Chapter 15 How Organisms Evolve

Diploid means possessing two matched sets of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Gene Pool is the sum of all the genes in a population. one set from each parent. Although most mutations are neutral or harmful to the organism. Allele Frequency. Gene flow tends to reduce differences in the genetic composition of different populations. Mutations are random. Nonrandom mating. In any population. Genes. These conditions are rarely met in nature. chance events kill or prevent reproduction by some of the individuals. but they provide the raw material for evolution. Gene is a segment of DNA that controls inheritance trait. such as assortative mating. and Natural selection. 15. all mating is random. if the population is small. Nonrandom mating. Homozygous means having two identical genes. allele frequencies and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant no matter how many generations pass. undirected changes in DNA composition. Allele is one of several alternative forms of a particular gene. Phenotype is a visible characteristic of organism. Evolution is a property not of individuals but of populations. mutation. Mutation. Genotype is a genetic group. Founder Effect occurs when isolated colonies are founded by a small number of organisms. DNA is a compound in cell nuclei that is the basis of heredity. this model showed that under certain conditions. there is no gene flow. some prove advantageous in certain environments. Population is a group that includes all the members of a species living in a given area. Population Genetic is the study of the allele frequency distribution and change under the influence of the four evolutionary processes: natural selection.15. Evolutionary Changes are those that occur from generation to generation and cause descendants to differ from their ancestor. Gene flow is the movement of alleles between different populations of a species. the population is very large. can change the distribution of genotypes in a population. And Evolution Related? Evolution is change in frequencies of alleles in a population’s gene pool. and all genotypes reproduce equally well. . Heterozygous is an individual with different alleles for that gene. thereby greatly changing the allele frequency in the population. Small Population Size. Hardy-Weinberg Principle.2 What Causes Evolution? There are five major causes of evolution: Gene Flow. Chromosome is a part of a cell nucleus that contains genes. Genetic drift. Allele frequencies in a population will remain constant over generations if the following conditions are met: there is no mutation. gene flow. it is the number of copies of a particular allele divided by the number of copies of all alleles at the genetic place in a population. Two causes of genetic drift: Population Bottleneck is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or prevented from reproducing. Mutations are rare and do not change allele frequencies very much.1 How Are Populations. genetic drift. chance events may eliminate a disproportionate number of individuals who bear a particular allele.

Preys are those who are eaten.15. both of them evolve in response. Predators are those who do the eating. Natural selection proceeds from the interactions of organisms with both the biotic and abiotic parts of their environments. Stabilizing selection favors individuals with the average value of trait and selects against individuals with extreme values. even if the individual dies. Disruptive selection favors individuals at both extremes of a trait and selects against individuals with intermediate values. When two or more species exert mutual environmental pressures on each other for long periods of time. those relatives that survive will carry some of its genes. Predation includes any situation in which one organism eats another. Balanced Polymorphism two or more phenotypes are maintained in a population.3 How Does Natural Selection Works? Natural selection is driven by differences in reproductive success among different genotypes. Adaptations are characteristics that help an individual survive and reproduce. including competition and predation. . Kin selection is a natural selection that favors self-sacrificing behavior toward relatives because. Selection can influence population in 3 ways Directional selection favors individuals with an extreme value of trait and selects against both average individuals and individuals at the opposite extreme. Coevolution is mutual feedback between two species. Altruism refers to any behavior that endangers an individual organism or reduces its reproductive success but benefits other members of its species. Such coevolution can result from any type of relationship between organisms.