EXPERIMENT-9 HALFWAVE RECTIFIER

DATE-11th March 2014.

AIM - Implementation of half wave rectifier APPARATUS REQUIREDORCAD PSPICE CAPTURE

using op-amp In “ORCAD PSPICE” software.

PROCEDURE
1. Open ORCAD- Capture 2. Create a project and give new project name 3. Select analog or mixed A/D mode and create a blank project 4. Select „Place part‟-and add necessary blocks. 5. Select „Place Ground‟ 6. Connect all the placed parts using wires. 7. Create New Simulation Profile under “PSpice” and edit parameters 8. Add “Voltage/level marker” Where voltage needed to be marked. 9. Then click “Run PSpice”

THEORY
Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube thermionic diodes and copper oxide- or selenium-based metal rectifier stacks were used.[1] With the introduction of semiconductor electronics, vacuum tube rectifiers became obsolete, except for some enthusiasts of vacuum tube audio equipment. For power rectification from very low to very high current, semiconductor diodes of various types (junction diodes, Schottky diodes, etc.) are widely used. Other devices that have control electrodes as well as acting as unidirectional current valves are used where more than simple rectification is required—e.g., where variable output voltage is needed. High-power rectifiers, such as those used in high-voltage direct current power transmission, employ silicon semiconductor devices of various types. These are thyristors or

the current through and voltage across the load remains zero. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM . its lower end.r.The ac voltage across the secondary winding changes polarities after every half cycle of input wave. the diode is reverse biased and so does not conduct.t. Working of a Half wave rectifier The half-wave rectifier circuit using a semiconductor diode (D) with a load resistance R L but no smoothing filter is given in figure. which effectively function as diodes to pass current in only one direction.t.e. being very small in magnitude. however. If the forward resistance of the diode is assumed to be zero (in practice. Thus for the negative half cycles no power is delivered to the load. The waveforms of the output current and output voltage are of the same shape as that of the input ac voltage. the diode is forward biased and therefore conducts current. is neglected.r. making its upper end positive w.During the negative half cycles of the input ac voltage i. its lower end.t. The primary of the transformer is being connected to the ac supply mains.other controlled switching solid-state switches.e.r. The diode is connected in series with the secondary of the transformer and the load resistance RL. its upper end. During the positive half-cycles of the input ac voltage i. The reverse current. a small resistance exists) the input voltage during the positive half-cycles is directly applied to the load resistance RL. when the lower end of the secondary winding is positive w. Thus during the negative half cycles of the input ac voltage. when upper end of the secondary winding is positive w.

.SIMULATION GRAPHS RESULT-Thus half wave rectifier was implemented and simulated successfully in “ORCAD PSPICE” software.

Then click “Run PSpice” Full Wave Rectifier In full wave rectifier two diodes are used. Add “Voltage/level marker” Where voltage needed to be marked.During the positive half cycle of secondary voltage. The peak . 7. Therefore this circuit provides full-wave rectified output. FULLWAVE RECTIFIERS AIM .The current through the load resistor is in the same direction in both half-cycles. APPARATUS REQUIREDORCAD PSPICE CAPTURE PROCEDURE 1. Create a project and give new project name 3.Capture 2. R and the upper-half of thesecondary winding. Average Voltage = Vdc = 2Vp/π = 0. Select analog or mixed A/D mode and create a blank project 4.Implementation of full wave rectifier using op-amp In “ORCAD PSPICE” software. Select „Place Ground‟ 6. Therefore it has exactly doubled the line frequency.EXPERIMENT-10 DATE-18th March 2014. Thus the current rating (Io) of diode need only be greater than half the de load current (0.636 VpEach diode conducts for only half a cycle.5 Idc)In full wave rectifier two full cycles of output occur for each input cycle. The current is through D1. The current is through D2. D2 is forward biased and D1 is reverse-biased. The transformer used must have a centre-tapped secondary. Create New Simulation Profile under “PSpice” and edit parameters 8. D1 is forward biased & D2 is reverse-biased. 5. During the negative half cycle. Open ORCAD. Select „Place part‟-and add necessary blocks. Connect all the placed parts using wires. 9. R and lower half of the secondary winding. Therefore the current through a diode is half-wave rectified output.

Therefore each diode in a full wave rectifier must have a PIV rating greater than 2Vp. . Where Vp = peak value of voltage across half of the secondary winding SIMULATION GRAPHS RESULT-Thus full wave rectifier was implemented and simulated successfully in “ORCAD PSPICE” software.inverse voltage (PIV) across each diode is 2Vp.