................................................................... 367
13.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 367
13.3 S-N Data ...................................................................................... 367
13.5 S-N Data and SCFs ..................................................................... 367
13.7 Calculation of Hot Spot Stress for Fatigue Analysis ..................... 369
15 Fatigue Assessment of Structures Considering Low Cycle
Fatigue ............................................................................................ 370
15.1 Introduction .................................................................................. 370
15.3 Applicability .................................................................................. 370
15.5 Loads ........................................................................................... 370
15.7 Selection of Loading Conditions for Low Cycle Fatigue ............... 371
15.9 Acceptance Criteria ..................................................................... 371
15.11 Fatigue Assessment Methods ..................................................... 371
17 Low Cycle Fatigue Damage ............................................................ 372
17.1 Low Cycle Fatigue Load .............................................................. 372
17.3 Loading Conditions ...................................................................... 372
17.5 Stress Range Calculation ............................................................ 372
19 Combined Fatigue Damage ............................................................ 376
21 Fatigue Strength Assessment for Service as a Trading Vessel ..... 376
21.1 Cumulative Fatigue Damage for Trading Vessels ....................... 376
21.3 Fatigue Assessment Zones and Controlling Load
Combination for Vessels .............................................................. 377
21.5 Definitions for Resulting Stress Ranges for Trading Vessels ....... 378


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TABLE 1 Fatigue Classification for Structural Details .......................... 339
TABLE 2A Design Fatigue Load Cases for Fatigue Strength
Assessment (Load Combination Factors for Dynamic
Load Components for Loading Condition 1) ......................... 352
TABLE 2B Design Fatigue Load Cases for Fatigue Strength
Assessment (Load Combination Factors for Dynamic
Load Components for Loading Condition 2) ......................... 353
TABLE 2C Design Fatigue Load Cases for Fatigue Strength
Assessment (Load Combination Factors for Dynamic
Load Components for Loading Condition 3) ......................... 354
TABLE 2D Design Fatigue Load Cases for Fatigue Strength
Assessment (Load Combination Factors for Dynamic
Load Components for Loading Condition 4) ......................... 355
TABLE 3 K
s
(SCF) Values .................................................................... 360

FIGURE 1 Basic Design S-N Curves ..................................................... 347
FIGURE 2A Loading Conditions for Fatigue Strength Assessment –
Double Hull and Double Side Single Bottom FPSO/FSO ..... 350
FIGURE 2B Loading Conditions for Fatigue Strength Assessment –
Single Hull FPSO/FSO .......................................................... 351
FIGURE 3 C
n
= C
n
(ψ) ............................................................................. 358
FIGURE 4 Cut-outs (Slots) For Longitudinal .......................................... 362
FIGURE 5 Fatigue Classification for Longitudinals in way of Flat Bar
Stiffener ................................................................................. 364
FIGURE 6 ..................................................................................................... 364
FIGURE 7 ..................................................................................................... 365
FIGURE 8 ..................................................................................................... 365
FIGURE 9 ..................................................................................................... 366
FIGURE 10 Doublers and Non-load Carrying Members on Deck or
Shell Plating .......................................................................... 366
FIGURE 11 ................................................................................................... 369
FIGURE 12 ................................................................................................... 369
FIGURE 13 ................................................................................................... 370
FIGURE 14 Sample Functions of S
W
and S
B
............................................. 373
FIGURE 15 A Single Loading/Offloading Cycle ....................................... 373
FIGURE 16 k
e
as a Function of S
E
............................................................. 374
FIGURE 17 Low Cycle Fatigue Design Curve.......................................... 375

APPENDIX 3 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength ............................................................ 380
1 Plate Element .................................................................................. 381
1.1 Yielding in Tension ...................................................................... 381
1.3 Buckling in Compression ............................................................. 381
3 Stiffener Element ............................................................................ 383
3.1 Yielding in Tension ...................................................................... 384
3.3 Beam-Column Buckling ............................................................... 384
3.5 Torsional-Flexural Buckling ......................................................... 385
3.7 Local Buckling of Stiffeners ......................................................... 386
5 Corner Element ............................................................................... 387

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FIGURE 1 Flow Chart for the Evaluation of the Bending Moment-
Curvature Curve, M-χ ............................................................ 382
FIGURE 2 Load-End Shortening Curve for Plate Element ..................... 383
FIGURE 3 Load-End Shortening Curve for Beam-Column Buckling ..... 384
FIGURE 4 Load-End Shortening Curve for Torsional-Flexural
Buckling ................................................................................. 385
FIGURE 5 Load-End Shortening Curve for Local Buckling .................... 386
FIGURE 6 Load-End Shortening Curve for a Corner Element ............... 387

APPENDIX 4 Guide for Finite Element Analysis for Ship-Type Installations ...... 388
1 Objective ......................................................................................... 388
3 Scope of Application ....................................................................... 388
5 Extent of the 3-D Global Finite Element Model ............................... 388
7 Coordinate System of the Model .................................................... 389
9 Element Types ................................................................................ 389
9.1 Plate Elements ............................................................................ 390
9.3 Bar (or Beam) Elements for Stiffeners ......................................... 392
9.5 Rod (or Truss) Elements for Stiffeners ........................................ 393
9.7 Rod Elements for Face Plates of Primary Supporting
Members ...................................................................................... 393
11 General Guidance for 3-D Global FE Modeling .............................. 393
13 Loading Conditions ......................................................................... 393
13.1 Combined Load Cases and Loading Pattern ............................... 393
13.3 Sloshing Load Cases ................................................................... 393
13.5 Target Hull Girder Vertical Bending Moment and Vertical
Shear Force ................................................................................. 394
13.7 Target Hull Girder Horizontal Wave Bending Moment ................. 394
15 Procedure to Adjust Hull Girder Shear Force and Bending
Moment ........................................................................................... 395
15.1 General ........................................................................................ 395
15.3 Shear Force and Bending Moment due to Local Loads ............... 395
15.5 Procedure to Adjust Vertical Shear Force Distribution to
Target Values .............................................................................. 395
15.7 Procedure to Adjust Vertical and Horizontal Bending
Moments to Target Values ........................................................... 401
17 Boundary Conditions ....................................................................... 403
17.1 General ........................................................................................ 403
17.3 Calculation of Spring Stiffness ..................................................... 404
19 Validation of 3-D Global Response ................................................. 406
19.1 Correlation with Beam Theory ..................................................... 406
19.3 Additional Remarks ...................................................................... 406
21 Detailed Stress Assessment – Local FEA ...................................... 406
21.1 General ........................................................................................ 406
21.3 Analysis Model ............................................................................ 406
21.5 Analysis Criteria ........................................................................... 407
23 Fatigue Assessment – Fatigue FEA ............................................... 407
23.1 General ........................................................................................ 407


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TABLE 1 Shear Force Distribution Factors .......................................... 401
TABLE 2 Boundary Constraints at Model Ends ................................... 404
TABLE 3 Shear Areas to be Considered for the Calculation of
Spring Stiffness ..................................................................... 405
TABLE 4 Typical Details to be Refined ................................................ 406

FIGURE 1 Extent of 3-D Global Finite Element Model ........................... 389
FIGURE 2 Typical Finite Element Mesh on Web Frame ........................ 391
FIGURE 3 Typical Finite Element Mesh on Transverse Bulkhead ........ 391
FIGURE 4 Typical Finite Element Mesh on Horizontal Transverse
Stringer on Transverse Bulkhead ......................................... 392
FIGURE 5 Typical Finite Element Mesh on Transverse Web Frame
Main Bracket ......................................................................... 392
FIGURE 6 Position of Target Shear Force and Required Shear Force
Adjustment at Transverse Bulkhead Positions ..................... 398
FIGURE 7 Distribution of Adjusting Vertical Force at Frames and
Resulting Shear Force Distributions ..................................... 399
FIGURE 8 Distribution of Adjusting Load on a Transverse Section ....... 400
FIGURE 9 Spring Constriants at Model Ends ........................................ 403

APPENDIX 5 Offshore Hull Construction Monitoring Program ............................ 408
1 Introduction ..................................................................................... 408
3 Application ...................................................................................... 408
5 Critical Area .................................................................................... 408
7 Determination of Critical Areas ....................................................... 409
9 Construction Monitoring Plan .......................................................... 409
11 Surveys After Construction ............................................................. 409
13 Notation ........................................................................................... 409


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PART S e c t i o n 1 : G e n e r a l
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 1 General
1 Design Considerations and General Requirements
1.1 General (December 2008)
The strength requirements specified in this Chapter are based on a “net” ship approach. In determining the
required scantlings and performing structural analyses and strength assessments, the nominal design
corrosion values given in 5A-3-1/Table 1 are to be deducted.
1.3 Initial Scantling Requirements (December 2008)
The initial requirements for plating, the section modulus of longitudinals/stiffeners, and the scantlings of
the main supporting structures are to be determined in accordance with Section 5A-3-3 for the “net” ship.
These “net” ship values are to be used for further assessment as required in the following paragraph. The
relevant nominal design corrosion values are then added to obtain the full scantling requirements.
1.5 Strength Assessment – Failure Modes (December 2008)
A total assessment of the structures, determined on the basis of the initial strength criteria in Section 5A-3-3
is to be carried out against the following three failure modes.
1.5.1 Material Yielding
The calculated stress intensities are not to be greater than the yielding limit state given in 5A-3-4/3.1
for all load cases specified in 5A-3-2/9.
1.5.2 Buckling and Ultimate Strength
For each individual member, plate or stiffened panel, the buckling and ultimate strength is to be in
compliance with the requirements specified in 5A-3-4/5. In addition, the hull girder ultimate
strength is to be in accordance with 5A-3-3/3.5 and Appendix 5A-3-A3.
1.5.3 Fatigue
The fatigue strength of structural details and welded joints in highly stressed regions is to be
analyzed in accordance with 5A-3-4/9.
1.7 Net Scantlings and Nominal Design Corrosion Values (NDCV) (1 July 2012)
1.7.1 General
The “net” thickness or scantlings correspond to the minimum strength in Part 5A, Chapter 3 regardless
of the design service life of the installation. In addition to the coating protection specified in the
Rules for all ballast tanks, minimum corrosion values for plating and structural members as given in
5A-3-1/Table 1 and 5A-3-1/Figure 1 are to be added to the net scantlings. These minimum corrosion
values are intended for a design service life of 20 years. Where the design life is greater than 20
years, the minimum corrosion values of the hull structure are to be increased in accordance with
5A-3-1/1.7.2. These minimum values are introduced solely for the purpose of scantling requirements
and strength criteria as indicated in 5A-3-1/1.1, and are not to be interpreted as renewal standards.


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In view of the anticipated higher corrosion rates for structural members in some regions, such as
highly stressed areas, additional design margins should be considered for the primary and critical
structural members to minimize repairs and maintenance costs. The beneficial effects of these
design margins on reduction of stresses and increase of the effective hull girder section modulus
can be appropriately accounted for in the design evaluation.
1.7.2 Nominal Design Corrosion Values for Design Life Greater than 20 Years
When the structural design life is greater than 20 years, the nominal design corrosion values (NDCV)
of the hull structure are to be increased from those in 5A-3-1/Table 1 as follows:
1.7.2(a) For plating and structural members with 2.0 mm (0.08 in.) NDCV for 20-years design
life, additional 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) per year for design life greater than 20-years. For example, 2.5 mm
(0.1 in.) NDCV for 25-year design life.
1.7.2(b) For plating and structural members with 1.5 mm (0.06 in.) NDCV for 20-years design
life, additional 0.075 mm (0.003 in.) per year for design life greater than 20-years. For example,
1.875 mm (0.075 in.) NDCV for 25-year design life.
1.7.2(c) For plating and structural members with 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) NDCV for 20-years design
life, additional 0.05 mm (0.002 in) per year for design life greater than 20-years. For example,
1.25 mm (0.05 in.) NDCV for 25-year design life.
1.7.2(d) For void spaces, no change in NDCV as it is considered independent of design life.
The NDCV values are to be considered minimum nominal design corrosion values. Actual corrosion
could be more or less than the NDCV values. The designer or owner may specify additional design
corrosion margins based on maintenance plans.
Note: Local allowable wastage allowance of plates and stiffeners for floating installations designed for uninterrupted
operation on-site without any drydocking and having a design life longer than 20 years is described in
7-2-6/3.1.10.
The rounding of the calculated thickness is to be the nearest half millimeter. For example:
• For 10.75 ≤ t
calc

< 11.25 mm, the required thickness is 11 mm
• For 11.25 ≤ t
calc
< 11.75 mm, the required thickness is 11.5 mm
When the difference between the required net thickness and the offered net thickness is less than
0.25 mm, the offered net thickness is acceptable if the rounded required gross thickness is smaller
or equal to the offered gross thickness.
For US customary unit system, a similar exercise is to be carried out as described in the above for
the Metric unit system.


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Section 1 General 5A-3-1

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TABLE 1
Nominal Design Corrosion Values (NDCV) (1 July 2012)
Nominal Design Corrosion Values
in mm (in.)
Structural Element/Location Cargo Tank
Ballast Tank
Effectively Coated Void Space
Deck Plating 1.0 (0.04) 2.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.04)
Side Shell Plating NA 1.5 (0.06) 1.0 (0.04)
Bottom Plating NA 1.0 (0.04) 1.0 (0.04)
Inner Bottom Plating 1.5 (0.06) 1.0 (0.04)
Longitudinal Bulkhead
Plating
Between cargo tanks 1.0 (0.04) N.A. 1.0 (0.04)
Other Plating 1.5 (0.06) 1.0 (0.04)
Transverse Bulkhead
Plating
Between cargo tanks 1.0 (0.04) N.A. 1.0 (0.04)
Other Plating 1.5 (0.06) 1.0 (0.04)
Transverse & Longitudinal Deck Supporting Members 1.5 (0.06) 2.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.04)
Double Bottom Tanks Internals ( Floors and Girders) N.A. 2.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.04)
(5)

Double Bottom Tanks Internals (Stiffeners) N.A. 2.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.06)
Vertical Stiffeners and Supporting Members Elsewhere 1.0 (0.04) 1.0 (0.04) 1.0 (0.04)
Non-vertical Longitudinals/Stiffeners and Supporting
Members Elsewhere
1.5 (0.06) 2.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.04)
Notes:
1 It is recognized that corrosion depends on many factors including coating properties, cargo composition,
inert gas properties and temperature of carriage, and that actual wastage rates observed may be appreciably
different from those given here.
2 Pitting and grooving are regarded as localized phenomena and are not covered in this table.
3 For nominal design corrosion values for single hull ship-type installations, see Section 5A-3-6.
4 (1 July 2012) Side stringer plating in Void Space: Watertight adjacent to ballast tank 1.5 mm (0,06),
Non-Tight: 1.0 mm (0.04).
5 (1 July 2012) Watertight bottom girder adjacent to ballast tank: 1.5 mm (0.06).


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FIGURE 1
Nominal Design Corrosion Values (NDCV) (December 2008)
W
EB & FLANGE
2.0mm
2.0mm
1.0mm
W
EB
1.5m
m
FL
A
N
G
E
1.5m
m
W
E
B
1
.5
m
m
F
L
A
N
G
E
1
.5
m
m
W
EB
1.0m
m F
L
A
N
G
E
1.0m
m
W
E
B
1.5m
m
F
L
A
N
G
E
1.0m
m
W
E
B
1.0m
m
F
L
A
N
G
E
1.0m
m
1
.0
m
m
1
.5
m
m
1
.5
m
m
1.5m
m
W
E
B
1.5m
m
FL
A
N
G
E
1.5m
m
2.0m
m
1.0m
m
2
.0
m
m
1.5m
m
1
.0
m
m
1
.5
m
m
1
.0
m
m
2
.0
m
m
2
.0
m
m
2.0mm
1.0mm
FLANGE
W
E
B
2
.0
m
m
F
L
A
N
G
E
2
.0
m
m
1
.
5
m

B
E
L
O
W

T
A
N
K

T
O
P
S
P
L
A
S
H

Z
O
N
E
WEB



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1.9 Application (1 July 2012)
1.9.1 Installation Size and Proportion (1997)
The requirements contained in this Chapter are applicable to double hull ship-type installations
intended for unrestricted service, having lengths of 150 meters (492 feet) or more, and having
parameters within the range as specified in 3-2-1/1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
1.9.2 Installation Types (December 2008)
The equations and formulae for determining design load and strength requirements, as specified in
Sections 5A-3-2 and 5A-3-3, are applicable to double hull ship-type installations. For single hull
ship-type installations, the parameters used in the equations are to be adjusted according to the
structural configurations and loading patterns outlined in Section 5A-3-6. The strength assessment
procedures and the failure criteria, as specified in Section 5A-3-4, are applicable to all ship-type
installations.
Double hull ship-type installation is a monohull having full depth wing water ballast tanks or
other non-cargo spaces, and full breadth double bottom water ballast tanks or other non-cargo
spaces throughout the cargo area, intended to prevent or at least reduce the liquid cargo outflow in
an accidental grounding or collision. The size and capacity of these wing/double bottom tanks or
spaces are to comply with MARPOL 73/78 and national Regulations, as applicable.
A Double side, single bottom ship-type installation is a monohull having full depth wing water
ballast tanks or other non-cargo spaces and single bottom structure.
A Single hull ship-type installation is a monohull that does not have double side and double
bottom spaces fitting the above definitions of Double hull ship-type installation.
1.9.3 Direct Calculations (1 September 2007)
Direct calculations with respect to the determination of design loads and the establishment of
alternative strength criteria based on first principles will be accepted for consideration, provided
that all the supporting data, analysis procedures and calculated results are fully documented and
submitted for review. In this regard, due consideration is to be given to the environmental
conditions, probability of occurrence, uncertainties in load and response predictions and reliability
of the structure in service.
1.11 Internal Members (2002)
1.11.1 Section Properties of Structural Members (December 2008)
The geometric properties of structural members may be calculated directly from the dimensions of
the section and the associated effective plating (see 3-1-2/13.3 and 3-1-2/13.5 of the Steel Vessel
Rules or 5A-3-3/Figure 6 of this Guide, as applicable). For structural member with angle θ (see
5A-3-1/Figure 2) between web and associated plating not less than 75 degrees, the section
modulus, web sectional area and moment of inertia of the “standard” (θ = 90 degrees) section may
be used without modification. Where the angle θ is less than 75 degrees, the sectional properties
are to be directly calculated about an axis parallel to the associated plating (see 5A-3-1/Figure 2).
For longitudinals, frames and stiffeners, the section modulus may be obtained by the following
equation:
SM = α
θ
SM
90
where
α
θ
= 1.45 − 40.5/θ
SM
90
= the section modulus at θ = 90 degrees
The effective web section area may be obtained by the following equation:
A = A
90
sin θ
where
A
90
= effective shear area at θ = 90 degrees

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The effective moment of inertia may be obtained by the following equation:
I = α
θ
I
90

where
α
θ
= 1.45 − 40.5/θ
I
90
= effective moment of inertia at θ = 90 degrees
In the above equation, θ is in degrees.

FIGURE 2
θ= 90°
d
w
St andard
θ
d
w


1.11.2 Detailed Design
The detailed design of internals is to follow the guidance given in 3-1-2/15 of the Steel Vessel
Rules and 5A-3-3/1.5 of this Guide.
See also Appendix 5A-3-A2 “Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type Installations”.

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1.13 Breaks
Special care is to be taken to provide against local stresses at the ends of the cargo oil spaces,
superstructures, etc., and throughout the structure in general. The main longitudinal bulkheads are to be
suitably tapered at their ends, and effective longitudinal bulkheads in the poop are to be located such as to
provide effective continuity between the structure in way of and beyond the main cargo spaces. Where the
break of a superstructure lies within the midship 0.5L, the required shell and deck scantlings for the
midship 0.4L may be required to be extended to introduce a gradual taper of the structure, and the deck
stringer plate and sheer strake are to be increased. See 5A-3-3/9.1 and 5A-3-3/9.3. Where the breaks of the
forecastle or poop are appreciably beyond the midship 0.5L, the requirements for the deck stringer plate
and sheer strake, as specified in 5A-3-3/9.1 and 5A-3-3/9.3, may be modified.
1.15 Variations
Ship-type installations of a special type or design, differing from those described in this Guide, will be
specially considered on the basis of equivalent strength.
1.17 Loading Guidance (1997)
Loading guidance is to be as required by 3-2-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules, except that 5A-3-3/5 of this
Guide will apply for allowable shear stresses.
1.19 Pressure-Vacuum Valve Setting (1993)
Where pressure-vacuum valves of cargo oil tanks are set at a pressure in excess of the pressure appropriate
to the length of the installation [see 5C-1-7/11.11.2 of the Steel Vessel Rules], the tank scantlings will be
specially considered.
Particular attention is to be given to a higher pressure setting of pressure-vacuum valves as may be required
for the efficient operation of cargo vapor emission control systems, where installed.
1.21 Protection of Structure
For the protection of structure, see 3-2-18/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
1.23 Aluminum Paint
Paint containing aluminum is not to be used in cargo tanks, on tank decks in way of cargo tanks, and in
pump rooms and cofferdams, nor in any other area where cargo vapor may accumulate, unless it has been
shown by appropriate tests that the paint to be used does not increase the fire hazard.
3 Special Requirements for Deep Loading
3.1 General (2003)
Where an installation is intended to operate at the minimum freeboard allowed by the International
Convention on Load Lines, 1966 for Type-A vessels, the conditions in 5A-3-1/3.3 through 5A-3-1/3.11 are
to be complied with.
3.3 Machinery Casings
Machinery casings are normally to be protected by an enclosed poop or bridge, or by a deckhouse of
equivalent strength. The height of such structure is to be not less than 2.3 m (7.5 ft). The bulkheads at the
forward ends of these structures are to have scantlings not less than required for bridge-front bulkheads
(See 3-2-11/3 of the Steel Vessel Rules). Machinery casings may be exposed, provided that they are
specially stiffened and there are no openings giving direct access from the freeboard deck to the machinery
space. A door complying with the requirements of 3-2-11/5.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules may, however, be
permitted in the exposed machinery casing, provided that it leads to a space or passageway which is as
strongly constructed as the casing and is separated from the engine room by a second door complying with
3-2-11/5.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules. The sill of the exterior door is not to be less than 600 mm (23.5 in.),
and the sill of the second door is not to be less than 230 mm (9 in.).

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3.5 Access (1998)
Satisfactory arrangements are to be provided to safeguard the crew in reaching all areas used in the
necessary work of the installation. See 3-2-17/3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
3.7 Hatchways
Exposed hatchways on the freeboard and forecastle decks or on the tops of expansion trunks are to be
provided with efficient steel watertight covers. The use of material other than steel will be subject to special
consideration.
3.9 Freeing Arrangements
Ship-type installations with bulwarks are to have open rails fitted for at least half the length of the exposed
parts of the freeboard and superstructure decks, or other effective freeing arrangements are to be provided.
The upper edge of the sheer strake is to be kept as low as practicable. Where superstructures are connected
by trunks, open rails are to be fitted for the entire length of the exposed parts of the freeboard deck.
3.11 Flooding (2003)
Attention is called to the requirement of the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966, that ship-type
installations over 150 m (492 ft) in freeboard length (see 3-1-1/3.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules), to which
freeboards less than those based solely on Table B are assigned, must be able to withstand the flooding of
certain compartments.
3.13 Ventilators (2003)
Ventilators to spaces below the freeboard deck are to be specially stiffened or protected by superstructures
or other efficient means. See also 3-2-17/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
5 Arrangement (1994)
5.1 General
The arrangements of the installation are to comply with the requirements in Annex 1 to the International
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships with regard to segregated ballast tanks (Regulation 13),
their protective locations (Regulation 13E – where the option in Regulation 13F (4) or (5) is exercised),
collision or stranding considerations (Regulation 13F), hypothetical outflow of oil (Regulation 23), limitations
of size and arrangement of cargo tanks (Regulation 24) and slop tanks [Regulation 15 (2) (c)]. A valid
International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate issued by the flag administration may be accepted as
evidence of compliance with these requirements.
5.3 Subdivision
The length of tanks, the location of expansion trunks and the position of longitudinal bulkheads are to be
arranged to avoid excessive dynamic stresses in the hull structure.
5.5 Cofferdams
Cofferdams, thoroughly oil tight and vented, and having widths as required for ready access, are to be
provided in order to separate all cargo tanks from galleys and living quarters, general cargo spaces which
are below the uppermost continuous deck, boiler rooms and spaces containing propulsion machinery or
other machinery where sources of ignition are normally present. Pump rooms, compartments arranged
solely for ballast and fuel oil tanks may be considered as cofferdams for the purpose of this requirement.
5.7 Gastight Bulkheads
Gastight bulkheads are to be provided in order to isolate all cargo pumps and piping from spaces
containing stoves, boilers, propelling machinery, electric apparatus or machinery where sources of ignition
are normally present. These bulkheads are to comply with the requirements of Section 3-2-9 of the Steel
Vessel Rules.

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5.9 Cathodic Protection (1996)
5.9.1 Anode Installation Plan
Where sacrificial anodes are fitted in cargo or adjacent ballast tanks, their material, their disposition
and details of their attachment are to be submitted for approval.
5.9.2 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloy Anodes
Magnesium and magnesium alloy anodes are not to be used.
5.9.3 Aluminum Anodes
Aluminum anodes may be used in the cargo tanks of ship-type installations, but only in locations
where the potential energy does not exceed 275 N-m (28 kgf-m, 200 ft-lb). The height of the
anode is to be measured from the bottom of the tank to the center of the anode, and the weight is
to be taken as the weight of the anode as fitted, including the fitting devices and inserts.
Where aluminum anodes are located on horizontal surfaces, such as bulkhead girders and stringers,
which are not less than 1 m (39 in.) wide and fitted with an upstanding flange or face flat projecting
not less than 75 mm (3 in.) above the horizontal surface, the height of the anode may be measured
from this surface.
Aluminum anodes are not to be located under tank hatches or Butterworth openings unless
protected from falling metal objects by adjacent tank structure.
5.9.4 Anode Attachment
Anodes are to have steel cores sufficiently rigid to avoid resonance in the anode support, and the
cores are to be designed to retain the anode even when it is wasted.
The steel cores are to be attached to the structure by means of continuous welds at least 75 mm
(3 in.) in length. Alternatively, they may be attached to separate supports by bolting. A minimum
of two bolts with locknuts is to be used.
The supports at each end of an anode are not to be attached to items of structure that are likely to
move independently.
Anode inserts and supports welded directly to the structure are to be arranged so that the welds are
clear of stress raisers.
5.11 Ports in Pump Room Bulkheads
Where fixed ports are fitted in the bulkheads between a pump room and the machinery or other
non-hazardous space, they are to maintain the gastight and watertight integrity of the bulkhead. The ports
are to be effectively protected against the possibility of mechanical damage and are to be fire resistant.
Hinged port covers of steel, having non-corrosive hinge pins and secured from the non-hazardous space
side, are to be provided. The covers are to provide strength and integrity equivalent to the unpierced
bulkhead. Except where it may interfere with the function of the ports, the covers are to be secured in the
closed position. The use of material other than steel for the covers will be subject to special consideration.
Lighting fixtures providing strength and integrity equivalent to that of the port covers will be accepted as
an alternative.
5.13 Location of Cargo Oil Tank Openings
Cargo oil tank openings, including those for tank cleaning, which are not intended to be secured gastight at
all times during the normal operation of the installation, are not to be located in enclosed spaces. For the purpose
of this requirement, spaces open on one side only are to be considered enclosed. See also 5A-3-1/5.23.
5.15 Structural Fire Protection
The applicable requirements of Section 3-4-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules are to be complied with.

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5.17 Allocation of Spaces (1994)
5.17.1 Tanks Forward of the Collision Bulkhead
Tanks forward of the collision bulkhead are not to be arranged for the carriage of oil or other liquid
substances that are flammable.
5.17.2 Double Bottom Spaces and Wing Tank Spaces
For installations of 5000 metric tons (4921 long tons) deadweight and above, double bottom spaces
or wing tanks adjacent to cargo oil tanks are to be allocated for water ballast or spaces other than
cargo and fuel oil tanks.
5.19 Access to Upper Parts of Ballast Tanks on Double Hull Ship-type Installations (1993)
Where the structural configuration within ballast tanks is such that it will prevent access to upper parts of
the tanks for required close-up examination [see 7-3-2/5.13.3 of the ABS Rules for Survey After Construction
(Part 7)] by conventional means, such as a raft on partly filled tank, permanent means of safe access is to
be provided. Details of the access are to be submitted for review.
Where horizontal girders or diaphragm plates are fitted, they may be considered as forming part of a
permanent access. Alternative arrangements to the above may be considered upon submission.
5.21 Access to All Spaces in the Cargo Area (1 October 1994)
Access to cofferdams, ballast tanks, cargo tanks and other spaces in the cargo area is to be direct and from
the open deck. Access to double bottom spaces may be through a cargo pump room, deep cofferdam, pipe
tunnel or similar space, provided ventilation is suitable.
For access through horizontal openings, hatches or manholes, the access is to be of a size such as to allow a
person wearing a self-contained, air-breathing apparatus and protective equipment (see 4-7-3/15.5 of the
Steel Vessel Rules) to ascend or descend any ladder without obstruction and also to provide a clear opening
to facilitate the hoisting of an injured person from the bottom of the space. In general, the minimum clear
opening is not to be less than 600 mm (24 in.) by 600 mm (24 in.).
For access through vertical openings or manholes providing passage through the length and breadth of the
space, the minimum clear opening is not to be less than 600 mm (24 in.) by 800 mm (32 in.) at a height of
not more than 600 mm (24 in.) from the bottom shell plating unless gratings or other footholds are provided.
5.23 Duct Keels or Pipe Tunnels in Double Bottom (2000)
Duct keels or pipe tunnels are not to pass into machinery spaces. Provision is to be made for at least two
exits to the open deck, arranged at a maximum distance from each other. One of these exits may lead to
the cargo pump room, provided that it is watertight and fitted with a watertight door complying with the
requirements of 3-2-9/9.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules and in addition complying with the following:
i) In addition to bridge operation, the watertight door is to be capable of being closed from outside
the main pump room entrance; and
ii) A notice is to be affixed at each operating position to the effect that the watertight door is to be
kept closed during normal operations of the installation, except when access to the pipe tunnel is
required.
For the requirements of ventilation and gas detection in duct keels or pipe tunnels, see 5C-1-7/31.17.1 of
the Steel Vessel Rules.
5.25 Ventilation (1996)
Holes are to be cut in every part of the structure where otherwise there might be a chance of gases being
“pocketed”. Special attention is to be paid to the effective ventilation of pump rooms and other working
spaces adjacent to oil tanks. In general, floor plating is to be of an open type not to restrict the flow of air,
see 5C-1-7/17.1 and 5C-1-7/17.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules. Efficient means are to be provided for clearing
the oil spaces of dangerous vapors by means of artificial ventilation or steam. For cargo tank venting, see
5C-1-7/11 and 5C-1-7/21 of the Steel Vessel Rules.

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5.27 Pumping Arrangements
See applicable requirements in Section 5C-1-7 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
5.29 Electrical Equipment
See 5C-1-7/31 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
5.31 Testing
Requirements for testing are contained in Part 3, Chapter 7 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
5.33 Machinery Spaces
Machinery spaces aft are to be specially stiffened transversely. Longitudinal material at the break is also to
be specially considered to reduce concentrated stresses in this region. Longitudinal wing bulkheads are to
be incorporated with the machinery casings or with substantial accommodation bulkheads in the tween
decks and within the poop.


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PART S e c t i o n 2 : L o a d s
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 2 Loads
1 General
1.1 The Concept and Application of Environmental Severity Factors (December 2008)
This Chapter referred to in Part 5A, Chapter 1 provides an explanation of the ship-type hull structural design
and analysis criteria. Previously, it was customary to specify that ship-type offshore installations were to
meet structural design and analysis criteria for unrestricted full ocean service conditions, i.e., a trading oil
tanker. In reality, many such installations were sited at locations with dynamic components of their
loading that are less than those arising from unrestricted service conditions.
At the same time, the approach to major ship design that has been developed and advocated by ABS in the
last decade has relied on a two phase method. In the first phase, initial design scantlings of the installation
are selected, considering nominal, maximum expected loadings that a component is likely to experience in
its lifetime for the full ocean service. This step is called the Initial Scantling Evaluation (ISE) and is
governed by the criteria contained in Sections 5A-3-2 through 5A-3-3. A second step requires structural
analyses of major portions of the hull structure to verify the adequacy of the structural system’s
performance, including strength checks for failure modes associated with yielding, buckling and ultimate
strength. This step is referred to as the Total Strength Assessment (TSA) and is governed by the criteria
specified in Section 5A-3-4.
To adjust the loadings and load effects produced by the site-specific long-term environment at the installation
site (compared to the full ocean service), a series of “Environmental Severity Factors” (ESFs) have been
derived. There are two types of ESFs, which are referred to as “Alpha” type (α) and “Beta” type (β). The
α factors are used to adjust fatigue strength performance expectations between the full ocean service (Rule
basis) and the long-term site-specific environment. The β factors are used primarily to adjust the dynamic
component of loads that are used to establish: hull girder strength (i.e., wave-induced hull girder loads),
individual scantling design equations, the loads used in the strength analyses of the hull, and ancillary
forces, such as those from the motion of equipment masses located on or above the main deck. In practice,
the hull may be loaded over a large range of tank loading patterns and external drafts. The implied value of
all ESFs of both the alpha and beta types for the full ocean service is 1.0.
The determination of the environmental severity factors is to be carried out in accordance with Appendix
5A-3-A1 using the ABS Eagle FPSO SEAS program.
1.3 Load Components (1995)
In the design of the hull structure of ship-type installations, all load components with respect to the hull
girder and local structure as specified in this Chapter and Section 3-2-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules are to be
taken into account. These include static loads in still water, wave-induced motions and loads, sloshing,
slamming, dynamic, thermal and ice loads, where applicable.


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3 Static Loads (1995)
3.1 Still-water Bending Moment
For still-water bending moment calculations, see 3-2-1/3.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
When a direct calculation of wave-induced loads [i.e., longitudinal bending moments and shear forces,
hydrodynamic pressures (external) and inertial forces and added pressure heads (internal)] is not submitted,
envelope curves of the still-water bending moments (hogging and sagging) and shear forces (positive and
negative) are to be provided.
Except for special loading cases, the loading patterns shown in 5A-3-2/Figures 1A to 1C are to be considered
in determining local static loads.


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FIGURE 1A
Loading Pattern – Double Hull and Double Side Single Bottom FPSO/FSO
(December 2008)
a. Load Cases No. 1 and 3
2/3 Scantling Draft
b. Load Cases No. 2 and 4
0.9 Scantling Draft
c. Load Case No. 5 g. Load Case No. 9 *
2/3 Scantling Draft 1/4 Scantling Draft
e. Load Case No. 7
2/3 Scantling Draft
f. Load Case No. 8
0.9 Scantling Draft 0.95 Scantling Draft
d. Load Case No. 6 h. Load Case No. 10 *
2/3 Scantling Draft 1/4 Scantling Draft

For detailed loading information see 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C.
* For L.C. 9 and 10, where static conditions, such as tank testing, that have the same loading pattern as the center row of tanks resulting in
a draft less than 1/4 Design Draft, the actual static condition draft is to be used. The value of k
s
= 1.0 is to be used in all tanks. The
tanks are to be loaded considering the actual height of the overflow pipe.
(1 July 2005) For a hull structure with the main supporting members that are asymmetric forward and aft of the mid-tank transverse
bulkheads, the above load cases are to be evaluated by turning the finite element model by 180 degrees with respect to the vertical
axis.
(1 July 2005) For a hull structure that is asymmetric with respect to the centerline plane, the additional load cases mirroring the above
asymmetric load case are to be evaluated.

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FIGURE 1B
Loading Pattern – Single Hull FPSO/FSO (December 2008)
a. Load Cases No. 1 and 3
2/3 Scantling Draft
b. Load Cases No. 2 and 4
0.95 Scantling Draft
e. Load Case No. 7
2/3 Scantling Draft
c. Load Case No. 5 g. Load Case No. 9 *
2/3 Scantling Draft 1/3 Scantling Draft
d. Load Case No. 6 h. Load Case No. 10 *
2/3 Scantling Draft 1/3 Scantling Draft
f. Load Case No. 8
0.95 Scantling Draft

For detailed loading information see 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C.
* For L.C. 9 and 10, where static conditions, such as tank testing, that have the same loading pattern as the center row of tanks
resulting in a draft less than 1/3 Design Draft, the actual static condition draft is to be used. The value of k
s
= 1.0 is to be used in all
tanks. The tanks are to be loaded considering the actual height of the overflow pipe.
(1 July 2005) For a hull structure with the main supporting members that are asymmetric forward and aft of the mid-tank transverse
bulkheads, the above load cases are to be evaluated by turning the finite element model by 180 degrees with respect to the vertical
axis.

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FIGURE 1C
Loading Pattern – Repair and Inspection Conditions for Double Hull and Double Side
Single Bottom FPSO/FSO* (1 July 2009)
Unless more severe inspection or repair loading condition is specified by the operator,
the following minimum design inspection and repair loading conditions are to be used.
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 1
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 2
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 3
2/3 Scantling Draft
R
Empty with
U-shaped
Ballast
Tank
Repair Loading Condition 1
R
2/3 Scantling Draft
Repair Loading Condition 2
Empty with
U-shaped
Ballast
Tank
R
2/3 Scantling Draft
Repair Loading Condition 3
Empty with
either J- or
U-shaped
Ballast
Tank


* For double hull or double side structure with one cargo tank across, no loading conditions for inspection and repair are given
above as they are covered under standard loading conditions shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 1A.


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FIGURE 1D
Loading Pattern – Repair and Inspection Conditions for Single Hull FPSO/FSO
(December 2008)
Unless more severe inspection or repair loading condition is specified by the operator,
the following minimum design inspection and repair loading conditions are to be used.
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 1
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 2
95% Scantling Draft
Inspection Loading Condition 3
2/3 Scantling Draft
R
Repair Loading Condition 1
R
2/3 Scantling Draft
Repair Loading Condition 2
R
2/3 Scantling Draft
Repair Loading Condition 3


5 Wave-induced Loads (1995)
5.1 General (1 July 2009)
Where a direct calculation of the wave-induced loads is not available, the approximation equations given in
the following sections and specified in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules with Environmental Severity
Factors (ESFs) may be used to calculate the design loads.
When a direct calculation of the wave-induced loads is performed, envelope curves of the combined wave
and still-water bending moments and shear forces, covering all the anticipated loading conditions, are to be
submitted for review.
5.2 Vertical Wave Bending Moment and Shear Force (1 July 2012)
5.2.1 Wave Bending Moment Amidships
The wave bending moment, expressed in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft), may be obtained from the following
equations.
M
ws
= − k
1
β
VBM
C
1
L
2
B(C
b
+ 0.7) × 10
-3
Sagging Moment
M
wh
= + k
2
β
VBM
C
1
L
2
BC
b
× 10
-3
Hogging Moment

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where
k
1
= 110 (11.22, 1.026)
k
2
= 190 (19.37, 1.772)
β
VBM
= ESF for vertical bending moment
C
1
= 10.75
5 . 1
100
300
|
.
|

\
| −

L
90 ≤ L ≤ 300 m
= 10.75 300 < L ≤ 350 m
= 10.75
5 . 1
150
350
|
.
|

\
| −

L
350 ≤ L ≤ 500 m
C
1
= 10.75
5 . 1
328
984
|
.
|

\
| −

L
295 ≤ L ≤ 984 ft
= 10.75 984 < L < 1148 ft
= 10.75
5 . 1
492
1148
|
.
|

\
| −

L
1148 ≤ L ≤ 1640 ft
L = length of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
B = breadth of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
C
b
= block coefficient, as defined in 3-1-1/11.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules
5.2.2 Envelope Curve of Wave Bending Moment
The wave bending moment along the length, L, of the vessel, may be obtained by multiplying the
midship value by the distribution factor, M, given in 5A-3-2/Figure 3.
5.2.3 Wave Shear Force
The envelopes of maximum shearing forces induced by waves, F
w
, as shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 4
and 5A-3-2/Figure 5, may be obtained from the following equations.
F
wp
= +k β
VSF
F
1
C
1
L B (C
b
+ 0.7) × 10
-2
for positive shear force
F
wn
= −k β
VSF
F
2
C
1
L B (C
b
+ 0.7) × 10
-2
for negative shear force
where
F
wp
, F
wn
= maximum shearing force induced by wave, in kN (tf, Ltf)
C
1
= as defined in 5A-3-2/5.2.1
β
VSF
= ESF for vertical shear force
L = length of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
B = breadth of vessel, as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
C
b
= block coefficient, as defined in 3-1-1/11.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules
k = 30 (3.059, 0.2797)
F
1
= distribution factor, as shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 4
F
2
= distribution factor, as shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 5


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FIGURE 2
Sign Convention (1 July 2012)
(+)
(+)
F
SW
, F
W
M
SW
, M
W
Aft Fore



FIGURE 3
Distribution Factor M (1 July 2012)
0
M
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
0.4 0.65 1.0 0.0
1.0
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L




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FIGURE 4
Distribution Factor F
1
(1 July 2012)
0
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
0.92 × 190 C
b
110 (C
b
+ 0.7)
1.0
0.7
F
1
0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.85 1.0
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L



FIGURE 5
Distribution Factor F
2
(1 July 2012)
0
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
190 C
b
110 (C
b
+ 0.7)
0.92
F
2
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
0.7
0.0 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.85 1.0


5.3 Horizontal Wave Bending Moment and Shear Force
5.3.1 Horizontal Wave Bending Moment (1 September 2007)
The horizontal wave bending moment, positive (tension port) or negative (tension starboard), may
be obtained from the following equation:
M
H
= ± m
h
β
HBM
K
3
C
1
L
2
DC
b
× 10
-3
kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
where
m
h
= distribution factor, as given by 5A-3-2/Figure 6

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β
HBM
= ESF for horizontal bending moment, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
K
3
= 180 (18.34, 1.68)
D = hull depth of installation, as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
C
1
, L, and C
b
are as given in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
5.3.2 Horizontal Wave Shear Force (1 September 2007)
The envelope of horizontal wave shearing force, F
H
, positive (toward port forward) or negative
(toward starboard aft), may be obtained from the following equation:
F
H
= ± f
h
β
HSF
kC
1
LD(C
b
+ 0.7) × 10
-2
kN (tf, Ltf)
where
f
h
= distribution factor, as given in 5A-3-2/Figure 7
β
HSF
= ESF for horizontal shear force, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
k = 36 (3.67, 0.34)
C
1
, L, D and C
b
are as defined in 5A-3-2/5.3.1 above.
5.5 External Pressures
5.5.1 Pressure Distribution (1 September 2007)
The external pressures, p
e
, (positive toward inboard), imposed on the hull in seaways can be expressed
by the following equation at a given location:
p
e
= ρ g(h
s
+ β
EPS/EPP
k
u
h
de
) ≥ 0 N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
ρ g = specific weight of sea water
= 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
h
s
= hydrostatic pressure head in still water, in m (ft)
β
EPS/EPP
= ESF for external pressure starboard/port, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
k
u
= load factor, and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified.
h
de
= hydrodynamic pressure head induced by the wave, in m (ft), may be
calculated as follows:
= k
c
h
di

where
k
c
= correlation factor for a specific combined load case, as given in 5A-3-2/7.1
and 5A-3-2/9
h
di
= hydrodynamic pressure head, in m (ft), at location i (i =1, 2, 3, 4 or 5; see
5A-3-2/Figure 8)
= k

α
i
h
do
in m (ft)
k

= distribution factor along the length of the installation
= 1 + (k
o
− 1) cos µ, k
o
is as given in 5A-3-2/Figure 9
= 1.0 amidships
h
do
= 1.36 kC
1
in m (ft)

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C
1
= as defined in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
k = 1 (1, 3.281)
α
i
= distribution factor around the girth of installation at location i.
= 1.00 − 0.25 cos µ for i = 1, at WL, starboard
= 0.40 − 0.10 cos µ for i = 2, at bilge, starboard
= 0.30 − 0.20 sin µ for i = 3, at bottom centerline
= 2α
3
− α
2
for i = 4, at bilge, port
= 0.75 − 1.25 sin µ for i = 5, at WL, port
α
i
at intermediate locations of i may be obtained by linear interpolation.
µ = wave heading angle, to be taken from 0° to 90° (0° for head sea, 90° for
beam sea for wave coming from starboard)
The distribution of the total external pressure including static and hydrodynamic pressure is illustrated
in 5A-3-2/Figure 10.
5.5.2 Extreme Pressures
In determining the required scantlings of local structural members, the extreme external pressure,
p
e
, to be used, is as defined in 5A-3-2/5.5.1 with k
u
as given in 5A-3-2/7 and 5A-3-2/9.
5.5.3 Simultaneous Pressures (1 September 2007)
When performing 3D structural analysis, the simultaneous pressure along any portion of the hull
girder may be obtained from:
p
es
= ρ g (h
s
+ β
EPS/EPP
k
f
k
u
h
de
) ≥ 0 N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
β
EPS/EPP
= ESF for external pressure starboard/port, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
k
f
is a factor denoting the phase relationship between the reference station and adjacent stations
considered along the installation’s length, and may be determined as follows:
k
f
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

− − µ
π
cos
( 2
cos 1 1
)
L
x x
k
o
fo

where
x = distance from A.P. to the station considered, in m (ft)
x
o
= distance from A.P. to the reference station
*
, in m (ft).
L = installation length, as defined in 3-1-1/3 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
µ = wave heading angle, to be taken from 0° to 90°
k
fo
= ±1.0, as specified in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C
* The reference station is the point along the installation’s length where the wave trough
or crest is located and may be taken as the mid-point of the mid-hold of the three
hold model.
The simultaneous pressure distribution around the girth of the installation is to be determined
based on the wave heading angles specified in 5A-3-2/7 and 5A-3-2/9.

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5.7 Internal Pressures – Inertia Forces and Added Pressure Heads (1995)
5.7.1 Ship Motions and Accelerations (1 September 2007)
To determine the inertial forces and added pressure heads for a completely filled cargo or ballast
tank, the dominating ship motions, pitch and roll, and the resultant accelerations induced by the wave
are required. When a direct calculation is not available, the equations given below may be used.
5.7.1(a) Pitch (1997). The pitch amplitude: (positive bow up)
φ = β
PMO
k
1
(10/C
b
)
1/4
/L, in deg., but need not to be taken more than 10 deg.
The pitch natural period:
T
p
= k
2 i b
d C seconds.
where
β
PMO
= ESF for pitch motion, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
k
1
= 1030 (3378) for L in m (ft)
k
2
= 3.5 (1.932) for d
i
in m (ft)
d
i
= draft amidships for the relevant loading conditions.
L and C
b
are defined in 3-1-1/3.1 and 3-1-1/11.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005), respectively.
5.7.1(b) Roll. The roll amplitude: (positive starboard down)
θ = C
R
β
RMO
(35 − k
θ
C
di
∆/1000) if T
r
> 20 seconds.
θ = C
R
β
RMO
(35 − k
θ
C
di
∆/1000) (1.5375 − 0.027T
r
) if 12.5 ≤ T
r
≤ 20 seconds
θ = C
R
β
RMO
(35 − k
θ
C
di
∆/1000) (0.8625 + 0.027T
r
) if T
r
≤ 12.5 seconds
where
θ is in degrees, but need not to be taken greater than 30°.
k
θ
= 0.005 (0.05, 0.051)
C
R
= 1.05
β
RMO
= ESF for roll motion, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
C
di
= 1.06 (d
i
/d
f
) − 0.06
d
i
= draft amidships for the relevant loading conditions, m (ft)
d
f
= draft, as defined in 3-1-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules, m (ft)
∆ = k
d
LBd
f
C
b
kN (tf, Ltf)
k
d
= 10.05 (1.025, 0.0286)
L and B are as defined in Section 3-1-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005).
The roll natural motion period:
T
r
= k
4
k
r
/GM
1/2
seconds
where
k
4
= 2 (1.104) for k
r
, GM in m (ft)
k
r
= roll radius of gyration, in m (ft), and may be taken as 0.35B for full load
conditions and 0.45B for ballast conditions.

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GM = metacentric height, to be taken as:
= GM (full) for full draft
= 1.1 GM (full) for 9/10 d
f

= 1.5 GM (full) for 2/3 d
f

= 2.0 GM (full) for 1/2 d
f

GM (full) = metacentric height for fully loaded condition
If GM (full) is not available, GM (full) may be taken as 0.12B for the
purpose of estimation.
5.7.1(c) Accelerations. The vertical, longitudinal and transverse accelerations of tank contents
(cargo or ballast), a
v
, a

and a
t
may be obtained from the following formulae:
a
v
= C
v
β
VAC
k
v
a
o
g m/sec
2
(ft/sec
2
) positive downward
a

= C

β
LAC
k

a
o
g m/sec
2
(ft/sec
2
) positive forward
a
t
= C
t
β
TAC
k
t
a
o
g m/sec
2
(ft/sec
2
) positive starboard
where
a
o
= k
o
(2.4/L
1/2
+ 34/L − 600/L
2
) for L in m
= k
o
(4.347/L
1/2
+ 111.55/L − 6458/L
2
) for L in ft
k
o
= 1.34 − 0.47C
b

C
v
= cos µ + (1 + 2.4 z/B) (sin µ)/k
v

µ = wave heading angle in degrees, 0° for head sea, and 90° for beam sea for
wave coming from starboard
β
VAC
= ESF for vertical acceleration, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
β
LAC
= ESF for longitudinal acceleration, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
β
TAC
= ESF for transverse acceleration, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
k
v
= [1 + 0.65(5.3 − 45/L)
2
(x/L − 0.45)
2
]
1/2
for L in m
= [1 + 0.65(5.3 − 147.6/L)
2
(x/L − 0.45)
2
]
1/2
for L in ft
C

= 0.35 − 0.0005(L − 200) for L in m
= 0.35 − 0.00015 (L − 656) for L in ft
k

= 0.5 + 8y/L
C
t
= 1.27[1 + 1.52(x/L − 0.45)
2
]
1/2

k
t
= 0.35 + y/B
L and B are the length and breadth of the installation respectively, as defined in Section 3-1-1 of
the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005), in m (ft).
x = longitudinal distance from the A.P. to the station considered, in m (ft)
y = vertical distance from the waterline to the point considered, in m (ft),
positive upward
z = transverse distance from the centerline to the point considered, in m (ft),
positive starboard
g = acceleration of gravity = 9.8 m/sec
2
(32.2 ft/sec
2
)

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5.7.2 Internal Pressures
5.7.2(a) Distribution of Internal Pressures (1 July 2000). The internal pressure, p
i
(positive
toward tank boundaries), for a completely filled tank may be obtained from the following formula:
p
i
= k
s
ρ g(η + k
u
h
d
) + p
o
≥ 0 in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p
o
= (p
vp
− p
n
) ≥ 0 in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
p
vp
= pressure setting on pressure/vacuum relief valve ≤ 6.90 N/cm
2
(0.71 kgf/cm
2
,
10.00 lbf/in
2
) for integral-gravity tanks
p
n
= 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 3.00 lbf/in
2
)
ρ g = specific weight of the liquid, not to be taken less than 1.005 N/cm
2
-m
(0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
η = local coordinate in vertical direction for tank boundaries measuring from the
top of the tanks, as shown 5A-3-2/Figure 11, in m (ft)
For lower ballast tanks, a distance equivalent to
2
/
3
of the distance from the top of the tank to the
top of the overflow [minimum 760 mm (30 in.) above deck] is to be added to η.
k
s
= load factor – see also 5A-3-2/5.7.2(c)
= 1.0 for structural members 1 through 10 in 5A-3-2/Table 3, and for all loads
from ballast tanks
= 0.878 for ρ g of 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft) and
1.0 for ρ g of 1.118 N/cm
2
-m (0.114 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4942 lbf/in
2
-ft) and above
for structural members 11 through 17 in 5A-3-2/Table 3
For cargo ρ g between 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
and 1.118 N/cm
2
-m (0.114 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4942 lbf/in
2
-ft), the factor k
s
may be
determined by interpolation
k
u
= load factor and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified
h
d
= wave-induced internal pressure head, including inertial force and added
pressure head.
= k
c
(η a
i
/g + ∆h
i
), in m (ft)
k
c
= correlation factor and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified
a
i
= effective resultant acceleration, in m/sec
2
(ft/sec
2
), at the point considered
and may be approximated by
a
i
= 0.71C
dp
[w
v
a
v
+ w

(/h)a

+ w
t
(b/h)a
t
]
C
dp
is as specified in 5A-3-2/5.7.2(d).
a
v
, a

and a
t
are as given in 5A-3-2/5.7.1(c).
w
v
, w

and w
t
are weighted coefficients, showing directions, as specified in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through
1C and 5A-3-2/Table 3.
∆h
i
= added pressure head due to pitch and roll motions at the point considered, in
m (ft), may be calculated as follows
i) for bow down and starboard down (φ
e
< 0, θ
e
> 0)

hi
= ξ sin(−φ
e
) + C
ru

e
sin θ
e
cos φ
e
+ η
e
cos θ
e
cos φ
e
− η)
ζ
e
= b − ζ
η
e
= η

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ii) for bow up and starboard up (φ
e
> 0, θ
e
< 0)
∆h
i
= ( − ξ) sin φ
e
+ C
ru

e
sin(-θ
e
) cos φ
e
+ η
e
cos θ
e
cos φ
e
− η)
ζ
e
= ζ − δ
b

η
e
= η − δ
h

ξ, ζ, η are the local coordinates, in m (ft), for the point considered with respect to the origin in
5A-3-2/Figure 11.
C
ru
is as specified in 5A-3-2/5.7.2(d).
δ
b
and δ
h
are local coordinates adjustments, in m (ft), for the point considered with respect to the
origin shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 11.
where
θ
e
= 0.71 C
θ
θ
φ
e
= 0.71 C
φ
φ
 = length of the tank, in m (ft)
h = depth of the tank, in m (ft)
b = breadth of the tank considered, in m (ft)
φ and θ are pitch and roll amplitudes, as given in 5A-3-2/5.7.1(a) and 5A-3-2/5.7.1(b).
C
φ
and C
θ
are weighted coefficients, showing directions as given in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C
and 5A-3-2/Table 3.
Where pressure-vacuum valves of cargo tanks are set at greater than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
,
3 lbf/in
2
), the value of P
i
is to be increased appropriately.
5.7.2(b) Extreme Internal Pressure. For assessing local structures at a tank boundary, the extreme
internal pressure with k
u
, as specified in 5A-3-2/7, is to be considered.
5.7.2(c) Simultaneous Internal Pressures (1 July 2000). In performing a 3D structural analysis,
the internal pressures may be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.7.2(a) and 5A-3-2/5.7.2(b) above
for tanks in the mid-body. For tanks in the fore or aft body, the pressures should be determined based
on linear distributions of accelerations and ship motions along the length of the installation.
Note: In performing a 3D structural analysis, k
s
in 5A-3-2/5.7.2(a) is to be taken as:
k
s
= 1.0 for all loads from ballast tanks
= 0.878 for ρ g of 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft) and
1.0 for ρ g of 1.118 N/cm
2
-m (0.114 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4942 lbf/in
2
-ft) and above
for all loads from cargo tanks
For cargo ρ g between 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
and 1.118 N/cm
2
-m (0.114 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4942 lbf/in
2
-ft), the factor k
s
may be
determined by interpolation
5.7.2(d) Definition of Tank Shape and Associated Coefficients
i) J-shaped Tank
A tank having the following configurations is considered as a “J-shaped” tank.
b/b
1
≥ 5.0 and h/h
1
≥ 5.0

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where
b = extreme breadth at the tank top of the tank considered
b
1
= least breadth of wing tank part of the tank considered
h = extreme height of the tank considered
h
1
= least height of double bottom part of the tank considered as shown in
5A-3-2/Figure 11
The coefficients C
dp
and C
ru
are as follows:
C
dp
= 0.7
C
ru
= 1.0
ii) Rectangular Tank
The following tank is considered as a rectangular tank:
b/b
1
≤ 3.0 or h/h
1
≤ 3.0
The coefficients C
dp
and C
ru
of the tank are as follows:
C
dp
= 1.0
C
ru
= 1.0
iii) U-shaped Tank
A half of a “U-shaped” tank, divided at the centerline, should satisfy the condition of a “J-shaped” tank.
The coefficients C
dp
and C
ru
are as follows:
C
dp
= 0.5
C
ru
= 0.7
iv) In a case where the minimum tank ratio of b/b
1
or h/h
1
whichever is lesser, is greater than
3.0 but less than 5.0, the coefficients C
dp
and C
ru
of the tank are to be determined by the
following interpolation:
J-shaped Tank in head and non-head seas, U-shaped Tank in head seas:
C
dp
= 1.0 − 0.3 (the min. tank ratio - 3.0) / 2.0
U-shaped Tank in non-head seas:
C
dp
= 1.0 − 0.5 (the min. tank ratio - 3.0) / 2.0
U-shaped Tank:
C
ru
= 1.0 − 0.3 (the min. tank ratio - 3.0) / 2.0
v) For non-prismatic tanks mentioned above, b
1
, h and h
1
are to be determined based on the
extreme section.


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FIGURE 6
Distribution Factor m
h
(1995)


1.0
0.0
0.0
0.4 0.6
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
1.0
D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
m
h
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L



FIGURE 7
Distribution Factor f
h
(1995)
0.0
0.0
0.2 0.3 0.4 0.60 0.7
0.7
0.8 1.0
1.0
D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n
h
f
Aft
end of L
Forward
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L


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FIGURE 8
Distribution of h
di
(1995)
h
h = freeboard to W.L.
Freeboard Deck
whichever is lesser
h or h*
d5
d4
d3
d2
d1 h
h
h
h
h
W.L.
View from the Stern
h* = k
u
k
c
h
d1
for nominal pressure
h* = k
f
k
u
h
d1
for simultaneous pressure
Note:



FIGURE 9
Pressure Distribution Function k

o
(1995)
end of L
Distance from the aft end of L in terms of L
0.2 0.7
Forward
end of L
2.5
1.5
Aft
D
i
s
t
r
i
b
u
t
i
o
n


k

o
1.0
1.0 0.0
0.0



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FIGURE 10
Illustration of Determining Total External Pressure (1997)
h
h
d1
h or h*
whichever is lesser
h
d
: Hydrodynamic Pressure Head
h
s
: Hydrostatic Pressure Head in Still Water
: Total External Pressure Head
(indicates negative)
h* = k
u
k
c
h
d1
for nominal pressure
h* = k
f
k
u
h
d1
for simultaneous pressure
Note:


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FIGURE 11
Definition of Tank Geometry (1995)
Tank Shape Parameters
b
h
b
1
1
h
B/2
b
b
h
F.P.
O
O
O
Plan View
Elevation
b
h
ζ
η
L
C
δ
δ
ξ
ζ
ξ
η
δ
ζ
δ
h
B/2
b
Isometric View
L
C




For lower ballast tanks, η is to be measured from a point located at
2
/
3
the distance from the top of the tank
to the top of the overflow (minimum 760 mm above deck).

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FIGURE 12
Location of Tank for Nominal Pressure Calculation (1997)
5
4
3
2
3 2 4 5 1
0.4L
FP
AP
Tanks Considered



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TABLE 1A
Combined Load Cases* (2001)
L.C. 1 L.C. 2 L.C. 3 L.C. 4 L.C. 5 L.C. 6 L.C. 7 L.C. 8 L.C. 9 L.C. 10
A. Hull Girder Loads (See 5A-3-2/5)**
Vertical B.M. Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) — —
k
c
1.0 1.0 0.7 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0
Vertical S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) — —
k
c
0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0
Horizontal B.M. (−) (+) (−) (+) — —
k
c
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0
Horizontal S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) — —
k
c
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0
B. External Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.5)
k
c
0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.0 0.0
k
f0
-1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0
C. Internal Tank Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.7)
k
c
0.4 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 0.0
w
v
0.75 -0.75 0.75 -0.75 0.25 -0.25 0.4 -0.4 0.0 0.0
w


Fwd Bhd
0.25
Fwd Bhd
-0.25
Fwd Bhd
0.25
Fwd Bhd
-0.25
— — Fwd Bhd
0.2
Fwd Bhd
-0.2
— —

Aft Bhd
-0.25
Aft Bhd
0.25
Aft Bhd
-0.25
Aft Bhd
0.25
— — Aft Bhd
-0.2
Aft Bhd
0.2
— —
w
t

— — — — Port Bhd
-0.75
Port Bhd
0.75
Port Bhd
-0.4
Port Bhd
0.4
— —

— — — — Stbd Bhd
0.75
Stbd Bhd
-0.75
Stbd Bhd
0.4
Stbd Bhd
-0.4
— —
c
φ
, Pitch -1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 -0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0
c
θ
, Roll 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 -1.0 0.7 -0.7 0.0 0.0
D. Reference Wave Heading and Motion of Installation
Heading Angle 0 0 0 0 90 90 60 60 — —
Heave Down Up Down Up Down Up Down Up — —
Pitch Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
— — Bow
Down
Bow
Up
— —
Roll — — — — Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
— —

* k
u
= 1.0 for all load components.
** Boundary forces should be applied to produce the above specified hull girder bending moment at the middle of the structural
model and the specified hull girder shear force at one end of the middle hold of the model. The sign convention for the shear
force corresponds to the forward end of the middle hold.


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TABLE 1B
Combined Load Cases for Inspection Condition* (December 2008)
I.L.C. 1 I.L.C. 2 I.L.C. 3 I.L.C. 4 I.L.C. 5 I.L.C. 6 I.L.C. 7 I.L.C. 8 I.L.C. 9 I.L.C. 10
A. Hull Girder Loads (See 5A-3-2/5)**
Vertical B.M. Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+)
k
c
1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.15 0.15 0.70 0.70 0.60 0.60
Vertical S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−)
k
c
0.55 0.55 1.00 1.00 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.30
Horizontal B.M. (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+)
k
c
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.25 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Horizontal S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−)
k
c
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.25 0.85 0.85 0.80 0.80
B. External Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.5)
k
c
0.85 0.85 0.70 0.70 0.90 0.90 0.80 0.80 0.95 0.95
k
f0
-1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00
C. Internal Tank Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.7)
k
c
0.75 0.75 0.30 0.30 0.80 0.80 0.10 0.10 0.50 0.50
w
v
0.85 -0.85 0.55 -0.55 0.60 -0.60 0.10 0.10 0.30 -0.30
w


Fwd Bhd
0.20
Fwd Bhd
-0.20
Fwd Bhd
0.65
Fwd Bhd
-0.65
— — Fwd Bhd
0.30
Fwd Bhd
-0.30
Fwd Bhd
1.00
Fwd Bhd
-1.00

Aft Bhd
-0.20
Aft Bhd
0.20
Aft Bhd
-0.65
Aft Bhd
0.65
— — Aft Bhd
-0.30
Aft Bhd
0.30
Aft Bhd
-1.00
Aft Bhd
1.00
w
t

— — — — Port Bhd
-1.00
Port Bhd
1.00
Port Bhd
-0.05
Port Bhd
0.05
Port Bhd
-0.10
Port Bhd
0.10

— — — — Stbd Bhd
1.00
Stbd Bhd
-1.00
Stbd Bhd
0.05
Stbd Bhd
-0.05
Stbd Bhd
0.10
Stbd Bhd
-0.10
c
φ
, Pitch -0.30 0.30 -0.60 0.60 -0.15 0.15 -0.10 0.10 -0.80 0.80
c
θ
, Roll 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 -1.00 0.05 -0.05 0.15 -0.15
D. Reference Wave Heading and Motion of Installation
Heading Angle 0 0 0 0 90 90 60 60 30 30
Heave Down Up Down Up Down Up Down Up Down Up
Pitch Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Roll — — — — Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up

* k
u
= 1.0 for all load components.
** Boundary forces should be applied to produce the above specified hull girder bending moment at the middle of the structural
model and the specified hull girder shear force at one end of the middle hold of the model. The sign convention for the shear
force corresponds to the forward end of the middle hold.


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TABLE 1C
Combined Load Cases for Repair Condition* (December 2008)
R.L.C. 1 R.L.C. 2 R.L.C. 3 R.L.C. 4 R.L.C. 5 R.L.C. 6 R.L.C. 7 R.L.C. 8 R.L.C. 9 R.L.C. 10
A. Hull Girder Loads (See 5A-3-2/5)**
Vertical B.M. Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+) Sag (−) Hog (+)
k
c
1.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.25 0.25 0.80 0.80 0.60 0.60
Vertical S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−)
k
c
0.55 0.55 1.00 1.00 0.15 0.15 0.40 0.40 0.20 0.20
Horizontal B.M. (−) (+) (−) (+) (−) (+)
k
c
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.10 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Horizontal S.F. (+) (−) (+) (−) (+) (−)
k
c
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 0.15 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
B. External Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.5)
k
c
0.85 0.85 0.80 0.80 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.55 0.55
k
f0
-1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.00
C. Internal Tank Pressure (See 5A-3-2/5.7)
k
c
0.55 0.55 0.40 0.40 0.70 0.70 0.20 0.20 0.40 0.40
w
v
0.60 -0.60 0.35 -0.35 0.55 -0.55 0.15 -0.15 0.25 -0.25
w


Fwd Bhd
0.20
Fwd Bhd
-0.20
Fwd Bhd
0.65
Fwd Bhd
-0.65
— — Fwd Bhd
0.45
Fwd Bhd
-0.45
Fwd Bhd
0.75
Fwd Bhd
-0.75

Aft Bhd
-0.20
Aft Bhd
0.20
Aft Bhd
-0.65
Aft Bhd
0.65
— — Aft Bhd
-0.45
Aft Bhd
0.45
Aft Bhd
-0.75
Aft Bhd
0.75
w
t

— — — — Port Bhd
-0.95
Port Bhd
0.95
Port Bhd
-0.05
Port Bhd
0.05
Port Bhd
-0.10
Port Bhd
0.10

— — — — Stbd Bhd
0.95
Stbd Bhd
-0.95
Stbd Bhd
0.05
Stbd Bhd
-0.05
Stbd Bhd
0.10
Stbd Bhd
-0.10
c
φ
, Pitch -0.20 0.20 -0.45 0.45 -0.05 0.05 -0.10 0.10 -0.35 0.35
c
θ
, Roll 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 -1.00 0.05 -0.05 0.05 -0.05
D. Reference Wave Heading and Motion of Installation
Heading Angle 0 0 0 0 90 90 60 60 30 30
Heave Down Up Down Up Down Up Down Up Down Up
Pitch Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Bow
Down
Bow
Up
Roll — — — — Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up
Stbd
Down
Stbd
Up

* k
u
= 1.0 for all load components.
** Boundary forces should be applied to produce the above specified hull girder bending moment at the middle of the structural
model and the specified hull girder shear force at one end of the middle hold of the model. The sign convention for the shear
force corresponds to the forward end of the middle hold.


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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TABLE 2
Load Cases for Sloshing (1997)
Type A: For Horizontal Girder on the Aft Side of Transverse Bulkhead

Hull Girder Loads
(1)
External Pressures
Sloshing
Pressures
(2)
Reference Wave Heading and Motions
V.B.M.
[H.B.M.
V.S.F.
H.S.F.
k
u
,
k
u
,
k
c

k
c
]

k
u


k
c


k
fo


k
u


k
c

Heading
Angle Heave Pitch Roll
LC S - 1 (–) (+) 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.5 -1.0 1.0 1.0 60° Down Bow
Down
Stbd
Down
[(–) (+) 1.0 0.7]
LC S - 2 (+) (–) 1.0 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 60° Up Bow Up Stbd Up
[(+) (–) 1.0 0.7]

Type B: For Horizontal Girder on the Forward Side of Transverse Bulkhead

Hull Girder Loads
(1)
External Pressures
Sloshing
Pressures
(2)
Reference Wave Heading and Motions
V.B.M.
[H.B.M.
V.S.F.
H.S.F.
k
u
,
k
u
,
k
c

k
c
]

k
u


k
c


k
fo


k
u


k
c

Heading
Angle Heave Pitch Roll
LC S - 1 (–) (+) 1.0 0.4 1.0 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 60° Up Bow Up Stbd Up
[(–) (+) 1.0 0.7]
LC S - 2 (+) (–) 1.0 0.4 1.0 1.0 -1.0 1.0 1.0 60° Down Bow
Down
Stbd
Down
[(+) (–) 1.0 0.7]
Notes:
1 For determining the total vertical bending moment for the above two load cases, 70% of the maximum designed
still water bending moment may be used at the specified wave vertical bending moment station.
where:
V.B.M. is vertical wave bending moment
V.S.F. is vertical wave shear force
H.B.M. is horizontal wave bending moment
H.S.F. is horizontal wave shear force
2 The vertical distribution of the sloshing pressure P
is
is shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 13.


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TABLE 3
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Members
A. Plating & Longitudinals/Stiffeners
The nominal pressure, p = |p
i

− p
e
|, is to be determined from load cases “a” & “b” below, whichever is greater, with k
u
= 1.10
and k
c

= 1.0 unless otherwise specified in the table
Case “a” – At fwd end of the tank Case “b” – At mid tank/fwd end of tank
Structural Members/
Components
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients Draft/Wave
Heading
Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
p
i
p
e
p
i
p
e

1. Bottom Plating
& Long’l
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full ballast tank A
i
A
e
design
draft/0°
Midtank of
empty ballast
tanks
— B
e

2. Inner Bottom
Plating &
Long’l
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full ballast tank,
cargo tanks empty
A
i
— design
draft/0°
Fwd end of full
cargo tank,
ballast tanks
empty
A
i

3. Side Shell
Plating &
Long’l
2/3 design
draft/60°
Starboard side of
full ballast tank
B
i
A
e
design
draft/60°
Midtank of
empty ballast
tanks
— B
e

4. * Deck Plating &
Long’l (Cargo
Tank)
design draft/0° Full cargo tank D
i

5. Deck Plating &
Long’l (Ballast
Tank)
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full ballast tank D
i

6. * Inner Skin
Long’l Bhd.
Plating &
Long’l
design draft/
60°
Starboard side of
full cargo tank,
ballast tank empty
B
i
— 2/3 design
draft/60°
Fwd. end and
starboard side of
full ballast tank,
cargo tank
empty
B
i

7. * Centerline
Long’l Bhd.
Plating &
Long’l
design draft/
60°
Full starboard
cargo and ballast
tanks, adjacent
tank empty
E
i

8. * Other Long’l
Bhd. Plating &
Long’l
design draft/
60°
Starboard side of
full inward cargo
tanks, adjacent
tank empty
B
i
— design
draft/60°
(1997)
Fwd. end and
starboard side of
full outboard
cargo tanks,
adjacent tank
empty
B
i

9. * Trans. Bhd.
Plating &
Stiffener
(Cargo Tank)
design draft/0° Fwd. bhd. of full
cargo tank,
adjacent tanks
empty
A
i

10. * Trans. Bhd.
Plating &
Stiffener
(Ballast Tank)
2/3 design
draft/0°
Fwd. bhd. of full
ballast tank,
adjacent tanks
empty
A
i

* See note 4


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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TABLE 3 (continued)
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Members
B. Main Supporting Members
The nominal pressure, p = |p
i

− p
e
|, is to be determined at the mid-span of the structural member at starboard side of installation
from load cases “a” & “b” below, whichever is greater, with k
u
= 1.0 and k
c
= 1.0 unless otherwise specified in the table
Case “a” – Mid-tank for Transverses Case “b” – Mid-tank for Transverses
Structural Members/
Components
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients Draft/Wave
Heading
Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
p
i
p
e
p
i
p
e

11. Double Bottom
Floor & Girder
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full cargo tank,
ballast tanks empty
A
i
A
e
design
draft/0°
Mid-tank, cargo
and ballast tanks
empty
— B
e

12. Side Transverse 2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing cargo tanks
full
B
i
— design
draft/60°
Center cargo
tank full, wing
cargo tanks
empty
— B
e

13. Transverse on
Long’l. Bhd.:

Ship-type
installation with
C.L. Long’l, Bhd.,
without cross
ties, (5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-b,
5A-3-3/Figure
2A-c):
2/3 design
draft/60°
Starboard cargo
tank full, port-
empty
F
i

Ship-type
installation with
four Long’l. Bhds.
With cross ties:

Cross Ties in
wing cargo
tanks (5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-d)
2/3 design
draft/90°
Center cargo tank
full, wing cargo
tanks empty
C
i
— 2/3 design
draft/90°
Center cargo
tank empty,
wing cargo
tanks full
G
i

Cross Tie in
center cargo
tank, (5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-e)
2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing cargo tanks
full, center cargo
tank empty
F
i
— 2/3 design
draft/60°
Center cargo
tank full, wing
cargo tanks
empty
B
i

Ship-type
installation with
four Long’l. Bhds.
without cross
ties, (5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-f)
2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing cargo tanks
full, center cargo
tank empty
F
i
— 2/3 design
draft/60°
Center cargo
tank full, wing
cargo tanks
empty
C
i

14. Horizontal
Girder and
Vertical Web on
Transverse
Bulkhead
2/3 design
draft/60°
Fwd Bhd. of full
cargo tank,
adjacent tanks
empty
B
i

15. Cross Ties:
Cross Ties in
wing cargo tanks
5A-3-3/Figure
2A-d)
2/3 design
draft/90°
Center cargo tank
full, wing cargo
tanks empty
C
i
— design
draft/60°
Wing cargo
tanks empty,
center cargo
tank full
(starboard)
— B
e

Cross tie in
center cargo tank
(5A-3-3/Figure
2A-e)
2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing cargo tanks
full, center cargo
tank empty
F
i



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TABLE 3 (continued)
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Members
B. Main Supporting Members
The nominal pressure, p = |p
i

− p
e
|, is to be determined at the mid-span of the structural member at starboard side of installation
from load cases “a” & “b” below, whichever is greater, with k
u
= 1.0 and k
c
= 1.0 unless otherwise specified in the table
Case “a” – Mid-tank for Transverses Case “b” – Mid-tank for Transverses
Structural Members/
Components
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients Draft/Wave
Heading
Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
p
i
p
e
p
i
p
e

16. Deck Transverses:
Ship-type
installation
without cross ties
(5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-a,
5A-3-3/Figure
2A-b, 5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-c &
5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-f)
and, ship-type
installations with
cross tie in center
cargo tanks,
(5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-e)
2/3 design
draft/60°
Cargo tank full,
adjacent tanks
empty
B
i

Ship-type
installation
with cross ties
in wing cargo
tanks (5A-3-3/
Figure 2A-d)
2/3 design
draft/90°
Cargo tank full,
adjacent tanks
empty
C
i

17. Deck girders 2/3 design
draft/0°
Cargo tank full,
adjacent tanks
empty
A
i
— 2/3 design
draft/60°
Cargo tank full,
adjacent tanks
empty
B
i




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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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TABLE 3 (continued)
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Members (2001)
Notes
1 For calculating p
i
and p
e
, the necessary coefficients are to be determined based on the following designated
groups:
a) For p
i

A
i
: w
v
= 0.75, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.25, w

(aft bhd) = −0.25, w
t
= 0.0, c
φ
= −1.0, c
θ
= 0.0
B
i
: w
v
= 0.4, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.2, w

(aft bhd) = −0.2, w
t
(starboard) = 0.4, w
t
(port) = −0.4, c
φ
=
−0.7, c
θ
= 0.7
C
i
: w
v
= 0.25, w

= 0, w
t
(starboard) = 0.75, w
t
(port) = −0.75, c
φ
= 0.0, c
θ
= 1.0
D
i
: w
v
= −0.75, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.25, w
t
= 0.0, c
φ
= −1.0, c
θ
= 0.0
E
i
: w
v
= 0.4, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.2, w
t
(centerline) = 0.4, c
φ
= −0.7, c
θ
= −0.7
F
i
: w
v
= 0.4, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.2, w

(aft bhd) = −0.2, w
t
(starboard) = −0.4, w
t
(port) = 0.4, c
φ
=
−0.7, c
θ
= −0.7
G
i
: w
v
= 0.25, w

= 0, w
t
(starboard) = −0.75, w
t
(port) = 0.75, c
φ
= 0.0, c
θ
= −1.0
b) For p
e

A
e
: k
o
= 1.0, k
u
= 1.0, k
c
= −0.5
B
e
: k
o
= 1.0
2 (1997) For structures within 0.4L amidships, the nominal pressure is to be calculated for a tank located
amidships. Each cargo tank or ballast tank in the region should be considered as located amidships, as
shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 12.
3 (1 July 2000) In calculation of the nominal pressure, ρ g of the fluid cargoes is not to be taken less than
1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft).
4 For structural members 4 and 6 to 10, sloshing pressures are to be considered in accordance with 5A-3-2/11.3.
For calculation of sloshing pressures, refer to 5A-3-2/11.5 with ρ g not less than 1.005 N/cm
2
-m
(0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft).


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7 Nominal Design Loads (1995)
7.1 General
The nominal design loads specified below are to be used for determining the required scantlings of hull
structures in conjunction with the specified permissible stresses given in Section 5A-3-3.
7.3 Hull Girder Loads – Longitudinal Bending Moments and Shear Forces (1995)
7.3.1 Total Vertical Bending Moment and Shear Force (1 September 2007)
The total longitudinal vertical bending moments and shear forces may be obtained from the
following equations:
M
t
= M
sw
+ k
u
k
c
β
VBM
M
w
kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
F
t
= F
sw
+ k
u
k
c
β
VSF
F
w
kN (tf, Ltf)
where
M
sw
and M
w
are the still-water bending moment and wave-induced bending moment, respectively,
as specified in 3-2-1/3.7 of the Steel Vessel Rules for either hogging or sagging conditions.
F
sw
and F
w
are the still-water and wave-induced shear forces, respectively, as specified in
3-2-1/3.9 of the Steel Vessel Rules for either positive or negative shears.
k
u
is a load factor and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified
k
c
is a correlation factor and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified.
β
VBM
is ESF for vertical bending moment as defined in 5A-3-A1/3.
β
VSF
is ESF for vertical shear force as defined in 5A-3-A1/3.
For determining the hull girder section modulus for 0.4L amidships, as specified in 5A-3-3/3, the
maximum still-water bending moments, either hogging or sagging, are to be added to the hogging
or sagging wave bending moments, respectively. Elsewhere, the total bending moment may be
directly obtained based on the envelope curves, as specified in 5A-3-2/3.1 and 5A-3-2/5.1.
For this purpose, k
u
= 1.0, and k
c
= 1.0
7.3.2 Horizontal Wave Bending Moment and Shear Force
For non-head sea conditions, the horizontal wave bending moment and the horizontal shear force,
as specified in 5A-3-2/5.3, are to be considered as additional hull girder loads, especially for the
design of the side shell and inner skin structures. The effective horizontal bending moment and
shear force, M
HE
and F
HE
, may be determined by the following equations:
M
HE
= k
u
k
c
M
H
kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
F
HE
= k
u
k
c
F
H
kN (tf, Ltf)
where k
u
and k
c
are a load factor and a correlation factor, respectively, which may be taken as
unity unless otherwise specified.
7.5 Local Loads for Design of Supporting Structures (December 2008)
In determining the required scantlings of the main supporting structures, such as girders, transverses,
stringers, floors and deep webs, the nominal loads induced by the liquid pressures distributed over both
sides of the structural panel within the tank boundaries should be considered for the worst possible load
combinations. In general, considerations should be given to the following two load cases accounting for
the worst effects of the dynamic load components.

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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i) Maximum internal pressures for a fully filled tank with the adjacent tanks empty and minimum
external pressures, where applicable.
ii) Empty tank with the surrounding tanks full and maximum external pressures, where applicable.
Taking the side shell supporting structure as an example, the nominal loads may be determined from either:
i) p
i
= k
s
ρ g (η + k
u
h
d
) max. and
p
e
= ρ g (h
s
+ β
EPS/EPP
k
u
h
de
) min.
ii) p
i
= 0 and
p
e
= ρ g (h
s
+ β
EPS/EPP
k
u
h
de
) max.
where
k
u
= 1.0
β
EPS/EPP
= ESF for external pressure starboard/port, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
ρ g, η, h
d
, h
s
, h
de
, k
s
are as defined in 5A-3-2/5.5 and 5A-3-2/5.7.
Specific information required for calculating the nominal loads are given in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for various
structural members and configurations.
7.7 Local Pressures for Design of Plating and Longitudinals (1995)
In calculating the required scantlings of plating, longitudinals and stiffeners, the nominal pressures should
be considered for the two load cases given in 5A-3-2/7.5, using k
u
= 1.1 for p
i
and p
e
instead of k
u
= 1.0 as
shown above.
The necessary details for calculating p
i
and p
e
are given in 5A-3-2/Table 3.
9 Combined Load Cases
9.1 Combined Load Cases for Structural Analysis (December 2008)
For assessing the strength of the hull girder structure and in performing a structural analysis as outlined in
Section 5A-3-4. For the three cargo tank length model structural analysis, the combined load cases
specified in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C are to be considered. Additional combined load cases may be
required as warranted. The loading patterns are shown in 5A-3-2/Figures 1A through 1C for three cargo
tank lengths. The necessary correlation factors and relevant coefficients for the loaded tanks are also given
in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C. The total external pressure distribution including static and hydrodynamic
pressure is illustrated in 5A-3-2/Figure 10.
For the cargo block model structural analysis, the loading conditions in 5A-1-3/3.7.2 are to be considered.
9.3 Combined Load Cases for Failure Assessment (December 2008)
For assessing the failure modes with respect to material yielding and buckling, the following combined
load cases shall be considered.
9.3.1 Yielding, Buckling and Ultimate Strength of Local Structures
For assessing the yielding, buckling and ultimate strength of local structures, the combined load
cases as given in 5A-3-2/Tables 1A through 1C are to be considered.
9.3.2 Fatigue Strength
For assessing the fatigue strength of structural joints, the combined load cases given in 5A-3-2/9.1
are to be used for a first level fatigue strength assessment as outlined in Appendix 5A-3-A2
“Guide for the Fatigue Assessment of Ship-type Installations.”

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11 Sloshing Loads
11.1 General (1995)
11.1.1 (December 2008)
Except for tanks that are situated wholly within the double side or double bottom, the natural
periods of liquid motions and sloshing loads are to be examined in assessing the strength of
boundary structures for all cargo or ballast tanks which will be partially filled between 20% and
90% of tank capacity. The sloshing pressure heads given in this Subsection may be used for
determining the strength requirements for the tank structures. Alternatively, sloshing loads may be
calculated either by model experiments or numerical simulation using three-dimensional flow
analysis for unrestricted service conditions and for sea conditions of the specific site of operation.
Methodology and procedures of tests and measurements or analysis methods are to be fully
documented and submitted for review.
11.1.2
The effects of impulsive sloshing pressures on the design of the main supporting structures of tank
transverse and longitudinal bulkheads are subject to special consideration.
11.3 Strength Assessment of Tank Boundary Structures
11.3.1 Tank Length and Pitch Induced Sloshing Loads (2002)
Tanks of length 54 m (177 ft) or greater are to satisfy requirements of either of the preventative
measures given in 5A-3-2/11.3.3 or 5A-3-2/11.3.4. Where the tank has smooth surfaces, one or
more swash bulkheads are to be fitted. Structural reinforcement is to be provided to the tank ends,
when the calculated pressure is higher than the pressure, p
i
, as specified in 5A-3-3/13.
Tanks of length 54 m (177 ft) or greater that have ring webs are to have a partial non-tight
bulkhead (i.e. non-full depth swash bulkhead) to eliminate the possibility of resonance at all filling
levels. The partial non-tight bulkhead may be waived if it can be demonstrated through the
application of model experiments or numerical simulation using three-dimensional flow analysis
that sloshing impacts do not occur. The height of the swash bulkhead is to be determined on the
basis of calculation using three-dimensional flow analysis as described in 5A-3-2/11.1.1.
Where the tank length is less than 54 m (177 ft), and if either of the preventative measures given
in 5A-3-2/11.3.3 or 5A-3-2/11.3.4 is not satisfied, the tank boundary structures are to be designed
in accordance with 5A-3-3/13 to withstand the sloshing pressures specified in 5A-3-2/11.5.
11.3.2 Roll Induced Sloshing Loads (2002)
Tanks that do not satisfy either of the preventative measures given in 5A-3-2/11.3.3 or 5A-3-2/11.3.4,
with respect of roll resonance, are to have their tank boundary structures designed in accordance
with 5A-3-3/13 to withstand the sloshing pressures specified in 5A-3-2/11.5.
11.3.3 (1997)
For long or wide cargo tanks, non-tight bulkheads or ring webs or both are to be designed and
fitted to eliminate the possibility of resonance at all filling levels.
Long tanks have length, , exceeding 0.1L. Wide tanks have width, b, exceeding 0.6B.
11.3.4
For each of the anticipated loading conditions, the “critical” filling levels of the tank should be
avoided so that the natural periods of fluid motions in the longitudinal and transverse directions
will not synchronize with the natural periods of the installation’s pitch and roll motions,
respectively. It is further recommended that the natural periods of the fluid motions in the tank, for
each of the anticipated filling levels, be at least 20% greater or smaller than that of the relevant
installation’s motion.

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The natural period of the fluid motion, in seconds, may be approximated by the following equations:
T
x
= (β
T

e
)
1/2
/k in the longitudinal direction
T
y
= (β
L
b
e
)
1/2
/k in the transverse direction
where

e
= effective length of the tank, as defined in 5A-3-2/11.5.1, in m (ft)
b
e
= effective breadth of the tank, as defined in 5A-3-2/11.5.1 in m (ft)
k = [(tanh H
1
)/(4π/g)]
1/2

H
1
= πd

/
e
or πd
b
/b
e

β
T
, β
L
, d

and d
b
are as defined in 5A-3-2/11.5.1. The natural periods given in 5A-3-2/5.7 for pitch
and roll of the installation, T
p
and T
r
, using the actual GM value, if available, may be used for this
purpose.
11.5 Sloshing Pressures (1995)
11.5.1 Nominal Sloshing Pressure (1 July 2009)
For cargo tanks with filling levels within the critical range specified in 5A-3-2/11.3.2, the internal
pressures p
is
, including static and sloshing pressures, positive toward tank boundaries, may be
expressed in terms of equivalent liquid pressure head, h
e
, as given below:
p
is
= k
s
ρ gh
e
≥ 0 in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
k
s
= load factor as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.2(a)
h
e
= k
u
[h
c
+ (h
t
− h
c
)(y − d
m
)/(h − d
m
) ] for y > d
m
= c
m
h
m
+ k
u
h
c
for 0.15h ≤ y ≤ d
m
(c
m
h
m
need not
exceed h)
h
e
calculated at y = 0.15h for y < 0.15h, but h
e
should not be smaller than c
m
h
m
.
c
m
= coefficient in accordance with 5A-3-2/Figure 14
h
m
= static pressure head, taken as the vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from
the filling level, d
m
, down to the point considered. d
m
, the filling level for
maximum h
c
calculated with C
φs
and C
θs
equal to 1.0, should not be taken
less than 0.55h.
d
m
= filling level, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 13
k
u
= load factor, and may be taken as unity unless otherwise specified.
h
c
= maximum average sloshing pressure heads, in m (ft), to be obtained from
calculations as specified below for at least two filling levels, 0.55h and the
one closest to the resonant period of ship’s motions, between 0.2h and 0.9h.
h
c
may be taken as constant over the tank depth, h (See 5A-3-2/Figure 13)
h
t
= sloshing pressure heads for upper bulkhead, in m (ft), to be obtained from
calculation below
h = depth of tank, in m (ft)
y = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the tank bottom to the point
considered
ρ g is as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.2.

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The values of h
c
and h
t
may be obtained from the following equations:
h
c
= k
c
(C
φs

2

h + C
θs
h
2
b
)
1/2
in m (ft)
h
t
= k
c
(C
φs
h
2
 t
+ C
θs
h
2
tb
)
1/2
in m (ft)
where
k
c
= correlation factor for combined load cases, and may be taken as unity unless
otherwise specified.
h

= φ
es

e
C
t
β
T
[0.018 + C
f
(1.0 − d

/H

)/φ
es
]d

/H

m (ft) for φ
es

h
b
= θ
es
b
e
C
tb
β
L
[0.016 + C
fb
(1.0 − d
b
/H
b
)/θ
es
]d
b
/H
b
m (ft) for θ
es

C
φs
and C
θs
are the weighted coefficients as given in 5A-3-2/Figure 14.
where
β
T
represents β for transverse bulkheads and β
L
represents β for the longitudinal bulkheads.
φ
es
= 0.71φ
θ
es
= 0.71θ
The pitch amplitude φ and roll amplitude θ are as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.1 with d
i
= 2/3d
f
.and
V = 10 knots

e
= effective tank length that accounts for the effect of deep ring-web frames, in
m (ft)
=
2 *
T
β 
b
e
= effective tank width that accounts for the effect of deep ring-web frames, in
m (ft)
=
2 *
L
β b
β
*
= 1.0 for tanks without deep ring webs,
= 0.25[4.0 − (1 − α
*
) − (1 − α
*
)
2
] for α
*
to be determined at d
o
,
*
T
β represents β
*
for transverse bulkheads.
*
L
β represents β
*
for longitudinal bulkheads.
β = (β
o
)(β
u
)(β
s
)
β
T
represents β for transverse bulkheads.
β
L
represents β for longitudinal bulkheads.
β
o
= 1.0 for tanks without a swash bulkhead
= 0.25[4.0 − (1 − α
o
) − (1 − α
o
)
2
] for tanks with a swash bulkhead
β
u
= 1.0 for tanks without any deep bottom
transverse and deep bottom
longitudinal girder
= 0.25[4.0 − d
1
/ h − (d
1
/ h)
2
] for tanks with deep bottom transverses
= 0.25[4.0 − d
b1
/ h − (d
b1
/ h)
2
] for tanks with deep bottom
longitudinal girders

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β
s
= 1.0 for boundary bulkheads that:
i) do not contain any deep horizontal girder; or
ii) do contain deep horizontal girders but with an opening ratio, α
s
, less
than 0.2 or greater than 0.4
= 0.25[4.0 − (1 − α
s
) − (1 − α
s
)
2
] for bulkheads with deep horizontal girders
having an opening ratio, α
s
, between 0.2 and 0.4
α = opening ratio (see 5A-3-2/Figure 15)
For α
o
5A-3-2/Figure 16(1), opening ratios of swash bulkheads, shall be used for all filling levels
considered. Also, 5A-3-2/Figure 16(2), local opening ratio for d
o
= 0.7h, bounded by the range
between 0.6h and 0.9h, shall be considered for openings within the range. The smaller of the two
opening ratios calculated, based on 5A-3-2/Figure 16(1) and 5A-3-2/Figure 16(2) for this filling
level, shall be used as the opening ratio.
For α*, 5A-3-2/Figure 16(3), opening ratio of deep ring-webs, filling level d
o
shall be used.
For α
s
, 5A-3-2/Figure 16(4), opening ratio of a deep horizontal girder on a boundary bulkhead, is
applicable to a filling level just above the horizontal girder in the zones illustrated in the figure.
Not to be considered for d
o
= 0.7h, unless a sizable girder is installed between 0.7h and h. Also not
to be considered if opening area in the girder is less than 20% or greater than 40% of the area of
the girder (i.e., α
s
= 1)
C
f
= 0.792[d

/(β
T

e
)]
1/2
+ 1.98
C
fb
= 0.704[d
b
/(β
L
b
e
)]
1/2
+ 1.76
C
t
= 0.9 x
o1
/[1 + 9(1 − x
o
)
2
] ≥ 0.25
x
o
= T
x
/T
p

x
o1
= x
o
if x
o
≤ 1.0
= 1/x
o
if x
o
> 1.0
C
tb
= 0.9 y
o1
/[1 + 9(1 − y
o
)
2
] ≥ 0.25
y
o
= T
y
/T
r
If roll radius of gyration is not known, 0.39B may be used in the
calculation of T
r

y
o1
= y
o
if y
o
≤ 1.0
= 1/y
o
if y
o
> 1.0
T
x
and T
y
are as defined in 5A-3-2/11.3.4.
T
p
and T
r
are as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.
d
o
= filling depth, in m (ft)
d

= d
o
− d
1
[1 – σ
n
2
(n + 1)/2]
1/2
k
1
− 0.45d
2
k
2
and ≥ 0.0
d
b
= d
o
− d
b1
[1 – σ
m
2
(m + 1)/2]
1/2
k
b1
− 0.45d
b2
k
b2
and ≥ 0.0
H

= h − d
1
[1 – σ
n
2
(n + 1)/2]
1/2
k
1
− 0.45d
2
k
2

H
b
= h − d
b1
[1 – σ
m
2
(m + 1)/2]
1/2
k
b1
− 0.45d
b2
k
b2

d
1
= height of deep bottom transverses measured from the tank bottom,
(5A-3-2/Figure 17), in m (ft)
d
2
= bottom height of the lowest openings in non-tight transverse bulkhead measured
above the tank bottom or top of bottom transverses (5A-3-2/Figure 17), in m (ft)
n = number of deep bottom transverses in the tank
d
b1
= height of deep bottom longitudinal girders measured from the tank bottom
(5A-3-2/Figure 17), in m (ft)

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d
b2
= bottom height of the lowest openings in non-tight longitudinal bulkhead
measured above the tank bottom, or top of bottom longitudinal girders
(5A-3-2/Figure 17), in m (ft)
m = number of deep bottom longitudinal girders in the tank
k
1
= −1 if d
o
≤ d
1

= 1 if d
o
> d
1

k
2
= −1 if d
o
≤ d
2

= 1 if d
o
> d
2

k
b1
= −1 if d
o
≤ d
b1

= 1 if d
o
> d
b1

k
b2
= −1 if d
o
≤ d
b2

= 1 if d
o
> d
b2

σ
n
= (4/π)(n + 1)/[n(n + 2)]cos[π/{2(n + 1)}]
σ
m
= (4/π)(m + 1)/[m(m + 2)]cos[π/{2(m + 1)}]

s
(b
s
) shall be used in place of 
e
(b
e
) for a filling level below the completely solid portion of the
nontight bulkhead, i.e., the region below the lowest opening, (5A-3-2/Figure 17), where 
s
(b
s
) is
taken as the distance bounded by the solid portion of the nontight bulkhead below the lowest
opening and the tight bulkhead. d

, H

and d
b
, H
b
need not consider the effect of d
2
and d
b2
,
respectively.
h
tl
= 0.0068


t e T
C′ ′ β (φ
es
+ 40) (φ
es
)
1/2
m (ft)
h
tb
= 0.0055
tb e L
C b ′ ′ β (θ
es
+ 35) (θ
es
)
1/2
m (ft)
where
 t
C′ and
tb
C′ are C
t
and C
tb
for h
m
= 0.70h;
T
β′ and
L
β′ correspond to β for d
o
= 0.7h; φ
es
and θ
es

are as defined previously.
C
φs
and C
θs
are weighted coefficients, as given in 5A-3-2/Figure 14.
h
tl
shall not be less than h
p
; h
tb
shall not be less than h
r

h
p
=  sin (φ
es
)
h
r
= b sin (θ
es
)
11.5.2 Sloshing Loads for Assessing Strength of Structures at Tank Boundaries
11.5.2(a) In assessing the strength of tank boundary supporting structures, the two combined load
cases with loading pattern shown in 5A-3-2/Figure 18, with the specified sloshing loads shown in
5A-3-2/Table 2 for the respective side on which the horizontal girder is located, are to be considered
when performing a 3D structural analysis.
11.5.2(b) In assessing the strength of plating and stiffeners at tank boundaries, local bending of
the plating and stiffeners with respect to the local sloshing pressures for structural members/elements
is to be considered in addition to the nominal loadings specified for the 3D analysis in 5A-3-2/11.5.2(a)
above. In this regard, k
u
should be taken as 1.15 instead of 1.0, shown in 5A-3-2/11.5.2(a) above
for the combined load cases, to account for the maximum pressures due to possible non-uniform
distribution.
11.5.3 Sloshing Loads Normal to the Web Plates of Horizontal and Vertical Girders
In addition to the sloshing loads acting on the bulkhead plating, the sloshing loads normal to the
web plates of horizontal and vertical girders are to be also considered for assessing the strength of
the girders. The magnitude of the normal sloshing loads may be approximated by taking 25% of h
c

or h
t
for k
u
= 1.0, whichever is greater, at the location considered.

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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FIGURE 13
Vertical Distribution of EquivalentSlosh Pressure Head, h
e
(1995)
C
m
h
m
d
m
y
h
h
e
k
u
h
c
k
u
h
c
+
[ k
u
(h
t
- h
c
) (y - d
m
) / (h - d
m
) ]
k
u
h
t



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FIGURE 14
Horizontal Distribution of Simultaneous Slosh Pressure Heads,
h
c

s
θ
s
) or h
t

s
θ
s
) (1995)
C
m
= 0.5 C
m
= 1.0
C
m
= 1.25
C
m
= 1.5 C
m
= 1.0 C
m
= 1.25
C
θs
= 1.0
C
φs
= 0.0
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 0.0
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 1.0
C
θs
= 1.0
C
φs
= 1.0
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 0.0
A
F
T


B
H
D
L.C. S-1
C
θs
= 1.0
C
φs
= 1.0
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 1.0
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 0.0
C
m
= 1.0
C
m
= 1.5 C
m
= 1.0
C
m
= 0.5
C
m
= 1.25
C
θs
= 1.0
C
φs
= 0.0
C
m
= 1.25
C
θs
= 0.0
C
φs
= 0.0
F
W
D


B
H
D
L.C. S-2
Note: h
c
may be taken as zero for the deck and inner bottom


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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FIGURE 15
Definitions for Opening Ratio, α (1995)
d
o
A3 A4
A1 A2
A1 + A2
A1 + A2 + B
=
B
A1 + A2 + A3
A1 + A2 + A3 + B
A3
A1 A2
B
B: wetted portion of swash bulkhead
α = α



FIGURE 16
Opening Ratios (1995)
Deep Ring-Web Frame
Full Swash L - Type
0.6h - 0.9h
0.7h
o
d
h
(1)
(2) (3)
Deep Horizontal Grider
a
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

z
o
n
e
s
A + B
A + B + C
B
A
C
w
d
=
d
o
w
d
w
d
α
s
45°


(1) – (3) Opening Ratios of Nontight Bulkheads
and Deep Ring-Webs
(4) Opening Ratio of Deep Horizontal Girders Boundary
Bulkheads

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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FIGURE 17
Dimensions of Internal Structures (1995)
2
d
h
s
d
b2
b
b
s
h



1
d

d
b1


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FIGURE 18
Loading Patterns for Sloshing Load Cases (1 July 2009)
a. Load Case S-1; 2/3 Design Draft b. Load Case S-2; 2/3 Design Draft
a. Load Case S-1; 2/3 Design Draft b. Load Case S-2; 2/3 Design Draft
Type A: Where the Horizontal Girder is on the Aft Side of Transverse Bulkhead
Type B: Where the Horizontal Girder is on the Forward Side of Transverse Bulkhead




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13 Impact Loads
13.1 Impact Loads on Bow (2000)
When experimental data or direct calculations are not available, nominal bow impact pressures due to
wave celerity above the load waterline (LWL) in the region from the forward end to the collision bulkhead
may be obtained from the following equation:
P
bij
= k C
k
C
ij
V
ij
2
sin γ
ij
kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Lt/ft
2
)
where:
k = 1.025 (0.1045, 0.000888)
C
ij
= {1 + cos
2
[90(F
bi
– 2a
j
)/F
bi
]}
1/2
V
ij
= ω
1
sin α
ij

+ ω
2


WHT

L)
1/2
ω
1

= 3.09 (10.14) for m (ft)
ω
2

= 1.0 (1.8) for m (ft)
β
WHT
= ESF for Wave Height as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
γ
ij
= tan
-1
(tan β
ij
/cos α
ij
) not to be taken less than 50 degrees
α
ij
= local waterline angle measured from the centerline, see 5A-3-2/Figure 19
β
ij
= local body plan angle measured from the horizontal, see 5A-3-2/Figure 19
F
bi
= freeboard from the highest deck at side to the load waterline (LWL) at station i, see
5A-3-2/Figure 19
a
j

= vertical distance from LWL to WL-j, see 5A-3-2/Figure 19
i, j = station and waterline to be taken to correspond to the locations under consideration,
as required by 5A-3-5/3.1.1
C
k
= 0.7 at collision bulkhead and 0.9 at 0.0125L, linear interpolation for in between
= 0.9 between 0.0125L and FP
= 1.0 at and forward of FP.


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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FIGURE 19
Definition of Bow Geometry (2000)
LWL
F
bi
a
ij
s
WL
j
body
plan
angle β
tangent line
highest
deck
CL
CL
waterline angle
WL
j
tangent line
α


13.3 Bottom Slamming (1 July 2012)
For ship-type installations with heavy weather ballast draft forward less than 0.04L, bottom slamming
loads are to be considered for assessing strength of the flat of bottom plating forward and the associated
stiffening system in the fore body region.
13.3.1 Bottom Slamming Pressure
The equivalent bottom slamming pressure for strength formulation and assessment should be
determined based on well-documented experimental data or analytical studies. When these direct
calculations are not available, nominal bottom slamming pressures may be determined by the
following equations:
P
si
= kk
i
[
2
o
v + M
Vi
E
ni
]E
f
kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
)
where
P
si
= equivalent bottom slamming pressure for section i
k = 1.025 (0.1045, 0.000888)
k
i
= 2.2 b
*
/d
o
+ α ≤ 40
b
*
= half width of flat of bottom at the i-th ship station, see 5A-3-2/Figure 20
d
o
=
1
/
10
of the section draft at the heavy ballast condition, see 5A-3-2/Figure 20
α = a constant as given in 5A-3-2/Table 4

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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E
f
= f
1
ω
1
(L)
1/2

f
1
= 0.004 (0.0022) for m (ft)
where b represents the half breadth at the
1
/
10
draft of the section, see 5A-3-2/Figure 20. Linear
interpolation may be used for intermediate values.
v
o
= c
o
(L)
1/2
, in m/s (ft/s)
c
o
= 0.29 (0.525) for m (ft)
M
Ri
= 1.391 A
i
β
vm
(L/C
b
)
1/2
for L in meters
= 8.266 A
i
β
vm

(L/C
b
)
1/2
for L in feet
β
vm
= ESF for vertical relative motion as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
C
b
= as defined in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
M
Vi
= B
i
M
Ri

A
i
and B
i
are as given in 5A-3-2/Table 5.
G
ei
=
)] / / ( [
2 2
Ri i Vi o
M d M v
e
+ −

d
i
= local section draft, in m (ft)
E
ni
= natural log of n
i

n
i
= 5730(M
Vi
/M
Ri
)
1/2
G
ei
, if n
i
< 1 then P
si
= 0
ω
1
= natural angular frequency of the hull girder 2-node vertical vibration of the
installation in the wet mode and the heavy weather ballast draft condition, in
rad/second. If not known, the following equation may be used:
= µ[B D
3
/(∆
S
3
b
C L
3
)]
1/2
+ c
o
≥ 3.7
where
µ = 23400 (7475, 4094)

S
= ∆
b
[1.2 +B/(3d
b
)]

b
= installation displacement at the heavy ballast condition, in kN (tf, Ltf)
d
b
= mean draft of installation at the heavy ballast condition, in m (ft)
c
o
= 1.0 for heavy ballast draft
L, B and D are as defined in Section 3-1-1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.

TABLE 4
Values of α (2000)
b/d
o
α b/d
o
α
1.00 0.00 4.00 20.25
1.50 9.00 5.00 22.00
2.00 11.75 6.00 23.75
2.50 14.25 7.00 24.50
3.00 16.50 7.50 24.75
3.50 18.50 25.0 24.75

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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TABLE 5
Values of A
i
and B
i

Section i from F.P. A
i
B
i

-0.05L 1.25 0.3600
0 1.00 0.4000
0.05L 0.80 0.4375
0.10L 0.62 0.4838
0.15L 0.47 0.5532
0.20L 0.33 0.6666
0.25L 0.22 0.8182
0.30L 0.22 0.8182


FIGURE 20
Distribution of Bottom Slamming Pressure
Along the Section Girth (2000)
b
P
s
b*
d
o
(1/10 draft)
c
e
n
t
e
r
l
i
n
e


13.5 Bowflare Slamming
For installations possessing bowflare and having a shape parameter A
r
greater than 21 m (68.9 ft), in the
forebody region, bowflare slamming loads are to be considered for assessing the strength of the side
plating and the associated stiffening system in the forebody region of the installation at its scantling draft.
A
r
= the maximum value of A
ri
in the forebody region
A
ri
= bowflare shape parameter at a station i forward of the quarter length, up to the FP of
the installation, to be determined between the LWL and the upper deck/forecastle, as
follows:
= (b
T
/H)
2
∑b
j
[1 + (s
j
/b
j
)
2
]
1/2
, j = 1, n; n ≥ 3

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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where
n = number of segments
b
T
=
∑ j
b
H =
∑ j
s
b
j
= local change (increase) in beam for the j-th segment at station i
(see 5A-3-2/Figure 21)
s
j
= local change (increase) in freeboard up to the highest deck for the j-th segment at
station i forward (see 5A-3-2/Figure 21)
13.5.1 Nominal Bowflare Slamming
When experimental data or direct calculation is not available, nominal bowflare slamming pressures
may be determined by the following equations:
P
ij
= P
oij
or P
bij
as defined below, whichever is greater
P
oij
= k
1
(9M
Ri

2
ij
h )
2/3
kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
)
P
bij
= k
2
[C
2
+ K
ij
M
Vi
(1 + E
ni
)] kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
)
where
k
1
= 9.807 (1, 0.0278)
k
2
= 1.025 (0.1045, 0.000888)
C
2
= 39.2 (422.46) for m (ft)
n
ij
= 5730(M
Vi
/M
Ri
)
1/2
G
ij
≥ 1.0
E
ni
= natural log of n
ij

G
ij
=
( )
Ri ij
M h
e
/
2


M
Ri
= 1.391 A
i
β
RVM
(L/C
b
)
1/2
for L in meters
= 8.266 A
i
β
RVM

(L/C
b
)
1/2
for L in feet
A
i
= as shown in 5A-3-2/Table 6
β
RVM
= ESF for relative vertical motion as defined in 5A-5-A1/3
C
b
= as defined in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
L = length of installation as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of Steel Vessel Rules
M
Vi
= B
i
M
Ri
, where B
i
is given in 5A-3-2/Table 6
h
ij
= vertical distance measured from the load waterline (LWL) at station i to WL
j

on the bowflare. The value of h
ij
is not to be taken less than 2.0 m (6.56 ft)
K
ij
= f
ij
[r
j
/(b
ij
+ 0.5h
ij
)]
3/2
[
ij
/r
j
]
r
j
= (M
Ri
)
1/2

b
ij
= local half beam of WL
j
at station i. The value of b
ij
is not to be taken less than
2.0 m (6.56 ft)

ij
= longitudinal distance of WL
j
at station i measured from amidships

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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f
ij
= [90/β
ij
− 1]
2
[tan(β
ij
)/3.14]
2
cos γ
β
ij
= local body plan angle measured from the horizontal, in degrees, need not be
taken less than 35 degrees, see 5A-3-2/Figure 21
γ = installation stem angle at the centerline measured from the horizontal,
5A-3-2/Figure 22, in degrees, not to be taken greater than 75 degrees

TABLE 6
Values of A
i
and B
i
* (2000)
A
i
B
i

-0.05L 1.25 0.3600
FP 1.00 0.4000
0.05L 0.80 0.4375
0.10L 0.62 0.4838
0.15L 0.47 0.5532
0.20L 0.33 0.6666
0.25L 0.22 0.8182
0.30L 0.22 0.8182
* Linear interpolation may be used for intermediate values.

FIGURE 21
Definition of Bowflare Geometry for Bowflare Shape Parameter (2000)
highest deck
β
ij
(body plan angle)
b
1
s
1
LWL
c
e
n
t
e
r
l
i
n
e
b
2
s
2
b
3
s
3
s
4
b
4


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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FIGURE 22
Ship-Type Installation Stem Angle, γ
St em Angle γ
F.P.


13.5.2 Simultaneous Bowflare Slamming Pressure
For performing structural analyses to determine overall responses of the hull structures, the spatial
distribution of instantaneous bowflare slamming pressures on the forebody region of the hull may
be expressed by multiplying the calculated maximum bowflare slamming pressures, P
ij
, at forward
ship stations by a factor of 0.71 for the region between the stem and 0.3L from the FP.
13.7 Green Water on Deck (31 March 2007)
When experimental data or direct calculations are not available, nominal green water pressure imposed on
deck along the installation length, including the extension beyond the FP, may be obtained from the
following equations.
P
gi
= K{[β
RVM
A
i
(B/L)
1/4
/C
b
] – k
1
F
bi
} kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
)
where
P
gi
= Green water pressure, uniformly distributed across the deck at specified longitudinal
section i along the installation length under consideration (see 5A-3-2/Table 7 below).
Pressure in between is obtained by linear interpolation. P
gi
is not to be taken less
than 20.6 kN/m
2
(2.1 tf/m
2
, 0.192 Lt/ft
2
).
K = 10.052 (1.025, 0.09372)
k
1
= 1.0 (3.28) for m (ft)
A
i
= as shown in 5A-3-2/Table 7
β
RVM
= ESF factor of relative vertical motion, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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C
b
= as defined in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
L = scantling length of installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel
Rules
B = greatest molded breath of installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel
Vessel Rules
F
bi
= freeboard from the highest deck at side to the load waterline (LWL) at station i, in m
(ft), see 5A-3-2/Figure 19

TABLE 7
Values of A
i
(1 March 2006)
Section i from F.P. A
i

-0.05L 23.3
0 20.7
0.05L 18.2
0.10L 16.1
0.15L 14.7
0.20L 14.3
0.25L 14.2
0.30L 14.1
0.35L 14
0.40L 14
0.45L 14
0.50L 14
0.55L 14
0.60L 14
0.65L 14
0.70L 14
0.75L 14.2
0.80L 14.2
0.85L 14.2
0.90L 14.7
0.95L 17.1
1.00L 19.9

15 Deck Loads (2000)
15.1 General
For the design and evaluation of deck structures, the following loads due to on deck production facilities
are to be considered:
i) Static weight of on deck production facilities in upright condition.
ii) Dynamic loads due to ship motions.
iii) Wind load.

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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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15.3 Loads for On-Site Operation (December 2008)
The nominal forces from each individual deck production module at the center of gravity of the module
can be obtained from the following equations:
F
v
= W [cos(0.71C
φ
φ) cos(0.71C
θ
θ) + 0.71c
v
a
v
/g]
F
t
= W [sin(0.71C
θ
θ) +0.71c
T
a
t
/g] + k
t

F
wind


F

= W [-sin(0.71C
φ
φ) + 0.71c
L
a

/g] + k


F
wind

where
φ and θ are the pitch and roll amplitudes defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.1.
φ, in degrees, need not to be taken more than 10 degrees.
θ, in degrees, need not to be taken more than 30 degrees.
a
v
, a
t
and a

are the vertical, transverse and longitudinal accelerations, as specified in 5A-3-2/5.7.1
for heading angles µ in 5A-3-2/Table 8
Note: The accelerations specified in 5A-3-2/5.7.1 are to be considered preliminary values and may be used
only when values from model tests or ship motion calculations are not yet available. The final design
forces from deck production modules are to be calculated using acceleration values obtained from model
test data or ship motions calculations for the site location.
F
v
= vertical load from each production module, positive downward
F
t
= transverse load from each production module, positive starboard
F

= longitudinal load from each production module, positive forward
W = weight of the production module, in kN (tf, Ltf)
F
wind
= k A
wind
C
s
C
h

2
wind
V = wind force, in kN (tf, Ltf)
Two combinations of wave-induced and wind forces are to be considered:
F
v
, F
t
with factor k
t
= 1 and F

with factor k

= 0
F
v
, F
t

with factor k
t
= 0 and F

with factor k

= 1
The deck load is to be obtained for the maximum weight of on deck production facilities for head sea
(Load Case A), beam sea (Load Case B) and oblique sea (Load Case C) listed in 5A-3-2/Table 8, where
the correlation factors c
v
, c
T
, c
L
, C
φ
and C
θ
for each load case are also shown.

TABLE 8
Correlation Factors c
v
, c
T
, c
L
, C
φ
and C
θ


Load Case
LC A
(head sea)
LC B
(beam sea)
LC C
(oblique)
c
v
0.8 0.4 0.7
c
L
0.6 0 0.7
c
T
0 0.9 0.7
C
φ
-1 0 -0.7
C
θ
0 1 0.7
Wave heading
angle µ in deg.
0 90 60


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Section 2 Loads 5A-3-2

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where
V
wind
= wind velocity based on 1-hour average speed
A
wind
= projected area of windage on a plane normal to the direction of the wind, in m
2
(ft
2
)
C
s
= shape coefficient, defined in Section 3-2-4 of this Guide
C
h
= height coefficient, defined in Section 3-2-4 of this Guide for 1-hour average wind
The forces from each deck production module can be obtained based on long-term prediction for the
realistic sea states of the specific site of operation. In no case are the forces F
v
, F
t
and F

to be less than
those obtained using the values of Environmental Severity Factors (ESFs) established from 5A-3-A1/3.
15.5 Loads in Transit Condition
Nominal loads of the production facility modules on deck during transit condition can be obtained from the
equations in item 5A-3-2/15.3, above. Alternatively, corresponding forces can be calculated based on the
sea condition for the specific voyage. Also see Part 3, Chapter 2 of this Guide.


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PART S e c t i o n 3 : I n i t i a l S c a n t l i n g E v a l u a t i o n
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation
1 General
1.1 Strength Requirement (1995)
This Section specifies the minimum strength requirements for hull structure with respect to the determination
of initial scantlings, including the hull girder, shell and bulkhead plating, longitudinals/ stiffeners and main
supporting members. Once the minimum scantlings are determined, the strength of the resulting design is
to be assessed in accordance with Section 5A-3-4. The assessment is to be carried out by means of an
appropriate structural analysis as per 5A-3-4/11, in order to establish compliance with the failure criteria in
5A-3-4/3. Structural details are to comply with 5A-3-3/1.5.
The requirements for hull girder strength are specified in 5A-3-3/3. The required scantlings of double
bottom structures, side shell and deck, and longitudinal and transverse bulkheads are specified in 5A-3-3/7
through 5A-3-3/17 below. 5A-3-3/Figure 1 shows the appropriate Subsections giving scantling requirements
for the various structural components of typical double hull ship-type installations. For hull structures
beyond 0.4L amidships, the initial scantlings are determined in accordance with Section 5A-3-5.
1.3 Calculation of Load Effects (1995)
Equations giving approximate requirements are given in 5A-3-3/7 through 5A-3-3/13 for calculating the
maximum bending moments and shear forces for main supporting members clear of the end brackets, and
axial loads for cross ties for typical structural arrangements and configurations (5A-5-3/Figures 2A and
2B). For designs with different structural configurations, these local load effects may be determined from a
3D structural analysis at the early design stages, as outlined in 5A-3-4/11, for the combined load cases
specified in 5A-3-2/9, excluding the hull girder load components. In this regard, the detailed analysis
results are to be submitted for review.
1.5 Structural Details (1995)
The strength criteria specified in this Section and Section 5A-3-5 are based on assumptions that all
structural joints and welded details are properly designed and fabricated and are compatible with the
anticipated working stress levels at the locations considered. It is critical to closely examine the loading
patterns, stress concentrations and potential failure modes of structural joints and details during the design
of highly stressed regions. In this exercise, failure criteria specified in 5A-3-4/3 may be used to assess the
adequacy of structural details.
1.7 Evaluation of Grouped Stiffeners (1 July 2008)
Where several members in a group with some variation in requirement are selected as equal, the section
modulus requirement may be taken as the average of each individual requirement in the group. However,
the section modulus requirement for the group is not to be taken less than 90% of the largest section
modulus required for individual stiffeners within the group. Sequentially positioned stiffeners of equal
scantlings may be considered a group.



Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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FIGURE 1
Scantling Requirement Reference by Subsection (1 September 2007)
For main supporting members, also see
5A-3-3/11.9 & 5A-3-3/11.11 for minimum
web depth and thickness requirements.
L
C
L
C
5A-3-3/9.5
5A-3-3/3.1
5A-3-3/9.3
5A-3-3/11.3.1 & 5A-3-3/11.5.2
5A-3-3/11.7
5A-3-3/5.3
5A-3-3/9.1
5A-3-3/13.3 (plate)
5A-3-3/17 (corrugated)
5A-3-3/15.5.1
5A-3-3/11.9
5A-3-3/13.5
5A-3-3/9.5
5A-3-3/13.5
5A-3-3/5.5
5A-3-3/13.1
5A-3-3/7.3.2
5A-3-3/7.7.2
5A-3-3/7.7.4
5A-3-3/7.5
5A-3-3/7.3.1
5A-3-3/7.7.3
5A-3-3/7.7.3 & 5A-3-3/7.7.4
5A-3-3/13.3
5A-3-3/15.7.1
5A-3-3/11.5.1 & 5A-3-3/11.5.2



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Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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FIGURE 2A
Definitions of Spans (A) (1 July 2012)
































= = = =
= =
L
C
L
C
L
C
L
C
h
e
L
C
L
C

b
*

b
*

b
*

b
*

b
*
* Where both lower and upper ends of the vertical web are fitted with a bracket of the same or larger size on the opposite
side, the span 
b
may be taken between the toes of the effective lower and upper brackets.
s
g

t


s 
s

t

s
g
 

t

t

s

s

t

h
e
 

t

t

s
 

t

t

s
a. b.
c. d.
e. f.



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Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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FIGURE 2B
Definitions of Spans (B) (1 July 2012)












h
U
h
U
h
L
h
L
L
C
h
e
L
C
h
e
h
a
h
U
h
L
b.
a.
c.

b



b
*


st
*

g


* Where both lower and upper ends of the vertical web are fitted
with a bracket of the same or larger size on the opposite side,
the span 
b
or 
st
may be taken between the toes of the effective
lower and upper brackets.
Side Transverse and Vertical
Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead
Horizontal Girder on
Transverse Bulkhead
Deck Girder and Vertical Web
on Transverse Bulkhead




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Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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3 Hull Girder Strength
3.1 Hull Girder Section Modulus (1 July 2012)
3.1.1 Hull Girder Section Modulus Amidships
The required hull girder section modulus amidships is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-1-2/1
of this Guide and 3-2-1/3.7, 3-2-1/5 and 3-2-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules. For the assessment of
ultimate strength as specified in 5A-3-3/3.5 and the determination of initial net structural scantlings,
the net hull girder section modulus amidships, SM
n
, is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-3/3.1.2
below.
3.1.2 Effective Longitudinal Members
The hull girder section modulus calculation is to be carried out in accordance with 3-2-1/9 of the
Steel Vessel Rules, as modified below. To suit the strength criteria based on a “net” ship concept,
the nominal design corrosion values specified in 5A-3-1/Table 1 are to be deducted in calculating
the net section modulus, SM
n
.
3.1.3 Extent of Midship Scantlings
The items included in the hull girder section modulus amidships are to be extended as necessary to
meet the hull girder section modulus required at the location being considered. The required hull
girder section modulus can be obtained as M
t
/f
p
at the location being considered except if (M
t
)
max
/f
p
is
less than SM
min
in 5A-1-2/1. In this case, the required section modulus is to be obtained by
multiplying SM
min
by the ratio of M
ti
/(M
t
)
max
where M
ti
is the total bending moment at the location
under consideration and (M
t
)
max
is the maximum total bending moment amidships.
3.3 Hull Girder Moment of Inertia (1 July 2012)
The hull girder moment of inertia, I, amidships, is to be not less than:
I = L ⋅ SM/33.3 cm
2
-m
2
(in
2
-ft
2
)
where
L = length of installation, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
SM = required hull girder section modulus, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft). See 5A-1-2/1.
3.5 Hull Girder Ultimate Strength (December 2008)
In addition to the strength requirements specified in 5A-3-3/3.1, the vertical hull girder ultimate strength
for either hogging or sagging conditions for the FPI design environmental condition (DEC) is to satisfy the
limit state as specified below. It need only be applied within the 0.4L amidship region.
γ
s
M
s
+ γ
w
β
VBM
M
w
≤ M
u

u

where
M
s
= permissible still-water bending moment, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
M
w
= vertical wave-induced bending moment in accordance with 3-2-1/3.5.1 of the Steel
Vessel Rules, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
M
u
= hull girder ultimate strength, which may be determined from the equations as given in
Appendix 5A-3-A3, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
β
VBM
= ESF for vertical wave-induced bending moment for DEC
γ
s
= load factor for the maximum permissible still-water bending moment, but not to be
taken as less than 1.0

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γ
w
= load factor for the wave-induced bending moment, but not to be taken as less than below
for the given limits
= 1.3 for M
s
< 0.2 M
t
or M
s
> 0.5 M
t

= 1.2 for 0.2M
t
≤ M
s
≤ 0.5 M
t

M
t
= total bending moment, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft)
= M
s
+ β
VBM
M
w

γ
u
= safety factor for the vertical hull girder bending capacity, but not to be taken as less
than 1.15
5 Shearing Strength (1997)
5.1 General (December 2008)
The net thickness of the side shell and longitudinal bulkhead plating is to be determined based on the total
vertical shear force, F
t
, and the permissible shear stress, f
s
, given below, where the outer longitudinal
bulkheads (inner skin) are located no further than 0.075B from the side shell.
The nominal design corrosion values as given in 5A-3-1/Table 1 for the side shell and longitudinal bulkhead
plating are to be added to the “net” thickness thus obtained.
F
t
= F
S
+ β
VSF
F
W
kN (tf, Ltf)
t = Fm/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
F
S
= still-water shear force based on the still-water shear force envelope curve for all
anticipated loading conditions in accordance with 3-2-1/3.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules,
at location considered, in kN (tf, Ltf).
β
VSF
= ESF for vertical shear force, as defined in 5A-3-A1/3
F
W
= vertical wave shear force, as given in 3-2-1/3.5.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in kN (tf,
Ltf). F
W
for in-port condition may be taken as zero.
t = t
s
or t
i
(see 5A-3-3/5.3 and 5A-3-3/5.5)
F = F
t
D
s
or (F
t
+ R
i
)D
i
(see 5A-3-3/5.3 and 5A-3-3/5.5 below)
m = first moment of the “net” hull girder section, in cm
3
(in
3
), about the neutral axis, of
the area between the vertical level at which the shear stress is being determined and
the vertical extremity of the section under consideration
I = moment of inertia of the “net” hull girder section at the position considered, in cm
4
(in
4
)
f
s
= 11.96/Q kN/cm
2
(1.220/Q tf/cm
2
, 7.741/Q Ltf/in
2
) at sea
= 10.87/Q kN/cm
2
(1.114/Q tf/cm
2
, 7.065/Q Ltf/in
2
) in port
Q = material conversion factor
= 1.0 for ordinary strength steel
= 0.78 for Grade H32 steel
= 0.72 for Grade H36 steel
= 0.68 for Grade H40 steel
For the purpose of calculating required thickness for hull girder shear, the sign of F
t
may be disregarded
unless algebraic sum with other shear forces, such as local load components, is appropriate.

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5.3 Net Thickness of Side Shell Plating
t
s
≥ F
t
D
s
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
D
s
= shear distribution factor for side shell, as defined in 5A-3-3/5.3.1, 5A-3-3/5.3.2 or
5A-3-3/5.3.3 below.
F
t
, m, I and f
s
are as defined in 5A-3-3/5.1 above.
5.3.1 Shear Distribution Factor for Ship-type Installations with Two Outer Longitudinal Bulkheads
(inner skin only)
D
s
= 0.384 − 0.167A
ob
/A
s
− 0.190 b
s
/B
where
A
ob
= total projected area of the net outer longitudinal bulkhead (inner skin) plating
above inner bottom (one side), in cm
2
(in
2
)
A
s
= total projected area of the net side shell plating (one side), in cm
2
(in
2
)
b
s
= distance between outer side longitudinal bulkhead (inner skin) and side shell,
in m (ft)
B = breadth of the installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel
Rules.
5.3.2 Shear Distribution Factor for Ship-type Installations with Two Outer Longitudinal Bulkheads
and a Centerline Swash or Oil-tight Longitudinal Bulkhead
D
s
= 0.347 − 0.057A
cb
/A
s
− 0.137 A
ob
/A
s
− 0.070b
s
/B
where
A
cb
= total area of the net centerline longitudinal bulkhead plating above inner
bottom, in cm
2
(in
2
)
A
s
, A
ob
, b
s
and B are as defined in 5A-3-3/5.3.1 above.
5.3.3 Shear Distribution Factor for Ship-type Installations with Two Outer and Two Inner Longitudinal
Bulkheads
D
s
= 0.330 − 0.218A
ob
/A
s
− 0.043b
s
/B
where A
s
, A
ob
,b
s
and B are as defined in 5A-3-3/5.3.1 above.
5.5 Thickness of Longitudinal Bulkheads
t
i
≥ (F
t
+ R
i
)D
i
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
D
i
= shear distribution factor
R
i
= local load correction
i = ob for outer longitudinal bulkhead (inner skin)
= ib for inner longitudinal bulkhead
= cb for centerline longitudinal bulkhead
F
t
, I, m and f
s
are as defined above.
The other parameters, depending on the configuration of the ship-type installation, are defined in 5A-3-3/5.5.1,
5A-3-3/5.5.2 and 5A-5-3/5.5.3 below.

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5.5.1 Ship-type Installations with Two Outer Longitudinal Bulkheads (Inner Skin Only)
The net thickness of the outer longitudinal bulkhead plating at the position considered:
t
ob
≥ F
t
D
ob
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
D
ob
= 0.105 + 0.156A
ob
/A
s
+ 0.190b
s
/B
A
s
, A
ob
, b
s
, B, F
t
, I, m and f
s
are defined above.
5.5.2 Ship-type Installations with Two Outer Longitudinal Bulkheads and a Centerline Swash or Oil-
tight Longitudinal Bulkhead
5.5.2(a) (1999) The net thickness of the centerline longitudinal bulkhead plating at the position
considered:
t
cb
≥ (F
t
+ R
cb
)D
cb
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
R
cb
= W
c
[(2N
wcb
k
cb
I/3H
cb
D
cb
m) − 1] ≥ 0
k
cb
= 1 +
*
cb
A /A
cb
≤ 1.9
D
cb
= 0.229 + 0.152A
cb
/A
s
− 0.10A
ob
/A
s
− 0.198 b
s
/B
W
c
= local load, in kN (tf, Ltf), calculated according to 5A-3-3/5.7 and
5A-3-3/Figure 3a
N
wcb
= local load distribution factor for the centerline longitudinal bulkhead
= (0.66D
cb
+ 0.25) (n − 1)/n
n = total number of transverse frame spaces in the center tank
H
cb
= depth of the centerline longitudinal bulkhead above inner bottom, in cm (in.)
*
cb
A = total area of the net centerline longitudinal bulkhead plating above the lower
edge of the strake under consideration, in cm
2
(in
2
)
All other parameters are as defined in 5A-3-3/5.3.
5.5.2(b) The net thickness of the outer longitudinal bulkhead plating at the position considered:
t
ob
≥ F
t
D
ob
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
D
ob
= 0.106 − 0.093A
cb
/A
s
+ 0.164A
ob
/A
s
+ 0.202b
s
/B
All other parameters are as defined in 5A-3-3/5.3 and 5A-3-3/5.5.
5.5.3 Ship-type Installations with Two Outer and Two Inner Longitudinal Bulkheads
5.5.3(a) The net thickness of the inner longitudinal bulkhead plating at the position considered:
t
ib
≥ (F
t
+ R
ib
)D
ib
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
R
ib
= W
c1
[(2N
wib1
k
ib
I/3H
ib
D
ib
m)− 1] + W
c2
[(2N
wib2
k
ib
I/3H
ib
D
ib
m) − 1] ≥ 0
k
ib
= 1 +
*
ib
A /A
ib
≤ 1.9
D
ib
= 0.058 + 0.173A
ib
/A
s
− 0.043b
s
/B
W
c1
, W
c2
= local load, in kN (tf, Ltf), calculated according to 5A-3-3/5.7 and
5A-3-3/Figure 3b
A
ib
= total area of the net inner longitudinal bulkhead plating above inner bottom,
in cm
2
(in
2
)

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*
ib
A = total area of the net inner longitudinal bulkhead plating above the lower edge
of the strake under consideration, in cm
2
(in
2
)
N
wib1
, N
wib2
= local load distribution factor for inner longitudinal bulkhead
N
wib1
= (0.49D
ib
+ 0.18)(n − 1)/n for local load W
c1

N
wib2
= (0.60D
ib
+ 0.10)(n − 1)/n for local load W
c2

H
ib
= depth of the inner longitudinal bulkhead above inner bottom, in cm (in.)
All other parameters are as defined above.
5.5.3(b) The net thickness of the outer longitudinal bulkhead plating at the position considered:
t
ob
≥ F
t
D
ob
m/I f
s
cm (in.)
where
D
ob
= 0.013 + 0.153A
ob
/A
s
+ 0.172 b
s
/B
All other parameters are as defined above.
5.7 Calculation of Local Loads (1995)
In determining the shear forces at the ends of cargo tanks, the local loads are to be calculated as shown in
the following example. The tank arrangement for this example is as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 3. The ballast
tanks within double bottom and double side are to be considered as being empty in calculating excess
liquid head.
5.7.1 Ship-type Installations with Two Outer Longitudinal Bulkheads and a Centerline Swash or Oil-
tight Longitudinal Bulkhead (1 July 2000)
Local load W
c
may be denoted by W
c
(f) and W
c
(a) at the fore and aft ends of the center tank,
respectively, in kN (tf, Ltf ).
W
c
(f) = W
c
(a) = 0.5ρ gb
c

c
[k
s
H
c
+ 0.71k
s
(a
v
/g)H
c
+ 0.47k
s

c
sin φ – 0.55(ρ
o
/ρ)d
f
+
0.2(ρ
o
/ρ)C
1
] ≥ 0
but need not be taken greater than 0.5k
s
ρ gb
c

c
H
c

where
k
s
= load factor
= 1.0 for all loads from ballast tanks
= 0.878 for ρ g of 10.05 kN/m
3
(1.025 tf/m
3
, 0.0286 Ltf/ft
3
) and 1.0 for ρ g of
11.18 kN/m
3
(1.14 tf/m
3
, 0.0318 Ltf/ft
3
) and above for all loads from cargo
tanks.
For cargo ρ g between 10.05 kN/m
3
(1.025 tf/m
3
, 0.0286 Ltf/ft
3
) and 11.18
kN/m
3
(1.14 tf/m
3
, 0.0318 Ltf/ft
3
), the factor k
s
may be determined by
interpolation
ρ g = specific weight of the liquid, not to be taken less than 10.05 kN/m
3

(1.025 tf/m
3
, 0.0286 Ltf/ft
3
)
ρ
o
g = specific weight of sea water, 10.05 kN/m
3
(1.025 tf/m
3
, 0.0286 Ltf/ft
3
)

c
, b
c
= length and breadth, respectively, of the center tanks, in m (ft), as shown in
5A-3-3/Figure 3a
H
c
= liquid head in the center tank, in m (ft)
a
v
= vertical acceleration amidships with a wave heading angle of 0 degrees, in
m/sec
2
(ft/sec
2
), as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.1(c)

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g = acceleration of gravity = 9.8 m/sec
2
(32.2 ft/sec
2
)
φ = pitch amplitude in degrees, as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.1(a)
d
f
= draft, as defined in 3-1-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
C
1
= as defined in 3-2-1/3.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
5.7.2 Ship-type Installations with Two Outer and Two Inner Longitudinal Bulkheads (1 July 2000)
Local loads W
c1
, W
c2
may be denoted by W
c1
(f), W
c2
(f) and W
c1
(a), W
c2
(a) at the fore and aft ends
of the center tank, respectively, in kN (tf, Ltf).
W
c1
(f) =
c
c s
gb k

1
ρ
[h
c1

1
(
2
+
2
1

) + h
c2

2
2
2

]
W
c1
(a) =
c
c s
gb k

1
ρ
[h
c1
2
2
1

+ h
c2

2
(
1
+
2
2

)]
W
c2
(f) =
c
c s
gb k

2
ρ
[h
c3

1
(
2
+
2
1

) + h
c4

2
2
2

]
W
c2
(a) =
c
c s
gb k

2
ρ
[h
c3
2
2
1

+ h
c4

2
(
1
+
2
2

)]
where
k
s
= load factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/5.7.1
ρ g = specific weight of the liquid, not to be taken less than 10.05 kN/m
3

(1.025 tf/m
3
, 0.0286 Ltf/ft
3
)

c
= length of the center tank, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 3b

1
, 
2
= longitudinal distances from the respective center tank ends to the
intermediate wing tank transverse bulkheads, in m (ft), as shown in
5A-3-3/Figure 3b
b
c1
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 3b
b
c2
= breadth of the center and wing tanks, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 3b
H
1
, H
2
= liquid heads in the wing tanks, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 3b
h
c1
= H
c
− H
1
, but not to be taken less than zero
h
c2
= H
c
− H
2
, but not to be taken less than zero
h
c3
= H
c
or H
1
, whichever is lesser
h
c4
= H
c
or H
2
, whichever is lesser
Where adjacent tanks are loaded with cargoes of different densities, the heads are to be adjusted to
account for the difference in density. For locations away from the ends of the tanks, R
cb
and R
ib

may be determined using the calculated values of W
c
at the locations considered.
5.9 Three Dimensional Analysis (1995)
The total shear stresses in the side shell and longitudinal bulkhead plating (net thickness) may be calculated
using a 3D structural analysis to determine the general shear distribution and local load effects for the critical
shear strength conditions among all of the anticipated loading conditions.


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FIGURE 3
Center Tank Region (1995)
a Tankers with Double Hull and Centerlilne Swash or Oil-tight Longitudinal Bulkhead.
b Tankers with Four Longitudinal Bulkheads
H
c

c
H
c
b
s
b
c
b
s

c

1

2
b
c2
b
c1
H
2
H
1
H
2
H
1
H
c


7 Double Bottom Structures
7.1 General (1995)
7.1.1 Arrangement
The depth of the double bottom and arrangement of access openings are to be in compliance with
5A-3-1/5. Centerline and side girders are to be fitted, as necessary, to provide sufficient stiffness
and strength for docking loads as well as those specified in Section 5A-3-2.
Struts connecting the bottom and inner bottom longitudinals are not to be fitted.
7.1.2 Keel Plate
The net thickness of the flat plate keel is to be not less than that required for the bottom shell
plating at that location by 5A-3-3/7.3.1 increased by 1.5 mm (0.06 in.), except where the submitted
docking plan (see 3-1-2/11 of the Steel Vessel Rules) specifies all docking blocks be arranged away
from the keel.

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7.1.3 Bottom Shell Plating – Definition
The term “bottom shell plating” refers to the plating from the keel to the upper turn of the bilge for
0.4L amidships.
7.1.4 Bilge Longitudinals (2004)
Longitudinals around the bilge are to be graded in size from that required for the lowest side
longitudinal to that required for the bottom longitudinals. Where longitudinals are omitted in way
of the bilge, the bottom and side longitudinals are to be arranged so that the distance between the
nearest longitudinal and the turn of the bilge is not more than 0.4s (s is the spacing of bottom (S
b
)
or side (S
s
) longitudinals), as applicable (see 5A-3-3/Figure 4).

FIGURE 4
S
s
S
s
b
S
b
S
b
a
R
R. End
R
.

E
n
da ≤ S
b
(2/5)
b ≤ S
s
(2/5)


7.3 Bottom Shell and Inner Bottom Plating (1997)
The thickness of the bottom shell and inner bottom plating over the midship 0.4L is to satisfy the hull girder
section modulus requirements in 3-2-1/3.7 of the Steel Vessel Rules. The buckling and ultimate strength are
to be in accordance with the requirements in 5A-3-4/5. In addition, the net thickness of the bottom shell
and inner bottom plating is to be not less than the following.
7.3.1 Bottom Shell Plating (1999)
The net thickness of the bottom shell plating, t
n
, is to be not less than t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, specified as follows:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
s = spacing of bottom longitudinals, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342
k
2
= 0.500
p = p
a
− p
uh
or p
b
, whichever is greater, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

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p
uh
= 0.12γ(h
wt
tan φ
e
)
1/2
where 
wt
≥ 0.20L
= 0 where 
wt
≤ 0.15L
Linear interpolation is to be used for intermediate values of 
wt
.
p
a
and p
b
are nominal pressures, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in load case “a” and “b” in
5A-3-2/Table 3 for bottom plating, respectively.
γ = specific weight of the ballast water, 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m,
0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
h = height of double side ballast tank at installation’s side, in m (ft)

wt
= length at tank top of double side ballast tank, in m (ft)
L = installation length, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
φ
e
= effective pitch amplitude, as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.2 with C
φ
= 1.0
f
1
= permissible bending stress in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= (1 − 0.70α
1
SM
RB
/SM
B
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.40S
m
f
y

f
1
= (1 − 0.70α
1
SM
RB
/SM
B
)S
m
f
y
≤ (0.40 + 0.1(190 − L)/40) S
m
f
y
for L < 190 m
α
1
= S
m1
f
y1
/S
m
f
y

SM
RB
= reference net hull girder section modulus based on the material factor of the
bottom flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
= 0.92SM
SM = required gross hull girder section modulus at the location under consideration,
in accordance with 3-2-1/3.7 and 3-2-1/5.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, based
on the material factor of the bottom flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
SM
B
= design (actual) net hull girder section modulus to the bottom, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft),
at the location under consideration
f
2
= permissible bending stress in the transverse direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= 0.80 S
m
f
y

S
m
= strength reduction factor
= 1 for Ordinary Strength Steel, as specified in 2-1-2/Table 2 of the
ABS Rules for Materials and Welding (Part 2)
= 0.95 for Grade H32, as specified in 2-1-3/Table 2 of the ABS Rules
for Materials and Welding (Part 2)
= 0.908 for Grade H36, as specified in 2-1-3/Table 2 of the ABS Rules
for Materials and Welding (Part 2)
= 0.875 for Grade H40, as specified in 2-1-3/Table 2 of the ABS Rules
for Materials and Welding (Part 2)
S
m1
= strength reduction factor for the bottom flange of the hull girder
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
y1
= minimum specified yield point of the bottom flange of the hull girder, in
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

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E = modulus of elasticity of the material, may be taken as 2.06 × 10
7
N/cm
2

(2.1 × 10
6
kgf/cm
2
, 30 × 10
6
lbf/in
2
) for steel
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2

N = R
b
(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

R
b
= (SM
RBH
/SM
B
)
1/2

SM
RBH
= reference net hull girder section modulus for hogging bending moment based
on the material factor of the bottom flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
= 0.92SM
H

SM
H
= required gross hull girder section modulus, in accordance with 3-2-1/3.7.1
and 3-2-1/5.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, for hogging total bending moment at
the location under consideration, based on the material factor of the bottom
flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
Q, Q
b
= material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5.1 for the bottom shell plating under
consideration and the bottom flange of the hull girder, respectively.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material
required at the location under consideration.
In addition to the foregoing, the net thickness of the bottom shell plating, outboard of 0.3B from
the centerline of the installation, is to be not less than that of the lowest side shell plating required
by 5A-3-3/9.1 adjusted for the spacing of the longitudinals and the material factors.
7.3.2 Inner Bottom Plating (1999)
The net thickness of the inner bottom plating, t
n
, is to be not less than t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, specified as
follows:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
s = spacing of inner bottom longitudinals, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342
k
2
= 0.50
p = p
a
− p
uh
or p
b
, whichever is greater, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p
a
and p
b
are nominal pressures, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in load case “a” and “b” in
5A-3-2/Table 3 for inner bottom plating, respectively.
p
uh
is defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material
required at the location under consideration.
f
1
= permissible bending stress in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= (1 − 0.52α
1
SM
RB
/SM
B
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.57S
m
f
y
, where SM
B
/SM
RB
is not to be taken
more than 1.4
f
2
= permissible bending stress in the transverse direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.85 S
m
f
y


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α
1
= S
m1
f
y1
/S
m
f
y

S
m
= strength reduction factor obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1 for the steel grade of
inner bottom material
S
m1
= strength reduction factor obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1 for the steel grade of
bottom flange material.
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the inner bottom material, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
y1
= minimum specified yield point of the bottom flange material, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2

N = R
b
[(Q/Q
b
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5.1 for the inner bottom plating
y = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the inner bottom to the neutral
axis of the hull girder section
y
n
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the bottom to the neutral axis of
the hull girder section
SM
RB
, SM
B
, R
b
, Q
b
and E are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
Where the breadth of the center tank exceeds 0.6B, or the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped, the net
thickness of the inner bottom plating in the center tank, outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the
tank, is also to be not less than that of the adjacent strake on the outer longitudinal bulkhead (inner
skin) required by 5A-3-3/13.1, adjusted for the spacing of the longitudinals and the material factors.
7.5 Bottom and Inner Bottom Longitudinals (1 July 2005)
The net section modulus of each bottom or inner bottom longitudinal, in association with the effective
plating to which it is attached, is to be not less than obtained from the following equations:
SM = M / f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
where
M = 1000 ps
2
/k N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in.)
k = 12 (12, 83.33)
s = spacing of longitudinals, in mm (in.)
 = span of the longitudinal between effective supports, as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 5, in
m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 and
5A-3-3/7.3.2 for bottom and inner bottom longitudinals, respectively
f
b
= permissible bending stresses, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= (1.0 − 0.65α
1
SM
RB
/SM
B
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.55S
m
f
y
for bottom longitudinals
= (1.0 − 0.50α
1
SM
RB
/SM
B
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.65S
m
f
y
for inner bottom longitudinals
α
1
= S
m1
f
y1
/S
m
f
y

S
m
= strength reduction factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1, for the material of longitudinals
considered
S
m1
= strength reduction factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1, for the bottom flange material

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f
y
= minimum specified yield point for the material of longitudinals considered, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
y1
= minimum specified yield point of the bottom flange material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
SM
RB
and SM
B
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The net section modulus of the bottom longitudinals, outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the installation,
is also to be not less than that of the lowest side longitudinal required by 5A-3-3/9.5, adjusted for the span
and spacing of the longitudinals and the material factors.
Where the breadth of center tank exceeds 0.6B, or the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped, the net section
modulus of the inner bottom longitudinals in the center tank, outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the
tank, is also to be not less than that of the lowest outer longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal required by
5A-3-3/13.5, adjusted for the span and spacing of the longitudinals and the material factors.
In determining compliance with the foregoing, an effective breadth, b
e
, of attached plating is to be used in
calculation of the section modulus of the design longitudinal. b
e
is to be obtained from line a) of
5A-3-3/Figure 6.
7.7 Bottom Girders/Floors (1997)
The minimum scantlings for bottom girders/floors are to be determined from 5A-3-3/7.7.1, 5A-3-3/7.7.2,
5A-3-3/7.7.3 and 5A-3-3/7.7.4, as follows:
7.7.1 Bottom Centerline Girder (1999)
The net thickness of the centerline girder amidships, where no centerline bulkhead is fitted, is to
be not less than t
1
and t
2
, as defined below:
t
1
= (0.045L + 4.5)R mm
= (0.00054L + 0.177)R in.
t
2
= 10F
1
/(d
b
f
s
) mm
= F
1
/(d
b
f
s
) in.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material
required at the location under consideration.
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where F
1
is the maximum shear force in the center girder, as obtained from the equations given
below (see also 5A-3-3/1.3). Alternatively, F
1
may be determined from finite element analyses, as
specified in 5A-3-4/11, with the combined load cases in 5A-3-4/11.9. However, in no case should
F
1
be taken less than 85% of that determined from the equations below:
F
1
= 1000kα
1
γn
1
n
2
p
s
s
1
N (kgf, lbf), for λ ≤ 1.5
F
1
= 414kγn
1
n
2
pb
s
s
1
N (kgf, lbf), for λ > 1.5
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
α
1
= 0.606 − 0.22λ
λ = 
s
/b
s

γ = 2x/(
s
− s
3
), ≤ 1.0
n
1
= 0.0374(s
1
/s
3
)
2
− 0.326(s
1
/s
3
) + 1.289

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n
2
= 1.3 − (s
3
/12) for SI or MKS Units
= 1.3 − (s
3
/39.37) for U.S. Units

s
= unsupported length of the double bottom structures under consideration, in m
(ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 7
b
s
= unsupported width of the double bottom structures under consideration, in m
(ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 7
s
1
= sum of one-half of girder spacing on each side of the center girder, in m (ft)
s
3
= spacing of floors, in m (ft)
x = longitudinal distance from the mid-span of unsupported length (
s
) of the
double bottom to the section of the girder under consideration, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
d
b
= depth of double bottom, in cm (in.)
f
s
= permissible shear stresses, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2
but need not be greater than 0.45(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

N = R
b
(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5 for the bottom girder
s = spacing of longitudinal stiffeners on the girder, in mm (in.)
R = 1.0 for ordinary mild steel
= f
ym
/S
m
f
yh
for higher strength material
f
ym
= specified minimum yield point for ordinary strength steel, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
f
yh
= specified minimum yield point for higher tensile steel, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
L = length of installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
S
m
, E, R
b
, Q
b
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
7.7.2 Bottom Side Girder (1999)
The net thickness of the bottom side girders is to be not less than t
1
and t
2
, as defined below:
t
1
= (0.026L + 4.5)R mm
= (0.00031L + 0.177)R in.
t
2
= 10 F
2
/(d
b
f
s
) mm
= F
2
/(d
b
f
s
) in.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material
required at the location under consideration.
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where F
2
is the maximum shear force in the side girders under consideration, as obtained from the
equations given below (see also 5A-3-3/1.3). Alternatively, F
2
may be determined from finite element
analyses, as specified in 5A-3-4/11, with the combined load cases in 5A-3-4/11.9. However, in no
case should F
2
be taken less than 85% of that determined from the equations below:

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F
2
= 1000 kα
2
β
1
γn
3
n
4
p
s
s
2
N (kgf, lbf), for λ ≤ 1.5
F
2
= 285kβ
1
γn
3
n
4
pb
s
s
2
N (kgf, lbf), for λ > 1.5
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
α
2
= 0.445 − 0.17λ
β
1
= 1.25 − (2z
1
/b
s
) for ship-type installations with inner skin only
[5A-3-3/Figure 7(d)]
= 1.0 for all other ship-type installations
n
3
= 1.072 − 0.0715(s
2
/s
3
)
n
4
= 1.2 − (s
3
/18) for SI or MKS Units
= 1.2 − (s
3
/59.1) for U.S. Units
s
2
= sum of one-half of girder spacings on both sides of the side girders, in m (ft)
z
1
= transverse distance from the centerline of the unsupported width b
s
of the
double bottom to the girder under consideration, in m (ft)
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2
, but need not be greater than
0.45(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

N = R
b
(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5 for the bottom girder
s = spacing of longitudinal stiffeners on the girder, in mm (in.)
γ, 
s
, b
s
, λ, s
3
, p, d
b
, f
s
, L, R, S
m
and f
y
are as defined above.
7.7.3 Floors (1997)
The net thickness of the floors is to be not less than t
1
and t
2
, as specified below:
t
1
= (0.026L + 4.50)R mm
= (0.00031L + 0.177)R in.
t
2
= 10F
3
/(d
b
f
s
) mm
= F
3
/(d
b
f
s
) in.
where F
3
is the maximum shear force in the floors under consideration, as obtained from the
equation given below (see also 5A-3-3/1.3). Alternatively, F
3
may be determined from finite element
analyses, as specified in 5A-3-4/11 with the combined load cases in 5A-3-4/11.9. However, in no
case should F
3
be taken less than 85% of that determined from the equation below.
F
3
= 1000kα
3
β
2
pb
s
s
3
N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
α
3
as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 7.
ρ
0
= η(0.66 − 0.08η), for η ≤ 2.0
= 1.0, for η > 2.0, or for structures without longitudinal
girders

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β
2
= 1.05(2z
2
/b
s
)
2
≤ 1.0 for ship-type installations with inner skin only
[5A-3-3/Figure 7(d)]
= 2z
2
/b
s
for all other ship-type installations
η = (
s
/b
s
)(s
0
/s
3
)
1/4

s
0
= average spacing of girders, in m (ft)
z
2
= transverse distance from the centerline of the unsupported width b
s
of the
double bottom to the section of the floor under consideration, in m (ft)
f
s
= 0.45 S
m
f
y
in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

s
, b
s
, s
3
, R, p, d
b
, L, S
m
and f
y
are as defined above.
7.7.4 Bottom Girders under Longitudinal Bulkhead (1999)
The net thickness of the bottom centerline and side girders under longitudinal bulkheads is to be
not less than t
1
and t
2
, as defined below:
t
1
= (0.045L + 4.5)R mm
= (0.00054L + 0.177)R in.
The net thickness, t
2
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material
required at the location under consideration.
t
2
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2

N = R
b
(Q/Q
b
)
1/2

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5 for the bottom girder
s = spacing of longitudinal stiffeners on the girder, in mm (in.)
L, R, S
m
and f
y
are as defined above.
E, R
b
and Q
b
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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GUIDE FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FLOATING PRODUCTION INSTALLATIONS
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2009 235
FIGURE 5
Unsupported Span of Longitudinal (1995)



Supported by transverses
Supported by transverses
and flat bar stiffeners
Supported by transverses,
flat bar stiffeners
and brackets
Trans Trans
Trans Trans
Trans Trans
F.B. F.B.
F.B. F.B.
d/2
d
a)
b)
c)


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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FIGURE 6
Effective Breadth of Plating b
e
(1 July 2009)
For bending
at ends at midspan
For bending
Longitudinal
M
x

M
 c
s = spacing of longitudinals
 c
o
w 


a) For bending at midspan
b
e
/s = 1.219 – 0.965/(c
0
/s), when c
0
/s < 4.5
otherwise
b
e
/s = 1.0
c
o
/s 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 and greater
b
e
/s 0.58 0.73 0.83 0.90 0.95 0.98 1.0


b) For bending at ends
b
e
/s = (0.124c/s – 0.062)
1/2
, when c
0
/s < 8.5
otherwise
b
e
/s = 1.0
c/s 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4.0
b
e
/s 0.25 0.35 0.43 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.67



Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 3 Initial Scantling Evaluation 5A-3-3

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GUIDE FOR BUILDING AND CLASSING FLOATING PRODUCTION INSTALLATIONS
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2009 237
FIGURE 7
Definitions of α
3
, 
s
and b
s
(1 July 2009)

s
α
3
= 0.5 p
o
T. Bhd T. Bhd
(a)
b
s
b
s
b
s
L
C
α
3
= 0.65 p
o
(outboard)
α
3
= 0.5 p
o
(inboard)
(b) (c)
L
C
α
3
= 0.35 p
o
(inboard)
α
3
= 0.55 p
o
(outboard)
L
C
α
3
= 0.5 p
o
(d)
b
s




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9 Side Shell and Deck – Plating and Longitudinals
9.1 Side Shell Plating (December 2008)
The net thickness of the side shell plating, in addition to compliance with 5A-3-3/5.3, is to be not less than
t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, as specified below for the midship 0.4L:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
s = spacing of side longitudinals, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342
k
2
= 0.50
p = p
a
− p
uo
or p
b
, whichever is greater, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p
uo
= 0.24γ(h
wt
b
wt
tan φ
e
tan θ
e
)
1/3
where 
wt
≥ 0.20L
= 0 where 
wt
≤ 0.15L
Linear interpolation is to be used for intermediate values of 
wt
.
p
a
and p
b
are nominal pressures at the upper turn of bilge, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in load
case “a” and “b” 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side shell plating, respectively. Where the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped,
the nominal pressure may be taken at the lower edge of each plate, but is not to be less than that calculated
at upper turn of bilge for J-shaped ballast tanks.
b
wt
= breadth at tank top of double side ballast tank, in m (ft)
φ
e
= effective pitch amplitude, as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.2, with C
φ
= 0.7
θ
e
= effective roll amplitude, as defined in 5A-3-2/5.7.2, with C
θ
= 0.7
L is installation length, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005), in m (ft).
γ, h and 
wt
are also defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material required at
the location under consideration.
f
1
= permissible bending stress, in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= [0.86 − 0.50α
1
(SM
RB
/SM
B
)(y/y
b
)]S
m
f
y

≤ 0.43 S
m
f
y
, for L ≥ 190 m (623 ft), below neutral axis
≤ [0.43 + 0.17(190 − L)/40]S
m
f
y
, for L < 190 m (623 ft), below neutral axis
SM
B
/SM
RB
is not to be taken more than 1.4.
= 0.43 S
m
f
y
, for L ≥ 190 m (623 ft), above neutral axis
= [0.43 + 0.17 (190 − L)/40]S
m
f
y
for L < 190 m (623 ft), above neutral axis
f
2
= permissible bending stress in the vertical direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.80 S
m
f
y


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α
1
= S
m1
f
y1
/S
m
f
y

S
m
= strength reduction factor obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1 for the steel grade of side shell
plating material
S
m1
= strength reduction factor obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1 for the steel grade of bottom
flange material
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the side shell material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
y1
= minimum specified yield point of the bottom flange material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
y
b
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the upper turn of bilge to the neutral axis
of the section
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.4Q
1/2

N = R
d
(Q/Q
d
)
1/2
for the sheer strake
= R
d
[(Q/Q
d
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
for other locations above neutral axis
= R
b
[(Q/Q
b
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
for locations below neutral axis
R
d
= (SM
RDS
/SM
D
)
1/2

y = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the neutral axis of the hull girder transverse
section to the lower edge (upper edge) of the side shell strake, when the strake under
consideration is below (above) the neutral axis for N.
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the neutral axis of the hull girder transverse
section to the lower edge of the side shell strake under consideration for f
1
.
SM
RDS
= reference net hull girder section modulus for sagging bending moment, based on the
material factor of the deck flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
= 0.92SM
S

SM
S
= required gross hull girder section modulus, in accordance with 3-2-1/3.7.1and 3-2-1/5.5
of the Steel Vessel Rules, for sagging total bending moment at the location under
consideration, based on the material factor of the deck flange of the hull girder, in
cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
Q, Q
d
= material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5 for the side shell plating under consideration
and the deck flange of the hull girder, respectively.
y
n
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the bottom (deck) to the neutral axis of the
section, when the strake under consideration is below (above) the neutral axis.
SM
RB
, SM
B
, R
b
, Q
b
and E are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1. SM
D
is as defined in 5A-3-3/9.5.
The minimum width of the sheer strake for the midship 0.4L is to be in accordance with 3-2-2/3.11 of the
Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005).
The thickness of the sheer strake is to be increased 25% in way of breaks of superstructures, but this
increase need not exceed 6.5 mm (0.26 in.).
In addition, the net thickness of the side shell plating of FPIs subject to side offloading is not to be taken
less than t
4
obtained from the following equation:
t
4
= 90(s/1000 + 0.7) [B d /(S
m
f
y
)
2
]
1/4
+0.5 mm
where
s = spacing of side longitudinal stiffeners, in mm
B = breadth of installation, as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m
d = molded draft, as defined in 3-1-1/9 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m
All other parameters are as defined above.

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The net thickness, t
4
, is to be applied to the following extent of the side shell plating:
• Longitudinal extent. Between a section aft of amidships where the breadth at the waterline exceed
0.9B, and a section forward of amidships where the breadth at the waterline exceeds 0.6B.
• Vertical extent. Between 300 mm below the lowest ballast waterline to 0.25d or 2.2 m, whichever is
greater, above the summer load line.
Alternatively, in lieu of the t
4
requirements above, side shell strength calculations may be submitted to
demonstrate the structural adequacy of the side shell to the impact absorbing characteristics of fenders or
equivalent, and their arrangement.
9.3 Deck Plating (1 July 2012)
The thickness of the strength deck plating is to be not less than that needed to meet the hull girder section
modulus requirement in 3-2-1/3.7 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005). The buckling and ultimate
strength are to be in accordance with the requirements in 5A-3-4/5. In addition, the net thickness of deck
plating is to be not less than t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, as specified below for the midship 0.4L:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
s = spacing of deck longitudinals, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342
k
2
= 0.50
p = p
n
in cargo tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= p
n
− p
uh
in ballast tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
In no case is p to be taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
n
is nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
lbf/in
2
), as defined in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for deck plating.
p
uh
is defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material required at
the location under consideration.
f
1
= permissible bending stress in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.15 S
m
f
y

f
2
= permissible bending stress in the transverse direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.80 S
m
f
y

c = 0.5 (0.6 + 0.0015L) for SI or MKS Units
= 0.5 (0.6 + 0.00046L) for U.S. Units
c is not to be taken less than (0.7N
2
− 0.2) for installations having length less than 267 m (876 ft)
L = length of installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules
(January 2005)
N = R
d
(Q/Q
d
)
1/2
R
d
= (SM
RDS
/SM
D
)
1/2

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5 for the deck plating
S
m
, f
y
and E are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
SM
RDS
and Q
d
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.1.
SM
D
is as defined in 5A-3-3/9.5.

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The t
3
requirement for a converted ship-type FPI may be adjusted based on the ratio M
r
, where M
r
= total
maximum sagging bending moment as a ship-type FPI/total maximum sagging bending moment as a trading
vessel. The total sagging bending moment as a ship-type FPI is the sum of the maximum sagging still water
and wave bending moments for the onsite condition. The sagging wave bending moment may be obtained
from 5A-3-2/5.2.1.
The t
3
requirement for a new build ship-type FPI may be adjusted based on the ratio M
r
, where M
r
=
(maximum sagging still water bending moment + sagging wave bending moment for the on-site DEC)/
(maximum sagging still water bending moment + wave sagging bending moment for North Atlantic
environment).
M
r
Adjusted t
3

M
r
< 0.7 0.85 * t
3

0.7 ≤ M
r
≤ 1.0 Varies linearly between 0.85 * t
3
and t
3

M
r
> 1.0 1.0 * t
3


The thickness of the stringer plate is to be increased 25% in way of breaks of superstructures, but this
increase need not exceed 6.5 mm (0.25 in.). The required deck area is to be maintained throughout the
midship 0.4L of the installation or beyond the end of a superstructure at or near the midship 0.4L point.
From these locations to the ends of the installation, the deck area may be gradually reduced in accordance
with 3-2-1/11.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005). Where bending moment envelope curves are
used to determine the required hull girder section modulus, the foregoing requirements for strength deck
area may be modified in accordance with 3-2-1/11.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005). Where so
modified, the strength deck area is to be maintained a suitable distance from superstructure breaks and is to
be extended into the superstructure to provide adequate structural continuity.
9.5 Deck and Side Longitudinals (1 July 2005)
The net section modulus of each individual side or deck longitudinal, in association with the effective
plating to which it is attached, is to be not less than obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000ps
2
/k N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 12 (12, 83.33)
p = p
ai
− p
uo
or p
b
, whichever is greater, for side longitudinals, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= p
n
for deck longitudinals in cargo tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= p
n
− p
uh
for deck longitudinals in ballast tank, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
In no case is p to be taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
a
and p
b
are nominal pressures, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in load case “a” and “b”, at the side
longitudinal considered, in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side longitudinals, respectively.
p
n
is nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for deck longitudinals.
p
uo
and p
uh
are defined in 5A-3-3/9.1 and 5A-3-3/7.3.1, respectively.
s and  are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
f
b
= permissible bending stresses, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= (1.0 − 0.60α
2
SM
RD
/SM
D
)S
m
f
y
for deck longitudinals
= 1.0[0.86 − 0.52α
1
(SM
RB
/SM
B
)(y/y
n
)] S
m
f
y
≤ 0.75S
m
f
y

for side longitudinals below neutral axis

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= 2.0[0.86 − 0.52α
2
(SM
RD
/SM
D
)(y/y
n
)] S
m
f
y
≤ 0.75S
m
f
y

for side longitudinals above neutral axis
α
2
= S
m2
f
y2
/S
m
f
y

S
m
, f
y
and α
1
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
S
m2
= strength reduction factor, as obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1, for the steel grade of top
flange material of the hull girder.
f
y2
= minimum specified yield point of the top flange material of the hull girder, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
SM
RD
= reference net hull girder section modulus based on the material factor of the top
flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
= 0.92 SM
SM = required gross hull girder section modulus at the location under consideration, in
accordance with 3-2-1/3.7 and 3-2-1/5.5 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005),
based on the material factor of the top flange of the hull girder, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft)
SM
D
= design (actual) net hull girder section modulus at the deck, in cm
2
-m (in
2
-ft), at the
location under consideration
SM
RB
and SM
B
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
y = vertical distance in m (ft) measured from the neutral axis of the section to the
longitudinal under consideration at its connection to the associated plate
y
n
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the deck (bottom) to the neutral axis of the
section, when the longitudinal under consideration is above (below) the neutral axis.
Where the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped, the net section modulus of deck longitudinals in the wing
ballast tanks is to be not less than that of the uppermost side longitudinal, adjusted for the span and spacing
of the longitudinal and the material factors.
Where the breadth of center tank exceeds 0.6B, the net section modulus of deck longitudinals in the center
tank, located outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the tank, is also to be not less than that of the
uppermost boundary longitudinal bulkhead longitudinal required by 5A-3-3/13.5, adjusted for the span and
spacing of the longitudinal and the material factors.
In determining compliance with the foregoing, an effective breadth, b
e
, of attached plating is to be used in
the calculation of the section modulus of the design longitudinal. b
e
is to be obtained from line a) of
5A-3-3/Figure 6.
The net moment of inertia about the neutral axis of deck longitudinals and side longitudinals within the
region of 0.1D from the deck, in association with the effective plating (b
wL
t
n
), is to be not less than
obtained from the following equation:
i
o
= kA
e

2
f
y
/E cm
4
(in
4
)
where
k = 1220 (1220, 17.57)
A
e
= net sectional area of the longitudinal with the associated effective plating b
wL
t
n
, in
cm
2
(in
2
)
b
wL
= cs
c = 2.25/β − 1.25β
2
for β ≥ 1.25
= 1.0 for β < 1.25
β = (f
y
/E)
1/2
s/t
n


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t
n
= net thickness of the plate, in mm (in.)
D = depth of installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules
(January 2005).
, s and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
E is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
11 Side Shell and Deck – Main Supporting Members
11.1 General (1 July 2012)
The main supporting members, such as transverses and girders, are to be arranged and designed with
sufficient stiffness to provide support to the installation’s hull structures. In general, the deck transverses,
side transverses and bottom floors are to be arranged in one plane to form continuous transverse rings.
Deck girders, where fitted, are to extend throughout the cargo tank spaces and are to be effectively
supported at the transverse bulkheads.
Generous transitions are to be provided at the intersections of main supporting members to provide smooth
transmission of loads and to minimize the stress concentrations. Abrupt changes in sectional properties and
sharp re-entrant corners are to be avoided. It is recommended that the intersection of the inner skin and
inner bottom be accomplished by using generous sloping or large radiused bulkheads. Stool structures,
where fitted, are to have sloping bulkheads on both sides.
The net section modulus and sectional area of the main supporting members required by Part 5A, Chapter
3 apply to those portions of the member clear of the end brackets. They are considered as the requirements
of initial scantlings for deck transverses, side transverses, vertical webs on longitudinal bulkheads and
horizontal girders and vertical webs on transverse bulkheads, and may be reduced, provided that the
strength of the resultant design is verified with the subsequent total strength assessment in Section 5A-3-4.
However, in no case should they be taken less than 85% of those determined from 5A-3-3/11 or 5A-3-3/15.
(See also 5A-3-4/11.1.) The structural properties of the main supporting members and end brackets are to
comply with the failure criteria specified in 5A-3-4/3.
The section modulus of the main supporting members is to be determined in association with the effective
plating to which they are attached, as specified in 3-1-2/13 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
In the calculation of the nominal pressure, ρ g of the liquid cargoes is not to be taken less than 0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m
(0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft) for main supporting members.
Section modulus and web sectional area of the deck transverses and deck girders may be obtained in
accordance with the procedure given below or other recognized design procedures.
The section modulus and web sectional area of the deck transverse and deck girders are not to be less than
loading pattern 1 as specified in 5A-3-3/11.3.
For a deck transverse and/or deck girder that is subjected to reactions (forces and moments) from the topside
structure, the section modulus and web sectional area of the deck transverse and/or deck girders are also
not to be less than for loading pattern 1 as specified in 5A-3-3/11.3 and for loading pattern 2 as specified in
5A-3-3/11.5.
11.3 Deck Transverses and Deck Girders – Loading Pattern 1 (1 July 2012)
11.3.1 Section Modulus of Deck Transverses
The net section modulus of deck transverses is to be not less than obtained from the following
equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3 of this Guide):
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
For deck transverses in wing cargo tanks (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c, d, e, and f):
M = k(10,000 c
1
ϕ ps
2
t
 + β
s
M
s
) ≥ M
o
N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)

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For deck transverses in center cargo tanks (see 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f)
M = k(10,000 c
1
ϕ ps
2
t
 + β
b
M
b
) ≥ M
o
N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
M
s
= 10,000c
2
p
s
s
2
s

M
b
= 10,000c
2
p
b
s
2
b

M
o
= 10,000kc
3
ps
2
t

k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid span of the deck
transverse under consideration, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3, item 16. In
no case is p to be taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
s
= corresponding nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the side transverse (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 12)
p
b
= corresponding nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 13)
c
1
for tanks without deck girders:
= 0.30 for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c with non-tight centerline bulkhead
= 0.42 for all other cases
c
1
for tanks with deck girders:
= 0.30α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with a non-tight centerline bulkhead,
0.05 min. and 0.30 max.
= 0.42α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a or 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with an oil-tight
centerline bulkhead, 0.05 min. and 0.42 max.
α = (
g
/
t
)[(s
g
/s)(I
t
/I
g
)]
1/4


g
= span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c

t
= span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A, but
is not to be taken as less than 60% of the breadth of the tank, except for ship-
type vessels with a non-tight centerline bulkhead (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b), for
which the span is not to be taken as less than 30% of the breadth of the tank.
I
g
, I
t
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the deck girder and deck transverse, clear
of the brackets, respectively
s
g
= spacing of the deck girder, in m (ft)
s = spacing of the deck transverses, in m (ft)
When calculating α, if more than one deck girder is fitted, average values of s
g
, 
g
and I
g
are to be
used when the girders are not identical.
ϕ = 1 − [5(h
a
/α
t
)], for cargo tanks with deck girders, 0.6 minimum
= 1 − 5(h
a
/
t
), for cargo tanks without deck girders, 0.6 minimum
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 8
β
s
= 0.9[(
s
/
t
)(I
t
/I
s
)], 0.10 min. and 0.65 max.

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β
b
= 0.9[(
b
/
t
)(I
t
/I
b
)], 0.10 min. and 0.50 max.

s
, 
b
= spans, in m (ft), of side transverse and vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead,
respectively, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A. Where a cross tie is fitted and
is located at a distance greater than 0.7
s
or 0.7
b
from the deck transverse,
the effective span of the side transverse or the vertical web may be taken as
that measured from the deck transverse to the cross tie and all coefficients
determined as if there were no cross tie.
I
s
, I
b
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), clear of the brackets, of side transverse and
vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead, respectively
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
c
2
is given in 5A-3-3/Table 1.
c
3
= 2.0c
1
for ship-type vessels with oil-tight longitudinal bulkheads and without
deck girders (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, d, e and f)
= 1.6c
1
for ship-type vessels with non-tight centerline longitudinal bulkhead
and without deck girders (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c)
= 1.1c
1
for cargo tanks with deck girders
The section modulus of the deck transverse in the wing cargo tank is to be not less than that of the
deck transverse in the center tank.
11.3.2 Sectional Area of Deck Transverses
The net sectional area of the web portion of deck transverses is to be not less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
F = 1000k[c
1
ps(0.50 − h
e
) + c
2
DB
c
s] N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c
2
= 0.05 for wing cargo tanks of ship-type vessels with four longitudinal
bulkheads (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f)
= 0 for other tanks (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c, d, e and f)
c
1
for tanks with deck girders:
= 0.90α
1/2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a without longitudinal bulkhead and for
5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with an oil-tight centerline bulkhead, 0.50 min.
and 1.0 max.
= 0.60α
1/2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with a non-tight centerline bulkhead,
0.45 min. and 0.85 max.
c
1
for tanks without deck girders:
= 1.10 for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, with a nontight centerline longitudinal bulkhead
= 1.30 for all other cases (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, d, e and f)
 = span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A

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h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c and
5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d and 5A-3-3/Figure 8
D = depth of the vessel, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules
B
c
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft)
P, s and α are as defined in 5A-3-3/11.3.1 of this Guide.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 of this Guide.
11.3.3 Section Modulus of Deck Girders
The net section modulus of deck girders is to be not less than obtained from the following equation
(see also 5A-3-3/1.3):
SM = M /f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M equals M
1
or M
2
, whichever is greater, as given below:
M
1
= 4200kps
g
2
g
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
M
2
= k(3000ϕps
g
2
g
 + 0.15M
b
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
M
b
= 10,000p
st
s
g
2
st
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

g
= span, in m (ft), of the deck girder, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c

st
= span, in m (ft), of the vertical web on transverse bulkhead, as indicated in
5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
s
g
= spacing, in m (ft), of the deck girder considered, as indicated in
5A-3-3/Figure 2A
ϕ = 1 − 5(h
a
/
g
), 0.6 min.
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck girder, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c and 5A-3-3/Figure 9
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3,
item 17 for the girder considered. Where three or more deck girders are fitted
in the cargo tank, p is to be not less than its value determined for the outermost
girder clear of the end bracket of the deck transverse. In no case is p to be
taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
st
= corresponding nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the vertical web on the forward transverse bulkhead of cargo tank under
consideration (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 17)
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

= (1.0 − 0.55α
2
SM
RD
/SM
D
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.52S
m
f
y
for L < 190 m
S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 of this Guide.

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11.3.4 Sectional Area of Deck Girders
The net sectional area of the web portion of deck girders is to be not less than obtained from the
following equation:
A = F /f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
F = 1000kcps
g
(0.5 − h
e
) N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c = 0.55 for one or two girders in the tank
= 0.67 for three or more girders in the tank
 = span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c and
5A-3-3/Figure 9.
p and s
g
are defined in 5A-3-3/11.3.3.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.30 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 of this Guide.
11.5 Deck Transverses and Deck Girders – Loading Pattern 2 (1 July 2012)
11.5.1 Section Modulus of Deck Transverses
The net section modulus of deck transverses, in association with the effective deck plating, is to be
obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
11.5.1(a) For deck transverses in wing tanks
M = 10
5
k (M
p
+ M
g

+ M
s
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
11.5.1(b) For deck transverses in center tanks
M = 10
5
k (M
p
+ M
g

+ M
b
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
K = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
M
p

= bending moment due to reactions from topside structure
= |(M
v
+ M
m
) f
t
|
M
v

=

+
n
n n n t
k k P ) (
2 1

M
m
=

+
n
n n n
k k M ) (
4 3

P
n

= reaction deck force number n, in kN (tf, Ltf), applied to the deck transverse
in tank under consideration, see 5A-3-3/Figure 8
M
n
= reaction deck moment number n, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft), applied to the deck
transverse in tank under consideration, see 5A-3-3/Figure 8
n = 1, 2,….., N
v
to obtain bending moment M
v


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n = 1, 2,….., N
m
to obtain bending moment M
m

N
v
= total number of reaction forces at deck transverse under consideration, (in
tank under consideration)
N
m
= total number of reaction moments at deck transverse under consideration, (in
tank under consideration)

t
= span of the deck transverse under consideration, in m (ft), as defined in
5A-3-3/Figure 2A
k
1n
= (1 −
n
a )
2
[
n
a − z (1 + 2
n
a )]
k
2n

= 0 if z ≤
n
a
= ( z −
n
a ) if z >
n
a
k
3n
= (1 −
n
a ) (3
n
a − 1 – 6
n
a z )
k
4n

= 0 if z ≤
n
a
= 1 if z >
n
a
n
a = a
n

/
t

z = z /
t
, (0 ≤ z ≤ 1)
a
n
= distance, in m (ft), from a point of application of reaction (force P
n
or moment
M
n
) to the end of the deck transverse span 
t
, in m (ft), as shown in
5A-3-3/Figure 8
z = coordinate (measured from the end of the span 
t
) of the section of the deck
transverse under consideration, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 8
For the toe of the deck transverse end brackets, z = h
a
/
t
and z = 1 – h
a
/
t
.
h
a

= distance, in m(ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 9 of the Guide.
Note: For a wide topside bracket, the vertical load on a deck transverse can be considered uniformly
distributed with pressure q
n
= P
n
/c, and the concentrated bending moment can be substituted by
force couples.
P
m
= M
n
/(k c)
where
P
n
, M
n
= concentrated force and moment obtained from FE analysis of topside
structure
c = width of the topside bracket
k = shape bracket factor, and may be taken as 0.8, unless otherwise specified
Bending moment at the toe of the end brackets due to green water pressure, M
g
:
M
g
= 0.1 c
3
ϕ P
gi
s 
t
2

where
P
gi
= nominal green water pressure imposed on the deck, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
),
as defined in 5A-3-2/13.7 of this Guide
s = spacing, in m (ft), of the deck transverses

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c
3
= 2.0c
1
for ship-type vessels with oil-tight longitudinal bulkheads and without
deck girders (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, d, e and f)
= 1.6c
1
for ship-type vessels with non-tight centerline longitudinal bulkhead
and without deck girders (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c)
= 1.1c
1
for cargo tanks with deck girders
ϕ = 1 − [5(h
a
/α
t
)], for cargo tanks with deck girders, 0.6 minimum
= 1 − 5(h
a
/
t
), for cargo tanks without deck girders, 0.6 minimum
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 9

t
= span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A, but
is not to be taken as less than 60% of the breadth of the tank, except for ship-
type vessels with a non-tight centerline bulkhead (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b), for
which the span is not to be taken as less than 30% of the breadth of the tank.
c
1
for tanks without deck girders:
= 0.30 for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c with non-tight centerline bulkhead
= 0.42 for all other cases
c
1
for tanks with deck girders:
= 0.30α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with a non-tight centerline bulkhead,
0.05 min. and 0.30 max.
= 0.42α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a or 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with an oil-tight
centerline bulkhead, 0.05 min. and 0.42 max.
α = (
g
/
t
)[(s
g
/s)(I
t
/I
g
)]
1/4


g
= span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c of this
Guide
I
g
, I
t
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the deck girder and deck transverse with
effective deck plating, clear of the the end brackets, respectively
s
g
= spacing of the deck girder, in m (ft) as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A
s = spacing of the deck transverses, in m (ft)
When calculating α, if more than one deck girder is fitted, average values of s
g
, 
g
and I
g
are to be
used when the girders are not identical.
Bending moments due to pressure on side transverse and vertical web of longitudinal bulkhead:
M
s
= k
s
β
s
c
2
p
s
s 
s
2

M
b
= k
b
β
b
c
2
p
b
s 
b
2

where k
s
= 0.1, and k
b

= 0.1, unless otherwise specified.

s
, 
b
= spans, in m (ft), of side transverse and vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead,
respectively, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A. Where a cross tie is fitted and
is located at a distance greater than 0.7
s
or 0.7
b
from the deck transverse,
the effective span of the side transverse or the vertical web may be taken as
that measured from the deck transverse to the cross tie and all coefficients
determined as if there were no cross tie.

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p
s
= nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of side transverse
when wing tank is empty, adjacent tanks full (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 12)
p
b
= nominal internal cargo pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead when center tank is empty,
adjacent tanks full (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 13)
β
s
= 0.9[(
s
/
t
)(I
t
/I
s
)], 0.10 min. and 0.65 max.
β
b
= 0.9[(
b
/
t
)(I
t
/I
b
)], 0.10 min. and 0.50 max.
I
s
, I
b
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), clear of the brackets, of side transverse and
vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead, respectively
c
2

are given in 5A-3-3/Table 1 of this Guide.
f
t
= 1 for tanks without deck girders
f
t

= 1 − [0.67/(1 + 2δ)] is not to be taken less than 0.70 for tanks with deck
girders
δ = (
g
/
t
)
3
(I
t
/I
g
)
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 of this Guide.
11.5.2 Section Modulus of Deck Girders
The net section modulus of deck girder with effective deck plating is to be not less than that obtained
from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b

cm
3
(in
3
)
M = k 10
5
(M
p
+ M
g
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
11.5.2(a) Bending moment due to reactions from topside structure, M
p

M
p
= |(M
v
+ M
m
) f
g
|
M
v

=

+
n
n n n g
k k P ) (
2 1

M
m
=

+
n
n n n
k k M ) (
4 3

where
P
n
= reaction force number n, in kN (tf, Lt-ft), applied to the deck girder under
consideration
M
n

= reaction moment number n, in kN-m (tf-m, Lt-ft), applied to the deck girder
under consideration
N = 1, 2,….., N
v
to obtain bending moment M
v

N = 1, 2,….., N
m
to obtain bending moment M
m

N
v
= total number of reaction forces at the deck girder between transverse
bulkheads in the tank under consideration

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N
m

= total number of reaction moments at the deck girder between transverse
bulkheads in the tank under consideration
k
1n
= (1 −
n
b )
2
[
n
b − x (1 + 2
n
b )]
k
2n
= 0 if x ≤
n
b
= ( x −
n
b ) if x >
n
b
k
3n
= (1 −
n
b ) (3
n
b − 1 − 6
n
b x )
k
4n
= 0 if x ≤
n
b

= 1 if x >
n
b
n
b

= b
n
/
g

x = x/
g


b
n
= distance, in m (ft), from reaction force P
n
to the end of the deck girder span 
g

x = coordinate, in m (ft), of the section of the deck girder under consideration,
measured from the end of span 
g

For the toe of the brackets, x = h
a
/
g
and x = 1 − h
a
/
g
.
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the deck girder span to the toe of the end
of the bracket, as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c and 5A-3-3/Figure 9 of this
Guide
f
g
= 1 − 0.13[(
g
/
t
)
3
(
g
/s)(I
t
/I
g
)]
0.25
is not to be taken less than 0.65
I
t
, I
g
, s, 
g
, 
t
are as defined in 5A-3-3/11.5.1, above.
11.5.2(b) Bending moment at the toe of the end brackets due to green water pressure, M
g

M
g
= 0.083 ϕ p
gi
s
g

g
2

where p
gi
and s
g
are as defined in 5A-3-3/11.5.1, above.
ϕ = 1 − 5(h
a
/
g
), 0.6 min.
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

= (1.0 − 0.55α
2
SM
RD
/SM
D
)S
m
f
y
≤ 0.52S
m
f
y
for L < 190 m
α
2
, SM
RD
and SM
D
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.5. S
m
and f
y
, are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
11.5.3 Web Sectional Area of Deck Transverses
The net sectional area of the web portion of deck transverse is to be obtained from the following
equation:
A = F/f
s

cm
2
(in
2
)
where
F = 1000 k (F
p
+ F
g
+ c
2
s D B
c
), in N (kgf, lbf)
F
p

= |(F
v
+ F
m
) f
1
|

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F
v

= ( ) ( ) | |

∆ + + −
n
n n n
F a a P 1 2 1
2

F
m
= ( )


n
t n n n
M a a  / 1 6
F
g
= c
1
p
gi
s (0.50 − h
e
)
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
∆F = 0 if z ≤
n
a
= -P
n
if z >
n
a
f
1
= 1 − [0.5/(1 + 4δ)]
c
2
= 0.05 for wing cargo tanks of ship-type vessels with four longitudinal
bulkheads (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f of this Guide)
= 0 for other tanks (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c, d, e and f of this Guide)
c
1
for tanks with deck girders:
= 0.90α
1/2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a without longitudinal bulkhead and for
5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with an oil-tight centerline bulkhead, 0.50 min.
and 1.0 max.
= 0.60α
1/2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with a non-tight centerline bulkhead,
0.45 min. and 0.85 max.
c
1
for tanks without deck girders:
= 1.10 for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, with a nontight centerline longitudinal bulkhead
= 1.30 for all other cases (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c, d, e and f)
 = span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A of
this Guide
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m(ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figures 2A and 2B and
5A-3-3/Figure 9 of this Guide
D = depth of a vessel, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules
B
c
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft)
f
s
= permissible shear stress
= 0.45 S
m

f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P
n
, M
n
, p
gi
, 
t
, s,
n
a , z , α and δ are as defined in 5A-3-3/11.5.1, above.
11.5.4 Web Sectional Area of Deck Girders
The net sectional area of the web portion of deck girders is to be not less than that obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
where
F = 1000 k (F
p
+ F
g
), in N (kgf, lbf)
F
p
= |(F
v
+ F
m
) f
g
|

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F
v
= ( ) ( )( )

∆ + + + −
n
n n n n
F b b b P 2 1 1 2 1
2

F
m
= ( )


n
tg n n n
M b b  / 1 6
∆F
n
= 0 if x ≤
n
b
= −P
n

if x >
n
b
F
g
= c p
gi

(0.5 − h
e
) s
g

k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c = 0.55 for one or two girders in the tank
= 0.67 for three or more girders in the tank
 = span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c and
5A-3-3/Figure 9.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.30 S
m
f
y

P
n
, M
n
, 
g
, s
g
, n b , x , p
gi
, f
g
, S
m
, f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/11.5.2, above.

FIGURE 8
Deck Transverse – Definition of Parameters (1 July 2012)
P
n
M
n
a
n
z
z < a
n
h
a
h
a
z > a
n

t
− h
a

t



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11.7 Web Sectional Area of Side Transverses
The net sectional area of the web portion of side transverses is to be not less than obtained from the following
equation:
A = F /f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force F, in N (kgf, lbf), for the side transverse can be obtained from the following equations (see
also 5A-3-3/1.3):
F = 1000ks[K
U
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
U
P
U
] for upper part of transverse
F = 1000ks[K
L
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
L
P
L
] or 350ksK
L
(P
U
+ P
L
) whichever is greater
for lower part of transverse
In no case is the shear force for the lower part of the transverse to be less than 120% of that for the upper
part of the transverse.
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
 = span, in m (ft), of the side transverse, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a. Where one
cross tie is fitted in the wing tank and is located at a distance of more than 0.7 from
the deck transverse, the effective span of the side transverse may be measured from
the deck transverse to the cross tie and all coefficients determined as if there were no
cross tie.
s = spacing, in m (ft), of the side transverses
P
U
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of upper bracket, as
specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
P
L
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of lower bracket, as
specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3.
h
U
= length of the upper bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a
h
L
= length of the lower bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-5-3/Figure 2B-a
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

K
U
and K
L
are given in 5A-5-3/Table 2.
S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
For ship-type installations without cross ties in the wing cargo tank, the required sectional area of the lower
side transverse is to extend to 0.15 from the toe of the lower bracket or 0.33 from the lower end of the
span, whichever is greater.
For ship-type installations with one cross tie, the sectional area required for the lower portion of the
transverse is to be maintained up to the cross tie.
11.9 Minimum Thickness for Web Portion of Main Supporting Members (1997)
In general, the net thickness of the web plate of the main supporting members, except stringers in double
side structures, is to be not less than t, as obtained below:
t = 0.012L + 7.7 mm
= 0.144L × 10
-3
+ 0.303 in.
but t need not be taken greater than 11.0 mm (0.433 in.)

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The net thickness of side stringers in double side structures is not to be less than t
1
and t
2
, as specified below:
t
1
= 0.012L + 6.7 mm
= 0.144L × 10
-3
+ 0.264 in.
but t
1
need not be taken greater than 10.0 mm (0.394 in.)
t
2
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
where
L = length of the installation, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules
c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2, not to be less than 0.33
s = spacing of longitudinals, in mm (in.)
S
m
= strength reduction factor, obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1 for the steel grade of the side
stringer
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the side stringer material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
N = R
d
[(Q/Q
d
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
for side stringers above neutral axis
= R
b
[(Q/Q
b
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
for side stringers below neutral axis
Q = material conversion factor 5A-3-3/5 for the side stringer under consideration
y = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the neutral axis of the hull girder
transverse section to the side stringer under consideration
E, R
b
and Q
b
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1. R
d
, Q
d
and y
n
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.1.
11.11 Proportions
In general, webs, girders and transverses are not to be less in depth than specified below, as a percentage of
the span, 
t
, 
b
or 
g
, where applicable (see 5A-3-3/Figures 2A and 2B). Alternative designs with stiffness
equivalent to the specified depth/length ratio and the required section modulus may be considered,
provided that the calculated results are submitted for review.
11.11.1 Deck Transverse
23% for deck transverses in wing cargo tanks of ship-type installations with four side longitudinal
bulkheads where no deck girders are fitted (see 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f).
12.5% for deck transverses in center cargo tanks of ship-type installations with four side longitudinal
bulkheads where no deck girders are fitted (see 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f). In this case,
the depth is also to be not less than that of the transverse in the wing tank.
12.5% for deck transverses without deck girders for ship-type installations with centerline
longitudinal bulkhead (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c).
8.5% for deck transverses in cargo tanks with one deck girder.
5.5% for deck transverses in cargo tanks with two deck girders.
3.5% for deck transverse in cargo tanks with three or more deck girders.
11.11.2 Deck Girder
20% for deck girders where only one is fitted in a tank.
12.5% for deck girders where two are fitted in a tank.
9.0% for deck girders where three or more are fitted in a tank.

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11.11.3 Longitudinal Bulkhead Webs/Girders (2005)
14% for vertical webs of longitudinal bulkheads without strut and horizontal girders of
longitudinal bulkheads.
9.0% for vertical webs of longitudinal bulkheads with one or more struts
11.11.4 Transverse Bulkhead Webs/Girders
20.0% for vertical webs of transverse bulkheads where only one is fitted in a tank.
12.5% for vertical webs of transverse bulkheads where two are fitted in a tank.
9.0% for vertical webs of transverse bulkheads where three or more are fitted in a tank.
28% for horizontal girders of transverse bulkheads in wing tanks for ship-type installations
with four side longitudinal bulkheads (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f).
20% for horizontal girders of transverse bulkheads in center tanks for ship-type installations
with four side longitudinal bulkheads (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f), but not less in
depth than horizontal girders in wing tanks
20% for horizontal girders of transverse bulkheads without vertical webs for ship-type installations
with centerline longitudinal bulkhead (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c)
10% for horizontal girders of transverse bulkhead with one vertical web in the cargo tank
7% for horizontal girders of transverse bulkhead with two or more vertical webs in the cargo
tank, except in the case where more than two vertical webs are fitted for ship-type installations
with centerline longitudinal bulkheads (See 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b), or more than five vertical
webs are fitted for ship-type installations with outer longitudinal bulkheads only (See
5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a). In that case, horizontal girders are not to be less in depth than 15%
of the maximum distance between two adjacent vertical webs or the end of span 
b
of the
horizontal girder and next vertical web.
In no case are the depths of supporting members to be less than three times the depth of the slots
for longitudinals. The thickness of the webs is to be not less than required by 5A-3-3/11.9.
11.13 Brackets
Generally, brackets are to have a thickness not less than that of the member supported, are to have flanges
or face plates at their edges and are to be suitably stiffened.
11.15 Web Stiffeners and Tripping Brackets
11.15.1 Web Stiffeners
Stiffeners are to be fitted for the full depth of the webs of the main supporting member at the
following intervals:
Floor every longitudinal
Side every longitudinal
Bulkhead every second stiffener
Deck every third longitudinal
Special attention is to be given to the stiffening of web plate panels close to change in contour of
the web or where higher strength steel is used.
Web stiffener attachment to the deep webs, longitudinals and stiffeners is to be effected by continuous
welds.
Where depth/thickness ratio of the web plating exceeds 200, a stiffener is to be fitted parallel to
the flange or face plate at approximately one-quarter depth of the web from the flange or face plate.
Alternative system of web-stiffening of the main supporting members may be considered based on
the structural stability of the web and satisfactory levels of the shear stresses in the welds of the
longitudinals to the web plates.

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11.15.2 Tripping Bracket
Tripping brackets, arranged to support the flanges, are to be fitted at intervals of about 3 m (9.84 ft),
close to any changes of section, and in line with the flanges of struts.
11.17 Slots and Lightening Holes
When slots and lightening holes are cut in transverses, webs, floors, stringers and girders, they are to be
kept well clear of other openings. The slots are to be neatly cut and well rounded. Lightening holes are to
be located midway between the slots and at about one-third of the depth of the web from the shell, deck or
bulkhead. Their diameters are not to exceed one-third the depth of the web. In general, lightening holes are
not to be cut in those areas of webs, floors, stringers, girders and transverses where the shear stresses are
high. Similarly, slots for longitudinals are to be provided with filler plates or other reinforcement in these
same areas. Where it is necessary to cut openings in highly stressed areas, they are to be effectively
compensated. Continuous fillet welds are to be provided at the connection of the filler plates to the web
and at the connection of the filler plate to the longitudinals.

FIGURE 9
Effectiveness of Brackets (1 September 2007)
h
a
d
d/2
h
a
Span
Span
d/4
length
of bracket
length
of bracket
d

Where face plate on the member is carried
along the face of the bracket.
Where face plate on the member is not carried
along the face of the bracket, and where the
face plate area on the bracket is at least one-half
the face plate area on the member.

Brackets are not to be considered effective beyond the point where the arm of the girder or web is 1.5 times the arm on
the bulkhead or base.

TABLE 1
Coefficient c
2
For Deck Transverses (1995)

Structural Arrangement
No cross ties
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c and
f)
Cross ties in wing cargo tank
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d)
Cross ties in center cargo
tank
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-e)
Location of Deck Transverse All cargo tanks Wing tank Center tank Wing tank Center tank
c
2
0.40
(1)
0.37 0.13 0.40 0.14
Note
1 c
2
= 0.50 for ship-type installations with an oil-tight centerline bulkhead

which will be loaded from one side only.


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TABLE 2
Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Side Transverses (1995)
Arrangement of Cross Ties
K
U

(1)
K
L

(1)

No cross ties
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c and f)
0.13 0.30
One cross tie in center cargo tank
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-e)
One cross tie in wing cargo tank
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d)
0.09 0.21
Note:
1 For ship-type installations without cross ties in wing cargo tank
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a, b, c, e and f) and having three or more side
stringers, K
U
= 0.10 and K
L
= 0.22

13 Longitudinal and Transverse Bulkheads
13.1 Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating (December 2008)
The net thickness of the longitudinal bulkhead plating, in addition to complying with 5A-3-3/5.5, is to be
not less than t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, as specified below:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.)
but not less than 9.5 mm (0.37 in.) where
s = spacing of longitudinal bulkhead longitudinals, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342
k
2
= 0.5
p = pressure at the lower edge of each plate, p
i
, or maximum slosh pressure, p
s
,
whichever is greater, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
).
In no case is p to be taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
i
= p
n
in cargo tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= p
n
− p
uo
in ballast tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p
n
is nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the lower edge of each plate, as defined in 5A-3-2/Table 3
for longitudinal bulkhead plating.
p
uo
is also defined in 5A-3-3/9.1.
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material required at
the location under consideration.
p
s
= k
s
p
is
, not to be taken less than k
s
p
is(mid)

p
is
= nominal slosh pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/11.5.1
p
is(mid)
 = nominal slosh pressure at the mid-tank of the bulkhead at the same height as the point
under consideration

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k
s
= b
t
/
t
, 0.9 ≥ k
s
≥ 0.65 (k
s
= 0.9 for p
is(mid)
)
f
1
= permissible bending stress, in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= [1 − 0.28z/B − 0.52α
1
(SM
RB
/SM
B
)(y/y
n
)]S
m
f
y
, below neutral axis
= [1 − 0.28z/B − 0.52α
2
(SM
RD
/SM
D
)(y/y
n
)]S
m
f
y
, above neutral axis
b
t
and 
t
are the width and length, respectively, of the cargo tank being considered.
SM
B
/SM
RB
is not to be taken more than 1.2α
1
or 1.4, whichever is lesser.
α
1
= S
m1
f
y1
/S
m
f
y

α
2
= S
m2
f
y2
/S
m
f
y

S
m
= strength reduction factor of the steel grade for the longitudinal bulkhead plating
obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3.1
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the longitudinal bulkhead plating, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
z = transverse distance, in m (ft), measured from the centerline of the section to the
bulkhead strake under consideration
y
n
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the deck (bottom) to the neutral axis of the
section, when the strake under consideration is above (below) the neutral axis
f
2
= permissible bending stress, in the vertical direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= S
m
f
y

c = 0.7N
2
− 0.2
c for the top strake is not to be taken less than 0.4Q
1/2
, but need not be greater than 0.45.
c for other strakes is not to be taken less than 0.33, but need not be greater than 0.45(Q/Q
d
)
1/2
for
strakes above the neutral axis nor greater than 0.45(Q/Q
b
)
1/2
for strakes below the neutral axis.
N = R
d
[(Q/Q
d
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
, for strake above the neutral axis
= R
b
[(Q/Q
b
)(y/y
n
)]
1/2
, for strake below the neutral axis
y = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the neutral axis of the hull girder transverse
section to the upper edge (lower edge) of the bulkhead strake, when the strake under
consideration is above (below) the neutral axis for N
= vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the neutral axis of the hull girder transverse
section to the lower edge of the bulkhead strake under consideration for f
1

Q = material conversion factor in 5A-3-3/5.1 for the longitudinal bulkhead plating
B = installation’s breadth, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
(January 2005)
SM
RB
, SM
B
, R
b
, Q
b
and E are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
S
m1
and f
y1
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
R
d
and Q
d
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.1.
SM
RD
, SM
D
, S
m2
and f
y2
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.5.
The minimum width of the top strake for the midship 0.4L is to be obtained from the following equation:
b = 5L + 800 mm for L ≤ 200 m
= 1800 mm for 200 < L ≤ 500 m

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b = 0.06L + 31.5 in. for L ≤ 656 ft
= 70.87 in. for 656 < L ≤ 1640 ft
L = length of installation, as defined in 3-1-1/3.1 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January
2005), in m (ft)
b = width of top strake, in mm (in.)
13.3 Transverse Bulkhead Plating (1999)
The net thickness of transverse bulkhead plating is to be not less than t, as specified below:
t = 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
mm (in.)
but not less than 9.5 mm (0.37 in.)
where
s = spacing of transverse bulkhead stiffeners, in mm (in.)
k
2
= 0.50
p = p
i
or maximum slosh pressure, p
s
, whichever is greater, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
In no case is p to be taken less than 2.06 N/cm
2
(0.21 kgf/cm
2
, 2.987 lbf/in
2
).
p
i
= p
n
in cargo tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= p
n
− p
uh
in ballast tank, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p
n
is nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the lower edge of each plate, as defined in 5A-3-2/Table 3
for transverse bulkhead plating.
p
uh
is also defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
p
s
= k
s
p
is
, not to be taken less than k
s
p
is(mid)

p
is
= nominal slosh pressure, as specified in 5A-3-3/11.5.1
p
is(mid)
= nominal slosh pressure at the mid-tank of the bulkhead at the same height as the point
under consideration.
k
s
= 
t
/b
t
, 0.9 ≥ k
s
≥ 0.65 (k
s
= 0.9 for p
is(mid)
)
f
2
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.85 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.

t
, b
t
are defined in 5A-3-3/13.1.
Where the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped, the net thickness of transverse bulkhead plating in the wing
ballast tanks is also to be not less than as obtained from the above equation with the following substituted
for p and f
2
.
where
p = nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified for side shell structure
(item 3 case a) in 5A-3-2/Table 3, at the lower edge level of each transverse bulkhead
plate
f
2
= S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where the breadth of center tank exceeds 0.6B, the net thickness of transverse bulkhead plating in the
center tank ,outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the tank, is also to be not less than as obtained from the
above equation with the following substituted for p and f
2
:

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p = nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified for inner skin longitudinal
bulkhead structure (item 6 case a) in 5A-3-2/Table 3, at the lower edge level of each
transverse bulkhead plate
f
2
= S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
13.5 Longitudinals and Vertical/Horizontal Stiffeners (1 July 2005)
The net section modulus of each individual longitudinal or vertical/horizontal stiffener on longitudinal and
transverse bulkheads, in association with the effective plating to which it is attached, is to be not less than
obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000c
1
ps
2
/k N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in.)
where
k = 12 (12, 83.33)
c
1
= 1.0 for longitudinals and horizontal stiffeners
= 1 + γ/10p for vertical stiffeners
γ = specific weight of the liquid, ≥ 1.005 N/cm
2
-m (0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m, 0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft)
s = spacing of longitudinals or vertical/horizontal stiffeners, in mm (in.)
 = span of longitudinals or stiffeners between effective supports, in m (ft)
p = pressure, p
i
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the longitudinal or stiffener considered, as
specified in 5A-3-3/13.1 and 5A-3-3/13.3, or maximum slosh pressure, p
s
, whichever
is greater. For vertical stiffeners, pressure is to be taken at the middle of span of each
stiffener.
p
s
= c
3
p
is
, not to be taken less than c
3
p
is(mid)

p
is(mid)
= nominal slosh pressure at the mid-tank of the bulkhead at the same height as the point
under consideration
p
is
= nominal slosh pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/11.5.1
c
3
= as specified below:
for transverse bulkheads
0.60 for angle or T-bar, 0.68 for bulb plate or flat bar, and 0.73 for corrugation, if tank length 
t
is
greater than 1.4 times tank width b
t
and no transverse swash bulkheads in the tank.
Otherwise, c
3
= c
st
(c
st
= 1.0 for p
is(mid)
)
c
st
= 
t
/b
t
, 1.0 ≥ c
st
≥ 0.71
for longitudinal bulkheads
0.60 for angle or T-bar, 0.68 for bulb plate or flat bar and 0.73 for corrugation, if tank width b
t
is
greater than 1.4 times tank length 
t
and no longitudinal swash bulkheads in the tank.
Otherwise c
3
= c
s
(c
s
= 1.0 for p
is(mid)
)
c
s
= b
t
/
t
, 1.0 ≥ c
s
≥ 0.71
f
b
= permissible bending stresses, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
).
= 0.70 S
m
f
y
for transverse bulkhead stiffeners
= 1.4[1.0 − 0.28(z/B) − 0.52α
1
(SM
RB
/SM
B
)(y/y
n
)]S
m
f
y
≤ 0.90S
m
f
y
for longitudinal
bulkhead longitudinals below neutral axis
= 2.2[1.0 − 0.28(z/B) − 0.52α
2
(SM
RD
/SM
D
)(y/y
n
)]S
m
f
b
≤ 0.90S
m
f
y
for longitudinal
bulkhead longitudinals above neutral axis

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z = transverse distance, in m (ft), measured from the centerline of the installation to the
longitudinal under consideration at its connection to the associated plate
h = vertical distance, in m (ft), measured from the tank bottom to the longitudinal under
consideration
H = depth of the tank, in m (ft)
B = installation’s breadth, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules
(January 2005)
S
m
, f
y
and α
1
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
α
2
, y, y
n
, SM
RD
and SM
D
are as defined in 5A-3-3/9.5.
SM
RB
and SM
B
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The effective breadth of plating, b
e
, is as defined in line a) of 5A-3-3/Figure 6.
Where the wing ballast tanks are U-shaped, the net section modulus of transverse bulkhead stiffeners in the
wing ballast tanks is also to be not less than as obtained from the above equation with the following
substituted for p and f
b
:
p = nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified for side shell structure
(item 3 case a) in 5A-3-2/Table 3 at each transverse bulkhead stiffener level.
f
b
= S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
Where the breadth of center tank exceeds 0.6B, the net section modulus of transverse bulkhead stiffeners in
the center tank, located outboard of 0.3B from the centerline of the tank, is also to be not less than as
obtained from the above equation with the following substituted for p and f
b
:
p = nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified for inner skin longitudinal
bulkhead structure (item 6 case a) in 5A-3-2/Table 3 at each transverse bulkhead
stiffener level.
f
b
= S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
The net moment of inertia of longitudinals on the longitudinal bulkhead, with the associated effective
plating, within the region of 0.1D from the deck is to be not less than i
o
, as specified in 5A-3-3/9.5.
15 Bulkheads – Main Supporting Members (1995)
15.1 General
The main supporting members of longitudinal and transverse bulkheads are to be arranged and designed, as
indicated in 5A-3-3/11.1.
15.3 Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead
15.3.1 Section Modulus of Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead (1997)
The net section modulus of the vertical web is to be not less than obtained from the following
equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-m, lbf-in.)

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where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

b
= span of member, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a. Where a cross
tie (in wing or center tank) is fitted and is located at a distance greater than
0.7
b
from the deck transverse, the effective span of the vertical web may be
measured from the deck transverse to the cross tie and all coefficients
determined as if there were no cross ties. Where both the lower and upper
ends of the vertical web are fitted with a bracket of the same or larger size on
the opposite side, the span 
b
may be taken between the toes of the effective
lower and upper brackets.
s = spacing of vertical webs, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of the vertical
web, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
c is given in 5A-3-3/Table 3.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, and fitted with an oil-tight centerline bulkhead, the
required section modulus of the web is to be maintained for 0.6
b
, measured from the lower end of
the web. The value of the bending moment, M, used for calculation of the required section modulus
of the remainder of the web may be appropriately reduced, but by not more than 20%. Where the
centerline bulkhead is non-tight, the required section modulus is to be maintained throughout.
15.3.2 Web Sectional Area of Vertical Webs on Longitudinal Bulkheads
The net sectional area of the web portion of vertical members is to be not less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force F, in N (kgf, lbf), may be obtained from the following equations (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
F = 1000ks[K
U
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
U
P
U
] for upper part of vertical web
= 1000ks[K
L
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
L
P
L
] for lower part of vertical web
but F for lower part of vertical web is not to be less than
= 1000γksK
L
(P
U
+ P
L
)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
P
U
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of upper
bracket, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
P
L
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of lower
bracket, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
 = span of the vertical web, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a.
Where a cross tie (in wing or center tank) is fitted and is located at a distance
greater than 0.7 from the deck transverse, the effective span of the vertical
web may be measured from the deck transverse to the cross tie and all
coefficients determined as if there were no cross ties.
s = spacing of the vertical webs, in m (ft)

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h
U
= length, in m (ft), of the upper bracket of the vertical web, as indicated in
5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a and 5A-3-3/Figure 9
h
L
= length, in m (ft), of the lower bracket of the vertical web, as indicated in
5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a and 5A-3-3/Figure 9
γ = 0.57 for ship-type installations without cross ties, (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b, c
and f)
= 0.50 for ship-type installations with one cross tie, (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d
and e)
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y
S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-5-3/7.3.1.
Coefficients K
U
and K
L
are given in 5A-5-3/Table 4.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, the required sectional area of the lower part of the
web is to be maintained for 0.6 measured from the lower end of the web.
For ship-type installations with one cross tie, the required sectional area of the lower part of the
web is to be maintained up to the cross tie.
In no case is the shear force for the lower part of the vertical web to be taken less than 120% of
that for the upper part of the vertical web.

TABLE 3
Coefficient c for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkheads (2001)
Arrangement of Cross Ties For Upper Part For Lower Part
No Cross Ties
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b, c & f) 0.80
1) Tight Bhd
2) Non-tight Centerline Bhd 0.28
One Cross Tie in Center Tank,
0.14 0.31
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-e)
One Cross Tie in Wing Cargo Tank,
0.18 0.36
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d)

TABLE 4
Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead (2001)
Arrangement of Cross Ties K
U
K
L

No Cross Ties
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b, c & f) 0.18 0.28
1) Tight Bhd
2) Non-tight Centerline Bhd. 0.09 0.14
One Cross Tie in Center or Wing Cargo Tank, 0.08 0.18
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d & e)


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15.5 Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
15.5.1 Section Modulus of Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
The net section modulus of the horizontal girder is to be not less than obtained from the following
equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

b
= span of the horizontal girders, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-b
For ship-type installations with four longitudinal bulkheads, (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f), 
b
is to
be taken not less than 60% of the breadth of the wing cargo tanks.
s = sum of the half lengths, in m (ft), of the frames supported on each side of the
horizontal girder
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), calculated at the mid-span of the
horizontal girder under consideration, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
c for transverse bulkheads without vertical webs
= 0.73 for ship-type installations with an oil-tight centerline bulkhead
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c)
= 0.55 for ship-type installations with a non-tight centerline bulkhead
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c)
= 0.83 in wing cargo tanks of installations with four longitudinal bulkheads
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f)
= 0.63 in the center tanks of installations with four longitudinal bulkheads
(5A-3-3/Figure 2A-d, e and f)
c for transverse bulkheads with vertical webs
For 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b, ship-type installations with oil-tight centerline bulkhead and
5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a:
= 0.73α
2
for α < 0.5
= 0.467α
2
+ 0.0657 for 0.5 ≤ α ≤ 1.0
= 0.1973α + 0.3354 for α > 1.0
c is not to be taken less than 0.013 and need not be greater than 0.73.
For 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b, ship-type installations with a non-tight centerline bulkhead:
= 0.55α
2
for α < 0.5
= 0.35α
2
+ 0.05 for 0.5 ≤ α ≤ 1.0
= 0.15α + 0.25 for α > 1.0
c is not to be taken less than 0.013 and need not to be greater than 0.55.

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α = 0.9(
st
/
b
)[(I/I
v
)(s
v
/s)]
1/ 4

if more than one vertical web is fitted on the bulkhead, average values of 
st
,
s
v
and I
v
are to be used when these values are not the same for each web.

st
= span of the vertical web, in m (ft) (5A-3-3/Figure 2B-b)
s
v
= spacing of the vertical webs, in m (ft)
I, I
v
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the horizontal girder and the vertical web
clear of the end brackets
15.5.2 Web Sectional Area of the Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
The net sectional area of the web portion of the horizontal girder is to be not less than obtained
from the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
F = 1000 kscp(0.5 − h
e
) N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c = 0.80 for transverse bulkheads without vertical webs
= 0.72α
1/2
for transverse bulkheads with vertical webs for α ≥ 0.70
= 0.887α − 0.02 for transverse bulkheads with vertical webs for α < 0.7, 0.1
min. and 0.8 max.
 = distance, in m (ft), between longitudinal bulkheads, as indicated in
5A-3-3/Figure 2B-b
s = sum of the half lengths, in m (ft), on each side of the horizontal girder, of the
frames supported
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-b
p and α are as defined in 5A-3-3/15.5.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
15.7 Vertical Web on Transverse Bulkhead
15.7.1 Section Modulus of Vertical Web on Transverse Bulkhead
The net section modulus of the vertical web is to be not less than obtained from the following equation
(see also 5A-3-3/1.3):
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
st
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
c = 0.83 for bulkheads without horizontal girders
= 0.83 − 0.52α (but not less than 0.3) for transverse bulkheads with horizontal
girders.

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st
= span of the vertical web, in m (ft), (5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c). Where both lower
and upper ends of the vertical web are fitted with a bracket of the same or
larger size on the opposite side, the span 
st
may be taken between the toes
of the upper and lower brackets
s = spacing of vertical webs, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of the vertical
web, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
α = as defined in 5A-3-3/15.5.1, except that the values of s, 
b
and I are to be
averaged in the case that more than one horizontal girder is fitted on the
bulkhead
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The required section modulus for the web is to be maintained for a distance of 0.60
st
from the
lower end of the span. Above that point, the value of the bending moment, M, used for the calculation
of the required section modulus may be reduced by not more than 20%.
15.7.2 Web Sectional Area of Vertical Web on Transverse Bulkheads
The net sectional area of the web portion of vertical members is to be not less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force F in N (kgf, lbf) may be obtained from the following equations (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
F = 1000ks[0.18c(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
U
P
U
] for upper part of vertical web
F = 1000ks[0.30c(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
L
P
L
] or whichever is greater, for lower
120ksc(P
U
+ P
L
) part of vertical web
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c = 1.0 for transverse bulkheads without horizontal girders
= 1.13 − 0.6α for transverse bulkheads with horizontal girders,
0.6 min. and 1.0 max.
P
U
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of upper
bracket, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
P
L
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of lower
bracket, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
 = span of the vertical web, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
s = spacing of the vertical webs, in m (ft)
h
U
= length, in m (ft), of the upper bracket, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
and 5A-3-3/Figure 9
h
L
= length, in m (ft), of the lower bracket, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c
and 5A-3-3/Figure 9
α is as defined in 5A-3-3/15.7.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y


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S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The required sectional area of the lower portion of the web is to be maintained for a distance of 0.15
from the toe of the lower bracket or 0.33 measured from the lower end of the span, whichever is
greater.
In no case is the shear force for the lower part of the vertical web to be taken less than 120% of
that for the upper part of the vertical web.
15.9 Minimum Web Thickness, Proportions, Brackets, Stiffeners, Tripping Brackets, Slots
and Lightening Holes
Requirements for these items are given in 5A-3-3/11.9, 5A-3-3/11.11, 5A-3-3/11.13, 5A-3-3/11.15 and
5A-3-3/11.17.
15.11 Cross Ties (1997)
Where cross ties are fitted as effective supports for the tank structural members, they are to be spaced so as
to divide the supported members into spans of approximately equal length. The axial load imposed on cross
ties, W, is to be not greater than the permissible load, W
a
, both are as specified below (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
Alternatively, W may be determined from finite element analyses, as specified in 5A-3-4/11, with the
combined load cases in 5A-3-2/9. However, in no case should W be taken less than 85% of that determined
from the approximate equation below. For this purpose, an additional load case is also to be investigated,
modifying load case 5 (of 5A-3-2/Table 1A) with a full design draft and K
f0
= 1.0 for external pressure
where cross ties are located in wing cargo tanks. (See also 5A-3-4/11.1).
W = pbs kN (tf, Ltf)
W
a
= 0.45f
y
[1 − 0.0254(f
y
/E)(/r)
2
] A
s
kN (tf, Ltf), when (r/)
2
(E/f
y
) > 0.0507
W
a
= 4.44E(r/)
2
A
s
kN (tf, Ltf) when (r/)
2
(E/f
y
) ≤ 0.0507
where
b = mean breadth of the area supported, in m (ft)
s = spacing of transverses, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the center of the area supported by the
cross tie, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3, item 15
 = unsupported span of the cross tie, in cm (in.)
r = least radius of gyration of the cross tie, in cm (in.)
A
s
= net cross section area of the cross tie, in cm
2
(in
2
)
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the material, in kN/cm
2
(tf/cm
2
, Ltf/in
2
)
E = 2.06 × 10
4
kN/cm
2
(2.1 × 10
3
tf/cm
2
, 13.4 × 10
3
Ltf/in
2
)
Special attention is to be paid to the adequacy of the welded connections for transmission of the tensile
forces and also to the stiffening arrangements at the ends, in order to provide effective means for transmission
of the compressive forces into the webs. In addition, horizontal stiffeners are to be located in line with and
attached to the first longitudinal above and below the ends of the cross ties.
15.13 Nontight Bulkheads (1 July 2012)
Nontight bulkheads referred to in 5A-3-2/11.3.1 are to be fitted in line with transverse webs, bulkheads or
other structures with equivalent rigidity. They are to be suitably stiffened. Openings in the nontight bulkhead
are to have generous radii and their aggregate area is not to exceed 33%, nor to be less than 10% of the area
of the nontight bulkhead, but it is recommended to be as close to 33% as practicable. The opening area is
to be evenly distributed between 0.1 and 0.9 of the bulkhead depth. The net thickness of nontight bulkheads is
to be not less than 11.0 mm (0.433 in.). Section moduli of stiffeners and webs may be half of those required
for watertight bulkheads in 5A-3-3/13.5, 5A-3-3/15.3.1, 5A-3-3/15.5.1, 5A-3-3/15.7.1 and 5A-3-3/15.9.
Alternatively, the opening ratio and scantlings may be determined by an acceptable method of engineering
analysis.

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17 Corrugated Bulkheads (1997)
17.1 General
All vertically corrugated transverse and longitudinal bulkheads in cargo tanks are to be designed in
compliance with the requirements specified in this Subsection and the strength assessment criteria with
respect to yielding, buckling and ultimate strength, and fatigue, as specified in Section 5A-3-4.
In general, the approximation equations given below are applicable to vertical corrugations with corrugation
angles, φ (5A-3-3/Figure 11 or 5A-3-3/Figure 10), within the range between 60 and 90 degrees. For corrugation
angles less than 60 degrees and corrugation in the horizontal direction, direct calculations may be required.
17.3 Plating (1999)
The net thickness of the vertically corrugated plating is not to be less than t
1
, t
2
, t
3
and t
4
, obtained from the
following equations:
t
1
= 0.516k
1
a(p

/f
1
)
1/2
in mm (in.) for flange and web plating
t
2
= 0.42k
2
a(f
y
/E)
1/2
in mm (in.) for flange plating
t
3
= k(a/k
3
) (f
3
)
1/2
10
–3
in mm (in.) for flange plating
t
4
= 100F/(df
4
) in mm (in.) for web plating
but not less than 9.5 mm (0.37 in.)
where
k = 0.728 (2.28, 0.605)
a = width of flange plating, in mm (in.) (5A-3-3/Figure 10 or 5A-3-3/Figure 11)
c = width of web plating, in mm (in.) (5A-3-3/Figure 10 or 5A-3-3/Figure 11)
d = depth of corrugation, in mm (in.) (5A-3-3/Figure 10 or 5A-3-3/Figure 11)
φ = corrugation angle, (5A-3-3/Figure 10 or 5A-3-3/Figure 11)
k
1
= (1 − c/a + c
2
/a
2
)
1/2

k
2
= f
2
/(0.73f
y
)
k
3
= 7.65 − 0.26(c/a)
2

F = shear force, in N (kgf, lbf), imposed on the web plating at the lower end of
corrugation span
= k
4
s(0.375p

+ 0.125p
u
)
k
4
= 10 (10, 12)
s = spacing of corrugation, in mm (in.), i.e., a + ccos φ, (5A-3-3/Figure 10 or
5A-3-3/Figure 11)
 = span of corrugation, in m (ft), taken as the distance between lower and upper stools at
centerline
p

, p
u
= nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the lower and upper ends of span,
respectively, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
f
1
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.90 S
m
f
y

f
2
= maximum vertical bending stress in the flange at the mid-depth of corrugation span to
be calculated from 5A-3-3/17.5 below, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

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f
3
= maximum vertical bending stress in the flange at the lower end of corrugation span to
be calculated from 5A-3-3/17.5 below, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
4
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.40 S
m
f
y

E, S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The plate thickness, as determined above based on the maximum anticipated pressures, is to be generally
maintained throughout the entire corrugated bulkhead, except that the net thickness of plating above
2
/
3
of
span, , from the top of the lower stool may be reduced by 20%.
17.5 Stiffness of Corrugation (1999)
17.5.1 Depth/Length Ratio
The depth/length ratio (d/) of the corrugation is not to be less than
1
/
15
, where d and  are as
defined in 5A-3-3/17.3 above.
17.5.2 Section Modulus
The net section modulus for any unit corrugation is not to be less than obtained from the following
equation for all anticipated service loading conditions.
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000(C
i
/C
j
)ps
2
o
 /k N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 12 (12, 83.33)

o
= nominal length of the corrugation, in m (ft), measured from the mid-depth of
the lower stool to the mid-depth of the upper stool
p = (p
u
+ p

)/2, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.90 S
m
f
y
, for lower end of corrugation span 
= c
e
f
y
≤ 0.90S
m
f
y
, for the mid /3 region of the corrugation
c
e
= 2.25/β− 1.25/β
2
for β ≥ 1.25
= 1.0 for β < 1.25
β = (f
y
/E)
1/2
a/t
f

t
f
= net thickness of the corrugation flange, in mm (in.)
C
i
= bending moment coefficients, as given below
Values of C
i
(All Bulkheads with Lower and Upper Stools)
Bulkhead Lower End of
Span 
Mid-depth Upper End of
Span 
Trans. Bhd:
(w/Long’l Bhd) C
1
C
m1
0.80C
m1

(w/out Long’l Bhd) C
2
C
m2
0.65C
m2

Long’l. Bhd. C
3
C
m3
0.65C
m3


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C
1
= a
1
+ b
1
(kA
dt
/B
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.6
where a
1
= 0.95 − 0.26/R
b
, b
1
= −0.20 + 0.05/R
b

C
m1
= a
m1
+ b
m1
(kA
dt
/B
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.55
where a
m1
= 0.63 + 0.16/R
b
, b
m1
= −0.25 − 0.07/R
b

C
2
= a
2
+ b
2
(kA
dt
/B
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.6
where a
2
= 0.84 − 0.07/R
b
, b
2
= −0.24 + 0.02/R
b

C
m2
= a
m2
+ b
m2
(kA
dt
/B
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.55
where a
m2
= 0.56 + 0.05/R
b
, b
m2
= −0.34 − 0.03/R
b

C
3
= a
3
+ b
3
(kA
d
/L
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.6
where a
3
= 1.07 − 0.21/R
b
, b
3
= −0.21 + 0.04/R
b

C
m3
= a
m3
+ b
m3
(kA
d
/L
d
)
1/2
≥ 0.55
where a
m3
= 0.30 + 0.07/R
b
, b
m3
= −0.12 − 0.03/R
b

C
j
= bending moment factors due to sloshing effect
Values of C
j
(All Bulkheads with Lower and Upper Stools)
Bulkhead Mid-depth Upper End of
Span 
Trans. Bhd: C
mj1
C
mj2

Long’l. Bhd. C
mj3
C
mj4

C
mj1
= 1.83
s
P
P
− 0.74 ≥ 0.40 if
s
P
P
< 0.95
= 1.0 if
s
P
P
≥ 0.95
C
mj2
= 3.73
s
P
P
− 2.36 ≥ 0.62 if
s
n
P
P
< 0.90
= 1.0 if
s
P
P
≥ 0.90
C
mj3
= 4.14
s
P
P
− 3.14 ≥ 0.75 if
s
P
P
< 1.00
= 1.0 if
s
P
P
≥ 1.00
C
mj4
= 2.36
s
P
P
− 1.71 ≥ 0.72 if
s
P
P
< 1.15
= 1.0 if
s
P
P
≥ 1.15
P
s
= (p
su
+ p
s
)/2 N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P = (p
u
+ p

)/2 N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

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p
s
, p
su
= sloshing pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the lower and upper ends of
span, respectively, as specified in 5A-3-2/11.5, calculated at the same
locations indicated for p

and p
u
.
p

, p
u
= nominal pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), at the lower and upper ends of
span, respectively, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3, to be calculated at a
section located B/4 from the C.L. when the installation has one or no
longitudinal bulkheads. For installations with two longitudinal bulkheads,
the nominal pressure is to be calculated at a section located b/4 from the
outboard boundary of the center or the wing tank.
R
b
= kH
st
(B
ct
+ B
st
)(1 + L
b
/B
b
+ 0.5H
b
/L
b
)/(2B
b
) for transverse bulkheads
= H
s
(B
c
+ B
s
)(1 + B
b
/L
b
+ 0.5H
b
/B
b
)/(2L
b
) for longitudinal bulkheads
A
dt
= cross sectional area, in m
2
(ft
2
), enclosed by the outside lines of upper stool
of transverse bulkhead
A
d
= cross sectional area, in m
2
(ft
2
), enclosed by the outside lines of upper stool
of longitudinal bulkheads
B
ct
= width of the bottom stool of transverse bulkhead, in m (ft), at the top
(5A-3-3/Figure 11 or 5A-3-3/Figure 10)
B
c
= width of the bottom stool of longitudinal bulkhead, in m (ft), at the top
(5A-3-3/Figure 11)
B
st
= width of the bottom stool of transverse bulkhead, in m (ft), at the inner
bottom level (5A-3-3/Figure 11)
B
s
= width of the bottom stool of longitudinal bulkhead, in m (ft), at the inner
bottom level (5A-3-3/Figure 11)
H
b
= double bottom height, in m (ft)
H
st
= height of the bottom stool of transverse bulkhead, in m (ft), from the inner
bottom to the top (5A-3-3/Figure 11 or 5A-3-3/Figure 10)
H
s
= height of the bottom stool of longitudinal bulkhead, in m (ft), from the inner
bottom to the top (5A-3-3/Figure 11)
B
b
= transverse distance, in m (ft), between hopper tanks at the inner bottom level
(5A-3-3/Figure 11 or 5A-3-3/Figure 10)
B
d
= transverse distance, in m (ft), between upper wing tanks or between upper
wing tank and centerline deck structure, at the deck level (5A-3-3/Figure 11
or 5A-3-3/Figure 10)
L
b
= longitudinal distance, in m (ft), between bottom stools in the loaded tanks at
the inner bottom level (5A-3-3/Figure 11 or 5A-3-3/Figure 10)
L
d
= longitudinal distance, in m (ft), between upper stools in the loaded tanks at
the deck level (5A-3-3/Figure 11)
k = 1 (1, 3.2808)
B = breadth of installation, as defined in 3-1-1/5 of the Steel Vessel Rules, in m (ft)
b = width of tank under consideration, in m (ft)
a, , s, p
u
and p

are as defined in 5A-3-3/17.3 above.
E is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.
S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.

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The developed net section modulus SM may be obtained from the following equation, where a, c,
d, t
f
(net), and t
w
(net), all in cm (in.), are as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 10.
SM = d(3at
f
+ ct
w
)/6 cm
3
(in
3
)
17.7 Bulkhead Stools
17.7.1 Lower Stool (2004)
The height of the lower stool is to be not less than three times the minimum depth of corrugation
required by 5A-3-3/17.5.1 above. The net thickness and material of the stool top plate is not to be
less than that required for the bulkhead plating in 5A-3-3/17.3 above. The net thickness and
material of the upper portion of vertical or sloping stool side plate within the region of one meter
from the stool top is not to be less than the required flange plate thickness to meet the bulkhead
stiffness requirement at the lower end of the corrugation in 5A-3-3/17.5 above. The net thickness
of the stool side plating and the net section modulus of the stool side stiffeners are not to be less
than those required for plane transverse or longitudinal bulkhead plating and stiffeners in 5A-3-3/13.1,
5A-3-3/13.3 and 5A-3-3/13.5, with the corresponding tank pressure specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3.
The ends of stool side vertical stiffeners are to be attached to brackets at the upper and lower ends
of the stool.
The extension of the top plate beyond the corrugation is not to be less than the as-built flange
thickness of the corrugation. The stool bottom is to be installed in line with double bottom floors
or girders, fitted with proper brackets, and diaphragms are to be provided in the stool to effectively
support the panels of the corrugated bulkhead. The width of the stool at the inner bottom is to be
not less than 2.5 times the mean depth of the corrugation. Scallops in the brackets and diaphragms
in way of the top and bottom connections to the plates and in the double bottom floors or girders
are to be avoided.
17.7.2 Upper Stool
The upper stool is to have a depth generally not less than twice the minimum depth of corrugation,
as specified in 5A-3-3/17.5, and is to be properly supported by girders or deep brackets.
The width of the stool bottom plate should generally be the same as that of the lower stool top
plate. The net thickness of the stool bottom plate should generally be the same as that of the
bulkhead plating, and the net thickness of the lower portion of the stool side plate is not to be less
than 80% of that required for the bulkhead plating in 5A-3-3/17.3 above for the upper one-third
portion of the bulkhead. The net thickness of the stool side plating and the net section modulus of
the stool side stiffeners are not to be less than those required for plane transverse bulkhead plating
and stiffeners in 5A-3-3/13.1, 5A-3-3/13.3 and 5A-3-3/13.5, with the corresponding tank pressure
specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3. The ends of stool side stiffeners are to be attached to brackets at the
upper and lower ends of the stool. Brackets or diaphragms are to be fitted to effectively support
the web panels of the corrugated bulkhead. Scallops in the brackets and diaphragms in way of the
connection to the stool bottom plate are to be avoided.
17.7.3 Alignment (2001)
Stool side vertical stiffeners and their brackets in the lower stool of the transverse bulkhead should
align with the inner bottom longitudinal to provide appropriate load transmission between the
stiffening members.
17.9 End Connections (1 July 2001)
The structural arrangements and size of the welding at the ends of corrugations are to be designed to
develop the required strength of the corrugated bulkhead. Where shedder plates (slanting plates) are fitted
at the end connection of the corrugation to the lower stool, appropriate means are to be provided to prevent
the possibility of gas pockets being formed in way of these plates within the cargo tanks.
Welding for all connections and joints is to be in compliance with the Rules. The welded connection of the
bulkhead to the stools within 10% of the depth of the corrugation from the outer surface of the corrugation,
d
1
, is to be double continuous with fillet size not less than 0.7 times the thickness of bulkhead plating or
penetration welds of equal strength (see 5A-3-3/Figure 12).

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FIGURE 10
Definition of Parameters for Corrugated Bulkhead (Ship-type Installations without
Longitudinal Bulkhead at Centerline) (1 September 2007)
B
d
B
b
L
C
A
dt

o

H
st
H
b B
st
L
b
B
ct
a
d
s
c
t
f
(NET)
t
w
(NET)
φ



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FIGURE 11
Definition of Parameters for Corrugated Bulkhead (Ship-type Installations with
Longitudinal Bulkhead at Centerline) (1 September 2007)
A
d 
B
d

o

B
c 
H
s 
B
b

B
s
L
C
A
dt
L
d

o

H
st
H
b
B
st
L
b
B
ct
a
d
s
c
t
f
(NET)
t
w
(NET)
φ



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FIGURE 12
Corrugated Bulkhead End Connections
t (ACTUAL)
0.7t ( t = ACTUAL)
0.1d
1
d
1



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PART S e c t i o n 4 : T o t a l S t r e n g t h A s s e s s m e n t
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 4 Total Strength Assessment
1 General Requirements
1.1 General (1995)
In assessing the adequacy of the structural configuration and the initially selected scantlings, the strength
of the hull girder and the individual structural member or element is to be in compliance with the failure
criteria specified in 5A-3-4/3 below. In this regard, the structural response is to be calculated by performing a
structural analysis, as specified in 5A-3-4/11, or by other equivalent and effective means. Due consideration
is to be given to structural details, as specified in 5A-3-3/1.5.
1.3 Loads and Load Cases (December 2008)
In determination of the structural response, the combined load cases given in 5A-3-2/9.3 are to be considered
together with sloshing loads specified in 5A-3-2/11. Deck loads as specified in Sections 5A-1-4 and 5A-1-5
are also to be considered. If this information is not yet available, the deck loads as indicated in 5A-3-2/15 are
to be used. Bowflare/bottom slamming and other loads, as specified in 5A-3-2/13, are also to be considered
as necessary.
1.5 Stress Components (1995)
The total stress in stiffened plate panels are divided into the following three categories:
1.5.1 Primary
Primary stresses are those resulting from hull girder bending. The primary bending stresses may
be determined by simple beam method using the specified total vertical and horizontal bending
moments and the effective net hull girder section modulus at the section considered. These primary
stresses, designated by f
L1
(f
L1V
, f
L1H
for vertical and horizontal bending, respectively), may be
regarded as uniformly distributed across the thickness of plate elements, at the same level measuring
from the relevant neutral axis of the hull girder.
1.5.2 Secondary
Secondary stresses are those resulting from bending of large stiffened panels between longitudinal
and transverse bulkheads, due to local loads in an individual cargo or ballast tank.
The secondary bending stresses, designated by f
L2
or f
T2
, are to be determined by performing a 3D
FEM analysis, as outlined in this Section.
For stiffened hull structures, there is another secondary stress due to the bending of longitudinals
or stiffeners with the associated plating between deep supporting members or floors. The latter
secondary stresses are designated by
*
2 L
f or
*
2 T
f , and may be approximated by simple beam
theory.
The secondary stresses, f
L2
, f
T2
,
*
2 L
f or
*
2 T
f , may be regarded as uniformly distributed in the
flange plating and face plates.
1.5.3 Tertiary
Tertiary stresses are those resulting from the local bending of plate panels between stiffeners. The
tertiary stresses, designated by f
L3
or f
T3
, can be calculated from classic plate theory. These stresses
are referred to as point stresses at the surface of the plate.

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3 Failure Criteria – Yielding
3.1 General
The calculated stresses in the hull structure are to be within the limits given below for the entire combined
load cases specified in 5A-3-2/9.3.
3.3 Structural Members and Elements (1999)
For all structural members and elements, such as longitudinals/stiffeners, web plates and flanges, the combined
effects of all of the calculated stress components are to satisfy the following limits:
f
i
≤ S
m
f
y

where
f
i
= stress intensity
= (
2
L
f +
2
T
f − f
L
f
T
+ 3
2
LT
f )
1/2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
L
= calculated total in-plane stress in the longitudinal direction including primary and
secondary stresses
= f
L1
+ f
L2
+
*
2 L
f N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
L1
= direct stress due to the primary (hull girder) bending, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
L2
= direct stress due to the secondary bending between bulkheads in the longitudinal
direction, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
*
2 L
f = direct stress due to local bending of longitudinal between transverses in the
longitudinal direction, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T
= calculated total direct stress in the transverse/vertical direction, including secondary
stresses
= f
T1
+ f
T2
+
*
2 T
f N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
LT
= calculated total in-plane shear stress, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T1
= direct stress due to sea and cargo load in the transverse/vertical direction, N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T2
= direct stress due to the secondary bending between bulkheads in the transverse/
vertical direction, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
*
2 T
f = direct stress due to local bending of stiffeners in the transverse/vertical direction,
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
y
= specified minimum yield point, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
S
m
= strength reduction factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1
For this purpose,
*
2 L
f and
*
2 T
f in the flanges of longitudinal and stiffener at the ends of span may be
obtained from the following equation:
*
2 L
f (
*
2 T
f ) = 0.071sp
2
/SM
L
(SM
T
) N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
s = spacing of longitudinals (stiffeners), in cm (in.)
 = unsupported span of the longitudinal (stiffener), in cm (in.)
p = net pressure load, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for the longitudinal (stiffener)
SM
L
(SM
T
) = net section modulus, in cm
3
(in
3
), of the longitudinal (stiffener)

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3.5 Plating (1 July 2012)
For plating away from knuckle, horizontal girder or stringer or cruciform connections of high stress
concentrations and subject to both in-plane and lateral loads, the combined effects of all of the calculated
stress components are to satisfy the limits specified in 5A-3-4/3.3 with f
L
and f
T
modified as follows:
f
L
= f
L1
+ f
L2
+
*
2 L
f + f
L3
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T
= f
T1
+ f
T2
+
*
2 T
f + f
T3
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
f
L3
, f
T3
= plate bending stresses between stiffeners in the longitudinal and transverse directions,
respectively, and may be approximated as follows.
f
L3
= 0.182p(s/t
n
)
2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T3
= 0.266p(s/t
n
)
2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p = lateral pressures for the combined load case considered (see 5A-3-2/9), in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
s = spacing of longitudinals or stiffeners, in mm (in.)
t
n
= net plate thickness, in mm (in.)
f
L1
, f
L2
,
*
2 L
f , f
T1
, f
T2
and
*
2 T
f are as defined in 5A-3-4/3.3.
For plating within two longitudinals or stiffeners from knuckle or cruciform connections of high stress
concentrations, the combined effects of the calculated stress components are to satisfy the following stress
limit:
f
i
≤ 0.80 S
m
f
y

where
f
i
= stress intensity
= (
2
L
f +
2
T
f − f
L
f
T
+ 3
2
LT
f )
1/2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
L
= calculated total in-plane stress in the longitudinal direction including primary and
secondary stresses
= f
L1
+ f
L2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
T
= calculated total direct stress in the transverse/vertical direction, including secondary
stresses
= f
T1
+ f
T2
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
In addition, the failure criteria for knuckle or cruciform connections in 5A-3-4/13 are to be complied with.
5 Failure Criteria – Buckling and Ultimate Strength (1995)
5.1 General
5.1.1 Approach
The strength criteria given here correspond to either serviceability (buckling) limit states or ultimate
limit states for structural members and panels, according to the intended functions and buckling
resistance capability of the structure. For plate panels between stiffeners, buckling in the elastic
range is acceptable, provided that the ultimate strength of the structure satisfies the specified design
limits. The critical buckling stresses and ultimate strength of structures may be determined based
on either well-documented experimental data or a calibrated analytical approach. When a detailed
analysis is not available, the equations given in 5A-3-4/7.1 may be used to assess the buckling strength.

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5.1.2 Buckling Control Concepts
The strength criteria in 5A-3-4/5.3 through 5A-3-4/5.11 are based on the following assumptions
and limitations with respect to buckling control in design.
5.1.2(a) The buckling strength of longitudinals and stiffeners is generally greater than that of the
plate panels they support.
5.1.2(b) All longitudinals with their associated effective plating are to have moments of inertia
not less than i
o
given in 5A-3-4/7.9.1.
5.1.2(c) The main supporting members, including transverses, girders and floors, with their
associated effective plating are to have the moments of inertia not less than I
s
given in 5A-3-4/7.9.3.
5.1.2(d) Face plates and flanges of girders, longitudinals and stiffeners are proportioned such that
local instability is prevented. (See 5A-3-4/7.9.4)
5.1.2(e) Webs of longitudinals and stiffeners are proportioned such that local instability is prevented.
(See 5A-3-4/7.9.5).
5.1.2(f) Webs of girders, floors and transverses are designed with proper proportions and stiffening
systems to prevent local instability. Critical buckling stresses of the webs may be calculated from
equations given in 5A-3-4/7.3.
For structures which do not satisfy these assumptions, a detailed analysis of buckling strength
using an acceptable method is to be submitted for review.
5.3 Plate Panels
5.3.1 Buckling Limit State (December 2008)
The buckling limit state for plate panels between stiffeners is defined by the following equation:
(f
Lb
/f
cL
)
2
+ (f
Tb
/f
cT
)
2
+ (f
LT
/f
cLT
)
2
≤ 1.0
where
f
Lb
= f
L1
+ f
L2
= calculated total compressive stress in the longitudinal direction for the plate,
in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), induced by bending of the hull girder and large
stiffened panels between bulkheads
f
Tb
= f
T1
+ f
T2
= calculated total compressive stress in the transverse/vertical direction, in
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
LT
= calculated total in-plane shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
cL
, f
cT
and f
cLT
are the critical buckling stresses corresponding to uniaxial compression in the
longitudinal, transverse/vertical directions and edge shear, respectively, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
),
and may be determined from the equations given in 5A-3-4/7.3.
f
L
, f
T
and f
LT
are to be determined for the panel in question under the load cases specified in
5A-3-2/9.3.2 including the primary and secondary stresses, as defined in 5A-3-4/3.1.
5.3.2 Effective Width
When the buckling limit state specified in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 above is not satisfied, the effective width
b
wL
or b
wT
of the plating given below is to be used instead of the full width between longitudinals,
s, for verifying the ultimate strength, as specified in 5A-3-4/5.3.3 below. When the buckling limit
state in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 above is satisfied, the full width between longitudinals, s, may be used as the
effective width, b
wL
, for verifying the ultimate strength of longitudinals and stiffeners specified in
5A-3-4/5.5.

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5.3.2(a) For long plate:
b
wL
/s = C
C = 2.25/β − 1.25/β
2
for β ≥ 1.25
= 1.0 for β < 1.25
β = (f
y
/E)
1/2
s/t
n
s = longitudinal spacing, in mm (in.)
t
n
= net thickness of the plate, in mm (in.)
E = Young’s modulus, 2.06 × 10
7
N/cm
2
(2.1 × 10
6
kgf/cm
2
, 30 × 10
6
lbf/in
2
) for
steel
f
y
= specified minimum yield point of the material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
5.3.2(b) (1999) For wide plate (compression in transverse direction):
b
wT
/ = Cs/ + 0.115(1 − s/)(1 + 1/β
2
)
2
≤ 1.0
where
 = spacing of transverses, in cm (in.)
s = longitudinal spacing, in cm (in.)
C, β are as defined in 5A-3-4/5.3.2(a) above.
5.3.3 Ultimate Strength (December 2008)
The ultimate strength of a plate panel between stiffeners is to satisfy all of the following equations:
(f
Lb
/f
uL
)
2
+ (f
LT
/f
uLT
)
2
≤ S
m

(f
Tb
/f
uT
)
2
+ (f
LT
/f
uLT
)
2
≤ S
m

(f
Lb
/f
uL
)
2
+ (f
Tb
/f
uT
)
2
− η(f
Lb
/f
uL
) (f
Tb
/f
uT
) + (f
LT
/f
uLT
)
2
≤ S
m

where
f
Lb
, f
Tb
and f
LT
are as defined in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 above.
S
m
is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
η = 1.5 − β/2 ≥ 0
β is as defined in 5A-3-4/5.3.2 above.
f
uL
, f
uT
and f
uLT
are the ultimate strengths with respect to uniaxial compression and edge shear,
respectively, and may be obtained from the following equations, except that they need not be
taken less than the corresponding critical buckling stresses specified in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 above.
f
uL
= f
y
b
wL
/s
f
uT
= f
y
b
wT
/
f
wLT
= f
cLT
+ 0.5(f
y
− 3 f
cLT
)/(1 + α + α
2
)
1/2

where
α = /s
f
y
, b
wL
, b
wT
, s,  and f
cLT
are as defined above.
For assessing the ultimate strength of plate panels between stiffeners, special attention is to be paid
to the longitudinal bulkhead plating in the regions of high hull girder shear forces and the bottom
and inner bottom plating in the mid portion of cargo tanks subject to bi-axial compression.

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5.5 Longitudinals and Stiffeners
5.5.1 Beam-Column Buckling Limit States and Ultimate Strength (2002)
The buckling limit states for longitudinals and stiffeners are considered as the ultimate limit states
for these members and are to be determined as follows:
f
a
/(f
ca
A
e
/A) + mf
b
/f
y
≤ S
m

where
f
a
= nominal calculated compressive stress
= P/A, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P = total compressive load, N (kgf, lbf)
f
ca
= critical buckling stress, as given in 5A-3-4/7.5.1, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
A = total net sectional area, cm
2
(in
2
)
= A
s
+ st
n

A
s
= net sectional area of the longitudinal, excluding the associated plating, cm
2
(in
2
)
A
e
= effective net sectional area, cm
2
(in
2
)
= A
s
+ b
wL
t
n

b
wL
= effective width, as specified in 5A-3-4/5.3.2 above
E = Young’s modulus, 2.06 × 10
7
N/cm
2
(2.1 × 10
6
kgf/cm
2
, 30 × 10
6
lbf/in
2
) for
steel
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the longitudinal or stiffener under
consideration, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
b
= bending stress, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= M/SM
e

M = maximum bending moment induced by lateral loads
= c
m
ps
2
/12 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
c
m
= moment adjustment coefficient, and may be taken as 0.75
p = lateral pressure for the region considered, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
s = spacing of the longitudinals, cm (in.)
SM
e
= effective section modulus of the longitudinal at flange, accounting for the
effective breadth, b
e
, cm
3
(in
3
)
b
e
= effective breadth, as specified in 5A-3-3/Figure 6, line b
m = amplification factor
= 1/[1 − f
a

2
E(r/)
2
] ≥ 1.0
S
m
is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
r and  are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.5.1.
5.5.2 Torsional-Flexural Buckling Limit State (2002)
In general, the torsional-flexural buckling limit state of longitudinals and stiffeners is to satisfy the
ultimate limit states given below:
f
a
/(f
ct
A
e
/A) ≤ S
m


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where
f
a
= nominal calculated compressive stress in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined
in 5A-3-4/5.5.1 above
f
ct
= critical torsional-flexural buckling stress in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), and
may be determined by equations given in 5A-3-4/7.5.2.
A
e
and A are as defined in 5A-3-4/5.5.1 above and S
m
is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
5.7 Stiffened Panels
5.7.1 Large Stiffened Panels between Bulkheads
For a double hull ship-type installation, assessment of buckling limit state is not required for the
large stiffened panels of the bottom and inner bottom structures, side shell and inner skin. Assessments
of the buckling limit states are to be performed for large stiffened panels of the deck structure and
other longitudinal bulkheads. In this regard, the buckling strength is to satisfy the following
condition for uniaxially or orthogonally stiffened panels.
(f
L1
/f
cL
)
2
+ (f
T1
/f
cT
)
2
≤ S
m

where
f
L1
, f
T1
= calculated average compressive stresses in the longitudinal and transverse/
vertical directions, respectively, as defined in 5A-3-4/3.3 above
f
cL
, f
cT
= critical buckling stresses for uniaxial compression in the longitudinal and
transverse direction, respectively, and may be determined in accordance with
5A-3-4/7.7, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
S
m
= strength reduction factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1
5.7.2 Uniaxially Stiffened Panels between Transverses and Girders
The bucking strength of uniaxially stiffened panels between deep transverses and girders is also to
be examined in accordance with the specifications given in 5A-3-4/5.7.1 above by replacing f
L1

and f
T1
with f
Lb
and f
Tb
, respectively. f
Lb
and f
Tb
are as defined in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 above.
5.9 Deep Girders and Webs
5.9.1 Buckling Criteria (December 2008)
In general, the stiffness of the web stiffeners along the depth of the web plating is to be in compliance
with the requirements of 5A-3-4/7.9.2. Web stiffeners which are oriented parallel to and near the
face plate, and thus subject to axial compression, are also to satisfy the limits specified in 5A-3-4/5.5,
considering the combined effect of the compressive and bending stresses in the web. In this case,
the unsupported span of these parallel stiffeners may be taken between tripping brackets, as applicable.
The buckling strength of the web plate between stiffeners and flange/face plate is to satisfy the
limits specified below.
5.9.1(a) For web plate:
(f
Lb
/f
cL
)
2
+ (f
b
/f
cb
)
2
+ (f
LT
/f
cLT
)
2
≤ S
m

where
f
Lb
= calculated uniform compressive stress along the length of the girder, N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
b
= calculated ideal bending stresses, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
LT
= calculated total in-plane shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
S
m
= strength reduction factor, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1

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f
Lb
, f
b
and f
LT
are to be calculated for the panel in question under the combined load cases specified
in 5A-3-2/9.3 and these stresses may be calculated from the relative displacements of four corner
nodes. This method is useful when the meshing within the panel is irregular. However, care should
be taken when one corner of the panel is located in an area of high stress concentration or the
panel shape is significantly different from a rectangular shape. The calculated stresses from the
above mentioned method tend to be on the conservative side. If one corner of the panel is highly
stressed and if the mesh is sufficiently refined, the plate panel stresses may be calculated from the
displacements slightly away from the corner point of the high stress concentration area. For a
regularly meshed plate panel, f
L
, f
b
and f
LT
may also be calculated directly from the components
stresses for the elements in the panel.
f
cL
, f
cb
and f
cLT
are critical buckling stresses with respect to uniform compression, ideal bending
and shear, respectively, and may be determined in accordance with 5A-3-4/7.
In the determination of f
cL
and f
cLT
, the effects of openings are to be considered.
For deck transverse web plating of existing vessels converted to FPIs, when the buckling limit
state specified above is not satisfied and the Survey Record Review does not indicate any buckling
problems for the deck transverse plating panels, it may be acceptable to apply the criteria specified
in 5A-3-4/5.3.2 and 5A-3-4/5.3.3..
5.9.1(b) For face plate and flange. The breadth to thickness ratio of face plate and flange is to
satisfy the limits given in 5A-3-4/7.9.
5.9.1(c) For large brackets and sloping webs. The buckling strength is to satisfy the limits
specified in 5A-3-4/5.9.1(a) above for web plate.
5.11 Corrugated Bulkheads (1997)
5.11.1 Local Plate Panels (December 2008)
5.11.1(a) Buckling criteria. The buckling strength of the flange and web plate panels is not to be
less than that specified below.
(f
Lb
/R

f
cL
)
2
+ ( f
Tb
/R
t
f
cT
)
2
+ ( f
LT
/f
cLT
)
2
≤ S
m
for flange panels
(f
Lb
/R

f
cL
)
2
+ ( f
b
/f
cb
)
2
+ ( f
LT
/f
cLT
)
2
≤ S
m
for web panels
where
R
t
= reduction factor accounting for lateral load effects, and may be approximated by:
= 1.0 − 0.45(q − 0.5)
q = lateral load parameter
= p
n
(s/t
n
)
4

2
E, 0.5 minimum
p
n
= lateral pressure for the combined load case considered (see 5A-3-2/9), in
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
s = longitudinal spacing, in mm (in.)
t
n
= net thickness of the plate, in mm (in.)
E = Young’s modulus, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for steel 2.06 × 10
7
(2.10 × 10
6
,
30 × 10
6
)
All of the parameter definitions and calculations are as specified in 5A-3-4/5.3.1 and 5A-3-4/5.9.1(a),
except that f
Lb
is the average compressive stress at the upper and lower ends of the corrugation,
and an average value of f
Tb
, f
LT
and f
b
, calculated along the entire length of the panel, should be
used in the above equation.
5.11.1(b) Ultimate strength. The ultimate strength of flange panels in the middle one-third of the
depth are to satisfy the following criteria, considering a portion of flange panel having a length of
three times the panel width, a, with the worst bending moments in the mid-depth region for all
load cases.
( f
Lb
/f
uL
)
2
+ ( f
Tb
/f
uT
)
2
≤ S
m


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where
f
Lb
= the calculated average compressive bending stress in the region within 3a in
length, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
Tb
= horizontal compressive stresses, as specified in 5A-3-4/5.11.1(a) above
f
uL
and f
uT
may be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-4/5.3.3 above.
5.11.2 Unit Corrugation
Any unit corrugation of the bulkhead may be treated as a beam column and is to satisfy the
buckling criteria (same as the ultimate strength) specified in 5A-3-4/5.5.1. The ultimate bending
stress is to be determined in accordance with 5A-3-4/7.5.3.
5.11.3 Overall Buckling
The buckling strength of the entire corrugation is to satisfy the equation given in 5A-3-4/5.7.1
with respect to the biaxial compression by replacing the subscripts “L” and “T” with “V” and “H”
for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.
7 Calculation of Critical Buckling Stresses (December 2008)
7.1 General
The critical buckling stresses for various structural elements and members may be determined in accordance
with this Subsection or other recognized design practices. Critical buckling stresses derived from experimental
data or analytical studies may be considered, provided that well-documented supporting data are submitted
for review.
7.3 Rectangular Plates
The critical buckling stresses for rectangular plate elements, such as plate panels between stiffeners; web
plates of longitudinals, girders, floors and transverses; flanges and face plates, may be obtained from the
following equations, with respect to uniaxial compression, bending and edge shear, respectively.
f
ci
= f
Ei
for f
Ei
≤ P
r
f
yi

f
ci
= f
yi
[1 − P
r
(1 − P
r
)f
yi
/f
Ei
] for f
Ei
> P
r
f
yi

where
f
ci
= critical buckling stress with respect to uniaxial compression, bending or edge shear,
separately, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
Ei
= K
i

2
E/12(1 − ν
2
)](t
n
/s)
2
, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
K
i
= buckling coefficient, as given in 5A-3-4/Table 1
E = modulus of elasticity of the material, may be taken as 2.06 × 10
7
N/cm
2
(2.1 × 10
6

kgf/cm
2
, 30 × 10
6
lbf/in
2
) for steel
ν = Poisson’s ratio, may be taken as 0.3 for steel
t
n
= net thickness of the plate, in cm (in.)
s = spacing of longitudinals/stiffeners, in cm (in.)
P
r
= proportional linear elastic limit of the structure, may be taken as 0.6 for steel
f
yi
= f
y
, for uniaxial compression and bending
= f
y
/ 3 , for edge shear
f
y
= specified minimum yield point of the material, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)

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TABLE 1
Buckling Coefficient, K
i
(December 2008)
For Critical Buckling Stress Corresponding to f
L
, f
T
, f
b
or f
LT

I. Plate panel between stiffeners K
i

A Uniaxial compression
1. Long plate
 ≥ s
S
f
L
f '
L
f
L
f '
L


a. For f‘
L
, = f
L
:

4C
1
,
b. For f‘
L
, = f
L
/3: 5.8C
1
,
(see note)

2. Wide plate
 ≥ s
S

f
T
f '
T
f
T
f '
T

a. For f‘
T
, = f
T
:

[1 + (s/)
2
]
2
C
2

b. For f‘
T
, = f
T
/3: 1.45[1 + (s/)
2
]
2
C
2

(see note)

B Ideal Bending
1. Long plate
 ≥ s
s
f
b

-f
b
f
b
-f
b


24C
1


2. Wide plate
 ≥ s
s
-f
b

-f
b
f
b
f
b

a. For 1.0 ≤ /s ≤ 2.0: 24 (s/)
2
C
2

b. For 2.0 < /s : 12 (s/)C
2



C Edge Shear
s
f
LT

f
LT

K
i

[5.34 + 4 (s/)
2
]C
1




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TABLE 1 (continued)
Buckling Coefficient, K
i
(December 2008)
D Values of C
1
and C
2

1. For plate panels between angles or tee stiffeners
C
1
= 1.1
C
2
= 1.3 within the double bottom or double side*
C
2
= 1.2 elsewhere

2. For plate panels between flat bars or bulb plates
C
1
= 1.0
C
2
= 1.2 within the double bottom or double side*
C
2
= 1.1 elsewhere

* applicable where shorter edges of a panel are supported by rigid structural members, such as bottom, inner
bottom, side shell, inner skin bulkhead, double bottom floor/girder and double side web stringer.

II. Web of Longitudinal or Stiffener K
i

A Axial compression
Same as I.A.1 by replacing s with depth of the web and  with unsupported span
a. For f‘
L
= f
L
:
b. For f‘
L
= f
L
/2:
(see note)
4C
5.2C
where
C = 1.0 for angle or tee stiffeners
C = 0.33 for bulb plates
C = 0.11 for flat bars

B Ideal Bending
Same as I.B.1 by replacing s with depth of the web and  with unsupported span

24C

III. Flange and Face Plate K
i

Axial Compression 0.44
b
2
b
2

s = b
2

 = unsupported span

Note:
In I.A. (II.A), K
i
for intermediate values of f‘
L
/f
L
(f‘
T
/f
T
) may be obtained by interpolation between a and b.


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7.5 Longitudinals and Stiffeners
7.5.1 Axial Compression
The critical buckling stress, f
ca
, of a beam-column, i.e., the longitudinal and the associated effective
plating, with respect to axial compression may be obtained from the following equations:
f
ca
= f
E
for f
E
≤ P
r
f
y

f
ca
= f
y
[1 − P
r
(1 − P
r
)f
y
/f
E
] for f
E
> P
r
f
y

where
f
E
= π
2
E/(/r)
2
, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
 = unsupported span of the longitudinal or stiffener, in cm (in.), as defined in
5A-3-3/Figure 5
r = radius of gyration of area A
e
, in cm (in.)
A
e
= A
s
+ b
wL
t
n

A
s
= net sectional area of the longitudinals or stiffeners, excluding the associated
plating, cm
2
(in
2
)
b
wL
= effective width of the plating as given in 5A-3-4/5.3.2, in cm (in.)
t
n
= net thickness of the plating, in cm (in.)
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the longitudinal or stiffener under
consideration, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P
r
and E are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.
7.5.2 Torsional/Flexural Buckling
The critical torsional/flexural buckling stress with respect to axial compression of a longitudinal,
including its associated plating (effective width, b
wL
), may be obtained from the following equations:
f
ct
= f
ET
for f
ET
≤ P
r
f
y

f
ct
= f
y
[1 − P
r
(1 − P
r
)f
y
/f
ET
] for f
ET
> P
r
f
y

where
f
ct
= critical torsional/flexural buckling stress with respect to axial compression,
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
ET
= E[K/2.6 + (nπ/)
2
Γ + C
o
(/nπ)
2
/E]/I
o
[1 + C
o
(/nπ)
2
/I
o
f
cL
], N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
K = St. Venant torsion constant for the longitudinal’s cross section, excluding the
associated plating.
= [b
f

3
f
t + d
w
3
w
t ]/3
I
o
= polar moment of inertia of the longitudinal, excluding the associated plating,
about the toe (intersection of web and plating), in cm
4
(in
4
)
= I
x
+ mI
y
+ A
s
(
2
o
x +
2
o
y )
I
x
, I
y
= moment of inertia of the longitudinal about the x-and y-axis, respectively,
through the centroid of the longitudinal, excluding the plating (x-axis
perpendicular to the web), in cm
4
(in
4
)
m = 1.0 − u(0.7 − 0.1d
w
/b
f
)

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u = unsymmetry factor
= 1 − 2b
1
/b
f

x
o
= horizontal distance between centroid of stiffener, A
s
, and centerline of the
web plate, cm (in.)
y
o
= vertical distance between the centroid of the longitudinal’s cross section and
its toe, cm (in.)
d
w
= depth of the web, cm (in.)
t
w
= net thickness of the web, cm (in.)
b
f
= total width of the flange/face plate, cm (in.)
b
1
= smaller outstanding dimension of flange with respect to centerline of web
(see 5A-3-4/Figure 1), cm (in.)
t
f
= net thickness of the flange/face plate, cm (in.)
C
o
= Et
n
3
/3s
Γ = warping constant
≅ mI
yf

2
w
d +
3
w
d
3
w
t /36
I
yf
= t
f

3
f
b (1.0 + 3.0 u
2
d
w
t
w
/A
s
)/12, cm
4
(in
4
)
f
cL
= critical buckling stress for the associated plating, corresponding to n-half
waves, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= π
2
E(n/α + α/n)
2
(t
n
/s)
2
/12(1 − ν
2
)
α = /s
n = number of half-wave which yield a smallest f
ET

f
y
= minimum specified yield point of the longitudinal or stiffener under
consideration, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P
r
, E, s and ν are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.
A
s
, t
n
and  are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.5.1.
7.5.3 Buckling Criteria for Unit Corrugation of Transverse Bulkhead
The critical buckling stress, which is also the ultimate bending stress, f
cb
, for a unit corrugation,
may be determined from the following equation (See 5A-3-4/5.11.2).
f
cb
= f
Ec
for f
Ec
≤ P
r
f
y

f
cb
= [1 − P
r
(1 − P
r
)f
y
/f
Ec
]f
y
for f
Ec
> P
r
f
y

where
f
Ec
= k
c
E(t/a)
2

k
c
= 0.09[7.65 − 0.26 (c/a)
2
]
2

c and a are widths of the web and flange panels, respectively, in cm
2
(in
2
)
t = net thickness of the flange panel, in cm (in.)
P
r
, f
y
and E are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.

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FIGURE 1
Net Dimensions and Properties of Stiffeners (December 2008)
1
1
d
w
y
o
b
e
b
f
CENTROID OF WEB
AND FACE PLATE
(NET SECTION)
= point considered for
coefficient, C
n
, given
in 5A-3-A2/Figure 3
x
o
b
2
b
1
t
f
t
w
t
p


7.7 Stiffened Panels
7.7.1 Large Stiffened Panels
For large stiffened panels between bulkheads or panels stiffened in one direction between transverses
and girders, the critical buckling stresses with respect to uniaxial compression may be determined
from the following equations:
f
ci
= f
Ei
for f
Ei
≤ P
r
f
y

f
ci
= f
y
[1 − P
r
(1 − P
r
) f
y
/f
Ei
] for f
Ei
> P
r
f
y

where
f
Ei
= k
L
π
2
(D
L
D
T
)
1/2
/t
L
b
2
in the longitudinal direction, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
Ei
= k
T
π
2
(D
L
D
T
)
1/2
/t
T

2
in the transverse direction, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
k
L
= 4 for /b ≥ 1
= [1/φ
2
L
+ 2η + φ
2
L
] for /b < 1

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k
T
= 4 for b/ ≥ 1
= [1/φ
2
T
+2η + φ
2
T
] for b/ < 1
D
L
= EI
L
/s
L
(1 − ν
2
)
D
T
= EI
T
/s
T
(1 − ν
2
)
D
T
= E
3
n
t /12(1 − ν
2
) if no stiffener in the transverse direction
, b = length and width between transverse and longitudinal bulkheads,
respectively, in cm (in.) (See 5A-3-4/Figure 2)
t
L
, t
T
= net equivalent thickness of the plating and stiffener in the longitudinal and
transverse direction, respectively, cm (in.)
= (s
L
t
n
+ A
sL
)/s
L
or (s
T
t
n
+ A
sT
)/s
T

s
L
, s
T
= spacing of longitudinals and transverses, respectively, cm (in.)
(See 5A-3-4/Figure 2)
φ
L
= (/b) (D
T
/D
L
)
1/4

φ
T
= (b/) (D
L
/D
T
)
1/4

η = [(I
pL
I
pT
)/(I
L
I
T
)]
1/2

A
sL
, A
sT
= net sectional area of the longitudinal and transverse, excluding the associated
plating, respectively, cm
2
(in
2
)
I
pL
, I
pT
= net moment of inertia of the effective plating alone (effective breadth due to
shear lag) about the neutral axis of the combined cross section, including
stiffener and plating, cm
4
(in
4
)
I
L
, I
T
= net moment of inertia of the stiffener (one) with effective plating in the
longitudinal or transverse direction, respectively, cm
4
(in
4
). If no stiffener,
the moment of inertia is calculated for the plating only.
f
y
, P
r
, E and ν are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3. t
n
is as defined in 5A-3-4/7.5.1.
With the exception of deck panels, when the lateral load parameter, q
o
, defined below, is greater
than 5, reduction of the critical buckling stresses given below is to be considered.
q
o
= p
n
b
4
/(π
4
t
T
D
T
)
q
o
= p
n

4
/(π
4
t
L
D
L
)
where
p
n
= average net lateral pressure, N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
D
T
, D
L
, b, , t
T
, t
L
and s
T
are as defined above.
In this regard, the critical buckling stress may be approximated by:
f′
ci
= R
o
f
ci
N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
R
o
= 1 − 0.045(q
o
− 5) for q
o
≥ 5
For deck panels, R
o
= 1.0 and f′
ci
= f
ci
.


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FIGURE 2 (December 2008)
longitudinal
T.B./S.S
L.B.
T.B.
plating, t
n
T.B.
transverse
b

s
T
p
n
s
L


7.7.2 Corrugated Transverse Bulkheads
For corrugated transverse bulkheads, the critical buckling stresses with respect to uniaxial compression
may be calculated from the equations given in 5A-3-4/7.7.1 above by replacing the subscripts “L”
and “T” with “V” and “H” for the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively, and with the
following modifications. The rigidities D
V
are D
H
are defined as follows.
D
V
= EI
v
/s
D
H
= [s/(a + c)][Et
3
/12(1 − ν
2
)]
K
V
= 4 for /b ≥ 0.5176(D
V
/D
H
)
1/4

=
2
2
1
V
V
φ +
φ
for /b < 0.5176(D
V
/D
H
)
1/4

K
H
= 4 for b/ ≥ 0.5176(D
H
/D
V
)
1/4

=
2
2
1
H
H
φ +
φ
for b/ < 0.5176(D
H
/D
V
)
1/4

where
I
v
= moment of inertia of a unit corrugation with spacing s, s = a + ccos φ
= t/4[csin φ]
2
(a + c/4 + csin φ/12), in cm
4
(in
4
)
a, c = widths of the flange and web panels, respectively, in cm (in.)
t = net thickness of the corrugations, in cm (in.)
E and ν are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.
 = length of the corrugation, in cm (in.)
s
v
, s
H
= s
η, I
pH
, A
sH
= 0
A
sV
= tc sin φ
φ is as defined in 5A-3-3/Figure 10 or 5A-3-3/Figure 11.

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7.9 Stiffness and Proportions (1 July 2009)
To fully develop the intended buckling strength of the assemblies of structural members and panels, supporting
elements of plate panels and longitudinals are to satisfy the following requirements for stiffness and proportion
in highly stressed regions.
7.9.1 Stiffness of Longitudinals
The net moment of inertia of the longitudinals, i
o
, with effective breadth of net plating, is to be not
less than that given by the following equation:
i
o
=
) 1 ( 12
2
3
v
st
n

γ
o
cm
4
(in
4
)
where
γ
o
= (2.6 + 4.0δ)α
2
+ 12.4α − 13.2α
1/2

δ = A/st
n

α = /s
s = spacing of longitudinals, cm (in.)
t
n
= net thickness of plating supported by the longitudinal, cm (in.)
ν = Poisson’s ratio
= 0.3 for steel
A = net sectional area of the longitudinal (excluding plating), cm
2
(in
2
)
 = unsupported span of the longitudinal, cm (in.)
7.9.2 Stiffness of Web Stiffeners
The net moment of inertia, i, of the web stiffener, with the effective breadth of net plating not
exceeding s or 0.33, whichever is less, is not to be less than obtained from the following equations:
i = 0.17t
3
(/s)
3
cm
4
(in
4
) for /s ≤ 2.0
i = 0.34t
3
(/s)
2
cm
4
(in
4
) for /s > 2.0
where
 = length of stiffener between effective supports, in cm (in.)
t = required net thickness of web plating, in cm (in.)
s = spacing of stiffeners, in cm (in.)
7.9.3 Stiffness of Supporting Members
The net moment of inertia of the supporting members, such as transverses and webs, is not to be
less than that obtained from the following equation:
I
s
/i
o
≥ 0.2(B
s
/)
3
(B
s
/s)
where
I
s
= moment of inertia of the supporting member, including the effective plating,
cm
4
(in
4
)
i
o
= moment of inertia of the longitudinals, including the effective plating, cm
4
(in
4
)
B
s
= unsupported span of the supporting member, cm (in.)
 and s are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.9.1.

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7.9.4 Proportions of Flanges and Face Plates
The breadth-thickness ratio of flanges and face plates of longitudinals and girders is to satisfy the
limits given below:
b
2
/t
f
= 0.4(E/f
y
)
1/2

where
b
2
= larger outstanding dimension of flange, as given in 5A-3-4/Figure 1, cm (in.)
t
f
= net thickness of flange/face plate, cm (in.)
E and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.
7.9.5 Proportions of Webs of Longitudinals and Stiffeners
The depth-thickness ratio of webs of longitudinals and stiffeners is to satisfy the limits given below.
d
w
/t
w
≤ 1.5(E/f
y
)
1/2
for angles and tee bars
d
w
/t
w
≤ 0.85(E/f
y
)
1/2
for bulb plates
d
w
/t
w
≤ 0.5(E/f
y
)
1/2
for flat bars
where d
w
and t
w
, are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.5.2 and E and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-4/7.3.
When these limits are complied with, the assumption on buckling control stated in 5A-3-4/5.1.2(e)
is considered satisfied. If not, the buckling strength of the web is to be further investigated, as per
5A-3-4/7.3.
9 Fatigue Life (1995)
9.1 General
An analysis is to be made of the fatigue strength of welded joints and details in highly stressed areas,
especially where higher strength steel is used. Special attention is to be given to structural notches, cutouts
and bracket toes, and also to abrupt changes of structural sections. A simplified assessment of the fatigue
strength of structural details may be accepted when carried out in accordance with Appendix 5A-3-A2.
The following subparagraphs are intended to emphasize the main points and to outline procedures where
refined spectral analysis techniques are used to establish fatigue strength.
9.1.1 Workmanship
As most fatigue data available were experimentally developed under controlled laboratory conditions,
consideration is to be given to the workmanship expected during construction.
9.1.2 Fatigue Data
In the selection of S-N curves and the associated stress concentration factors, attention is to be
paid to the background of all design data and its validity for the details being considered. In this
regard, recognized design data, such as those by AWS (American Welding Society), API
(American Petroleum Institute), and DEN (Department of Energy), should be considered. Sample
fatigue data and their applications are shown in Appendix 5A-3-A2 “Guide for Fatigue Strength
Assessment of Ship-Type Installations”.
If other fatigue data are to be used, the background and supporting data are to be submitted for review.
In this regard, clarification is required whether or not the stress concentration due to the weld
profile, certain structural configurations and also the heat effects are accounted for in the proposed
S-N curve. Consideration is also to be given to the additional stress concentrations.
9.1.3 Total Stress Range
For determining total stress ranges, the fluctuating stress components resulting from the load
combinations specified in 5A-3-A2/7.5 (for ship-type installations) or 5A-3-A2/21.3 (for trading
vessels) are to be considered.

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9.1.4 Design Consideration
In design, consideration is to be given to the minimization of structural notches and stress
concentrations. Areas subject to highly concentrated forces are to be properly configured and
stiffened to dissipate the concentrated loads. See also 5A-3-3/1.5.
9.3 Procedures
The analysis of fatigue strength for a welded structural joint/detail may be performed in accordance with
the following procedures.
The class designations and associated loading patterns are given in 5A-3-A2/Table 1.
9.3.1 Step 1 – Classification of Various Critical Locations
Where deemed appropriate, the total applied stress range of the structural details classified in Step 1
may be checked against the permissible stress ranges as shown in Appendix 5A-3-A2.
9.3.2 Step 2 – Permissible Stress Range Approach
9.3.3 Step 3 – Refined Analysis
Refined analyses are to be performed, as outlined in 5A-3-4/9.3.3(a) or 5A-3-4/9.3.3(b) below, for
the structural details for which the total applied stress ranges obtained from Step 2 are greater than
the permissible stress ranges, or for which the fatigue characteristics are not covered by the
classified details and the associated S-N curves.
The fatigue life of structures is generally not to be less than 20 years, unless otherwise specified.
9.3.3(a) Spectral analysis. Alternatively, a spectral analysis may be performed, as outlined in
5A-3-4/9.5 below, to directly calculate fatigue lives for the structural details in question.
9.3.3(b) Refined fatigue data. For structural details which are not covered by the detail
classifications, proposed S-N curves and the associated SCFs, when applicable, may be submitted
for consideration. In this regard, sufficient supporting data and background are also to be submitted
for review. The refined SCFs may be determined by finite element analyses.
9.5 Spectral Analysis
Where the option in 5A-3-4/9.3.3(a) is exercised, a spectral analysis is to be performed in accordance with
the following guidelines.
9.5.1 Representative Loading Patterns
Several representative loading patterns are to be considered to cover the worst scenarios anticipated
for the design service life of the installation with respect to hull girder local loads.
9.5.2 Environmental Representation (1 September 2007)
Instead of the design wave loads specified in Section 5A-3-2, a wave scatter diagram (such as
Walden’s Data for North Atlantic Environment) is to be employed to simulate a representative
distribution of all of the wave conditions expected for the design service life of the installation. In
general, the wave data is to cover a time period of not less than 20 years. The probability of
occurrence for each combination of significant wave height and mean period of the representative
wave scatter diagram is to be weighted, based on the transit time of the installation at each wave
environment within anticipated shipping routes or specific sites. Detailed environmental data
requirements are given in 5A-1-3/3.11.3.
9.5.3 Calculation of Wave Load RAOs
The wave load RAOs with respect to the wave-induced bending moments, shear forces, motions,
accelerations and hydrodynamic pressures can then be predicted by ship motion calculation for a
selected representative loading condition.

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9.5.4 Generation of Stress Spectrum
The stress spectrum for each critical structural detail (spot) may be generated by performing a
structural analysis, accounting for all the wave loads separately for each individual wave group.
For this purpose, the 3D structural model and 2D models specified in 5A-3-4/11 may be used for
determining structural responses. The additional secondary and tertiary stresses are also to be
considered.
9.5.5 Cumulative Fatigue Damage and Fatigue Life
Based on the stress spectrum and wave scatter diagram established above, the cumulative fatigue
damage and the corresponding fatigue life can be estimated by the Palmgren-Miner linear damage
rule.
11 Calculation of Structural Responses (1995)
11.1 Methods of Approach and Analysis Procedures (1 July 2012)
Maximum stresses in the structure are to be determined by performing structural analyses, as outlined
below. Guidelines on structural idealization, load application and structural analysis are given in Appendix
5A-3-A4.
The strength assessment of the hull structure for new build FPIs is based on a three cargo tank lengths finite
element model about midships where the strength assessment is focused on the results obtained from structures
in the middle tank. For an FPI conversion, as an alternative, a complete hull length or full cargo block length
finite element model including all cargo and ballast tanks in the hull structure can be used in lieu of the three
cargo tank length model.
In the three tank length model the strength assessment is to be focused on the results obtained from the mid
tank structure. However, the deck transverse, the side transverse, the vertical web on longitudinal bulkheads,
the horizontal girder and the vertical web on transverse bulkheads and the cross ties are also to be assessed
using the end tanks of the three tank length model analysis.
11.3 3D Finite Element Models (1 July 2012)
A simplified three-dimensional (3D) finite element model is required to determine the load distribution in
the structure.
The three-hold length finite element model represents three bays of tanks within 0.4L amidships of the hull
structure. The same 3D model may be used for hull structures beyond 0.4L amidships with modifications
to the structural properties and the applied loads, provided that the structural configurations are such that
they are considered as representative of the location under consideration.
The full length or cargo block length finite element model may be used for the alternative method of analysis
for FPI conversions.
11.5 Local Structural Models (December 2008)
Local 3D fine mesh model are required to:
• Determine the stress distribution in major supporting structures, particularly at intersections of two or
more structural members and/or
• Examine stress concentrations such as at bracket toes of main supporting members, at openings in way
of critical locations, at intersections of longitudinals with transverses and at cut outs.
11.7 Load Cases (December 2008)
When performing structural analysis, the combined load cases specified in 5A-3-2/9.1 are to be considered.
In general, the structural responses for the still-water conditions are to be calculated separately to establish
reference points for assessing the wave-induced responses. Additional load cases may be required for
special loading patterns and unusual design functions, such as sloshing loads, as specified in 5A-3-2/11.
For the three hold length analysis, additional load cases may also be required for hull structures beyond the
region of 0.4L amidships.

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13 Critical Areas (December 2008)
13.1 General
The strength and fatigue capacity of the following critical areas is to be verified:
• Typical connections of transverse web frames in 5A-3-4/Figure 3
• Typical connections of horizontal girders on transverse bulkhead in 5A-3-4/Figure 4
• Typical connections buttress structure in 5A-3-4/Figure 5
13.3 Strength Evaluation
The allowable stress applicable to critical areas in 5A-3-4/13.1 is defined as a percentage of the minimum
specified yield stress, f
y
, times the strength reduction factor, S
m
. Application of this allowable stress to rod
and beam elements is based on the axial stress while von-Mises membrane stresses are employed for
quadrilateral elements.
The allowable stress for fine mesh analysis is defined in 5A-3-4/Table 2 and depends on the mesh size. To
calculate the local stress distribution in a main supporting member, it is often necessary to model details
and discontinuities using various fine mesh sizes. In areas of high stress gradient, the allowable stresses are
to be adjusted according to mesh sizes and are listed in 5A-3-4/Table 2.
The high stress FE results should be viewed in terms of the extent of the high stresses with respect to the
mesh size and the structural arrangement in the high stress region.

TABLE 2
Allowable Stresses (kgf/cm
2
) for Various Finite Element
Fine Mesh Sizes (1 July 2009)
Mesh Size Stress Limit Mild Steel
(S
m
= 1.000)
HT27
(S
m
= 0.980)
HT32
(S
m
= 0.950)
HT36
(S
m
= 0.908)
1 × LS
(1)
1.00 × S
m
f
y
2400 2646 3040 3269
1
/
2
× LS
(1)
1.06 × S
m
f
y
2544 2805 3222 3465
1
/
3
× LS
(1)
1.12 × S
m
f
y
2688 2963 3404 3661
1
/
4
× LS
(1)
1.18 × S
m
f
y
2832 3122 3587 3857
1
/
5
× LS ~
1
/
10
× LS
(1)
1.25 × S
m
f
y
3000 3308 3800 4086
Thickness
(1, 2)
f
u
or
1.50 × S
m
f
y

4100 f
u
or
1.50 × S
m
f
y

4500 4903
Notes
1 Stress limits greater than 1.00 × S
m
f
y
are to be restricted to small areas in way of structural discontinuities.
2 When the fatigue strength of the detail is found satisfactory, the hot spot stress in the detail may be allowed
up to the minimum tensile strength of the material.
3 For intermediate mesh size, the stress limit may be obtained by linear interpolation.
4 (1 July 2009) LS = stiffener spacing

13.5 Fatigue Evaluation
The procedure for fatigue analysis of the critical details indicated in 5A-3-4/13.1 will follow Section 5A-3-A2
considering prior fatigue damage as a trading vessel, low cycle and high cycle fatigue damages as an FPI.


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Section 4 Total Strength Assessment 5A-3-4

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FIGURE 3
Critical Areas in Transverse Web Frame (1 July 2009)





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FIGURE 4
Critical Areas in Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
(1 July 2009)





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Section 4 Total Strength Assessment 5A-3-4

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FIGURE 5
Critical Areas of Buttress Structure (1 July 2009)






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PART S e c t i o n 5 : H u l l S t r u c t u r e B e y o n d 0 . 4 L A m i d s h i p s
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 5 Hull Structure Beyond 0.4L Amidships
1 General Requirements
1.1 General
The structural configurations, stiffening systems and design scantlings of the hull structures located beyond
0.4L amidships including the forebody, aft end and machinery spaces are to be in compliance with this
Section of this Guide and 5A-4-2/17.
1.3 Structures within the Cargo Space Length (2002)
The scantlings of longitudinal structural members and elements in way of cargo spaces beyond 0.4L
amidships may be gradually reduced toward 0.125L from the ends, provided that the hull girder section modulus
complies with 3-2-1/3.7.1(a) of the Steel Vessel Rules and that the strength of the structure satisfies the
material yielding, buckling and ultimate strength criteria specified in 5A-3-4/3 and 5A-3-4/5.
The scantlings of main supporting members in way of the cargo space length beyond 0.4L amidships are to
comply with the requirements of 5A-3-3/11. Where the structural configuration is different from that amidships
due to the hull form of the installation, additional evaluation is to be performed. The structural evaluation
using the actual configuration is to be carried out to verify that the arrangement of openings necessary for
access (5A-3-1/5.21), ventilation (5A-3-1/5.25), fabrication, etc. is satisfactory.
3 Forebody Side Shell Structure (2000)
In addition to the requirements specified in other relevant sections of the Rules, the scantlings of the
structure forward of 0.4L amidships are also to satisfy the requirements in 5A-3-5/3.1, 5A-3-5/3.3 and
5A-3-5/3.5 below.
The nominal design corrosion values in the forepeak tank may be taken as 1.5 mm in determining design
scantlings.
3.1 Side Shell Plating (2002)
3.1.1 Plating Forward of Forepeak Bulkhead
The net thickness of the side shell plating forward of the forepeak bulkhead is to be not less than
t
1
, t
2
and t
3
, specified below.
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p/f
1
)
1/2
in mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p/f
2
)
1/2
in mm (in.)
t
3
= 0.73sk(k
3
k
4
p
b
/f
3
)
1/2
in mm (in.) for side shell and bow plating above
LWL in the region from the forward
end to the forepeak bulkhead
where
s = spacing of stiffeners, in mm (in.)
k
1
= 0.342 for longitudinally and 0.50k
2
for transversely stiffened plating
k
2
= 0.50k
2
for longitudinally and 0.342 for transversely stiffened plating

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k
3
= 0.50
k
4
= 0.74
k = (3.075(α)
1/2
− 2.077)/( α + 0.272), (1 ≤ α ≤ 2)
= 1.0 (α > 2)
α = aspect ratio of the panel (longer edge/shorter edge)
f
1
= 0.65 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
) in the longitudinal direction
f
2
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
) in the transverse (vertical) direction
f
3
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
p = nominal pressure |p
i
− p
e
|, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified in
5A-3-2/Table 3, at the upper turn of bilge level amidships with the following
modifications:
i) A
i
is to be calculated at the forward or aft end of the tank, whichever
is greater
ii) A
e
is to be calculated at the center of the panel in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5.3, using L.C.7 with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships
iii) B
e
is to be calculated at 0.05L from the FP in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1.1)
p
b
= maximum bow pressure = k
u
p
bij

k
u
= 1.1
p
bij
= nominal bow pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/13.1, at the lowest point of the
panel, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
3.1.2 Plating between Forepeak Bulkhead and 0.125L from FP
Aft of the forepeak bulkhead and forward of 0.125L from the FP, the side shell plating is to be not
less than as given in 5A-3-5/3.1.1 with B
e
calculated at 0.125L and the following permissible
stress.
f
1
= permissible bending stress in the longitudinal direction, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= 0.50S
m
f
y
, for L ≥ 190 m (623 ft)
= [0.50 + 0.10(190 – L)/40] S
m
f
y
, for L <190 m (623 ft)
f
2
= 0.80S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), in the transverse (vertical) direction
3.1.3 Plating between 0.3L and 0.125L from FP
The net thickness of the side shell plating between 0.3L and 0.125L from the FP is to be determined
from the equations in 5A-3-3/5.3 and 5A-3-5/3.1.2 above with B
e
calculated at the longitudinal
location under consideration. Between 0.3L and 0.25L from the FP, the internal pressure need not
be greater than that obtained amidships. The permissible stress f
1
between 0.3L and 0.2L from the
FP is to be obtained by linear interpolation between midship region (5A-3-3/9.1) and the permissible
stress f
1
, as specified in 5A-3-5/3.1.2.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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3.3 Side Frames and Longitudinals
3.3.1 Side Frames and Longitudinals Forward of 0.3L from FP
The net section modulus of side longitudinals and frames in association with the effective plating
to which they are attached is to be not less than that obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
bi
in cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000ps
2
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 12 (12, 83.33)
p = nominal pressure |p
i
− p
e
|, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as specified in
5A-3-2/Table 3 with the following modifications:
i) A
i
is to be calculated at the forward or aft end of the tank, whichever
is greater. Between 0.3L and 0.25L aft of the FP, the internal pressure
need not be greater than that obtained amidships.
ii) A
e
is to be calculated at the center of the panel in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5.3 using L.C.7 with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships.
iii) B
e
is to be calculated at the center of the panel in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1.1), with
the distribution of p
d
, as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 1, at the side
longitudinal and frame under consideration.
Longitudinal distribution of p
d
may be taken as constant from the FP to forepeak bulkhead as per
5A-3-5/3.1.1 and from 0.125L to the forepeak bulkhead as per 5A-3-5/3.1.2. p
d
is to be calculated
in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5 between 0.3L and 0.125L from the FP as per 5A-3-5/3.1.3.
f
bi
= 0.80 S
m
f
y
in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for longitudinals between 0.125L and
0.2L from the FP
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for longitudinals forward 0.125L from
the FP
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for vertical frames (other than hold
frames)
Between 0.3L and 0.2L from the FP, the permissible stress is to be obtained by linear interpolation
between midship region and 0.80 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
s and  are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
For side longitudinal/stiffener in the region forward of 0.0125L from the FP and above LWL, the
section modulus is not to be less than obtained from the above equation based on p = p
b
, f
b
= 0.95
S
m
f
y
and k = 16 (16, 111.1), where p
b
is as defined in 5A-3-5/3.1 above.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 5 Hull Structure Beyond 0.4L Amidships 5A-3-5

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FIGURE 1
Transverse Distribution of p
d
(2000)
LWL
Freeboard Deck
Bilge Radius
Amidships
P
d1
P
d2
L
C


3.5 Side Transverses and Stringers in Forebody (2002)
The requirements of the subparagraphs below apply to the region forward of the cargo spaces where single
side skin construction is used.
3.5.1 Section Modulus
The net section modulus of side transverse and stringer in association with the effective side shell
plating is not to be less than obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
in cm
3
(in
3
)
3.5.1(a) Longitudinally Framed Side Shell
For side stringer
M = 1000c
1
c
2
ps
t

s
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
For side transverse, M is not to be less than M
1
or M
2
, whichever is greater
M
1
= 1000c
3
ps
2
t
 (1.0 − c
4
φ)/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
M
2
= 850p
1
s
2
1 t
 /k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 0.12 (0.12, 0.446)
c
1
= 0.125 + 0.875φ, but not less than 0.3
Coefficients c
2
, c
3
and c
4
are given in the tables below.

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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Coefficient c
2

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Top Stringer 0.70
Stringers Between Top and
Lowest Stringers
0.0 0.90 0.75
Lowest Stringer 0.80

Coefficient c
3

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Transverse above Top
Stringer
0.55 0.55
Transverse Between Top
and Lowest Stringers
0.85 — 0.64
Transverse Below Lowest
Stringer
0.68 0.68

Coefficient c
4

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Transverses 0.0 0.75 0.80

p = nominal pressure, |p
i
− p
e
|, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), over the side transverses
using the same load cases as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side transverses
with the following modifications.
i) A
e
is to be considered for case “a” and calculated in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5.3 using L.C.7 with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships
ii) B
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full
draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1) with the distribution of p
d
as shown
in 5A-3-5/Figure 1
B
i
, A
e
and B
e
may be taken at the center of the side shell panel under
consideration.
p
1
= nominal pressure, |p
i
− p
e
|, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), using the same load
cases as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side transverses with the following
modifications.
i) A
e
is to be considered for case “a” and calculated in accordance with
5A-3-2/5.5.3 using L.C.7 with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships
ii) B
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full
draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1) with the distribution of p
d
as shown
in 5A-3-5/Figure 1
B
i
, A
e
and B
e
, calculated at the midspan 
s1
(between side stringers or between
side stringer and platform, flat as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2) of the side
transverse under consideration.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 5 Hull Structure Beyond 0.4L Amidships 5A-3-5

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FIGURE 2
Definition of Spans (2000)
b. Transverse
h
e

s

s1

1

1

s1
h
e h
e
h
e
h
e

t

1

1
h
e
h
e
h
e

t1

t1

S
ID
E
S
H
E
L
L
T
R
A
N
S
V
.


B
H
D
T
R
A
N
S
V
.


B
H
D
PLATFORM FLAT
PLATFORM FLAT
S
I
D
E



S
H
E
L
L
a. Stringer




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For side transverses
s = sum of half distances, in m (ft), between side transverse under consideration
and adjacent side transverses or transverse bulkhead
For side stringers
s = 0.45
s

φ = 1/(1 + α)
α = 1.33(I
t
/I
s
)(
s
/
t
)
3

I
t
= moment of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
) (with effective side plating), of side transverse.
I
t
is to be taken as an average of those at the middle of each span 
t1
between
side stringers or side stringer and platform (flat), clear of the bracket
I
s
= moment of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
) (with effective side plating), of side stringer
at the middle of the span 
s,
clear of the bracket

t
, 
s
= spans, in m (ft), of the side transverse (
t
) and side girder (
s
) under
consideration, as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2

t1
= span, in m (ft), of side transverse under consideration between stringers, or
stringer and platform (flat), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 2b
When calculating α, if more than one side transverse or stringer is fitted and they are not identical,
average values of I
t
and I
s
within side shell panel (panel between transverse bulkheads and platforms,
flats) are to be used.
f
b
= permissible bending stress in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.75 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The bending moment for side transverse below stringer (or below the platform if no stringer is
fitted) is not to be less than 80% of that for side transverse above stringer (or above platform if no
stringer is fitted).
3.5.1(b) Transversely Framed Side Shell
For side transverse:
M = 1000c
1
ps
t

s
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
For side stringer, M is not to be less than M
1
or M
2
, whichever is greater:
M
1
= 1000c
2
ps
2
s
 (1.0 − c
3
φ
1
)/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
M
2
= 1100p
1
s
s1
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 0.12 (0.12, 0.446)
c
1
= 0.10 + 0.7φ
1
, but not to be taken less than 0.085
If no side transverses are fitted between transverse bulkheads
c
2
= 1.1
c
3
= 0
If side transverses are fitted between transverse bulkheads
c
2
= 0.8
c
3
= 0.8

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p = nominal pressure, |p
i
− p
e
|, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), over the side stringers
using the same load cases as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side transverses
in lower wing tank. A
ti
, A
e
and B
e
may be taken at the center of the side shell
panel under consideration with the following modifications:
i) A
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5.3 using L.C.7
with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships
ii) B
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full
draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1) with the distribution of p
d
as shown
in 5A-3-5/Figure 1
p
1
= nominal pressure, |p
i
− p
e
|, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), using the same load cases
as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3 for side transverses in lower wing tank, with
A
ti
, A
e
and B
e
calculated at the midspan 
s1
(between side transverses or between
side transverse and transverse bulkhead, as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a) of
the side stringer under consideration, with the following modifications:
i) A
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5.3 using L.C.7
with k
fo
= 1.0 and x
o
located amidships
ii) B
e
is to be calculated in accordance with 5A-3-2/5.5 (p
s
+ k
u
p
d
, full
draft, heading angle = 0, k
u
= 1) with the distribution of p
d
as shown
in 5A-3-5/Figure 1
For side stringers
s = sum of half distances, in m (ft), between side stringer under consideration
and adjacent side stringers or platforms (flats)
For side transverses
s = 0.45
t

φ
1
= α/(1 + α)

s1
= span, in m (ft), of the side stringer under consideration between side
transverses or side transverse and transverse bulkhead, as shown in
5A-3-5/Figure 2a
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.75 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.

t
, 
s
and α are as defined in 5A-3-5/3.5.1(a) above.
3.5.2 Sectional Area of Web
The net sectional area of the web portion of the side transverse and side stringer is not to be less
than obtained from the following equation:
A = F/f
s

3.5.2(a) Longitudinally Framed Side Shell
For side stringer:
F = 1000kc
1
ps in N (kgf, lbf)
For side transverse, F is not to be less than F
1
or F
2
, whichever is greater:
F
1
= 850kc
2
ps(1.0 − c
3
φ − 2h
e
/) N (kgf, lbf)
F
2
= 1700kc
2
p
1
s(0.5
1
− h
e
) N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 0.5 (0.5, 1.12)

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Coefficients c
1
, c
2
and c
3
are given in the tables below.
Coefficient c
1

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Stringers 0.0 0.52 0.40

Coefficient c
2

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Transverses Above Top
Stringer
0.9 0.9
Transverse Between Top
and Lowest Stringers
1.0 — 0.95
Transverse Below Lowest
Stringer
1.0 1.0

Coefficient c
3

Number of Side Stringers
Between Platforms (Flats)
No Stringer One Stringer More than One
Stringer
Transverses 0.0 0.5 0.6

 = span, in m (ft), of the side transverse under consideration between platforms
(flats), as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2b

1
= span, in m (ft), of the side transverse under consideration between side
stringers or side stringer and platform (flat), as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2b
h
e
= length, in m (ft), of the end bracket of the side transverse, as shown in
5A-3-5/Figure 2b
To obtain F
1
, h
e
is equal to the length of the end bracket at the end of span  of side transverse, as
shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2b.
To obtain F
2
, h
e
is equal to the length of the end bracket at the end of span 
1
of side transverse, as
shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2b.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
p, p
1
, φ and s are as defined in 5A-3-5/3.5.1(a) above.
The shear force for the side transverse below the lowest stringer (or below the platform if no
stringer is fitted), is not to be less than 110% of that for the side transverse above the top stringer
(or above the platform if no stringer is fitted).
3.5.2(b) Transversely Framed Side Shell
For side transverse
F = 850kc
1
ps in N (kgf, lbf)
For side stringer, F is not to be less than F
1
or F
2
, whichever is greater.
F
1
= 1000kps(1.0 − 0.6φ
1
− 2h
e
/) in N (kgf, lbf)
F
2
= 2000kp
1
s(0.5
1
− h
e
) in N (kgf, lbf)

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where
k = 0.5 (0.5, 1.12)
c
1
= 0.1 + 0.7φ
1
, but not to be taken less than 0.2
 = span, in m (ft), of the side stringer under consideration between transverse
bulkheads, as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a

1
= span, in m (ft), of the side stringer under consideration between side
transverses or side transverse and bulkhead, as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a
h
e
= length, in m (ft), of the end bracket of the side stringer under consideration,
as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a
To obtain F
1
, h
e
is equal to the length of the end bracket at the end of span  of the side stringer, as
shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a.
To obtain F
2
, h
e
is equal to the length of the end bracket at the end of span 
1
of the side stringer,
as shown in 5A-3-5/Figure 2a.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
p, p
1
, φ
1
and s are as defined in 5A-3-5/3.5.1(a) above.
3.5.3 Depth of Transverse/Stringer
The depths of side transverses and stringers, d
w
, are neither to be less than obtained from the
following equations nor to be less than 2.5 times the depth of the slots, respectively.
3.5.3(a) Longitudinally Framed Shell
For side transverse:
If side stringer is fitted between platforms (flats)
d
w
= (0.08 + 0.80α)
t
for α ≤ 0.05
= (0.116 + 0.084α)
t
for α > 0.05
and need not be greater than 0.2
t

If no side stringer is fitted between platforms (flats), d
w
is not to be less than 0.2
t
or 0.06D,
whichever is greater.
For side stringer:
d
w
= (0.42 − 0.9α)
s
for α ≤ 0.2
= (0.244 − 0.0207α)
s
for α > 0.2
α is not to be taken greater than 8.0 to determine the depth of the side stringer.

t
, 
s
and α are as defined in 5A-3-5/3.5.1(a) above.
D is as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules.
3.5.3(b) Transversely Framed Side Shell
For side stringer:
If side transverse is fitted between transverse bulkheads
d
w
= (0.08 + 0.80α
1
)
s
for α
1
≤ 0.05
= (0.116 + 0.084α
1
)
s
for α
1
> 0.05
and need not be greater than 0.2
s


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If no side transverse is fitted between transverse bulkheads
d
w
= 0.2
s

For side transverse:
d
w
= (0.277 − 0.385α
1
)
t
for α
1
≤ 0.2
= (0.204 − 0.205α
1
)
t
for α
1
> 0.2
α
1
is not to be taken greater than 7.5 to determine the depth of the side transverse
where
α
1
= 1/α

t
, 
s
and α are as defined in 5A-3-5/3.5.1(a) above.
3.5.4 Thickness
The net thickness of side transverse and stringer is not to be less than 9.5 mm (0.374 in.)
5 Transition Zone (2000)
In the transition zone between the forepeak and the No. 1 cargo tank region, due consideration is to be
given to the proper tapering of major longitudinal members within the forepeak such as flats, decks,
horizontal ring frames or side stringers aft into the cargo hold. Where such structure is in line with
longitudinal members aft of the forward cargo tank bulkhead, this tapering may be introduced by fitting of
large brackets. These brackets are to have a taper of 4:1.
7 Forebody Strengthening for Slamming
(1 July 2012) Where the hull structure is subject to slamming as specified in 5A-3-2/13, proper strengthening
will be required as outlined below. For strengthening to account for bottom slamming, the requirements of
this Subsection apply to installations with a heavy ballast draft forward of less than 0.04L.
7.1 Bottom Slamming
7.1.1 Bottom Plating
When bottom slamming, as specified in 5A-3-2/13, is considered, the bottom structure in the
region of the flat of bottom forward of 0.25L measured from the FP is to be in compliance with the
following requirement.
The net thickness of the flat of bottom plating forward of 0.25L measured from the FP is not to be
less than t obtained from the following equation:
t = 0.73s(k
2
k
3
p
s
/f)
1/2
in mm (in.)
where
s = spacing of longitudinal or transverse stiffeners, in mm (in.)
k
2
= 0.5 k
2
for longitudinally stiffened plating
k
3
= 0.74
k = (3.075 (α)
1/2
− 2.077)/(α + 0.272), (1 ≤ α ≤ 2)
= 1.0 (α > 2)
α = aspect ratio of the panel (longer edge/shorter edge)
p
s
= the design slamming pressure =

k
u
p
si


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For determination of t, the pressure p
s
is to be taken at the center of the supported panel.
p
si
= nominal bottom slamming pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/13.3.1, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
k
u
= slamming load factor = 1.1
The maximum nominal bottom slamming pressure occurring along the installation is to be applied
to the bottom plating between the foremost extent of the flat of bottom and 0.125L from the FP.
The pressure beyond this region may be gradually tapered to the longitudinal location where the
nominal slamming pressure is calculated as zero.
f

= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.85 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
7.1.2 Bottom Longitudinals and Stiffeners
The section modulus of the stiffener, including the associated effective plating on the flat of bottom
forward of 0.25L measured from the FP, is not to be less than obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
in cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000p
s
s
2
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 16 (16, 111.1)
p
s
= design slamming pressure = k
u
p
si

For determination of M, the pressure p
s
is to be taken at the midpoint of the span .
p
si
= nominal bottom slamming pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/13.3.1, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
k
u
= slamming load factor = 1.1
The maximum nominal bottom slamming pressure occurring along the installation is to be applied
to the bottom stiffeners between the foremost extent of the flat of bottom and 0.125L from the FP.
The pressure beyond this region may be gradually tapered to the longitudinal location where the
nominal slamming pressure is calculated as zero.
s = spacing of longitudinal or transverse stiffeners, in mm (in.)
 = unsupported span of the stiffener, in m (ft)
f
b
= 0.9S
m
f
y
for transverse and longitudinal stiffeners in the region forward of
0.125L measured from the FP
= 0.8S
m
f
y
for longitudinal stiffeners in the region between 0.125L and 0.25L
measured from the FP
The effective breadth of plating b
e
is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
Struts connecting the bottom and inner bottom longitudinals are not to be fitted.
7.1.3 Bottom Floors
The arrangements and scantlings of floors are to be adequate for bottom slamming loads, as
specified in 5A-3-2/13.
The spacing of floors forward of amidships need not be less than the spacing amidships.

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7.3 Bowflare Slamming
When bowflare slamming, as specified in 5A-3-2/13.5, is considered, the side shell structure above the
waterline in the region between 0.0125L and 0.25L from the FP is to be in compliance with the following
requirements.
7.3.1 Side Shell Plating
The net thickness of the side shell plating between 0.0125L and 0.25L from the FP is not to be less
than t
1
or t
2
, whichever is greater, obtained from the following equations:
t
1
= 0.73s(k
1
p
s
/f
1
)
1/2
in mm (in.)
t
2
= 0.73s(k
2
p
s
/f
2
)
1/2
in mm (in.)
where
p
s
= maximum slamming pressure = k
u
p
ij

p
ij
= nominal bowflare slamming pressure, as specified in 5A-3-2/13.5.1, at the
lowest point of the panel, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
k
u
= slamming load factor = 1.1
f
1
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
for side shell plating forward of 0.125L from the FP, in N/cm
2

(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.75 S
m
f
y
for side shell plating in the region between 0.125L and 0.25L from
the FP, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
f
2
= 0.85 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
k
1
= 0.342 for longitudinally stiffened plating
= 0.5 for transversely stiffened plating
k
2
= 0.5 for longitudinally stiffened plating
= 0.342 for transversely stiffened plating
s, S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-5/7.1.1 above.
7.3.2 Side Longitudinals and Stiffeners
The section modulus of the stiffener, including the associated effective plating, is not to be less
than obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
in cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 1000p
s
s
2
/k in N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 16 (16, 111.1)
 = unsupported span of the stiffener, in m (ft)
p
s
= maximum slamming pressure, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), as defined in
5A-3-5/7.3.1, at the midpoint of the span 
s and f
b
are as defined in 5A-3-5/7.1 above.
The effective breadth of plating, b
e
, is as defined in 5A-3-3/7.5.
7.3.3 Side Transverses and Side Stringers
The net section modulus and sectional area requirements for side transverses and side stringers, as
specified in 5A-3-5/3.5, are to be met with the bow flare slamming pressure, as specified in
5A-3-2/13.5.2, for the region between 0.0125L and 0.25L from the FP.

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9 Forebody Deck Structures (1 July 2012)
The deck plating, longitudinals, girders and transverses forward of 0.25L from the FP are to meet the
requirements specified in 5A-3-3/9 and 5A-3-3/11 with the deck pressure, p = p
g
, where p
g
is the nominal
green water loading given in 5A-3-2/13.7 and the permissible stresses as specified below.
9.1 Deck Plating
The net thickness of deck plating is to be not less than t
1
and t
2
, as specified in 5A-3-3/9.3, with the following
modifications:
f
1
= 0.50 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for main deck within 0.1L from the FP.
f
1
= 0.60 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for forecastle deck
f
2
= 0.80 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
where
S
m
= strength reduction factor obtained from 5A-3-3/7.3
f
y
= minimum specified yield point of deck plating material
The permissible stress, f
1
, for main deck between 0.25L and 0.1L from the FP is to be obtained by linear
interpolation between midship region (f
1
= 0.15 S
m
f
y
as in 5A-3-3/9.3) and the permissible stress at 0.1L
from the FP, as specified above.
In addition, the net thickness of main deck plating is also not to be less than t
3
, as specified below.
t
3
= 0.30s(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.) for main deck within 0.1L from the FP
The net thickness, t
3
, between 0.30L and 0.1L from the FP is to be obtained by linear interpolation between
midship region and the t
3
above. t
3
in midship region is defined as:
t
3
= cs(S
m
f
y
/E)
1/2
mm (in.) .................................... (5A-3-3/9.3)
where
c = 0.5(0.6 + 0.0015L) for SI or MKS Units
= 0.5(0.6 + 0.00046L) for U.S. Units
The net thickness, t
3
, may be determined based on S
m
and f
y
of the hull girder strength material required at
the location under consideration.
The net thickness of deck plating should not be less than the minimum gross thickness specified in Section
3-2-3 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005) minus the nominal corrosion value specified in 5A-3-1/1.7.
Finally, the net thickness of deck plating is not to be less than 85% of the net thickness requirement based on
nominal green water load, p
g
, calculated for North Atlantic environment.
9.3 Deck Longitudinals
The net section modulus is not to be less than obtained from 5A-3-3/9, with the following modifications.
f
b
= 0.70 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for main deck longitudinals within 0.1L from the
FP and forecastle deck longitudinals
f
b
= 0.80 S
m
f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
), for main deck beams forward of the foremost hatch
opening (No. 1 hatch) and forecastle deck beams
The permissible bending stress, f
b
, for main deck longitudinals between 0.25L and 0.1L from the FP is to
be obtained by linear interpolation between midship region (see 5A-3-3/9.5) and the permissible stress at
0.1L from the FP, as specified above.
Finally, the net section modulus of deck longitudinals is not to be less than 85% of the net section modulus
requirement based on nominal green water load, p
g
, calculated for North Atlantic environment.

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9.5 Deck Transverse and Deck Girders
The deck girders and transverses forward of 0.25L from the FP are to be verified based on appropriate analysis
(e.g., grillage analysis) and should meet the requirements specified in the following with the deck pressure,
p = p
g
, where p
g
is the nominal green water loading given in 5A-3-2/13.7 and the permissible stresses as
specified below.
Permissible bending stress for net thickness
f
b
= 0.70S
m
f
y
(5A-3-3/11.3.1)
Permissible shear stress for net thickness
f
b
= 0.45S
m
f
y
(5A-3-3/11.3.2)
The required section modulus of members such as girders, transverse etc., is to be obtained on an effective
width of plating basis in accordance with 3-1-2/13.3 of the Steel Vessel Rules (January 2005).
Finally, the net section modulus and sectional area of deck girders and transverses is not to be less than
85% of those required based on nominal green water load, p
g
, calculated for North Atlantic environment.


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PART S e c t i o n 6 : A p p l i c a t i o n t o S i n g l e H u l l S h i p - T y p e I n s t a l l a t i o n s
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
SECT I ON 6 Application to Single Hull Ship-Type Installations
1 General
Where due to the nature of the cargo, single hull construction is permitted, the design criteria and
evaluation procedures specified in Section 5A-3-1 may also be applied to single hull ship-type installations
with modifications as outlined in this Section.
1.1 Nominal Design Corrosion Values (December 2008)
Except as modified by the following, the nominal design corrosion values given in 5A-3-1/Table 1 are
applicable to the corresponding structural elements of single hull ship-type installations based on the proposed
usage of the individual space.
For bottom plating and contiguously attached structures, the nominal design corrosion values to be used are:
Wing Ballast Tanks
Bottom Plating 1.00 mm
Bottom Longitudinals, Transverses and Girders (Web and Flange) 1.50 mm
Center or Wing Cargo Tanks
Bottom Plating 1.00 mm
Bottom Longitudinals, Transverses and Girders (Web and Flange) 1.00 mm

Consideration may be given for modifying the nominal design corrosion values, depending upon the degree
of cargo corrosiveness.
1.3 Load Criteria
The load criteria and load cases specified in 5A-3-2/1 through 5A-3-2/13 are generally applicable to single
hull ship-type installations by considering the double bottom and wing ballast tanks, such as shown in
5A-3-2/Figures 1 and 18, as null, except that the load patterns are specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1 for bottom
and side shell structures.
1.5 Strength Criteria
1.5.1 Shear Strength (1 July 2009)
For single hull ship-type installations with two or more longitudinal bulkheads, the net thickness
of side shell and longitudinal bulkhead plating is not to be less than that specified in 5A-3-3/5,
wherein the shear distribution factor, D
s
and D
i
, and local load correction, R
i
, may be derived
either from direct calculations or from Appendix 5A-4-A1.
1.5.2 Plating and Longitudinals/Stiffeners
The strength requirements for plating and longitudinals/stiffeners specified in 5A-3-3/7 through
5A-3-3/17 and Section 5A-3-5 are directly applicable to single hull ship-type installations by
determining the internal pressure in accordance with the actual tank arrangement.


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Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Section 6 Application to Single Hull Ship-Type Installations 5A-3-6

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3 Main Supporting Structures
3.1 Bottom Transverses
3.1.1 Section Modulus of Bottom Transverses
The net section modulus of the bottom transverse, in association with the effective bottom plating,
is not to be less than obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
c = 0.83α
2
for center tank
= 1.4 for wing tank
α = (
g
/
b
)[(I
b
/I
g
) (s
g
/s)]
1/4
≤ 1.0 for ship-type installations with bottom
girder
= 1.0 for ship-type installations without
bottom girder

b
= span of the bottom transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1; the
length is to be not less than 0.125B or one-half the breadth of the tank,
whichever is the greater

g
= span of the bottom girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
s = spacing of the bottom transverse, in m (ft)
s
g
= spacing of the bottom girder, in m (ft)
I
b
, I
g
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the bottom transverse (I
b
) and the bottom
girder (I
g
) with effective plating to which they are attached (clear of bracket)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of the bottom
transverse, as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1
f
b
= permissible bending stress
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
B = installation breadth, in m (ft)
3.1.2 Web Sectional Area of Bottom Transverse
The net sectional area of the web portion of the bottom transverse is not to be less than obtained
from the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force, F, in N (kgf, lbf), can be obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
F = 1000k[ps(K
b

s
− h
e
) + cDB
c
s] N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
K
b
= 0.5α for center tank
= 0.5 for wing tank

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c = 0 for center tank
= 0.15 for wing tank without cross ties
= 0.06 for wing tank with one cross tie
= 0.03 for wing tank with two cross ties

s
= span of the bottom transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
h
e
= length of the bracket of bottom transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in
5A-3-6/Figure 1
D = installation depth, in m (ft)
B
c
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft)
P, s and α are as defined in 5A-3-6/3.1.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
3.3 Bottom Girders (1 July 2012)
3.3.1 Section Modulus of Bottom Girders
The net section modulus of the bottom girder, in association with the effective bottom plating, is
not to be less than obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
g
2
g
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
c = α
2

α = (
b
/
g
)[(I
g
/I
b
) (s

/s
g
)]
1/4
≤ 1.0
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of the bottom
girder, as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1

b
, 
g
, I
g
, I
b
, s and s
g
are as defined in 5A-3-6/3.1.1.
f
b
= 0.70S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
3.3.2 Web Sectional Area of Bottom Girder
The net sectional area of the web portion of the bottom girder is not to be less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force, F, in N (kgf, lbf), can be obtained from the following equation (see 5A-3-3/1.3).
F = 1000kcps
g
(0.5
s
− h
e
)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)

s
= span of the bottom girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
h
e
= length of bracket of bottom girder, in m (ft), as indicted in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
s
g
is as defined in 5A-3-6/3.1.1.

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c is as defined in 5A-3-6/3.3.1.
p is as defined in 5A-3-6/3.3.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.

TABLE 1
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Structures (1 July 2012)
A. Plating & Longitudinals/Stiffeners
The nominal pressure, p = |p
i

− p
e
|, is to be determined from load cases “a” & “b” below, whichever is greater, with k
u
= 1.10 and
k
c
= 1.0 unless otherwise specified in the table
Case “a” – At fwd end of the tank Case “b” – At mid tank/fwd end of tank
Structural Members/
Components
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
p
i
p
e
p
i
p
e

1. Bottom Plating
& Long’l
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full center and
wing tanks
A
i
A
e
Design draft/0° Midtank of
empty center
and wing tanks
— B
e

2. Side Shell
Plating & Long’l
2/3 design
draft/60°
Starboard side of
full wing tank
B
i
A
e
Design
draft/60°
Midtank of
empty wing tank
— B
e


B. Main Supporting Members
The nominal pressure, p = |p
i

− p
e
|, is to be determined at the midspan of the structural member at starboard side of installation
from load cases “a” & “b” below, whichever is greater, with k
u
= 1.0 and k
c
= 1.0 unless otherwise specified in the table
Midtank for Transverses Midtank for Transverses
Structural Members/
Components
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
Draft/Wave
Heading Angle
Location and
Loading Pattern
Coefficients
p
i
p
e
p
i
p
e

3. Bottom
Transverse &
Girder
2/3 design
draft/0°
Full center and
wing tanks
A
i
A
e
Design draft/0° Midtank of
empty center
and wing tanks
— B
e

4. Side Transverses 2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing tanks full B
i
— Design
draft/60°
Midtank of
empty wing tank
— B
e

5 (1 July 2012)
*Deck
Transverses with
cross ties in
wing tanks
(5A-3-6/Figure 1)
2/3 design
draft/60°
Wing tanks full,
Center tank empty
C
i
— 2/3 design
draft/60°
Center tank full,
wing tank empty
C
i

* See note 5
Notes:
1 For calculating p
i
and p
e
, the necessary coefficients are to be determined based on the following designated groups:
a) For p
i

A
i
: w
v
= 0.75, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.25, w

(aft bhd) = −0.25, w
t
= 0.0, c
φ
= −1.0, c
e
= 0.0
B
i
: w
v
= 0.4, w

(fwd bhd) = 0.2, w

(aft bhd) = −0.2, w
t
(starboard) = 0.4, w
t
(port) = −0.4, c
φ
= −0.7,
c
e
= 0.7
b) For p
e

A
e
: k
o
= 1.0, k
u
= 1.0, k
c
= −0.5
B
e
: k
o
= 1.0

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TABLE 1 (continued)
Design Pressure for Local and Supporting Structures (1 July 2012)
2 For structures within 0.4L amidships, the nominal pressure is to be calculated for a tank located amidships. The
longest cargo and ballast tanks in the region should be considered as located amidships
3 In calculation of the nominal pressure, ρ g of the liquid cargoes is not to be taken less than 0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m
(0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft) for structural members 1 and 2 and is not to be taken less than 0.09 kgf/cm
2
-m (0.3902 lbf/in
2
-ft)
for cargo tanks and 0.1025 kgf/cm
2
-m (0.4444 lbf/in
2
-ft) for ballast tanks for structural members 3 and 4.
4 For all other structures, 5A-3-2/Table 3 is applicable.
5 (1 July 2012) Case-a is applied for deck transverse in wing tanks and case-b is applied for deck transverse in center
tank

FIGURE 1
Spans of Transverses and Girders (1 July 2012)







L
C
h
U
h
L
h
e
h
e
L
C
h
e
h
e
h
e
h
e
h
e
h
e
Bottom Girder
* Where both lower and upper ends of the vertical web are fitted with a bracket of the same or larger size on the opposite side,
the span 
b
or 
st
may be taken between the toes of the effective lower and upper brackets.

b
*

b

b

s

s

b

b

s

s

g

s


st
*
L
C


b
*
Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
Bottom Transverse and Side Transverse Bottom Transverse



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3.5 Side Transverses
3.5.1 Section Modulus of Side Transverses
The net section modulus of the side transverse, in association with the effective side plating, is not
to be less than obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3)
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

b
= span of side transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
s = spacing of side transverse, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span 
b
of the side
transverse, as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

c is given in 5A-3-6/Table 2.
S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, the section modulus of the side transverse, as required
above, is to extend at least up to 0.6
b
from the lower end of the span. The value of the bending
moment, M, used for the calculation of the required section modulus of the remaining part of the
side transverse may be reduced, but not more than 20%.
In the case of one cross tie, the section modulus of the lower (upper) side transverse, as required
above, is to extend to the cross tie.
In the case of two cross ties, the section modulus of the lower (upper) side transverse, as required
above, is to extend to the lower (upper) cross tie and may be linearly interpolated between the
cross ties.

TABLE 2
Coefficient c for Side Transverse
Arrangement of Cross Ties For Upper Side Transverse For Lower Side Transverse
No Cross Tie 0.75
One Cross Tie in Wing Tank 0.19 0.33
Two Cross Ties in Wing Tank 0.13 0.20

3.5.2 Web Sectional Area of Side Transverses
The net sectional area of the web portion of the side transverse is not to be less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force, F, in N (kgf, lbf), for the side transverse can be obtained from the following
equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3):
F = 1000ks[K
U

s
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
U
P
U
] for the upper part of the transverse
= 1000ks[K
L

s
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
L
P
L
] or 350ksK
L

s
(P
U
+ P
L
),
whichever is greater, for the lower part of the transverse

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In no case is the shear force for the lower part of the transverse to be less than 120% of that for the
upper part of the transverse.
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)

s
= span of the side transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
s = spacing of the side transverse, in m (ft)
P
U
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of the upper
bracket (h
U
/2), as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1
P
L
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of the lower
bracket (h
L
/2), as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1
h
U
= length of the upper bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
h
L
= length of the lower bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

K
U
and K
L
are given in 5A-3-6/Table 3.
S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, the sectional area of the lower side transverse, as
required above, is to extend up to 0.15 from the toe of the lower bracket or 0.3
s
from the lower
end of the span, whichever is greater.
In the case of one cross ties, the sectional area of the lower (upper) side transverse as required
above, is to extend to the cross tie.
In the case of two cross ties, the sectional area of the lower (upper) side transverse as required
above, is to extend to the lower (upper) cross tie and may be linearly interpolated between the
cross ties.

TABLE 3
Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Side Transverses
Arrangement of Cross Ties K
U
K
L

No Cross Tie 0.16 0.30
One Cross Tie in Wing Tank 0.09 0.21
Two Cross Ties in Wing Tank 0.075 0.16

3.7 Deck Transverses – Loading Pattern 1 (1 July 2012)
3.7.1 Section Modulus of Deck Transverses
The net section modulus of deck transverses, in association with the effective deck plating, is not
to be less than obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
For deck transverses in wing tanks:
M = k(10,000 c
1
ϕ ps
2
t
 + β
s
M
s
) ≥ M
o
N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
For deck transverses in center tanks:
M = k(10,000 c
1
ϕ ps
2
t
 + β
b
M
b
) ≥ M
o
N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)

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where
M
s
= 10,000c
2
p
s
s
2
s

M
b
= 10,000c
2
p
b
s
2
b

M
o
= 10,000kc
3
ϕ ps
2
t

k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of the deck
transverse under consideration, as specified in 5A-3-6/Table 1, Item 5
p
s
= corresponding nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the side transverse (5A-3-2/Table 3 , Item 16)
p
b
= corresponding nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead (5A-3-2/Table 3 , Item 16)
c
1
= 0.42 for tanks without deck girder
= 0.42α
2
for tanks with deck girders, min. 0.05 and max. 0.42
α = (
g
/
t
)[(s
g
/s)(I
T
/I
g
)]
1/4


g
= span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c

t
= span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A, but
is not to be taken as less than 60% of the breadth of the tank
I
g
, I
t
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the deck girder and deck transverse, clear
of the brackets, respectively
s
g
= spacing of the deck girders, in m (ft)
s = spacing of the deck transverses, in m (ft)
When calculating α, if more than one deck girder is fitted, the average values of s
g
, 
g
and I
g
are to
be used when the girders are not identical.
ϕ = 1 − 5(h
a
/
t

−1
, to be not less than 0.6 for cargo tanks with deck girders
= 1 − 5(h
a
/
t
), to be not less than 0.6 for cargo tanks without deck girders
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 9
β
s
= 0.9[(
s
/
t
)(I
t
/I
s
)], but is not to be taken less than 0.10 and need not be greater
than 0.65
β
b
= 0.9[(
b
/
t
)(I
t
/I
b
)], but is not to be taken less than 0.10 and need not be greater
than 0.50

s
, 
b
= spans, in m (ft), of side transverse and vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead,
respectively, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A
I
s
, I
b
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), clear of the brackets, of side transverses and
vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/ in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
c
2
is given in 5A-3-6/Table 4 below.

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c
3
= 0.83 for tanks without deck girders
= 1.1c
1
for tanks with deck girders
Where no cross ties or other effective supporting arrangements are provided for the wing tank
vertical webs, the deck transverses in the wing tanks are to have section modulus not less than
70% of that required for the upper side transverse.

TABLE 4
Coefficient c
2
For Deck Transverse (1 July 2012)
Arrangement of Cross Ties Center Tank Wing Tank
No Cross Tie 0.4
One Cross Tie in Wing Tank 0.13 0.37 0.28
Two Cross Ties in Wing Tank 0.05 0.12

3.7.2 Web Sectional Area of Deck Transverse
The net sectional area of the web portion of deck transverses is not to be less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
F = 1000k[c
1
ps(0.50 − h
e
) + c
2
DB
c
s] N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c
1
= 1.30 for tanks without deck girder
= 0.90α
1/2
for tanks with deck girder, min. 0.50 and max. 1.0
c
2
= 0 for center tank
= 0.045 for wing tank
 = span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c and d and
5A-3-3/Figure 9
D = depth of the ship-type vessel, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel
Vessel Rules
B
c
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft)
p, s and α are as defined in 5A-3-6/3.7.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
Area A is not to be less than the area obtained based on 5A-3-3/11.9 and 5A-3-3/11.11.

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3.8 Deck Transverses – Loading Pattern 2 (1 July 2012)
3.8.1 Section Modulus of Deck Transverses
In addition to satisfying the net section modulus requirements of 5A-3-3/3.7.1, the net section
modulus of a deck transverse, that is loaded with reactions (forces and moments) from the topside
structure, is to be obtained from the following equation:
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
3.8.1(a) For deck transverses in wing tanks
M = 10
5
k (M
p
+ M
g

+ M
s
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
3.8.1(b) For deck transverses in center tanks
M = 10
5
k (M
p
+ M
g

+ M
b
) N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
K = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)
M
p

= bending moment due to reactions from topside structure
= |(M
v
+ M
m
) f
t
|
M
v

=

+
n
n n n t
k k P ) (
2 1

M
m
=

+
n
n n n
k k M ) (
4 3

P
n

= reaction deck force number n, in kN (tf, Ltf), applied to the deck transverse
in tank under consideration, see 5A-3-3/Figure 8
M
n
= reaction deck moment number n, in kN-m (tf-m, Ltf-ft), applied to the deck
transverse in tank under consideration, see 5A-3-3/Figure 8
n = 1, 2,….., N
v
to obtain bending moment M
v

= 1, 2,….., N
m
to obtain bending moment M
m

N
v
= total number of reaction forces at deck transverse under consideration,
(in tank under consideration)
N
m
= total number of reaction moments at deck transverse under consideration,
(in tank under consideration)

t
= span of the deck transverse under consideration, in m (ft), as defined in
5A-3-3/Figure 2A
k
1n
= (1 −
n
a )
2
[
n
a − z (1 + 2
n
a )]
k
2n

= 0 if z ≤
n
a

= ( z −
n
a ) if z >
n
a
k
3n
= (1 −
n
a ) (3
n
a

− 1 − 6
n
a z )
k
4n

= 0 if z ≤
n
a

= 1 if z >
n
a
n
a = a
n
/
t

z = z /
t
, (0 ≤ z ≤ 1)

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a
n
= distance, in m (ft), from a point of application of reaction (force P
n
or
moment M
n
) to the end of the deck transverse span 
t
, in m (ft), as shown in
5A-3-3/Figure 8
z = coordinate (measured from the end of the span 
t
) of the section of the deck
transverse under consideration, in m (ft), as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 8
For the toe of the deck transverse end brackets z = h
a
/
t
and z = 1 − h
a
/
t.

h
a

= distance, in m(ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 9 of this Guide.
Note: For a wide topside bracket, the vertical load on a deck transverse can be considered uniformly
distributed with pressure q
n
= P
n
/c, and the concentrated bending moment can be substituted by
force couples.
P
m
= M
n
/(k c)
where
P
n
, M
n
= concentrated force and moment obtained from FE analysis of topside
structure
c = width of the topside bracket
k = shape bracket factor, and may be taken as 0.8, unless otherwise specified
Bending moment at the toe of the end brackets due to green water pressure, M
g
:
M
g
= 0.1 c
3
ϕ P
gi
s 
t
2

where
P
gi
= nominal green water pressure imposed on the deck, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), as
defined in 5A-3-2/13.8 of this Guide
s = spacing, in m (ft), of the deck transverses
c
3
= 0.83 for tanks without deck girders
= 1.1c
1
for tanks with deck girders
ϕ = 1 − [5(h
a
/α
t
)], for cargo tanks with deck girders, 0.6 minimum
= 1 − 5(h
a
/
t
), for cargo tanks without deck girders, 0.6 minimum
h
a
= distance, in m (ft), from the end of the span to the toe of the end bracket of
the deck transverse, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 9

t
= span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A, but
is not to be taken as less than 60% of the breadth of the tank, except for ship-
type vessels with a non-tight centerline bulkhead (5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b), for
which the span is not to be taken as less than 30% of the breadth of the tank.
c
1
for tanks without deck girders:
= 0.30 for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-c with non-tight centerline bulkhead
= 0.42 for all other cases
c
1
for tanks with deck girders:
= 0.30α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with a non-tight centerline bulkhead, 0.05 min.
and 0.30 max.
= 0.42α
2
for 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-a or 5A-3-3/Figure 2A-b with an oil-tight
centerline bulkhead, 0.05 min. and 0.42 max.

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α = (
g
/
t
)[(s
g
/s)(I
t
/I
g
)]
1/4


g
= span of the deck girder, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-c of this
Guide
I
g
, I
t
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the deck girder and deck transverse with
effective deck plating, clear of the end brackets, respectively
s
g
= spacing of the deck girder, in m (ft) as shown in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A
s = spacing of the deck transverses, in m (ft)
When calculating α, if more than one deck girder is fitted, average values of s
g
, 
g
and I
g
are to be
used when the girders are not identical.
Bending moments due to pressure on side transverse and vertical web of longitudinal bulkhead:
M
s
= k
s
β
s
c
2
p
s
s 
s
2

M
b
= k
b
β
b
c
2
p
b
s 
b
2

where k
s
= 0.1, and k
b

= 0.1, unless otherwise specified.

s
, 
b
= spans, in m (ft), of side transverse and vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead,
respectively, as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A. Where a cross tie is fitted and
is located at a distance greater than 0.7
s
or 0.7
b
from the deck transverse,
the effective span of the side transverse or the vertical web may be taken as
that measured from the deck transverse to the cross tie and all coefficients
determined as if there were no cross tie.
p
s
= nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of side transverse
when wing tank is empty, adjacent tanks full (5A-3-6/Table 1, item 4)
p
b
= nominal internal cargo pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-span of
the vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead when center tank is empty,
adjacent tanks full (5A-3-2/Table 3, item 13)
β
s
= 0.9[(
s
/
t
)(I
t
/I
s
)], 0.10 min. and 0.65 max.
β
b
= 0.9[(
b
/
t
)(I
t
/I
b
)], 0.10 min. and 0.50 max.
I
s
, I
b
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), clear of the brackets, of side transverse and
vertical web on longitudinal bulkhead, respectively
c
2

are given in 5A-3-6/Table 4 of this Guide.
f
t
= 1 for tanks without deck girders
f
t
= 1 − [0.67/(1 + 2δ)] is not to be taken less than 0.70 for tanks with deck girders
δ = (
g
/
t
)
3
(I
t
/I
g
)
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
,
lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1 of this Guide.

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3.8.2 Web Sectional Area of Deck Transverse
In addition to satisfying the net web sectional area requirements of 5A-3-3/3.7.2, the net sectional
area of the web portion of the deck transverse, that is loaded with reactions (forces and moments)
from the topside structure, is to be obtained from the following equation:
A = F/f
s

cm
2
(in
2
)
where
F = 1000 k (F
p
+ F
g

+ c
2
s D B
c
), in N (kgf, lbf)
F
p

= |(F
v
+ F
m
) f
1
|
F
v

= ( ) ( ) | |

∆ + + −
n
n n n
F a a P 1 2 1
2

F
m
= ( )


n
t n n n
M a a  / 1 6
F
g
= c
1
p
gi
s (0.50 – h
e
)
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
∆F = 0 if z ≤
n
a
= -P
n
if z >
n
a
f
1
= 1 − [0.5/(1 + 4δ)]
c
1
= 1.30 for tanks without deck girder
= 0.90α
1/2
for tanks with deck girder, min. 0.50 and max. 1.0
c
2
= 0 for center tank
= 0.045 for wing tank
 = span of the deck transverse, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2A of
this Guide
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m(ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figures 2A and 2B and
5A-3-3/Figure 9 of this Guide
D = depth of a vessel, in m (ft), as defined in 3-1-1/7 of the Steel Vessel Rules
B
c
= breadth of the center tank, in m (ft)
f
s
= permissible shear stress
= 0.45 S
m

f
y
, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
P
n
, M
n
, p
gi
, 
t
, s,
n
a , z , α, δ, S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-6/3.8.1, above.
3.9 Longitudinal Bulkhead Vertical Webs
3.9.1 Section Modulus of Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead (1 July 2012)
The net section modulus of the vertical web, in association with the effective longitudinal bulkhead
plating, is to be not less than obtained from the following equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3):
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)

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where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

b
= span of vertical web, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1. Where both
lower and upper ends of the vertical web are fitted with a bracket of the same
or larger size on the opposite side, the span 
b
may be taken between the toes
of the effective lower and upper brackets.
s = spacing of vertical webs, in m (ft)
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
) at mid-span 
b
of the vertical web,
as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

c is given in 5A-3-6/Table 5.
S
m
and f
y
are as given in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, the section modulus of the vertical web, as required
above, is to extend at least up to 0.6 from the lower end of the span. The value of the bending
moment M, used for the calculation of the required section modulus of the remaining part of
vertical web, may be reduced, but not more than 20%.
In the case of one cross tie, the section modulus of the lower (upper) vertical web, as required
above, is to extend to the cross tie.
In the case of two cross ties, the section modulus of lower (upper) vertical web, as required above,
is to extend to the lower (upper) cross tie and may be linearly interpolated between cross ties.

TABLE 5
Coefficient c for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead
Arrangement of Cross Ties For Upper Vertical Web For Lower Vertical Web
No Cross Tie 0.75
One Cross Tie in Wing Tank 0.19 0.33
Two Cross Ties in Wing Tank 0.13 0.20

3.9.2 Web Sectional Area of Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead
The net sectional area of the web portion of the vertical web is not to be less than obtained from
the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
The shear force, F, in N (kgf, lbf), for the vertical web can be obtained from the following equation
(see also 5A-3-3/1.3):
F = 1000ks[K
U
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
U
P
U
] for upper part of web
= 1000ks[K
L
(P
U
+ P
L
) − h
L
P
L
] or
= 350ksK
L
(P
U
+ P
L
), whichever is greater, for lower part of web
In no case is the shear force for the lower part of the web to be less than 120% of that for the
upper part of the vertical web.
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
 = span of the vertical web, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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s = spacing of the vertical webs, in m (ft)
P
U
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of upper
bracket (h
U
/2), as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
P
L
= nominal pressure, p, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), at the mid-length of the lower
bracket (h
L
/2), as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3
h
U
= length of the upper bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a
h
L
= length of the lower bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-3/Figure 2B-a
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

K
U
and K
L
are given in 5A-3-6/Table 6.
S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
For ship-type installations without cross ties, the sectional area of lower vertical webs, as required
above, is to extend up to 0.15 from the toe of the lower bracket or 0.3 from the lower end of the
span, whichever is greater.
In the case of one cross tie, the sectional area of the lower (upper) vertical web, as required above,
is to extend to the cross tie.
In the case of two cross ties, the sectional area of the lower (upper) vertical web, as required above,
is to extend to the lower (upper) cross tie and may be linearly interpolated between the cross ties.

TABLE 6
Coefficients K
U
and K
L
for Vertical Web on Longitudinal Bulkhead
Arrangement of Cross Ties K
U
K
L

No Cross Tie 0.16 0.30
One Cross Tie in Wing Tank 0.09 0.21
Two Cross Ties in Wing Tank 0.075 0.16

3.10 Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead (1 July 2012)
3.10.1 Section Modulus of Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
The net section modulus of the horizontal girder is to be not less than obtained from the following
equation (see also 5A-3-3/1.3).
SM = M/f
b
cm
3
(in
3
)
M = 10,000kcps
2
b
 N-cm (kgf-cm, lbf-in)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 0.269)

b
= span of the horizontal girders, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1.
Where both ends of the horizontal girder are fitted with a bracket of the same
or larger size on the opposite side, the span 
b
may be taken between the toes
of the effective brackets.
s = sum of the half lengths, in m (ft), of the frames supported on each side of the
horizontal girder
p = nominal pressure, in kN/m
2
(tf/m
2
, Ltf/ft
2
), calculated at the mid-span of the
horizontal girder under consideration, as specified in 5A-3-2/Table 3

Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
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f
b
= permissible bending stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.70 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
, as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
c = 0.83 in wing tanks of vessels for transverse bulkhead without vertical
webs
= 0.63 in center tanks of vessels for transverse bulkhead without vertical
webs
= 0.73α
2
for α < 0.5 in center tanks of vessels for transverse
bulkhead with vertical webs
= 0.467α
2
+ 0.0657 for 0.5 ≤ α ≤ 1.0 in center tanks of vessels for
transverse bulkhead with vertical webs
= 0.1973α + 0.3354 for α > 1.0 in center tanks of vessels for transverse
bulkhead with vertical webs
c is not to be taken less than 0.013 and need not be greater than 0.73.
α = 0.9(
st
/
b
)[(I/I
v
)(s
v
/s)]
1/ 4

if more than one vertical web is fitted on the bulkhead, average values of 
st
,
s
v
and I
v
are to be used when these values are not the same for each web.

st
= span of the vertical web, in m (ft) (5A-3-6/Figure 1)
s
v
= spacing of the vertical webs, in m (ft)
I, I
v
= moments of inertia, in cm
4
(in
4
), of the horizontal girder and the vertical web
clear of the end brackets
3.10.2 Web Sectional Area of the Horizontal Girder on Transverse Bulkhead
The net sectional area of the web portion of the horizontal girder is to be not less than obtained
from the following equation:
A = F/f
s
cm
2
(in
2
)
F = 1000 kscp(0.5 − h
e
) N (kgf, lbf)
where
k = 1.0 (1.0, 2.24)
c = 0.80 for transverse bulkheads without vertical webs
= 0.72α
1/2
in center tanks of vessels for transverse bulkheads with
vertical webs for α ≥ 0.70
= 0.452α
1/2
in center tanks of vessels for transverse bulkheads with
vertical webs for α ≥ 0.70 if depth of centerline vertical
web is the same or larger than that of horizontal girder
under consideration
= 0.887α − 0.02 in center tanks of vessel for transverse bulkheads with
vertical webs for α < 0.7, min. 0.1 and max. 0.8
= 0.554α − 0.02 in center tanks of vessel for transverse bulkheads with
vertical webs for α < 0.7, min. 0.1 and max. 0.8 if depth of
centerline vertical web is the same or larger than that of
horizontal girder under consideration

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Section 6 Application to Single Hull Ship-Type Installations 5A-3-6

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 = distance, in m (ft), between longitudinal bulkheads, as indicated in
5A-3-6/Figure 1
s = sum of the half lengths, in m (ft), on each side of the horizontal girder, of the
frames supported
h
e
= length of the bracket, in m (ft), as indicated in 5A-3-6/Figure 1
p and α are as defined in 5A-3-6/3.10.1.
f
s
= permissible shear stress, in N/cm
2
(kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
)
= 0.45 S
m
f
y

S
m
and f
y
are as defined in 5A-3-3/7.3.1.
The equations in 5A-3-6/3.10.1 and 5A-3-6/3.10.2 are not applicable to horizontal girders in wing
cargo tanks of vessels where vertical webs exist. In that case, the load effects may be determined
from 3D structural analysis as specified in 5A-3-3/1.3.
3.11 Other Main Supporting Members (1 July 2012)
The strength and stiffness requirements specified in 5A-3-3/11 and 5A-3-3/15 for deck girders, vertical webs on
transverse bulkheads and cross ties are applicable to single hull ship-type installations.
3.13 Proportions
The following minimum requirements for web depth are supplemental to those given in 5A-3-3/11.11.
20% for bottom transverses without bottom girder
14% for bottom transverses with one girder
8% for bottom transverses with three girders
20% for bottom girders
12.5% for side transverses
5 Strength Assessment
5.1 General
The failure criteria and strength assessment procedures specified in Section 5A-3-4 are generally applicable
to single hull ship-type installations, except for the special considerations outlined in 5A-3-6/5.3 below.
5.3 Special Considerations
For assessing buckling and fatigue strength in accordance with 5A-3-4/5 and 5A-3-4/9, due consideration
is to be given to the buckling characteristics of large stiffened panels of the side shell and bottom
structures, as well as the realistic boundary conditions of side and bottom longitudinals at transverse
bulkheads for calculating the total stress range with respect to fatigue strength.


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PART A p p e n d i x 1 : D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l S e v e r i t y F a c t o r s
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
APPENDI X 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors
(December 2008)
1 General (1 July 2012)
This Appendix provides information for the determination of ESFs for ship-type installation design criteria
to account for site-specific conditions compared to unrestricted service conditions.
The formulations from Part 5A, Chapter 1 and Section 5A-3-2 are modified to reflect the incorporation of
various ESF β-types. In the modified formulations, the ESF (β) factors are applied to the dynamic load
parameters in the load components.
The general concept of ESF α-types is to compare fatigue damage resulting from different environmental
conditions. This type of ESF has two applications. First, it can be used to adjust the fatigue damage induced
by the wave-induced dynamic loads at the installation site. Second, it can be used to assess the fatigue
damage accumulated during previous services as either a trading vessel or an existing ship-type installation.
The α-type ESFs are obtained at different locations for longitudinal stiffeners of the hull structure.
ESF (α) factors are applied to longitudinal stiffener members in the ISE fatigue analysis. ESF (β) factors
are applied to the dynamic load components of the load formulations in the ISE strength analysis and the
TSA strength and fatigue analysis.
3 ESFs of the Beta (β) Type (1 July 2012)
This type of ESF is used to introduce a comparison of the severity between the intended environment and a
base environment, which is the North Atlantic unrestricted service environment.
A presentation of formulations that are modified to reflect the incorporation of the various β ESFs is given
in Section 5A-3-2. In the modified formulations, the β factors apply only to the dynamic portions of the
load components, and the load components that are considered “static” are not affected by the introduction
of the β factors.
The definition of the severity measure β is as follows:
Lu
Ls
= β
where
Ls = most probable extreme value based on the intended site (100 years return period),
transit (10 years return period), repair/inspection (1 year return period) and fatigue
(20 years return period) environments for the dynamic load parameters specified in
5A-3-A1/Table 1
Lu = most probable extreme value base on the North Atlantic environment for the dynamic
load parameters specified in 5A-3-A1/Table 1
A β of 1.0 corresponds to the unrestricted service condition of a seagoing vessel. A value of β less than
1.0 indicates a less severe environment than the unrestricted case.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Appendix 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors 5A-3-A1

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Extreme value analysis is to be performed for each dynamic load component to determine maximum value
during the design life. Preference is given to an Extreme Value method that follows the so-called long-term
approach commonly used for ship structure. However, the use of a validated short-term extreme value
approach, which is appropriate to the installation type and installation site’s environmental data, will also
be considered. The supplementary use of such a short-term approach to confirm or validate the sensitivity
of the long-term based design values is encouraged. The result of the short-term approach cannot be used
to reduce the long-term extreme value. If the short-term result is significantly larger, the long-term extreme
value is to be further studied and validated. The environments specified for use in the short-term approach
are “response based”, i.e., a 100-year design storm event is one that leads to the maximum responses
expected to occur in 100-years. The return period is typically required to 10 years for transit condition, and
1 year for repair and inspection conditions.
There are 13 dynamic load components in the ABS Rules for which the β adjustment factors have been
derived. These are for the following dynamic loads or load effects:

TABLE 1
The 13 Dynamic Load Parameters or ESFs (β
NN
) (December 2008)
No. NN Name
1 VBM Vertical Bending Moment
2 HBM Horizontal Bending Moment
3 EPP External Pressure Port
4 EPS External Pressure Starboard
5 VAC Vertical Acceleration
6 TAC Transverse Acceleration
7 LAC Longitudinal Acceleration
8 PMO Pitch Motion
9 RMO Roll Motion
10 RVM Relative Vertical Motion at Forepeak
11 WHT Wave Height
12 VSF Vertical Shear Force
13 HSF Horizontal Shear Force

As mentioned, the β values are a direct function of the long-term environmentally-induced loads at the
installation site compared to the unrestricted service environment that is the basis of the Rules. The β
values also need to address other differences and factors between the design basis of a sea going and a
moored installation/transit/repair/inspection. These include:
i) Different design basis return periods for environmental loads (20 for unrestricted seagoing vs. 100
years for intended site, 10 years for transit and 1 year for repair/inspection condition).
ii) Effects of mooring system on predicted installation load effects (including weathervaning type
behavior of a turret moored system).
iii) Different assumed wave energy spreading characterization between the open ocean and a site-
specific situation.
iv) Different basis of extreme design storm characterization (i.e., long-term winter storm vs. hurricane
dominated characterization).
v) Relative nearness of natural periods of global system response to significant environmentally-
induced loadings at such periods (i.e., possible dynamic amplification effects).

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Appendix 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors 5A-3-A1

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If a direct analysis of a floating offshore installation were to be performed, the influences of the
mentioned factors would need to be assessed and used in the installation’s design. It is not the
intention of the alternative approach offered here to discourage direct analysis, but it is expected
that the approach based on the use of the ESFs will still be used as an important basis of structural
design/assessment of a ship-type floating offshore installation.
Note: ABS intends to make computer software available to clients to help establish ESFs and a version of the
ABS Eagle FPSO SEAS software that is modified to accommodate this concept. Clients are advised to
contact ABS regarding the availability of this software.
Notwithstanding the listed β factors and their intended usage, it is still necessary to introduce a
limit to prevent design parameters from being unrealistically low. This limit is that the result of an
application of a β factor (e.g., in the calculation of a required scantling) is not to be less than 85
percent of the unrestricted service (Rule) value. The reasons for introducing this limit are to
reflect successful service experience, a desire not to inadvertently create a reordering of the
dominant structural failure modes, and to avoid the introduction of new controlling limit states
(unacceptable deflections, vibrations, etc.).
It has also been necessary to introduce additional load cases or situations that reflect the relatively
greater importance these cases may have for floating offshore installations with possibly reduced
scantlings due to the calmer site conditions. Examples of these additional conditions are the more
rigorous check of the tank test loading condition, inspection and repair conditions, and the hull
strength assessment for the transit to site condition.
5 ESFs of the Alpha (α) Type (1 July 2009)
This type of ESF compares the fatigue damage between the specified environment and a base environment,
which is the North Atlantic environment.
First, this type of ESF is used to adjust the expected fatigue damage induced from the dynamic components
due to environmental loadings at the installation’s site. Second it can be used to assess the fatigue damage
accumulated during the historical service either as a trading vessel or as an FPI, including both the
historical site(s) and historical transit routes.
The definition of the severity measure α is as follows:
C
Ds
Du
|
.
|

\
|
= α
where
Du = annual fatigue damage based on the North Atlantic environment (unrestricted
service) at the details of the hull structure
Ds = annual fatigue damage based on a specified environment, for historical routes,
historical sites, transit and intended site, at the details of the hull structure
C = 0.65
For fatigue damage calculation, a closed form spectral-based fatigue analysis procedure can be used. The
fundamental task of a spectral fatigue analysis is the determination of the stress transfer function, which
express the relationship between the stress at a particular structural location per unit wave amplitude and
wave frequency and heading. The stress transfer function needs to be determined from the load transfer
function and its corresponding stress factor, which is a conversion factor to obtain the stress transfer
function from the load transfer function. The load transfer function, which depends on hull form geometry,
is to be calculated for regular waves of unit amplitude for ranges of wave frequencies and wave heading.
The stress factor can be obtained through structural analysis techniques, which can be either a simple beam
theory or finite element analysis procedures. The sophistication of the structural analysis needed depends
on the physical system to be analyzed, the type of structural detail and the type of structural loading
considered. For the longitudinal stiffener, the stress factors may be calculated by the simple beam theory.

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Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Appendix 1 Determination of Environmental Severity Factors 5A-3-A1

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The response spectra of the stress transfer functions can be determined by given wave spectra. In the
‘short-term closed form’ approach, the stress range is normally expressed in terms of probability density
functions for different short-term sea states. These short-term probability density functions are derived by
a spectral approach based on the Rayleigh distribution method whereby it is assumed that the variation of
stress is a narrow banded random Gaussian process. When a narrow banded assumption is not valid for the
stress process, a damage correction factor, e.g. Wirsching’s “rainflow correction” factor, is applied in the
calculation of the short-term fatigue damage. Having calculated the short-term damage, the total fatigue
damage is calculated through their weighted linear summation (using Miner’s rule). More detailed
mathematical representations of the steps of the fatigue damage calculation can be found in the ABS Guide
for the Fatigue Assessment of Offshore Structures.
The α type ESFs are obtained for details of the hull structure, where these details follow those defined for
ship-type installation hull structure in Part 5A, Chapter 3.
An α of 1.0 corresponds to the unrestricted condition of a seagoing vessel. A value of α greater than 1.0
indicates a less fatigue-inducing environment than the unrestricted case.


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PART Appendix 2: Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type Installations
5A
CHAPT ER 3 Structural Design Requirements
APPENDI X 2 Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-
Type Installations
1 General
1.1 Note
This Guide provides a designer-oriented approach to fatigue strength assessment which may be used for
certain structural details in lieu of more elaborate methods such as spectral fatigue analysis. The term
“assessment” is used here to distinguish this approach from the more elaborate analysis.
The criteria in this Guide are developed from various sources, including the Palmgren-Miner linear
damage model, S-N curve methodologies, a long-term environment data of the North-Atlantic Ocean
(Walden’s Data), etc., and assume workmanship of commercial marine quality acceptable to the Surveyor.
The capacity of structures to resist the fatigue is given in terms of fatigue damage to allow designers the
maximum flexibility possible.
1.3 Applicability (1995)
The criteria in this Guide are specifically written for ship-type installations to which Part 5A, Chapter 3 is
applicable.
1.5 Loadings (1995)
The criteria have been written for ordinary wave-induced motions and loads. Other cyclic loadings, which
may result in significant levels of stress ranges over the expected lifetime of the installation, are also to be
considered by the designer.
1.7 Effects of Corrosion (1995)
To account for the mean wastage throughout the service life, the total stress range calculated using the net
scantlings (i.e., deducting nominal design corrosion values, see 5A-3-1/Table 1) is modified by a factor C
f

(see 5A-3-A2/9.1.1).
1.9 Format of the Criteria (December 2008)
The criteria are presented as a comparison of fatigue strength of the structure (capacity) and fatigue
inducing loads (demands), in the form of a fatigue damage parameter, DM. The calculated fatigue damage,
DM, is to be less than or equal to 1 for the design life of the installation, which corresponds to a fatigue life
of 20 years.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Appendix 2 Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type Installations 5A-3-A2

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3 Connections to be Considered for the Fatigue Strength Assessment
3.1 General (1995)
These criteria have been developed to allow consideration of a broad variation of structural details and
arrangements, so that most of the important structural details in the installation can be subjected to an
explicit (numerical) fatigue assessment using these criteria. However, where justified by comparison with
details proven satisfactory under equal or more severe conditions, an explicit assessment can be exempted.
3.3 Guidance on Locations (1995)
As a general guidance for assessing fatigue strength for a ship-type installation, the following connections
and locations should be considered:
3.3.1 Connections of Longitudinal Stiffeners to Transverse Web/Floor and to Transverse Bulkhead
3.3.1(a) Two (2) to three (3) selected side longitudinals in the region from the 1.1 draft to about
1
/
3
draft in the midship region and also in the region between 0.15L and 0.25L from F.P.,
respectively
3.3.1(b) One (1) to two (2) selected longitudinals from each of the following groups:
• Deck longitudinals, bottom longitudinals, inner bottom longitudinals and longitudinals on side
longitudinal bulkheads
• One longitudinal on each of the longitudinal bulkheads within 0.1D from the deck is to be included
For these structural details, the fatigue assessment is to be first focused on the flange of the
longitudinal at the rounded toe welds of attached flat bar stiffeners and brackets, as illustrated for
Class F item 2) and Class F
2
item 1) in 5A-3-A2/Table 1.
Then, the critical spots on the web plate cut-out, on the lower end of the stiffener as well as the
weld throat are also to be checked for the selected structural detail. For illustration, see
5A-3-A2/11.3.1 and 5A-3-A2/11.3.2(a), 5A-3-A2/11.3.2(b) and 5A-3-A2/11.3.2(c).
Where the longitudinal stiffener end bracket arrangements are different on opposing sides of a
transverse web, both configurations are to be checked.
3.3.2 Shell, Bottom, Inner Bottom or Bulkhead Plating at Connections to Webs or Floors (for Fatigue
Strength of Plating)
3.3.2(a) One (1) to two (2) selected locations of side shell plating near the summer LWL
amidships and between 0.15L and 0.25L from F.P. respectively
3.3.2(b) One (1) to two (2) selected locations in way of bottom and inner bottom amidships
3.3.2(c) One (1) to two (2) selected locations of lower strakes of side longitudinal bulkhead
amidships
3.3.3 Connections of the Slope Plate to Inner Bottom and Side Longitudinal Bulkhead Plating at the
Lower Cargo Tank Corners
One selected location amidships at transverse web and between webs, respectively
For this structural detail, the value of f
R
, the total stress range as specified in 5A-3-A2/9.1, is to be
determined from fine mesh F.E.M. analyses for the combined load cases, as specified for Zone B
in 5A-3-A2/7.5.2.
3.3.4 End Bracket Connections for Transverses and Girders
One (1) to two (2) selected locations in the midship region for each type of bracket configuration
3.3.5 Other Regions and Locations
Other regions and locations, highly stressed by fluctuating loads, as identified from structural analysis.


Part 5A Ship-Type Installations
Chapter 3 Structural Design Requirements
Appendix 2 Guide for Fatigue Strength Assessment of Ship-Type Installations 5A-3-A2

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TABLE 1
Fatigue Classification for Structural Details (December 2008)