# Basics of Regenerative Braking: * In Regenerative braking, the motor operates as a generator, while it is still connected to the supply, here

N>Ns. * Mechanical energy is converted into energy, part of which is returned to the supply & rest of the energy is last as heat in wdg & bearings. * Most of electrical m/c pass smoothing from motoring region to generating region, when over driven by the load.

* Here electric motor is drawing a trotley bus in the uphill & downhill direction. The gravity force can be resolved into 2 components in the uphill direction. One is perpendicular to load surface F & another one is parallel to the road surface Fl. The parallel force pulls the motor towards the bottom of the hill. * If we neglect the rotational losses, the motor must produce a force Fm opposite to Fl, to move the bus in the uphill direction. This operation is in I quadrant. Here motor torque is motor speed in same direction. But TL is opp to Tm. The power flow from motor to mech. Load.

* Now consider same bus to travelling downhill. The gravitational force does not change its torque direction, but load torque pushed the motor toward the bottom of the hill. The motor produces a torque in the reverse direction because of the direction of the motor torque always opposite to the direction of the load torque.

In this regenerative braking mode. In series motor. * Here Regenerative max torque > max motor torque. . In this case. by N>NS. slip and torque developed become -ve. This operation in the second quadrant. TL is opposite to Tm. * Such a state occurs during any one of the following processes. Regenerative braking of Induction Motor:An induction motor is subjected to regenerative braking. * Under regenerative braking mode . the m / c acts as an induction generator and this power fed back to the supply. motor torque & speed are in the opposite direction. The energy is exchange under regenerative braking operation is power flows from mechanical load to source. motor speed > Ns and regenerative braking may be obtained.* Here rotation of the motor is still in the same direction on both sides of the hill. Hence the load is driving the m/c and the m/c is generating electric power that is returned to the supply. generated energy is supplied to the source. if the rotor rotates in same directions as that of stator magnetic field. Regenerative braking of DC Motor : In regenerative braking . i) Downward motion of a loaded hoisting mechanism. The m/c taking only the reactive power for excitation. * If active load is present. ii) If variable freq is available or if the motor is of pole change type. as N increases Armature current . the condition is E>V and –Ia ---(1) Fild flux increases not beyond rated because saturation. flux decreases so (1) not achieved. Thus braking possible. This is known as “regenerative braking”.

So called “forward braking” * Quadrant III & IV – reverse motoring and braking. support its motion. * (generator) braking – mech energy to electrical energy.Multiquadrant Operation * A motor operate in 2 modes – Motoring and braking * Motoring . supplying mech energy. So called “forward motoring” * Quadrant II – Power –ve. m/c working as a motor. * Quadrant I – Power +ve. * Motor can provide motoring & braking for both forward & reverse direction. * Power developed by a motor is given by the product of speed & torque. oppose the motion. Operation of hoist in four quadrants Operation of hoist in four quadrants .electrical energy to mechanical energy. m/c works under braking opposing the motion.