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LINEAR MOTION

Distance: Distance is the length of the route between two points. There can be many routes between two points thus there can be many distance between two points. Distance is a scalar quantity. The unit of distance in SI unit is meter.

Displacement: is the distance between two points in a straight line. It is also the shortest distance between two points. Displacement between two points is always the same but the distance can be any route and different. In the following route map, the distance between the two points A and B can be any route taken by a moving object, but the displacement is the only line AB though there is no route.

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Speed: The rate of change of distance is called Speed. It is a scalar quantity and the unit is m/sec. In case of a straight line the speed and the velocity are the same.

In everyday life speed means average speed, as the speed is very difficult to keep constant because we always live with different types of forces and obstacles. Thus the average speed is defined as

Velocity: The rate of change of displacement with time is called the Velocity. It is a vector quantity. It means that it has both magnitude and direction. Unit in SI system is meter/second (m/sec).

=
Or

.(3)

(4)

(Where s = distance) Constant velocity means that in every unit time the moving object covered the same unit of displacement. Velocity is only constant when the net force is zero. Practically the constant velocity is difficult to achieve. Velocity can only be changed when a Force is applied. Velocity will be changed, either in magnitude (value) or in the direction. If the force is applied in the same direction of the velocity then it will cause acceleration, and if the force is applied in the opposite direction of the velocity then it will cause deceleration. And if the force is perpendicular then direction of the velocity will be changed.

= + ..(5)

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If the acceleration is constant then the average velocity can be calculated by:

=
Velocity

.(6)

= Acceleration Force

= Deceleration Velocity Force

= Direction Change Velocity Force

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Acceleration: The rate of change of velocity is called the acceleration. To produce acceleration there must be net force acting on the moving object. No NET forces no acceleration. Acceleration is a vector quantity, and its unit is m/sec2 i) ii) iii) iv) Initial velocity = Final Velocity = Velocity change = ( ) Velocity Change in unit time

()

Thus the acceleration

= =

()

.(7)

..(8)

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Equations of Motion:

(1) (2)

= + . (3)
Putting the value of v from equation (3) into the equation (2): And by making d as subject:
( )

= +

(4)

Again from equation (2), by making t subject:

( )

And putting this value in equation (2):

()

() ()

=
(5)

= +

Thus the equations of motion are:

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(1)

(2) . (3)

= + = +

.. (4)

= +

.. (5)

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Motion Graph: Distance-time graph. Distance cannot be negative as it is scalar, and time cannot be negative as well, thus there is only one quadrant. In distance-time graph the gradient indicates the speed of the object. And the area under the graph has no physical significance.

Gradient = Speed
i) Distance/m No gradient = No speed.

15

Car A

Time/sec

The car A is at rest. The car A is 15meter away from the starting point.

START
Negative direction

Positive direction

Car A 15 m

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ii)

Constant Gradient = Constant Speed. Higher Constant Gradient = Higher constant Speed.

Distance/m

Car C

Car D

Car E Time/sec

a)

All the cars C and D and Car E have constant speed, as they have constant gradient.

b) c)

Car C has higher Speed than Car D as it has higher gradient. The Car E is coming back to the starting point with a constant speed.

d)

The car C and D is moving away from the starting point with a constant speed

Negative direction

START

Positive direction Car D

Car E

Car C

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e)

All the cars have different constant speed.

iii) Increasing Gradient = Increasing Speed, which is ACCELERATION iv) Decreasing Gradient = Decreasing Speed, which is

DECELERATION.

Distance/m

Car G

Car F

Time/sec

a) The gradient of this car F is increasing every moment constantly, thus car F is accelerating. b) The gradient of the car G is decreasing every moment constantly, thus car G is decelerating.

i. ii. iii. iv. v.

Constant Gradient = Constant Speed/Velocity. Greater constant gradient = Greater constant Speed/Velocity. No gradient = no speed (stopped/rest) Increasing gradient = Increasing speed/velocity (acceleration). Decreasing gradient = Decreasing speed/velocity (deceleration)
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Displacement-Time graph. Displacement is a vector quantity thus it can be negative and it has negative axis but time is a scalar quantity and it cannot be negative. So there will be two quadrant and negative means Opposite direction. The gradient of displacement time graph is Velocity, GRADIENT = VELOCITY Displacement/m

i)

No gradient = No Velocity. Car D

Time/sec

Car A

START
Negative direction Positive direction

Car A

Car D

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a) Both the car A and D are stopped (At rest), but their positions are in the opposite of the starting point thus they have opposite direction.

ii) Displacement/m

Constant Gradient = Constant Velocity

+
Car C

Car M Car D

Time/sec

Car N Car E

Negative direction

START

Positive direction Car D

Car E

Car M Car N
Car C

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Car C: Moving with a constant velocity, Positive direction, Highest velocity (It has the highest gradient) Car D: Moving with a constant velocity, but it is less than Speed of all the cars (It has the lowest gradient). Car E: Moving with a constant velocity, in the negative region, moving towards Starting position. Graph approaches towards origin. Car M: Moving with a constant velocity, In positive region, moving to the starting point, graph approaches to the origin Car N: Moving with a constant velocity, in the negative region, going away from the starting position

All the above cars have different velocities. Their velocities are constant as the graphs are straight lines with constant gradient. The graph also shows the direction of their motion as well. Q1. Explain the motion of the cars from the following graphs:
Displacement/m Displacement/m P P

Time/sec

Time/sec

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iii) Displacement/m

Changing Gradient = Changing Velocity (Acceleration or deceleration)

Car S

Time/sec

Car T

Car S and T are both accelerating as their gradient is increasing with time. They are moving in the opposite direction. Car S accelerates in the positive direction (To the right) and the car T is accelerating in the opposite direction (To the left)

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Displacement/m

+
Car P

Time/sec

Car Q

The car P and Q are both decelerating as their gradient gradually decreasing. They are decelerating in the opposite direction.

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Speed time graph: The gradient means Acceleration and area under the graph means distance travelled. Speed cannot be negative as it is scalar and time cannot be negative as well. Gradient = Acceleration Area under the graph with time axis = Distance travelled i) No gradient = no acceleration ( Constant speed or at rest)

Speed/ms-1

15

Car A1

Car A

40

Time/sec

The car A1 is moving with a constant speed of 15ms-1. As the gradient of the graph is zero. And the car A is not moving at all it has also Zero gradient. The shaded area shows that the distance travelled by the car A1 during 40second

a)

This graph is not showing which direction the car was moving.
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b)

If several cars are moving in different directions, but in the graph, they will be plotted in the same quadrant.

ii)

Constant positive gradient = Constant acceleration. Higher gradient = Higher acceleration.

Speed/ms-1

Car N

Car M

Time/sec t a) Both the cars M and N are moving with a constant acceleration, as they have constant positive gradient. b) The car N has higher acceleration than car M as N has more gradient than M. c) The shaded area shows the distance travelled by the car M after time t.

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iii)

Negative gradient = Deceleration (the line moves towards the time line)

Speed/ms-1

Car P

Car Q

Time/sec t a) Both car P and Q are decelerating as their gradients are negative. b) Car P has more deceleration than Q as it has higher negative gradient than Q. c) The shaded area is the distance travelled by the car Q during deceleration up to timet.

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iv) v)

Increasing gradient = Increasing acceleration. Decreasing gradient = Decreasing acceleration

Speed/ms-1

Car S

Car T

Time/sec a) The car T is moving with increasing acceleration. Example: When the rocket moves upward its acceleration increases as the net force gradually increases.

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Velocity time graph: Gradient = Acceleration. Area under the graph with time axis = Displacement. The velocity- time graph also shows the direction.

+
Velocity/ms-1 Car N

Time/sec

Car M

Both the cars M and N are moving with constant velocity. The graphs have no gradient. Car N has higher constant Velocity than Car M. The area under the graph shows the displacement travelled
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Velocity/ms-1 Car J

Time/sec

Car K

Both the car J and K are moving with constant Acceleration. They are moving in the opposite direction. Car J has higher acceleration than car K as J has higher gradient than k. The area is the displacement of the two cars.

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+
Velocity/ms-1

Car L

o
Car M

Time/sec

Both the cars L and M are decelerating, they are moving in the opposite direction. The deceleration of the car L is higher than car M. Area = displacement moved while decelerating.
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+
Velocity/ms-1

Car X

o
Car Y

Time/sec

Car X is moving with a constant deceleration, as it has negative gradient. Car Y is moving with a constant acceleration as it has positive gradient. The area under the graph shows the displacement travelled by the two cars. The two cars are moving in the opposite direction.

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Calculating Motion: Speed, acceleration or deceleration can be calculated by different ways: 1) Light Gates. 2) Motion Sensors. 3) Ticker-timer and tape.

1) Light Gates: A narrow beam of light or radiation falls from a source on a sensor connected to a data logger to a computer, if this beam is intercepted then the time of the interception is recorded in computer. And the rate of change of distance or velocity can be measured.

There is a card (interrupter) attached with the glider and the length of the card is measured, these data are fed in the computer and the computer can accurately measure the motion of the glider.

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Advantage of using light-gate: 1) The readings are human-error free. 2) Large number of data can be obtained. 3) The data can be analyzed directly with computer. 4) Time saving.

Disadvantages: 1) Needs accurate setup. 2) Depends on power supply. 3) Depends on software. 4) Needs training to use.

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Thinking Distance: The distance travelled by a car before the brakes are applied, while the Driver is still reacting. The car moves with a constant velocity now. The thinking distance depends on the performance of the driver, the reaction time. The reaction time of a Driver depends on: Tiredness of the Driver. Poor weather conditions effecting visibility of the driver. The effect of alcohol or drugs. AS the car moves with a constant velocity the thinking distance can be calculated by the following equation:

Thinking Distance = Speed of the car at that moment Reaction time d1 = V t (a)

The braking distance: The distance moved by the car after the brakes have been applied. This time the car is decelerating, as the car is brought to rest, the final velocity is ZERO. The initial velocity is the velocity at which the car was moving.

The Braking distance depends on: (The brakes may take longer to stop the car) A wet or icy road. A heavy load in the car. Worn Brakes or Tyres. The initial velocity of the car

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As the car is decelerating the braking distance must be calculated with average velocity equation: Braking distance = Average velocity time

d2 =

u +v t ..(b) 2

Stopping Distance: The total distance needed to stop a car completely. It is the addition of the Thinking distance and the Braking distance. Thus: Stopping distance = Thinking distance + Braking Distance D = d1 + d2 The following chart shows the stopping distances for a car at different speed. This is an average figure for a dry road; the actual stopping distance may be greater.
Thinking Distance 30m/s Braking Distance

25m/s

20m/s

15m/s

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Velocity/ms-1 O

Time/s

This graph shows the velocity time graph of stopping distance. The car moved with a constant velocity that is indicated in the blue part, and when the brakes are applied the car decelerated and that is indicated in the yellow part. The total area is the stopping distance. i) ii) Blue area Yellow area = Thinking distance. = Braking distance.

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Q1: The motion of a moving object is shown in the following graph:

Velocity/ms-1

Time/sec i) ii) Explain the motion of the object for the first 2seconds. The total distance travelled by the object is 150m. Calculate the value of the maximum velocity v. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) Calculate the acceleration of the object, How long the object was in the constant velocity? Calculate the deceleration of the object. Calculate the distance travelled during deceleration. Calculate the distance travelled during acceleration. Calculate the distance travelled by the object during constant velocity. ix) The mass of the object is 1350kg; calculate the braking force of the object. x) On another occasion, the braking force is doubled; calculate the stopping time when the object was moving with the same velocity.

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Q2: An object of mass 250g is thrown vertically upward with a velocity 45m/s. Calculate: i) ii) iii) iv) The maximum height gained by the object. The time to reach that height. The total time to fall to the hand again. Draw a speed/time and velocity/time graph of the object of the whole Journey (From the throwing to the catch, you must include the value).

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Bouncing Ball: A rubber ball is dropped from a height it will bounce several times on a solid hard surface. The motion of the ball can be plotted on a graph paper. Distance time graph:

Distance/m

Time/s

The distance-time graph would be like this. The centre of gravity is moving and as the centre never touches the ground the graph is not touching the time axis.

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Velocity time graph: Velocity is a vector; the direction is indicated by positive or negative sign. It is considered that upward is positive and downward is negative. i) The object is dropped and it is falling downward so it is moving to the negative direction with a constant acceleration, so it is a graph in the negative part with a constant gradient.
Velocity/ms-1

C G

P F B D Q Time/s

ii)

In the part OA the ball is falling. At A the ball touches the ground. In the part AB there is an impact force on the ball and it is decelerating, thus the graph goes to the time line.

iii)

In the part BC the ball expands and there is an upward force (Normal reaction) on the ball, and the ball accelerates upward (as

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long as the ball is in contact with the ground) thus the graph goes away from the time line. iv) From CD the ball is moving upward and it is now facing deceleration due to gravitational force. Thus the graph moves to the time line. The gradient of line OA and CD are same and the gravitational acceleration and deceleration are same in magnitude. v) vi) At the point D the ball is in the top point after one bouncing The area under the graph is the height fallen by the ball. The green area is the first dropping height and the yellow area is the bouncing height (the height gained by ball as it goes up).

vii)

The first dropping height is more than the height gain after the impact as some energy is converted into heat and sound.

viii)

The time, like PF is the impact time, the first impact time is very less than the second impact time. As in the first impact the ball dropped from a greater height, and in the second impact the height is less than before so the impact time is also less than before.

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Acceleration time graph:

Acceleration/ms-2

Time/s

(-) 9.81

i) ii) iii)

Only the acceleration is plotted. No deceleration is plotted. The negative and positive indicates the direction of the acceleration. The acceleration due to gravity is constant as 9.81, and as acceleration takes places in the downward so it is in the negative region.

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iv)

The upper positive acceleration is the due to the reaction force. And initially it is more as the ball is dropped from a greater height so impact is more and the magnitude of the acceleration is more, and as the ball is bouncing, the height reduces and the impact force reduces and the acceleration also.

v)

In the first impact the force was greater so the acceleration was more and the impact time was less . In the second impact the force was less (as it fell from less height) and the acceleration was less as well, and the impact time was more than before.

vi)

AS the dropping height decreases the time for the ball to drop decreases, thus the duration of the g decreases, but the magnitude remains the same.

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Calculation of the Gravitational acceleration g (3B) To calculate the value of gravitational acceleration g in lab: i) An object is dropped from a known height and the falling time is calculated. ii) If the dropping height is short then it is difficult to calculate the dropping time with a stop watch, as human reaction time cannot be ignored in this case, and if the dropping height is very long then the air friction acting on the falling object will be significant that the value of g will be different than actual value. iii) To get a more accurate result for g electronic milli-timer timed with electromagnet and controlling switch is used.
Switch Electromagnet

Iron sphere

h Electronic timer

Ruler Stand

Contact plate

iv)

When the switch is open the electromagnet will lose magnetism and the iron sphere will start to fall simultaneously the electronic timer will start, and when the iron sphere will hit the contact plate, the

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plate will lose the contact and the circuit will be stopped and the timer will be stopped (show the time required to drop the height h) and will show the dropping time. v) This experiment is free from the errors occurred due to human reaction time and more accurate. To avoid further errors due to air friction height should be as small as possible. As
h = ut + 1 gt 2 2

Here u = 0. Thus

h=

1 gt 2 or 2 2h t2

g =

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Filename: LINEAR MOTION-1 Directory: C:\As-Class-pro\Unit-1 Template: C:\Users\ASUS\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Templates\Normal.dotm Title: Subject: Author: ASUS Keywords: Comments: Creation Date: 02-Jul-12 12:47:00 PM Change Number: 196 Last Saved On: 19-Mar-13 12:16:00 PM Last Saved By: Moyin Total Editing Time: 2,455 Minutes Last Printed On: 19-Mar-13 12:17:00 PM As of Last Complete Printing Number of Pages: 38 Number of Words: 2,988 (approx.) Number of Characters: 17,032 (approx.)