Basics of Regenerative Braking: * In Regenerative braking, the motor operates as a generator, while it is still connected to the supply, here

N>Ns. * Mechanical energy is converted into energy, part of which is returned to the supply & rest of the energy is last as heat in wdg & bearings. * Most of electrical m/c pass smoothing from motoring region to generating region, when over driven by the load.

* Here electric motor is drawing a trotley bus in the uphill & downhill direction. The gravity force can be resolved into 2 components in the uphill direction. One is perpendicular to load surface F & another one is parallel to the road surface Fl. The parallel force pulls the motor towards the bottom of the hill. * If we neglect the rotational losses, the motor must produce a force Fm opposite to Fl, to move the bus in the uphill direction. This operation is in I quadrant. Here motor torque is motor speed in same direction. But TL is opp to Tm. The power flow from motor to mech. Load.

* Now consider same bus to travelling downhill. The gravitational force does not change its torque direction, but load torque pushed the motor toward the bottom of the hill. The motor produces a torque in the reverse direction because of the direction of the motor torque always opposite to the direction of the load torque.

In this regenerative braking mode. In series motor. * Here Regenerative max torque > max motor torque. . In this case. by N>NS. slip and torque developed become -ve. This operation in the second quadrant. TL is opposite to Tm. * Such a state occurs during any one of the following processes. Regenerative braking of Induction Motor:An induction motor is subjected to regenerative braking. * Under regenerative braking mode . the m / c acts as an induction generator and this power fed back to the supply. motor torque & speed are in the opposite direction. The energy is exchange under regenerative braking operation is power flows from mechanical load to source. motor speed > Ns and regenerative braking may be obtained.* Here rotation of the motor is still in the same direction on both sides of the hill. Hence the load is driving the m/c and the m/c is generating electric power that is returned to the supply. generated energy is supplied to the source. if the rotor rotates in same directions as that of stator magnetic field. Regenerative braking of DC Motor : In regenerative braking . i) Downward motion of a loaded hoisting mechanism. The m/c taking only the reactive power for excitation. * If active load is present. ii) If variable freq is available or if the motor is of pole change type. as N increases Armature current . the condition is E>V and –Ia ---(1) Fild flux increases not beyond rated because saturation. flux decreases so (1) not achieved. Thus braking possible. This is known as “regenerative braking”.

So called “forward braking” * Quadrant III & IV – reverse motoring and braking. support its motion. * (generator) braking – mech energy to electrical energy.Multiquadrant Operation * A motor operate in 2 modes – Motoring and braking * Motoring . supplying mech energy. So called “forward motoring” * Quadrant II – Power –ve. m/c working as a motor. * Quadrant I – Power +ve. * Motor can provide motoring & braking for both forward & reverse direction. * Power developed by a motor is given by the product of speed & torque. oppose the motion. Operation of hoist in four quadrants Operation of hoist in four quadrants .electrical energy to mechanical energy. m/c works under braking opposing the motion.

motor must produce a +ve torque T = TL2 in anti clockwise direction. This torque is due to the diff in torque of counter weight & empty hoist. this is forward motoring operation. * The quadrant I operation – hoist requires the movement of the cage upward. It will be obtained if motor produce +ve torque in CCW direction equal to TL.* Direction of motor & load torques and direction of speed are marked by arrows. of torques due to loaded hoist & counter weight. which corresponds to the +ve motor speed which is in CCW (counter clockwise) direction. Since developed power is +ve. Other end of the rope has a counter weight. This is –ve because the counter weight is always higher than the empty cage. . drive is in reverse braking. This torque is the diff. * A hoist consists of a rope wound on a drum coupled to a motor shaft. Since the weight of the loaded cage is > the counter weight. * Load torque TL2 in quadrants I & IV represent speed torque charal of the loaded hoist. Both power & speed are – ve. One end of a rope is tied to a cage which is used for transporting material. * Load torque TL2 in quadrants II & III is the speed-torque charal of an empty hoist. * Weight of the counter weight chosen higher than the weight of an empty case but lower than a fully loaded cage. * Quadrant IV operation is obtained when a loaded cage is lowered. In order to limit the speed of the cage within a safe value.

Friction Torque (TF) The friction torque (TF) is the equivalent value of various friction torques referred to the motor shaft. this is reverse motoring operation. ve. Some function of speed. · Different types of loads exhibit different speed torque charal. The nature of the torque may change with the change in the loads mode of operation. motor must produce braking torque = TL2 in clockwise direction.* Quadrant II is obtained when an empty cage is moved up since a counter weight is heavier than a empty cage. Selection of particular type of motor driving a m/c is the matching of speed-torque charal of the driven unit and that of the motor. developed power is. · Most of the industrial loads can be classified into the following 4 general categories: . It may be constant and indeoendent of speed. In order to limit the speed to safety value. the wind generates a torque opposing the motion . Characteristics of different types of load: In electric drives the driving equipment is an electric motor. Components of load torques: 1. Since speed is –ve & developed power is +ve. 3. Since speed is +ve. It is forward breaking operation. may be time invariant or time variant.Windage Torque (Tw) When a motor runs. This is known as the winding torque. Quadrant III – empty cage is lowered since empty cage weight is < counter weight motor produce a torque in clockwise direction.Torque required to do useful mechanical work ( Tm) Nature of the torque depands of type of load. 2. it is able to pull it up.

require constant torque irrespective of speed.Constant Torque Characteristic : The speed – torque characteristic of this type of load is given by T=K. Similarly cranes during the hoisting. 2. grinding or sharing. time also exhibit this type of characteristics. Torque proportional to speed (generator type load) 3.1. cutting. Torque proportional to speed: . Torque inversely proportional to speed (const power type load) 1. Working motor have each mechanical nature of work like shaping . Constant torque type load. Similarly cranes during the hoisting and conveyors handling constant weight of material / unit. Torque proportional to square of the speed (fan type load) 4.

milling m/cs . The speed – torque characteristics of this type of load is given by Torque inversely propositional to speed: · In such types of loads .Separately excuted dc generators connected to a constant resistance load. compressors . boring m/cs. eddy current brakes and calendaring m/cs have a speed torque characteristics m/cs have a speed – torque characteristics given by T= Kw. · Eq: Lathes. steel mill colier and electric traction load. · This type of characteristics is given by . ship propellers. Torque propositional to square of the speed : Load Torque Square of speed Example : Fans . torque is inversely proportional to speed or load power remains constant. Rotary pumps .

Series. stepper motors.Wound field and permanent magnet Brushless Dc motors . AC voltage controllers (AC to AC converters) 4. wound rotor and linear Synchronous motor .· Most of the load require extra effort at the time of starting to overcome static friction. Because of slition . and switched reluctance motors can be used. Inverters (DC to AC converters) 3. Power modulator 3. Electrical motors and load 2. Control unit 5. Induction Motors – Squirel cage . Power Modulator It can classified as 1. Controlled rectifier (AC to DC converters) 2. the speed torque characteristics of the load is modified near to zero speed. Parts of Electric Drives: 1. Electric Motors: Most commonly used electric drives are DC motos – Shunt . Compound and permanent magnet. Source 4. Sensing unit. In power application it is known as brake away torque and load control engineers call it “stiction” . DC choppers (DC to DC converters) .

Sensing unit : 1. Rest of the drives from three phase source. Higher rating . 6. battery voltage may be 24v. motors are fed from 3. Control Units : · Control for power modulator is provided in the control unit. 3. the control unit will consist of firing circuits. 11kv. which employ linear and digit integrated circuits and transistor and a up when sophisticated control is required. · Involves the use of a non-inductive resistance shunt in conjunction with an isolation amplifier which has an arrangement for an amplification and isolation bet power and control units.3kv . high speed accuracies required digital tachometers are used. Some drives are power from a battery .6 kv . Speed sensing by tachometers . Speed sensing is required for implementation of closed loop speed control schemes. 50Hz readily available in most locations. 48v and 110v. 2. · When semi conductor converts are used.5. Cyclo converters (Frequency conversion) Electrical Source: Single Phase and Three Phase . . Very low power drives fed from single phase source. Current sensing methods are · Use of current sensor employing hall effect. Low and medium power motor are fet from 400v supply.

pumps. · During transient operation . · Converts electrical energy of the source in the form of suitable to the motor. trains and drills. Te Electric power flow . Forward Reverse Forward Reverse regenerative regenerative motoring motoring braking braking + + + + + + - Mode of operation Speed. Power Modulator: · Modulates the flow of power from the source to the motor in such a manner that the motor will modulate the speed – torque characteristics required by the load. such as starting . · Drives employed electric motors are known as “Electric Drives” · Load is usually a machinery designed to accomplish a given task eg: fans.e) Motoring or Braking. it restricts source and motor currents within permissible values. · Select the mode of operation of the motor (i.Block Diagram of a simple electric drive: · System employed for motion control are called Drives. breaking and speed reversal . r Torque. robots.