CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION FORMS AND PROCEDURES MANUAL ELON UNIVERSITY

Copyright Neil Bromilow, Elon University, 2002 User may download or copy the contents and other downloadable items displayed in this document for personal use only, provided that User maintains all copyright and other notices contained in this document.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT FORMS AND PROCEDURES 1. Overview of Project Management Issues a. Introduction b. References c. Other Web sites of Interest d. Define Project/Program/Construction Management e. Typical Project Organization f. Construction General Objectives g. CM Knowledge Test 2. Vice President’s Rules of Thumb for Projects a. How to keep Your Mind b. Rules of Thumb 3. Eleven Ways the Construction Manager Can Destroy a Project 4. Construction Management Guiding Principles 5. Construction Manager Responsibilities and Position Description a. CM Department Management Guidelines b. CM Position Description 6. Typical Architectural Scope of Services a. Selecting the Architect b. Design Statement of Work c. Designer Billable Rates d. Typical Architectural Services e. Sample Fee Negotiation Analysis 7. Project Facility Program Requirements Summary Sheet 8. Space Performance Data Sheet 9. Project Budget Estimates Summary Forms 10. Facility Building Codes (Types and Review Process) a. Sample Code Review 11. Design Phase Check lists 12. Constructability Review 13. Construction Document Precedence 14. Bid Evaluation 15. Value Engineering 16. Project File Structure 17. Preconstruction Agenda a. Sample Precon Agenda 18. Critical Path Schedule Typical Activities a. Typical Activities b. Cash Flow Curve 19. Progress Meeting Minutes 20. Submittal Log 21. Request for Information Log

22. Sources of Changes Orders 23. Change Order Log a. Field Change Order Form 24. Change Order Estimates a. Change Order Summary b. Change Order Case Study 25. Change Order Negotiation Procedures a. Negotiation Case Study 26. Quality Assurance Inspection Overview 27. Site Safety Checklist 28. Project Turnover a. Punch List Form b. Contract Completion Form c. Turn Over to Customer

Construction Documents 3. Design. and they are 1-11 . They are not performed in a controlled environment like manufacturing. (SEE PROJECT. which are difficult to define in 3D when plans are only two-dimensional. and Construction.1. Construction projects are inherently risky undertakings. Capital construction projects are messy. electrical. The general contractor must contend with weather conditions. Award 5. how are you going to manage a process if you don’t know what the risks are? This document will concentrate on an overview of the key management concerns related to project Programming.) Capital construction projects are comprised of the following phases: 1. and some specific procedures for rapid implementation of a capital construction program from programming through design and construction. and Acceptable Quality of work. which the manager should be aware of. or cold.) The scope of this document is to provide overall guidance. where parts are on hand in the warehouse. PROGRAM. and they have their own priorities. and the product is fully designed. The architect is responsible for a myriad of details (dimensions). and who rarely has capital construction projects to implement. dry. Construction 6. the workforce is under the plant manager’s supervision. there are countless resources in print and on line which can provide much more specific information. Schematic b. Warranty Successful construction projects are defined as: On Time. tasks are repetitive. On Budget. weather is not a factor inside the plant. Design Development c. These three elements are not mutually compatible. since there are subcontract designers for specialties such as mechanical. Feasibility (programming) 2. and structural. As seen in the reference and web page section. Design a. Also the architect does not have direct control over the whole design. wet. plumbing. Bidding 4. (SEE REFERENCES. The work is also performed by a series of subcontractors who are not employees of the general contractor. and CONSTUCTION MANAGEMENT. OVERVIEW OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT ISSUES The notes and forms contained in this document are intended for use by any manager. As the risk manager. Occupancy 7. which are too hot. The construction project’s client typically does not know what they really want until they see it built. who has no permanent construction department staff. or take personal responsibility for some of them. SEE WEB PAGES.

iv. d. The challenge for you is to balance all three and not fail in any of them. Assign to existing staff.) i. Locks. Create a project management team (SEE TYPICAL PROJECT ORGANIZATION) a. Who is really going to design the project (not the principals) c. Select a designer. 5. F&E. a. 2. then design. permits. cooperation. ii. Quality (durability.ALWAYS pulling in opposite directions. Maximum impact on cost made during programming. tele/data. Needs vary by Phase (Programming. i. Fund raising (not included in this manual) b. Options for VP to consider: i. weather) b. a. 1-12 . How will the designer administer the field construction work? f. MEP fixtures & equipment. a. impact on time and budget) 4. Evaluate prior project references i. construction. quality.. Faculty and staff input to the program definition. Set realistic project goals. Design or design build b. Do it yourself. Who are the Mechanical. elevators. Electrical & Plumbing designers? e. reviews. Design. Hire new staff. cost control. Master plan process (mission + specific education goals = facility needs) b. paperwork processing. Hire outside Construction Management firm. 3. a. Formulate a project program. energy controls. Level of comfort dealing with the designer? 6. Minimize maintenance and spare parts. Issues related to choice of designer & timing of construction. Creating a consensus amongst the users and administration. b. Budget (design. Timely. iii. There are eleven capital project implementation steps outlined below. c. and least of all during construction. which are addressed in more detail in the materials contained in this Capital Construction Forms and Procedures Manual. Time for completion (design. Fund raising impact on the project. i. a. Construction). ii. Your design criteria. Constraining the desires and dreams of the users to fit the budget. fire alarm. g. 1. Fee and reimbursable costs.

Fees and application 10. Multiprime) b. a. telephone (availability and fees. Other agencies inspections (county building dept. Building permits a. GC quality controls iv. Electricity. design build. county. d. Identify long lead items (you can’t build it if it’s not there). 7. gas. & Quality during construction. List of what is to be submitted and status of both GC and AE actions pending. keys) iii. parking. Change order logs (pending estimates and final values) ii. state depending of type of project). Negotiate sole source d. Tele/data (separate contractor?) 1-13 . AE inspections iii. a. Coordination i. iii. 2. Progress meetings (resolve issues quickly and document decisions). sewer. Impact of being too restrictive (money). Plan review by governmental agency i. PP…) c.b. Construction Documents 8. CM at Risk. Utility impact i. Testing labs ii. Design Development (Interior Design too) c. Water. Total budget tracking (tele/data. Time schedules i. On campus activities (security. Cost i. g-max. events) ii. Quality i. Schematic b. Different stages in a design and what should you look for. City. Control Time. Select the General Contractor & Form of Contracting a. 9.) c. CPM for work (include owner activities) ii. Physical Plant (UG utilities. Cost. F&E. Types of contracts (lump sum. Zoning approval b. Pre-qualified or open list c.). Submittals for material & testing 1. Bidder list i. storm water (governmental approval) ii. Value engineering before award. d. b.

if all of the previous information has created overwhelming doubts in your mind related to the complexity of undertaking a capital construction project. SEE MANAGING CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION General Objectives. MEP. dry. Water/sewer. SEE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION Knowledge Test. Certificate of Occupancy Inspections i.. then you do not need to study any further. wet. The web sites are provided to help you in you search. It will also help if you surround yourself with quality players (designer. Market conditions force higher prices. you are ready to manage a capital construction project right now! Return to Table of Contents 1-14 . 2. Fire. general contractor) and don’t rush into the arms of the lowball outfits. cold. Design & Construction phases. a.. c. a. b. 6. Remember that the primary rule of construction is that things will change: 1. How to obtain final occupancy a. you will have a better chance of producing a successful facility. Subcontractors or suppliers go out of business. Punch list process with GC. As a final thought. Supplemental materials are attached to this document for further reading: 1.11. 3. Building. 5. If you can answer all of the questions and understand all of the terms uses. Health. Warrantee contacts and O&M training for maintenance. Your project plan needs to be flexible. If you approach the capital construction process by continuously pursuing Time. 4. and include appropriate management controls to highlight problems to you so you can adapt and still achieve the desired result. Cost & Quality issues during the Programming. or on strike. or slower deliveries for materials. The dirt on site was good. Labor or subcontractors busy somewhere else. They usually produce less than desirable results or no results at all. Elevator. then it is strongly recommended that you to find a qualified Construction Manager who can guide you through the process (from programming to final construction). Weather too hot. Designer forgot something that costs time and money. Ten general objectives you should plan to achieve as part of your capital project management plan. but now it has to be removed. 2.

I-IV. Technical Guidelines for Preliminary Design. Comprehensive source for project management with explanatory notes for contract forms (both design and construction). By W. R. How to calculate architect fees using several cost models. Middleton. 9. ed. Overview of managing any project.K. 3. R. ed by D. Dell’Isola. North Carolina 1997.G. 6. 11. DeChaira & J. Sample layouts of typical facilities with design criteria. Simplified Design for Building Fire Safety. E. 8. Town of Elon College Zoning Ordinance 1994. 1999 (with CD). Overview of planning process with many checklists. Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration Part IV Facilities Planning. 1989. 4. Callender. Simplified design criteria with diagrams for structures and building systems. Standard Building Code. (PMI). Cost data for most facilities including design and engineering fees. Free download copy from web site. D. Summary of fire code impact on design with explanations regarding rationale for the code requirements. Typical local ordinance which contains unique restrictions. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. 1996. Building Construction Cost Data (yearly issue).E. Patterson 1993. The Architect’s Studio Companion. The Architect’s Handbook of Professional Practice Vol.S. hard to read and includes many addenda. Means Inc. 1-15 . ed by William Duncan. D. 7.A Joseph Iano. The Art and Science of Pricing. 10. J. Harmon.A. 13. Project Budgets for Buildings. 1999. Design. 1994.References 1. 5. Typical state code. Hershberger. Construction and Administration. not just construction. Project budget estimating procedures. 1991. The Codes Guidebook for Interiors. Architectural Programming and Pre-Design Manager.D. S. Haviland. Stone. J. 1990 3 ed. 2. 1994. 12. Parker & A. Timesaver Standards for Building Types. Graphic summary of code impact on building design.

19. A. Heinz. O’Leary & J. Overview of contract law with simplified case studies. The Facilities Manager’s Reference.H. Narrative text describing project management from the operator’s point of view. 15. Construction Law in Contractor’s Language.1997. Acret. 20. S. General information on project creation from the facility operator’s point of view. 1999. Means.S. 17. 1988. 1999. H. 1997. R. 1964. J. H. Kaiser. “Interview with Gerald Whittington. General information on project creation from the facility operator’s point of view. M. Engineering Economics and Practice. Construction Nightmares (Jobs form Hell and How to Avoid Them) . 14. 1989. Return to Table of Contents 1-16 . Facilities Maintenance Management. Facilities Operations Engineering Reference.F. Check lists and procedures for start up of complex facilities. Magee. Standard economic analysis formulas and examples. Rosenthal. 16. Stokes. Comprehensive overview of all phases of project management with checklists and flowcharts. G. Elon University. Case studies in a easy to read format.A. APPA Commissioning Workshop. 1990. 2002. 21.” Vice President Business Finance & Technology. 18.

www.clemson. Master Planning Sites: 1. www. 2. 8. (Universities with academic programs in construction.org American Institute of Architects 4.com Construction managers 9. www.com Construction Management Association of America. cost engineers. www. 3.hanscombglobal.northcarolina.com School Planning and Management Magazine. www. 4.edu/cmdept Elon University Construction Dept. www. 3. www. C.com Access to lists of designers.terraserver.com Planning specialists (online quiz) 3.edu/cmdept (Planning from home page then Facility Master Plan) 2.ufl. www. 5. lawyers. accountants. www. General Planning Sites: 1. business.ces. 6.edfacilities.com Construction project delivery specialists (changes and schedules).bovislendlease. www.scup. www. and design 1-17 .admin.construction-institute.Other Web Sites Of Interest A.ufl.edu/vendors Design or construction projects pending. www.org Associated Schools of Construction. Geographic information systems programs 3. 4.pmi. Master plans on line:  www. www. www.bjac.ratingsource.masterplan.org National clearing house for educational facilities. www.org Society for College and University Planning 2.edu/cica Construction institute and links to other colleges. list of program and construction managers. school sites. Institutes for Project Management Sites: 1.elon. www.edu/division/cp University Of Florida Planning and Construction forms and procedures.com Ratings for contractors and designers.elon.org Project Management Institute (download manual of management procedures). University Planning and Construction Sites: 1. www.edu University of Florida site includes forms and procedures for making budget estimates. contractors.aia.constructionrisk.esri.cmaa. programming. www.com.cmaa. www. procedures.asumag.com Aerial photos on line B. 3.ascweb. E. Sources for Designers and Contractors Sites: 1. www.) D.jbi-solutions. 7.com Construction Management Association of America.org Links to government.focusllc.com Cost estimating and program management. www. www.com Planning. 2.  www. 2.

new-technologies. www. www.com Search engine that will make world wide searches of resources on line.com (Department of Insurance NC. Project Management Software Sites: 1. F.com Project management software vendor 3. www.4spec. www. When in doubt where to look: 1.spillmanfarmer.rsmeans.primavera. www.ncdoi.10. www.c-z.com Reference texts and cost data books.com On line catalog of construction materials and specifications 2. www.com On line catalog of construction materials and specifications G.google.com Underwriters Laboratory fire rated details for building. Technical Assistance Sites: 1. Code source) 4. Return to Table of Contents 1-18 . www.. 3.com Project scheduling software vendor 2. www. H.com Planning and design architects.ul.

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furniture. you hire other consultants to act on your behalf. which allows you to legally occupy the building. Don’t forget the state organizations that enforce environmental regulations for construction. plumbing. health. You quickly add designers with their attendant specialty subcontractor such as Mechanical Engineers and Landscape Architects. and moving companies to name just a few. They include asbestos removal. Finally. Any one of them can find a code violation. Defining exactly what they want is often very difficult. or county inspectors will eventually issue a Certificate of Occupancy. In the beginning you are alone in the middle of the chart. and you will need another permit. including testing laboratories . electrical. You would think that dealing with the Non Governmental agents would be a delight after your experiences with the previous group. elevator. 1-21 . WRONG! Obtaining electric service when needed to keep the project on schedule could involve more layers of bureaucracy. as well as verifying your compliance with the town zoning regulations. In addition. They are not malicious. but you would be advised to consult with them early in the design processes to eliminate any surprises at the end of the project. you will meet the Governmental organizations that are going to enforce the applicable laws and building codes. Then come the customers with ideas and needs. your ability to work on or under state roads is limited. Likewise. and require miracles similar to the fishes and the loaves. You were focused on selecting the “right” general contractor. we get to the people who will actually build your facility. Note there are many inspectors ( fire. Notice that your general contractor has a myriad of specialty subcontractors who will actually do the majority of the work. Without their approval of your site sediment protection plan the work cannot start. which could keep you from occupying the building when you needed to. You should remember the following two key words for this entire group: PERMITS and INSPECTIONS. Other contractors will probably be hired directly by you. but you also need to review the proposed subcontractor’s competency. After this group has formulated the project and designed it. The city. telephone/data cabling. The local government will be granting you permission for water and sewer connections. It is possible that you will have multiple general contractors working on different phases of your project. We are almost done defining your typical project team.TYPICAL PROJECT ORGANIZATION If you examine the construction project organization chart on the previous page you will discover that there will be over fifty different groups you will have to work with in order to successfully complete your project. Your bonding and banking agents can also overpower you with paper work and legal jargon. and building).

Do I have time to talk to all of these people? 2. then you can expect to be directly involved with over fifty new faces and organizations. If you had decided to perform the role of construction manager yourself. you need to ration your involvement. Return to Table of Contents 1-22 . Ask yourself the following questions: 1.Do I have the expertise to competently discuss issues with these people.And last.In the face of all of these new demands on your limited. and understand what they say? 3. Generally Physical Plant is not heavily involved until the turnover phase. Purchasing on the other hand has been involved from the beginning and will be very active at the end when furniture and support materials are being obtained. so you can make the maximum impact on the project. but not least are the support departments on your campus.

value engineering estimates. changes. and site plans based on customer needs. 6. and take corrective action to meet due dates. and post occupancy inspections. monitor progress. Coordinate project completion. 3. 2. 7. 5. and principles of design. and government agencies. scope of work. contractors. 4. Establish a facility needs assessment based on master planning mission related requirements. Review project schedules. Maintain project information including submittals. Identify funding sources and create strategy for raising funds. Create preliminary project budgets. and negotiate costs with contractors. Review project plans and specifications for accuracy and administrative requirements of the customer. 8.Managing Capital Construction General Objectives: These ten objectives should be included in your management plan for your capital project: 1. applicable codes. Return to Table of Contents 1-23 . and close out records. commissioning of facilities. designers. Apply leadership skills to manage diverse teams comprised of customers. Utilize the resources of the WEB to enhance productivity in project management operations. Create change order estimates. 9. 10. schematic layouts.

d. 1-24 . PROJECT PLANNING a.Managing Capital Construction Knowledge Test: If you can perform all of the tasks and understand all of the following terminology then you are ready to manage a construction project. b. Identify sources of funding for various projects. MASTER PLANNING a. e. colleges. f. Calculate net and gross square footage for various projects. Make master plan level site layouts for various communities (towns. Be able to convert net square foot facility requirements into gross square foot scope. local government). c. Perform a self-analysis of management traits and evaluate the impact on project teams. Create space relationship diagrams. Define the differences between master planning and project planning. d. airports) b. Adjust cost estimates for site location and inflation. Be able to use Means Costworks to create approximate estimates for various facilities. and renovations. d. 2. c. c. Perform cost comparison analysis to determine the most cost effective facility construction/renovation options. Identify sources of information related to master planning. Be able to conduct customer interviews to determine scope of work and make a space program data sheet. Improve listening skills and practice giving clear concise directions. (commercial. military bases. military. e. 3. educational. deficits. Perform a facility needs assessment by evaluating assets. Tailor Program Matrix form for specific projects and be able to perform an interview to obtain data to complete the Program Matrix form. PROGRAM BUDGET ESTIMATES a. commercial. sites. 1. b.

ordinances. hallways) vi. Identify the modular elements in the program requirements. 5. Create room layout diagrams for three levels of planning. Egress needs (exits. estimates. and Room Layouts). Occupancy allowed v. a. Make a Project Budget Summary sheet. Type of construction iii. Understand the need for building codes and their uses. (Master Plan. describing facility project planning methodology. which will dictate the configuration of the building floor plan. travel distance. b. BUILDING CODES a. c. c. Locate published sources of designers. and sites where owners can post potential projects. Write a business letter to a client. DESIGN PROCESS Describe the three phases of design in terms of plans. PROJECT COST ESTIMATES a. Write a narrative project scope summary. b. Plumbing fixture needs. and management concerns. 6. b. Write a statement of work for a design contract. SCOPE OF WORK AND SPATIAL LAYOUTS a. Adjust budget estimates to local cost rates and inflation. 1-25 . d. and then develop appropriate net square foot dimensions for these modules. b. 7. Occupancy Classification ii. Be able to identify sources for applicable facility codes. Utilize appropriate facility codes to calculate: i. d. specifications. Create a planning level project schedule for design and construction based standard curves. Schematic Relationships. and property covenants. Building size and height limits iv. c.4.

Create a quality control check list for construction projects. Analyze designer fee proposal and create negotiation strategy. Calculate the critical path in a network schedule. Find reference material for submittal reviews. b. b. f. Be able to write a typical CSI format specification section. Create a Pre-Construction meeting agenda from contract documents. Be aware of the duties of a construction project manager. 12. 8. Identify the most common causes of construction fatalities. Create an addendum for bidding. e. b. Create submittal log for construction phase. Create detailed time schedule from planning through final work completion. c. Establish a design fee estimate. d. c. c. Define the contract limits of designer liability for design. g. 10.e. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION a. Describe the CSI format for specifications and plans. e. 1-26 . Perform a designer selection rating. Describe the AE selection process for public and private work. d. b. f. Perform constructability review of project plans. d. 9. Define reimbursable design costs. b. PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS a. c. Document results of fee negotiations. Describe the elements of the contract document. Be familiar with the contents of General Conditions and Supplementary Conditions. Perform and construction bid analysis 11. PRECONSTRUCTION a. CONTRACT AWARD PROCESS a. Be able to verify insurance and bonding coverage requirements. Describe six methods of establishing a price for design work. DESIGNER SELECTION & FEES a. d.

Be familiar with the General Conditions related to change orders. WARRANTY a. Create and maintain a change order log. d. 14. Select the appropriate scheduling technique for construction work. Conduct a project close out.c. Be able to organize project information into a logical filing system. f. e. Verify accuracy of operation manuals and as built drawings. Analyze a change order proposal for validity and pricing. Return to Table of Contents 1-27 . b. Establish systems start up training schedule for maintenance department. CHANGE ORDERS a. 13. b.

Status of Changes ( $ and Time) b. As a guide for the less experienced managers of capital construction. Every time estimate given is too short for reality. able to do. Status of Work Progress ( Meet deadlines) c. Don’t neglect interior design. b. a. Never share with the architect. Don’t design something the local contractors have never seen. or are not. 4. today is the day you will need at the end of the project.2. Managing Capital Construction 1. c. or at least one that does not consume your reputation as an effective manager: First is a list of things to keep in mind so you won’t loose your mind. and know them well. i. who always work at peak productivity. i. Even your own employees will give away strategic information that will come back to haunt you. The weatherman is always wrong. Make sure you have a good team with clear goals and a united front. small details yield spectacular results. 2. Color boards with full sized samples 3. d. Make your CM tell you about project status in a logical format weekly. ii. a. c. 5. so plan accordingly. Match the ability of the Architect/Engineer with the ability of the contractors who will bid the job. but also retain an air of authority. so plan accordingly. Digital mockups ii. the contractor or any outside person what you are. so do it today. Most of the rules are based on the “school” of experience (usually bad experience). Keep the pressure up. Every cost estimate is too little for reality. b. Know what you are building and how it fits your strategic plan and your mission. and workers are not robots. Never let them think you have either more time or more money or more flexibility than you have already told them. Issues to resolve 2-1 . Show personal knowledge and interest in the project. the two following compendiums are provided for your use as a starting point in your quest for the perfect project. delivery truck drivers always get lost with critical material. Don’t go into a project under funded with respect to cash or time. Good architects are worth every penny. VICE PRESIDENT’S RULES OF THUMB FOR PROJECTS There are as many rules of thumb for construction projects as there are thumbs. a.

Add 15% to the total program estimate and then don’t tell ANYONE it’s there. SELECTING GENERAL CONTRACTORS. Design (for 30. Construction i.F. ii.) iv. Regional presence. search the web). a. Who is really going to design the project (not the principals normally)? 6. a.). a. Are they “likable?” b. Create a bidding pool of five bidders (someone always drops out). Ask another VP in your peer group what they have done. For 30. Keep the look and feel of the finishes (use alternate materials. Reputation for quality work (without lawyers). TIME: a. Do your personalities fit? c. Top management concerned about your project (not a faceless corporation far away). Italian marble. Superintendent. and Admin. Renovation Projects = 10 –12% b. go visit other campuses. TOTAL BUDGET: a. building allow 12 months including weather. What are their fees and costs? f.Rules of Thumb for Vice Presidents To Manage Successful Capital Construction Projects 1. Find a style of building you like (ask the Dean of the college. Big enough to have support staff (Project Manager. 7. etc. How important is your project to their firm? d. QUALITY/COST: Where to reduce cost in the project. 3. Allow for special items with long lead delivery times (odd shape windows. 2-2 . Fritz tile not terrazzo). 4. Hire a cost consultant to check over design and detailing. 2. b.000 square foot building allow 9 months) b. b. DETERMINING WHAT YOU WANT THE BUILDING TO LOOK LIKE.g. iii. DESIGN FEES: a. CHOOSING THE DESIGNER a. e.000 S. ii. i. e. c. How close are they to your site? (not too close). elevators. New Construction = 8% plus interior design 5. Start with items you can’t see (MEP).

See the web page for sources. Hire a master planning consultant to get you through the Programming phase. b. 10. Discuss value engineering ideas with only the apparent low bidder. 9. Don’t make yourself the point of contact for construction matters. b. WHAT TO DO IF YOU ARE TOO CONFUSED TO ACT RATIONALLY ON ALL OF THIS INFORMATION? a. (Cost 3-5% of construction value). CHANGE ORDER: a. Renovations = 10%. c. STAFFING a. Open bids privately c. You need to have space and time to make decisions. unless there are two equally low bids (final prices with competition).b. Hire a program/construction manager to guide you through the design and construction phases. 8. b. New Construction = 3%. Return to Table of Contents 2-3 .

Failure to insure that all required testing is accomplished. Failure to ensure that contract documents such as Performance & Payment Bonds. nor will you know what the required test results should be.  When a workman is killed or injured on your site the lawyers look for the party with the “deep pockets” to sue.3. 8. Workman’s Compensation Insurance. 4. when everything is done after the fact. Neglect to visit the job site regarding safety and quality of work. which is usually the owner.  Value engineering after the bids are submitted results in pennies being saved on the dollar value of the revised work. including anticipated delays in completion. ELEVEN WAYS THE CONSTRUCTION MANAGER CAN DESTROY A PROJECT Your construction manager is the front line management representative protecting your interests on this capital construction project. 6. Failure to review the plans and specifications prior to issuing request for bids. so don’t waste this crucial resource early in the project be letting everyone slip due dates for submittals and requests for information. and the safety of the campus environment. Builders Risk Insurance. and become harder to resolve due to facts fading and contractor claims becoming dogmatic. 3. Late response to contractor inquires and submissions requiring approval. Ignore situations. Failure to identify and expedite long lead time material and equipment.  Without a testing submittal plan. 5. grow bigger. and cost increases. which could result in contractor claims.  Time does not heal issues. 2. Failure to keep the boss and customers apprised of the status of construction. Failure to maintain accurate control over change orders. 7. 9. and Contracts are properly executed before work starts.  Work being done without authorization (or funding). or schedules being stretched with extended overhead costs undocumented. He or she can easily destroy your chances of a successful project by failing in any one of the following management duties: 1. 3-1 . problems just fester. you won’t even know what tests to look for.  Time is something you cannot buy more of at the end of the project when deadlines are due.  Normal schedules are impossible to meet with unusual material requirements.  No reaction time or options available for the boss.or material substitutions being made without technical evaluation.  No one else visits the work daily with your focused interest on long term work quality.

11.  Don’t overlook the user concerns such as Keys. Final punch list completion. Finishing the last 5% of the work takes 80% of the Project Manager’s energy. Spare Parts. when the work stops. Insufficient attention to detail when closing out the contract. and Warrantee contacts). it may not be possible to overcome all of the defects during the final punch list inspections made during the last few days of work.  Like a circus leaving town. Failure to promptly review and forward contractor payment requests. then the whole contracting financial house of cards can crash on your head. and bonding companies eventually finish the project. the contractors move on to other projects. Operating Manuals.  Contractors operate on a very tight financial basis with just-in-time cash flow to subs and material suppliers. Return to Table of Contents 3-2 . On poorly managed projects with inadequate quality control during construction. and their crews rapidly leave the worksite.10. Maintenance Training. If they don’t get paid promptly.

Contractors/Designers: We are responsible for facilitating construction work to be done on time. and Courteous 2. and quality are the primary issues to be managed to provide the most effective use of our resources. Cooperative. Fair. and Prompt. cost. 3. MISSION The Construction Management Department provides management and administration of the design and construction of new facilities and major alterations to existing facilities for Elon University. SERVICE TO OTHERS • Proactive not reactive (look for solutions before there are problems) • “WE” not “them” (There is no “them” in our department) • Efficient. • Sense of urgency. complete tasks with appropriate level of urgency. Subcontractors/Suppliers: We must maintain a positive working relationship with subcontractors and suppliers similar to our relationship with prime contractors. • What do we do well? 4-1 . We must be responsive to their problems. all of our dealings with subcontractors and suppliers must be through the prime contractor. Responsive. Our attitudes toward them are the most important in forming productive working relationships and insuring the success of the project. Reasonable. Customers: We exist to serve our customers. timely delivery of projects within budget and as specified quality. on budget. CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT GUIDING PRINCIPLES Your construction department needs to have a solid foundation to build all of the project forms and procedures upon.4. Time. If they follow the Guiding Principles then the minute details will not be a struggle to achieve. and with good quality through the efforts of construction contractors and designers. and good contract administration procedures we will go the extra mile to satisfy our customers’ needs. 2. Curiosity and honesty are the key characteristics of everyone in the department. However. sound engineering principles. Specifically we will be:  Accommodating. Within the constraints of funding. Guiding Principles 1. Firm. Our relationship will be characterized as:  Objective. The Mission and Guiding Principles can then be further defined as a set of Construction Department Management Guidelines 1.

If customers are told to call the office: • Be sure that customer service attitudes are exhibited during every encounter.. Schedule summer work carefully to insure success of fall opening day.. 8.. 10. Quality is attained through training and supervisor’s attention to detail. • Give the boss lead-time to make a decision. 11.. 4. knowledgeable service just happens. Walk around and see the work. Go see our work. solve personality issues so only the facts are left to discuss. Be sure your staff understands the hot items. Don’t fix something partially twice. • Follow-up as needed. quality.make lists. get the information out ASAP. The boss should not be given raw data that you have not reviewed. • Don’t get consumed with the mountain of minor daily tasks and lose sight of the long-term goals. • Use quality assurance not damage control. • Do project scope and planning early. • Dealing with customers and coworkers. • Establish new completion date if possible.do it right once. Give yourself time to THINK. Tell the boss if there is a big change in the plans: • Cost. 5. leadership) Who does what and why? Honesty is more than being truthful: • Full attention to work during working hours.do it! • If you can’t perform. 13. • Utility or facility disruptions. which impact their operations. Allow time at the end for changes.. • Don’t assume friendly. 6.. 7. Return to Table of Contents • • • • 4-2 . courteous. timing. When you promise to do something. Talk to our customers both staff and students. 14. Temporary patches last forever and look it. 9. • Don’t wait for the perfect status report. 12. • Use late afternoon Fridays to quickly reflect on past week and next week’s goals with the staff.. equipment.. which allows time for options to be chosen.What can we improve? Are we taking care of our people? (Training. Don’t hide from customers. 3.. Tell customers about: • Scope of projects and status of their requests to make changes. then feed back to customer reason for change.

5.  Obtain funds in a timely manner 3. • Look for potential accidents affecting off site personnel. etc. RFI. Routinely inspect jobs for safety and quality. designers via: • Preconstruction conference • Daily contacts with field supervisors • Project status meetings (changes pending. • Safety and Quality Control plans – review for critical items.  Document reasonableness of changes (both price and time extensions).5. funding. samples – review for compliance with owner’s requirements. submittals. CONSTRUCTION PROJECT MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIES Every capital project manager must be able to perform the following tasks 1. Notify the boss of situations involving: • Accidents • Utility outages • Construction quality deficiencies • Potential change orders involving time or money • Situations involving reprimand or censure • Any controversial matters (crime.). • Shop drawings. Keep the projects moving. Negotiate change orders and write recommendation letters. • Schedule of values – review for accuracy and no front end loading. 2. schedule status) • Project completion and turnover (punch list completion. ensure compliance with contract requirements for training. time)  Keep pressure on contractor and designer to act promptly.e. Authorize field changes not to exceed $xxx (dollar limit set by your boss)  Document your action. • Monthly invoices – review for acceptance after designer certifies. record drawings. warrantee. Review the following submittals: • Plans and specifications – review for accuracy and possible changes. Document contract actions such as directions to contractors or clarifications for designers. Maintain status of change orders.  Verbal directions must always be confirmed in writing.  Delays cost money and don’t add value to the project. • Progress schedules – review for owner actions and update progress. Coordinate activities of customer. 6. action pending. arguments) 5-1 . (i. contractors. 7. 9. • Look for compliance with change order work. estimates. 4. 8.

engineers. Coordinate and insure effective performance of the many people and organizations involved in the construction of a new facility or modifications to existing facilities. Review technical contract documents and insure compliance during construction. 2. Finance. contractors. DUTIES: 1. Maintain liaison with appropriate state and local agencies with respect to project approvals and construction inspections. Professional registration in North Carolina is required. Interpret construction plans and specifications and assign responsibility when conflicts arise. maintainable and of a high quality. renovation. Establish and implement a building startup program for each project to ensure an orderly turn over of facilities from the contractor to the university. and Technology SCOPE: Under the broad policy. 9. Coordinate owner provided items such as furnishings and equipment. Any other duties that may be assigned. 4. and new construction projects is required. 6. 3. Return to Table of Contents 5-2 . Analyze construction plans to insure that the facility will be completely functional. or Business is required. job superintendents. 5. QUALIFICATIONS: 1. Finance. Engineering. and guidance of the Vice President for Business.The following is an example of a position description for the director of construction management. 4. government agencies and university officials including representatives of the many departments involved with the projects. professional and contractor personnel essential. Bachelor’s degree (Master’s preferred) in Construction Management. Monitor change orders and make technical and fiscal recommendations. This includes obtaining cooperation of the architects. 2. and Technology the Director of Construction manages and administers the design and construction of new facilities and major alterations to existing facilities for the university. Review and approve progress schedules and progress reports. Five years or more of professional experience in managing multiple/diverse design. 3. 7. 8. ELON UNIVERSITY POSITION DESCRIPTION TITLE: Director of Construction SUPERVISOR: Vice President for Business. A high degree of maturity and ability to negotiate with a wide range of executive. Architecture.

usually 3) Select (evaluate the candidates. 3. How to select an architect? What design services are needed? How much will the design cost? How long will it take to finish the design and bid the work? Selection of designers is Not based on competitive bidding because: 1. but most follow the established path.) Once you have identified your service needs. Since public safety is the paramount concern. The designer needs to be the owner’s representative and cannot adequately perform if there is a buyer-seller relationship. negotiate the fee) A written design contract statement of work will allow you to proceed with the design phase quicker. the best-qualified designer is needed. For Federal (and many state) projects Public Law 92-582 (Brooks Act) exempts design work from competitive bid procedures for the reasons stated above. (SEE DESIGN CONTRACT STATEMENT OF WORK. 2. 6-1 . TYPICAL ARCHITECTURAL SCOPE OF SERVICES At this stage of your project you have more questions than answers: 1. because you will have a clearer vision of your design service needs before meeting with the potential architects. 2. not the cheapest. 3. When selecting a designer a four-step process is followed: 1. 2. 4. the next step is to actually choose an architect. and the weight assigned are agreed to by the selection panel in advance of any meeting with the designers. and logically choose one) Negotiate (after choosing the best qualified firm. These evaluation factors. so the fairest method is to create a rating factor analysis. 4. Many factors will be used to make this decision. based on interviews. 3. The scope of work is not defined well enough by the owner to get competitive bids from other designers. Advertise (formally or informally) Slate (create a list of potential designers.6. Privately funded institutions can create any process that they choose to follow.

References 3. The principal designer has a PhD in design and has won design prizes for office design work with her prior employer. They are very busy now and cannot start this work for 5 months. How many drawings are needed to define the major elements of the work: a. Grande has offices in five states with a branch office in Richmond. Architectural b. 2. You can quantify: 1. Acme has never done health work. Now it is time to discuss fees. Do they listen to your needs 4. The principal designer is known for her strong design opinions and does not like being told what to do. Do you “like” them 5. You must clearly understand the cost factors in terms of which ones are EASILY quantifiable and which are not. renderings. and their reimbursable costs. Ajax has a ten-person office 50 miles away and has done health centers for other clients. They have never done work for you before. Structural 6-2 . Design fee negotiation preparation is 90% of the negotiation. 2. The number of progress meeting site visits. etc. but not the final quantity. based on the proposed scope: 1. They are young and very eager to do this job. Qualifications of those will actually perform the design Weight Assigned 30 10 10 25 25 100 Score (1-5) Weighted Score Total Score: For example the following profiles possible for your new Health Center project: 1. The hourly billable costs for designer time You can make educated estimates of design time needed. The local office will do site inspections. but the mechanical/electrical division is in New York. The home office in Iowa has a full division of health designers for hospitals and research labs. but is located in your town. The Richmond office has two employees who have not done health care work before. The firm started in 2000 and has two employees. but not design. 3. Their other clients think that they are very conscientious and they visit the work sites frequently with rapid follow up on any problems. The need for models. The unit cost for printing plans and specs. The principal designer is usually working on larger projects so the junior staff designer will be assigned to your work. Firm’s prior experience this type of work 2.Designer Rating Table for Designer_______ Rating Factor 1. 4. 3. You have narrowed the field of possible designers down to the one you want.

b. 1. benefits and OHP. Landscape. 2. Value of work based methods: a. Hourly billing for each designer (includes salaries. Pricing methods are all fundamentally related to the amount of time the designer must spend to complete the project. 2. Stipulated lump sum. Sample calculation (SEE SAMPLE FEE NEGOTIATION ANALYSIS). Units. iii.) i. overhead and a lump sum profit. 6-3 . Time based methods: a. and Structural. f. (see R.c. Plumbing. governmental) 3. which includes salaries. Estimate time to perform tasks in statement of work (SEE TYPICAL ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES). Professional fee plus expenses. Weather conditions. (8 to 12% of construction plus reimbursables) c. Electrical 2. It becomes more complicated to determine costs because the designer does not normally do all of the work in house. Square footage times a price factor ($/sf).) There are numerous estimating guides that contain data on the probable duration of both the design and construction phases based on the following factors: 1. Degree of difficulty of the project. Mechanical.S. Royalties (designer shares in owner’s profit/income from the project). Means Engineering Fee rates 028-0010. (what the market will allow) c. How many meetings are expected with the owner? There are many methods of determining the design fee for a project. b. ii. Multiply consultant’s bills by a percentage representing designers OHP expenses. e. and then applying a percentage fee. These can be estimated by calculating construction value of this sub work. Calculate hourly cost rates (SEE DESIGNER BILLABLE RATES). Administrative process used by owner (private vs. (number of units times a price factor ($/unit). d. Estimated construction cost multiplied by a percentage. How many hours are needed to make each drawing? 3. Multiple of direct designer expenses (direct salaries are multiplied by a factor covering benefits and OPH). There will be subcontracts for MEP.

such as rework. but no guarantee is made for a perfect design.A representative sample of time and cost is shown below: SCHEMATIC DESIGN TIME (weeks) Simple Project Construction Value (Millions $) Under 1 5 10 Complex Project 2 3 4 DD to FINAL DESIGN TIME (weeks) Simple Project 3 4 5 Construction Value (millions $) Under 1 5 10 Complex Project 16 32 48 CONSTRUCTION TIME (weeks) Simple Project 20 36 60 Construction Value (millions $) Under 1 5 10 25 40 Complex Project 20 48 60 76 84 32 60 74 96 104 The final thought regarding designers is that they are not perfect. so why should you get it for free now? 2. If there were any additional costs incurred because of this error. If the error had been correctly presented in the original design. The 6-4 . The design contract fine print states that the architect will exercise due care and attain “industry” standards of accuracy. It is reasonable to expect 1 to 3% of the construction cost will be for change orders. You did not pay for the work in the bid. or delay. the cost would have been in the bid. then apply the following principles: 1. then you would not have had to pay for them in the original bid. Your design will contain errors and omissions that will cost you more money during construction. though some of them think they are. If you have a situation where you believe that there is a likelihood of design liability.

Be sure to have the designer participate in the change negotiation with the contractor to avoid accusation that you did not get the best price. not the designer. so you must pay the contractor. 3. 6-5 . Then you try to get your money back from the designer.designer should be liable for the extra costs above the value of the missing or incorrect work. The contractor has a contract with you. (Sometimes the architect will resolve changes directly with the contractor. but you need to be sure that no quality degradation occurs).

Size of project 1. (SF. renovation. Construction contract award date v. addition) iii. Furnishing & equipment design b. Address of site. small business only ii. Construction Budgets 1. Construction Documents iii. number of work stations (offices. Outline format for Statement of Work for Design. Scope of Work i. conceptual design. complete design). Type of work to build 1. Site survey 2. cost plus fixed fee iii. negotiate fixed price 2. Schematic 2. limited. a. Design service desired 1. Method of Contracting for Construction i. Construction by owner 6-6 . v. This will speed up the design selection process and help you focus on the essential services required. (Planning. Occupancy date c. Time Schedule Submission Requirements i. company name.Design Contract Statement Of Work Before you search for an architect. (New construction. 1. Telephone/data system design 4. Funds available 2. pre-qualified bidders 3. Start of construction date vi. iv. AE contract award date ii. Redesign requirements to meet budgets vi. Pre-selected contactor 1. Soil borings 3. Design Development 3. be sure to develop a reasonable scope of services you need. ii. Design submittals dates 1. open bid list 2. Location of project 1. Competitive Bid 1. Additional design services 1. number of occupants (staff and customers). special rooms). Solicitation of bid date iv.

Erosion permits 4. At least three equal products 5. Life cycle estimates ii. Quantity needed with each design submission for review 3. Review and approval of contractor shop drawings. Site visits 4. Planning/Zoning Board (water & sewer connection) 2. Specifications 1. no brand names allowed in spec. Design development 3. Local permit applications 1. Review of value engineering proposals f. Inspections a. Quantity for bidders e. Additional project services i. Highway crossing permits 5. Final. Schematic 2. catalog cuts. Construction documents 4. Punch List. Size of plans (full or half) 2. Performance 6. Construction documents g. 2. Referenced commercial standards ii. Contract administration ii. Cost estimates i. Schematic 2. samples. Generic. Keep minutes of progress meetings 3. 3. Hourly rates for staff and principals 6-7 . Change order technical support and cost review 6. Lump sums (with percent complete progress payments) 1. Design development 3. Other services 1. 5. CSI (Construction Specification Institute) format 2. Periodic. Design estimates 1. Construction services 1. Notification of additional power demand ii. Specifications and Drawings i. Payment schedule i. Proprietary items allowed 4. Code Officials review meeting 3.d. Drawings 1.

000 + $20. 52 week year = $16.000.83= 3. Clerical. ii.) b. Non billable (training.) 3. telephone. Cost salary rate 1. Profit varies. Now you see why the design fee schedule looks excessive. The following example will demonstrate how the rates are usually derived. a. Overhead a.000 + $1100)/1109 = $50.83/hr 3. Anything missing from this calculation? ii. 1. your first reaction is to think that you are being taken for a ride by the designer. Salary = $35. Total billable hours per year = 1109 (1109/2080=53% efficiency) 8. Total work hours = 40 hr/wk x 52 wk=2080 hr 2. electricity. accounting. Holidays 8 x 8= 64 hr 4. (includes 25 % payroll taxes. = 10 to 20 % of (salary + overhead) 4.58/hr e. When you hear that the cost will be $150/hour.Designer Billable Rates Before you attempt to negotiate the design fee for your project.) hours 40% of net=739 hr 7. membership dues.000 b. etc. Still have to recoup overhead and profit. Example: a. 40 hour week. Total billing rate 1. Billing salary rate 1. Sick time 6 x 8= 48 hr 5. Hourly cost rates for designers. Overhead = $20. pension. when the professional rates are $150/hr and you know they don’t actually pay an architect at that rate. (Salary + overhead + profit)/billable hours 2. Profit =($35k + $20k) x 20% = $1100 d. Note: $50.000/1109=$31.01 times the cost salary rate. iii. mailroom. Add up the actual costs (varies up to 2 times salary rate. Designer billing rate $35. Designer salary $35. insurance) 2.58/16. Everyone not directly billing to the project. 6-8 . i. ($35. etc. Net hours available for billing= 1848 hr 6.000 (per audit) c.56/hr 9. copier. Example: i. Vacation 3 weeks = 120 hr 3. Business expenses (insurance. office rental. it is important to understand how the architects create their hourly billable labor rates. etc. cars.

The following list is useful during your negotiation of the fee. cost estimate P6.prelim. since it allows you to see where the costs are and how many hours of effort are expected for each.administration D2.promotion P8.exist.masterplanning P4.other Subtotal SCHEMATIC DESIGN S1. facilities survey P5.design S3.site selection P7.design D3.drafting S4. PROJECT #: PROJECT NAME: ESTIMATE D Total hours Phase / task Staff (Professional nonProfessional) Billable Rate $/hr Total cost PRE-DESIGN P1.administration P2.programming P3.administration S2.presentation P9.cost estimate S6-presentations S7-other Subtotal DESIGN DEVELOPMENT D1.field survey S5.Typical Architectural Services Your architect can provide a multitude of services from pre-design through final contract administration.drafting 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6-9 .

D8.change orders A6.working drawings/ design C5.other Subtotal CONSTRUCTION DOCS.administration A2.record drawings A4.field survey D5.close-out A7.shop drawing review A3.consultant coord. C8.D4.outline specifications D7.quality control C9.cost estimate D6. C1.prebid administration B2.administration C2.other Subtotal phase / task BIDDING / NEGOTIATION B1. A1.specifications C7.change in scope C3.cost estimate C6.postbid administration B6.presentation D9.consultant coord.working drawings/ drafting C4.coordination 0 staff rate 0 hours 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 cost 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6-10 .other Subtotal CONSTRUCTION ADMIN.addenda B9.observation A5.

extended admin. Soil borings $2000 iv.000 to provide complete design services for the 5000 SF Health Center ( construction cost estimated at $600.A8. X6.renderings / models X3. Design cost $122.other Subtotal ADDITIONAL SERVICES X1. Travel $8000 (36 trips at $222 each) iii. Means is $93. Remember that you expect to spend about 8% to 10% of construction cost in design fees plus reimbursables such as travel and reproduction of the plans. Reimbursables $20. Sample Fee Negotiation Analysis 1.other Subtotal TOTALS SUMMARY Total Fee: Engineering Consultants: Total Design FEE: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $$$- Now that you know what design services you want and how many hours of design effort are needed.000 b. Your prospective designer has submitted a proposal for $142.. What two questions do you ask her? c. Your designer then provided the following information: a.000 i. you are ready to negotiate a fee. Time spent at progress meetings $6000 (36 x 2hr = $83/hr) 6-11 .S.administration X2. ANS: i.000). Provide details of fee breakdown (reimbursables and design).exist.000 b.drafting X4. building survey X5. Your fee estimate from R. Printing $4000 (P&S 40 sets at $100 each) ii. 2. What is included in the fee? ii. a.

What questions do you ask about the consultants? f. MEP design is a lump sum with no details of hours. ANS: i. 2.060 1180 hrs Your Estimate 9 45 133 355 22 300 $12. ii. 3. MEP work should be $128. ANS: i. ii. What is included in the Contract Admin (site visits too many). Breakout their costs/hourly rates. e. What questions do you ask about reimbursables? d. How many hours are expected for the design effort? ii. Your designer then submitted the following data: a. iii. What is included in schematic seems high. ANS: i. What is the hourly billing rate? 3. ANS: i. 4. Printing seems high for five bidders. Total hours 1180 x $83/hr = $97. ANS: i. What is included in pre-design seems high.940 + $24060 = $122. What design percentage would you use to design it? 6-12 . What questions do you ask? c. ii. DESIGN PHASE TOTAL HOURS EFFORT (cost) Pre-design 55 Schematic 85 Design Development DD 140 Construction Docs CD 360 Bid 40 Contract Admin 500 Consultants $24. d. What is their fee as a % of construction. c. What work are consultants performing. Meetings are not reimbursable.000. b. What is the value of the MEP construction.000 and MEP is 20%: i. Your designer has submitted the following information: a. What questions do you ask about the design cost? f. Soil borings are not reimbursable. What is your position on each question? 1. 4. ii. What questions do you ask about each phase? (What is your position on each question?) d. e. Why 36 trips (biweekly meetings for 8 months = 16).c. Assuming the total construction cost is $640.000 design cost.000 864 hrs b.

000 = $6.000. 4. Write a brief one page letter to your boss explaining. 5. The total proposed fee cost. i. a. Use RS Means Unit Costs 028 0010 (Reference 010-030 engineering fees for simple structure) 2.73% x $128. Your total fee estimate. b. c. Which items you negotiated to arrive at the agreed fee. Use the question and answers from above. Your total recommended feed after negotiations. Return to Table of Contents 6-13 .1. d.

which may apply in planning a project. Potential solutions to solving the problems defined in goals. adequacy evaluation report. What does the client want to achieve? 2. These should be broad general requirements to set the direction for the program. then you will be aimlessly wandering all over the place and never reach a logical. Remember the Arizona businessman who bought the London Bridge. PROJECT FACILITY PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS SUMMARY SHEET Since the planning process establishes the basic customer desires for the new facility. or calculations.G. Developing planning data involves the collective action of the user groups. and facts.7. Misunderstandings at this stage are easy to correct. EX: Existing health center SF. which are not obvious unless all elements are considered. Maybe sketches. EX: Build additional 2000 SF. the following matrix of program data has been developed to summarize project program issues. Typical topics. but become very expensive after construction starts. Architectural Programming and Pre-design Manager. affordable facility program definition. Utilizing the process and principles described by R. 7-1 . Definitions for Programming Matrix Data fields ELEMENTS: 1. FACTS/CRITERIA: 1. and building codes) that apply to each ELEMENT? 2. vice presidents of the school. which are used to define the facility needs. 2. Not a big deal until the wrong bridge was reassembled in the Arizona desert. SOLUTIONS/ OPTIONS: 1. EX: Bigger health center for 5000 patients. 3. Containment of fanciful requirements and a firm focus on maintaining the budget will be probably the responsibility of the Vice President for Business or the Provost. Client may have specific ideas that may conflict with criteria. GOALS/NEEDS: 1. and possibly a planning consultant. What are the facts/criteria (existing conditions. If you don’t ask the right questions and synthesize the information into meaningful facility needs. 3. but did not realize that the monumental lift bridge he wanted was actually the Tower Bridge. (not all apply every time) 2. Hershberger in his book. it is essential that all aspects of the project be evaluated.

topography) b. Political (zoning. Context (off site traffic patterns. native designs) b. FLEXIBILITY: a. planning boards) d. light glare) e. Change (flexible for changes GOALS / NEEDS FACTS/ CRITERIA SOLUTIONS/ OPTIONS 7-2 . Physical (client age. fast track/modular) 5. CULTURAL: a. Legal (building/fire codes) 4. air. Materials (client wants specific material used: brick/ adobe) b. Function (what is purpose of space) b. sun angle) c.Facility Program Matrix ELEMENTS 1. Systems (Mech/Electric systems. ENVIRONMENTAL a.. light types) c. Historical (historic districts. HUMAN: a. Waste (trash. Process (time available. Site (views. other building shadows) d. Growth (need for future expansion?) b. Climate (temperature. fuel. Physiological heat sensitive elderly. Resources (available water. ceiling styles. children/ elderly. Institutional (purpose of space. ADA) d. TECHNICAL: a. building materials) e. sewer) 3. Social (how do work groups interact) c. prison. hospital) c. create feelings of calm/energy??) 2. Psychological (colors.

Construction (establish realistic budget) d. Energy (cost of energy) AESTHETIC: b. Criminal (lighting. Maintenance (replacement cycle for… roof. Select the relevant ones or modify titles to suit specific project descriptions. while Facts/Criteria will probably be non- 7-3 . Finance (feasibility? commercial market assessment) c. Chemical (on or off site pollution) d. power. Fire (special needs) c. Space (open plan. Structural (stable won’t fall down. 8. shape) c... NOTE: Every ELEMENT is not applicable to each project. The matrix approach is best implemented with large wall areas using hand written notes posted by column. HVAC) f. The Goals/Needs should be developed very carefully because they will drive the design. or cubicles) d. Permanence (long life or short) ECONOMIC: b.ELEMENTS in use) c. Focus groups can then “see” the data and make adjustments more easily. Form (what it looks like. special equipment needed) b. Using an impartial outside moderator may be the most efficient technique to perform these programming meetings. friendly. 7. Meaning (image to community.. Operations (staffing cost impact) e. prisoner control) OTHER GOALS / NEEDS FACTS/ CRITERIA SOLUTIONS/ OPTIONS 6. color. 9. Personal (working space around equipment) e.) SAFETY: a.

Number of Occupants. Size LxW.controversial. Return to Table of Contents 7-4 . This document can be shared with the design team and customers. Special needs (finishes. or telephone/data. Additional columns can be added for other specific needs such as furnishings. style…). Enter all of your space needs into an Excel Spreadsheet with column headings for: Room Type. Adjacent to Room?. Discussions can rage on for weeks regarding site location and orientation of the new facility. AV. When it is time to discuss Solutions/Options there should be no negative judgments made during the brain storming session. Total SF.

Sound system. SPACE PERFORMANCE DATA SHEET After the broad programming goals are developed. specific requirements for each space need to be documented so the designer can incorporate these needs into the design. Acoustic levels. The Space Performance Data Sheet is also used by the owner representatives when making their design reviews to confirm that no critical requirements have been lost in the shuffle of design paperwork. Overhead data projector.g. access or views to other spaces) FINISHES: (cleanable. durable) Wall Ceiling Floor SPATIAL RELATIONSHIP: (Describe adjacency needs (bubble diagram or matrix) Usually separate attachment) OTHER Return to Table of Contents Teletorium Large meeting room with teleconferencing capability 3000 sf 300 in fixed seats Large screen TV. carpets Next to the lobby. oxygen pipes) CRITICAL FACTORS: (Special needs e. corporate looking. staff and visitors) EQUIPMENT (Special equipment e. breakout study rooms.g. 10 SF /person) OCCUPANCY: (Number of people e. and catering kitchen 8-1 . NAME OF ROOM: FUNCTION: NET AREA (SF) (Note criteria e.8.g. Microphone at each seat Light levels high enough for TV camera images of audience High quality surfaces.g.

but if the estimate is too low. then the owner will make unnecessary cuts in the program.). the project may not be buildable when the bids are evaluated. Either way it is going to be exiting on bid day. etc. It also has unit costs for typical construction elements. while others may be out of work and submit a very low bid to keep their workforce employed. Means. PROJECT BUDGET ESTIMATES Project approximate budget estimates are based on the total square footage to be constructed with cost factor adjustments for geographic location. Total Budget Formula $/SF x gross SF 10% of A 8% of A Approximate Estimate $ A+B+C 10% of D 3% of D 10% of D D+E+F+G+H As the design progresses the estimate will become more accurate. which can be used for small renovation estimates. roads) 5 – 25% of A C.S. environmental systems. Movable Equipment (5 – 25% of D) H. Facility Cost (gross square footage) B. If the designer presents an estimate that is too high. and site development.9. Design Fees (5 – 15% of D) F. equipment. The second form (SEE PROJECT BUDGET) includes a summary of all project costs from planning and design to moving and permits. but it will always just be the designer’s best guess. there are two other forms that are useful in documenting the assumptions made in the detailed project estimates. complexity of the design (height. telephone. The “market” will define what the project is really going to cost. These unit costs are available from a variety of estimating services such as R. and the required quality of the finishes. computer. The first form (SEE PROJECT ESTIMATE UNIT COSTS) provides a guide for estimating the furnishing. Total Construction E. Site Development (utilities. 9-1 . and moving expenses. Construction Contingency (3-10% of D) G. Fixed Equipment (built in not movable) 5 – 25% of A D. In addition to this summary budget form. Cost Estimate Elements (typical values shown) A. Note that there are contingency allowances for construction and telephone/data separate from the total project contingency allowance. Some bidders may be too busy and submit an inflated bid. Land Acquisition (use appraisal) I. The following table demonstrates how the estimated construction costs are marked up to include total project costs such as design. but not necessarily what it is worth.

00 100.00 6.00 50.50 1.00 200.80 LF SF $$- 3 3 3 3 3 w W1 W2 W3 W4 WALLS: SHEET ROCK WALLS 8' GWB SOFFIT GWB OVER CMU TOILET PARTITION NYLON 30.00 LF LF SF SF $$$$- I 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 D D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 DOORS: SOLID CORE DOOR EXISTING FRAME HOLLOW METAL DOOR FRAME 3X7 DOOR LOCKSET MORTISE LOCK CYLINDER ONLY W/PINS LCN DOOR CLOSURE PANIC HARDWARE 200.$ SUB TOT.00 19.Project Estimate Unit Costs GROUP 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 code# D D1 D2 D3 S S1 S2 S3 ITEM DEMOLITION: LABOR HOURLY COST REMOVE CARPET AND ACM REMOVE VCT ACM SITE: CONCRETE SIDEWALK 8' BRICK PAVER SIDEWALK 8' ASPHALT PAVEMENT 1" + 2" UNIT COST 25 4 2 UNITS # OF UNITS ITEM TOT.0 150.00 10.0 EA EA DOOR EA DOOR DOOR $$$$$$- 5 5 C C1 CEILING: 2X4 CEILING TILE 2.50 SF $- 9-2 .00 200.30 SF LF SF $$$- 2 Ff1 2 2 Ff2 Ff3 CARPET LEVEL LOOP GLUE DOWN 26 OZ.00 1. HR SF SF 4.00 1.00 SY $- 1. VINYL BASE VCT 12X12 20.

00 7.00 400.00 30.00 8.GROUP code# ITEM W/GRID UNIT COST UNITS # OF UNITS ITEM TOT.Office MECHANICAL: A/C SYSTEMS (400 sf/ton)` FAN COIL ONLY(PIPE EXTRA) HVAC CEILING GRILLES 100.00 SF LF LF LF $$$$- 7 7 EE EE1 7 7 7 EE2 EE3 EE4 ELECTRICAL: 2X4 LIGHT FIXTURE DEEP CELL PARABOLIC DUPLEX OUTLET RECESSED DOWN LIGHT FIRE ALARM Dormitory FIRE ALARM .00 EA EA EA EA $$- 8 8 8 8 M ME1 ME2 ME3 4000.00 100.00 DAY $- 0.00 150. 6 6 6 6 6 P P1 P2 P3 P4 PAINT: PAINT 2 COATS INSIDE LATEX PAINT 2 PIECE WOOD BASE PAINT CHAIR RAIL PAINT CROWN MOLD 2 COATS 3.$ SUB TOT.00 TON EA EA $$- 9 9 9 9 9 pl PL1 PL2 PL3 PL4 PLUMBING: NEW TANK TOILET NEW FLUSH VALVE TOILET NEW LAV W/ DELTA FAUCET NEW URINAL W/FLUSH VALVE 85.00 EA $- 9-3 .00 215.00 EA $- 50.70 EA $- 11 11 CF CF1 FURNISHING: CLASSROOM 120.00 130.00 5.00 EA EA EA EA 10 10 M M1 10 M2 MOVING: 5 MAN MOVING CREW W/ VAN TRUCK 2 CF BOOK BOXES 1000.

00 465.00 250.00 150.00 180.00 1100.00 EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA EA $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$- 12 12 12 xcpu XCPU1 XCPU2 COMPUTERS: COMPUTER W /MONITOR LASER JET PRINTER 5M (LAB) 1500.00 900. 11 CF2 EA 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 CF3 CF4 CF5 LF1 LF2 LF3 LF4 LF5 LF6 LF7 LF8 LF9 OF1 OF2 OF3 OF4 SF1 SF2 SF3 SF4 SF5 60.00 150.00 300.00 3000.00 325.00 EA EA $$- 13 13 13 13 13 t T1 T2 T3 T4 TELEPHONE/DATA: PHONE OUTLET + 100' WIRE DATA OUTLET + 100' WIRE INTERFACE DATA CONNECTION CABLE TV + 100' WIRE 180.00 EA EA EA EA $$$$- TOTAL 9-4 .00 415.00 310.00 325.00 200.$ $- SUB TOT.00 UNITS # OF UNITS ITEM TOT.00 310.00 550.00 90.00 90.GROUP code# ITEM TABLET ARM CHAIR CLASSROOM COMPUTER TASK CHAIR WHITE BOARD 3X4 WHITE BOARD 4X8 WHITE BOARD 4X20 LOUNGE CHAIR COUCH 3 SEAT COUCH 2 SEAT DINING CHAIR DINING TABLE 6' FRIDGE OVEN W/ HOOD DISHWASHER MICROWAVE OFFICE CHAIR OFFICE DESK 7' BOOK SHELF OFFICE FILE 4 DRAWER STUDENT DESK STUDENT DESK CHAIR STUDENT LOFT BED STUDENT SINGLE MATRESS STUDENT WARDROBE W/2 DRAWERS UNIT COST 150.00 315.00 364.00 70.00 225.00 240.00 225.

FURNISHING & EQUIPMENT FURNITURE ART $$- $$- 9-5 .Project Budget Summary ITEM ELEMENT BUDGET BUDGET SUB TOT $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$EST SUB + / ESTIMATE TOT. ENGINEERING SURVEYS BORINGS JOB TESTING $- $- $- 3. ABATEMENT SURVEY REMOVAL $- $- $- 4. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$- 1. TELEPHONE & DATA TELE OUTSIDE CABLE TELE EQ ROOM TELE INSIDE WIRING TELE INSTRUMENTS DATA OUTSIDE CABLE DATA EQ ROOM DATA INSIDE WIRING DATA INSTRUMENTS CABLE TV WIRING CONTINGENCY $- $- $- 6. CONSTRUCTION SITE CLEARING SITE DEVELOPMENT BUILDING BLDG CONTINGENCY PARKING LANDSCAPE $- $- $- 5. ARCHITECTURAL PLANNING DESIGN INTERIOR DESIGN LANDS DESIGN $- $- $- 2.

$$$$$$$$$$- 7. TOTAL Construction Mgmt. PHYSICAL LOCKS PLANT FIRE BOTTLES MINI BLINDS OTHER SHOP WORK $- $$$$$$ $- $- 10. CM 13. MOVING & STORAGE MOVE OUT STORAGE MOVE IN $$$$$$$$$- $- $$$$$$$$- $- $- 9. CONTINGENCY EXCLUDING BLDG 12. AUDIO VISUAL EQUIPMENT $- 8. PERMITS PERMITS OTHER $$$$$ $$$ $- $$$ $- $$$ $- 11.ITEM ELEMENT ACCESSORIES OFFICE EQUIPMENT COMPUTERS FOOD EQ DESIGN BUDGET BUDGET SUB TOT $$$& $$$$- EST SUB + / ESTIMATE TOT. Return to Table of Contents 9-6 .

Special Use Occupancy (chemical storage. There is a reoccurring theme in the codes. but it will establish a baseline for the formal building permit review. FACILITY BUILDING CODES In addition to the design parameters you have established for your new facility. which must be incorporated into the design. Use their own codes (NY. but they are going to err on the side of conservative interpretation to protect the public and avoid lawsuits for dereliction of duty. Illinois. set of minimum design requirements. that the code enforcement officer has the power to make interpretations of the code.) 2. fuel depot) 3. If your project does not comply with the applicable codes. noncombustible) 4. when the code inspector decides that your elevator sump pump is not connected to the correct drain pipes. it is possible that the final inspections will generate some controversy. or the thickness of the sheet metal at the fire dampers is too thin. etc. or include a fire sprinkler system in the building. or eliminate dead end passages. No model code at all. Most states use building codes based on one of following Model Codes: 1. Early in the design process. it is strongly recommended that you and the design team discuss the overall design concept with the code officials to elicit their concerns. Means of egress (stair size. length of hallways) 8. Combinations of the above codes 5. These inspectors are not malicious. there is another mandatory source of building criteria.10. MEP (number of fixtures. insulation thickness) 6. These “code” requirements may force you to include additional exit hallways. Uniform Building Code (west mainly) 3. which are intended to protect the public from unsafe or unhealthy facilities. etc. Every state has adopted a similar. but different. SBC – Standard Building Code (south mainly) 2. National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards – BOCA (northeast mainly) 4. sprinklers) 7. Even if you hired a special code consultant on the design team. then you will not obtain a building permit from the local government inspection department. Occupancy (assembly. This is not an “approval” of the design. housing. Fire protection systems (alarms. Types of Construction (combustible. Fire resistance of materials and construction 5. and you will definitely not get a Certificate of Occupancy from the Fire Marshall to use the facility. Accessibility (ADA) 10-1 . classroom.) Building codes cover the following general topics: 1. Every facet of the design is governed by these codes from fire ratings of material to the number of toilets for men and women. air flow.

8. (SEE SAMPLE CODE REVIEW. It’s a LAW. just because your mechanical designer in another state has misinterpreted the plumbing code. Some of these are: 1. As you have discovered after reading this section. National Electric Code (NEC) 4. Plumbing (BOCA. Some of these are: 1. American Society of Heating. but challenge their conclusions. there are a myriad of sometimes conflicting rules to follow when making your design. UMC) 3. For further enlightenment on this fascinating subject of code requirements see the attached sample code review procedure. Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) in lieu of local codes on Federal Projects. There is no need to add thousands of dollars for toilets you don’t need. which also govern your project. UPC) 2. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 3. Mechanical (BOCA. SPC. Be sure that the design team understands your local code practices. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Not a code. Fair Housing Act (FHA) residential version of ADA. NMC. Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 5. Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) 5. One and Two Family Dwelling Code (OTFDC) 6. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).) 10-2 .After you have complied with the appropriate state codes. you will discover that they have incorporated by reference a whole host of other codes. Lastly. you will have to comply with various national standards. 7. Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 4. which are also included by reference in the codes. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 2.

2) i. Maximum Dead End hallway. Check Zoning Regulations i. Allowable uses of property (Residential. Minimum number of Exits ii. i.Storage) i. iii. Set back from property line ii. Covenants a. Occupancy 1-500 = 2 exits ii. Minimum number of exits (SBC1004. b. Assembly will be the most restrictive/expensive.…S. See building code table c. Occupancy over 1000 = 4 10-3 . Either Net or Gross SF used to determine occupant load. If mixed use then the most restrictive use governs. Protecting large numbers of people. b. Occupancy 501-1000 = 3 iii. Set backs from property line. Check property deed or subdivision rules for restrictive covenants. 2. Maximum travel distance to Exits. Minimum stair width v. Business. Minimum size of building 3. 1.) ii. Use the Minimum Occupancy Load to size the following: i.Sample Code Review Procedure A. Attached/detached structures iii. Enter building code table for your facility Use. Occupancy Classification a.. 5. Minimum door opening width vi. Off street parking required. Style of building iv. Pick the appropriate use from the Building Occupancy Table (AAssembly. Minimum Occupancy Load a. 4. Means of Egress a.2. Max height (fire truck limits??) iv. Minimum hall width. Municipal Zoning Ordinance a. iv. Minimum size of building v. b. OCCUPANCY AND SIZING 1. iii.

v. toilet rooms. ii.2) i. Areas of refuge per floor. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AND FIRE RATINGS 1. custodial closets. Single story area 2.1. Room 90 x 90 = 127’ diagonal 2.1. Lavatories iv. Urinals iii. Distance separation between exits (SBC 1004. Fire rated hallways ii. sink) iii. Obtain the following allowable sizes from the Table: i. Size the bathrooms to meet the fixture counts AND the American With Disabilities Act (ADA) dimensions. At least one half the length of the maximum diagonal dimension of the building or area being served by the exits. Select the male/female ratio from plumbing code c. HVAC ductwork fire dampers at rated walls. i. Enter building code table for your building Occupancy. Example 1. Automatic closures on all doors in halls iii. (407. Calculate the minimum number of ADA fixtures (toilet. NOTE: the Minimum Occupancy for bathrooms is NOT THE SAME AS EGRESS OCCUPANCY. equipment rooms. ii. Multistory area iii. sprinkled. Enter plumbing code table to determine the number of fixtures: i. At least one for each sex will be required. In order to achieve the higher Types of Construction (I. Type of Construction a. b. etc. stairways. Deduct corridors. b. Larger stalls for wheel chairs (5’ radius) ii. c.3 SBC) i. Alarm and detection systems. ½ of 127’ = 64’ separation of the exits 6. i. Bathrooms a. Sprinkler systems iv. b. Showers d. vertical shafts.) classification the cost will change due to: i.d. Pick TYPE of Construction desired that matches the size and height of the desired facility. Then divide the remaining square footage for the Occupancy. B. Max number of stories ii. Fire Ratings a. Water closets ii. Choose the Type carefully since it has a significant cost and detail of construction impact! 10-4 . vi. TYPE VI (unsprinkled) will be the cheapest so start there. II.

In North Carolina the architectural. OTHER CODES TO CHECK (See Facility Building Codes for summary) 1. 4. Every project submitted for building permits must have a cover sheet summarizing the code compliance of the design. energy conservation) Plumbing (fixtures and piping) Gas Fire (alarms. electrical. 7. mechanical.C. 8. Building (structure loads storm. 3. CERTIFICATION OF BUILDING CODE RESEARCH 1. location of outlets) Mechanical (fresh air. and plumbing requirements are shown on the plans for ease of review. 2. earthquake) Electric (circuit sizes. 6. 2. seating) D. detection) Energy (efficiency of equipment) Accessibility (slope of walks. width of doors. signage. Return to Table of Contents 10-5 . 5.

too many changes. rough indicators of basic materials (exterior/interior). Outline specifications.beware of designer or customer changes which increase cost.reinforce requirement for designer to follow owner’s design guidelines. Design contingency. iv.No details. Cost and budget estimates. maximum building heights. Renderings and models.useful for fund raising.11. final design could be different due to cost or design issues (big smoke stacks on the roof?). iv. Design. if they are properly done when scheduled.since MEP systems are not defined. Quality assurance.Rough drawings to scale. and lawsuits later.this is the last chance to make significant changes and to verify the attainment of basic program needs. and Administration. percentage cost factors for MEP systems. Cost estimate. viii. b. nor is the building design very specific at this stage then retain 10% of the construction estimate to cover changes during design. vii. and ADA access. and the level of design detail increases at each successive level. and Construction Documents. Design Development. Schedule slippage. The following check list is based on the W. vi. Facilities Planning. no MEP systems. iii.verify that the design meets the program objectives (overall needs.D. User committees. Design review and approval. v. money.gross square foot rates. functional facilities through the application of engineering principles and architectural ideals. The purpose of this checklist is to highlight the information being provided by the designer with review action notes for the owner to consider. Code compliance. or tardy review of plans by the customer. iii. Plans & Elevations. program scope revisions. 1. Construction. Make designer document any variances from the standards. Middleton’s work in Facilities Management: A Manual for Plant Administration Part IV. 11-1 .check against feasibility estimates for increases. verify utility system availability.check basics of fire exits. Scope creep. ii. Designer’s Deliverable: i. The customer needs to be aware that there are critical reviews during the design process that can save time. DESIGN PHASE CHECK LIST Construction design is an interactive process where money and desires are converted into safe. SCHEMATIC PHASE a. ii. and room by room). Each phase builds on the decisions from the previous phase. The three phases of design are: Schematic. Project Management Issues: i.

especially in MEP. b. Rushing bidders can push up the bid prices. Verify time and place for bid submission. Project Management issues: i. Specifications. etc.look for excessive bid alternatives. Designer Deliverable: i. ii. vi. iv. MEP details have been added. soil removal).includes all of the legal wording. iii. MEP plans 70% complete (show piping. Scope creep. primarily MEP and finishes.make sure that your standards have been followed. iii. Plans. ii. site fencing.all done. Supplemental Conditions.all sections are included.look for conflicting bid alternates. iv. duct chases. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS PHASE (CD) a. Constructability review.all done.allow reasonable time to bid even if the design is late.2. v. iii. work hours.look for value engineering opportunities.based on latest MEP design. Specifications. 3.double check existing conditions shown on the plans (utilities. Plans. Cost estimate. Schedule slippage.items previously disapproved reappearing? iv. Bid form. Cost estimate. but MEP is still partial. Scope creep. signage.are the owner specification guidelines being followed? iii. Bid forms. Return to Table of Contents 11-2 . Cost and budget. ii. v. no design contingency remains. Project Management issues: i. etc. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHASE (DD) a. utility costs. and equipment layouts). Make sure that unit prices are included for any anticipated extra work (rock removal.final dimensions and layouts to scale. Design review.focus on the items that have changed since Schematics. may be done by independent cost estimator.based on quantities of materials. MEP details have been added. ii. Supplemental conditions. vi. Technical review.there are many MEP items you have not seen in prior submissions. General Conditions.contains your special requirements (parking. Design review. roads. Designer deliverable: i. b. Focus on any changes from DD.).).includes alternatives.

Wall 3. CONSTRUCTABILITY REVIEW By the time that the design has reached the bid document stage there are few opportunities to make improvements or changes without causing added design cost and delay the project. Addendums can be issued during the bidding phase. Sometimes they don’t fully understand the final requirements and the bids suffer accordingly. since the bidders must read through several documents in addition to the original bid set. Scan Division 1 for: i. Salvage material iv. Locate limits of construction i. Progress meetings 2.12. Quality control plans vi. if more than one person reviewing then use different colors for each person. but they do complicate the process of getting bids. Fence required (what type? Screen fabric?) c. b. telephone. which would cause defective bidding or result in costly change orders to the work. HVAC units 3. Detailed study of plans: (make notes on plans in color as you go. Time for completion ii. i. Water. (Don’t just start reading page one like a novel). It is not too late to correct errors. but accurate manner: 1. As the Construction Manager you are probably seeing these plans for the first time. Close walkways? iii. while you only have a few days to perform the Constructability Review before bidding commences. The user and architect have been working on this project for months. Safety v. Roof ii. a. c. Schedules required vii. See site plan and drawing index. Floor 2. storm water.) a. Owner provided items (utilities. Scan other drawings to see: 12-1 . Read Summary of Work. Where are the exterior items: 1. What are the principal materials of construction for: 1. Transformer d. electricity. sewer. Visualize the project first. Parking lot/roads 2. Find utility connections to existing: i. gas (cut off valves for all? Or outages later) b. Close existing parking or roads? ii. Look at floor plans and architectural elevations. The following guidelines are provided to help you perform this review in a timely. material) iii.

Any special equipment 1. Location of exterior equipment (HVAC chillers. transformers) v. Elevator 2. Location of building services outside (water. Alarm systems b. Location of mechanical room inside iii. Do they make sense if awarded (complete scope of work). Generators ii. Special equipment iii. Scan specifications: a. sewer. gas) iv. Generator 3. Look at bid items and alternatives i. Look for unusual sections i. Footing depth and soil conditions (water table depth. Return to Table of Contents 12-2 . deep footings?) ii.i.

Bid forms 4. 2. CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENT PRECEDENCE The document that is signed by the Owner and Contractor is called the Contract Agreement. Signatures of the owner and contractor. Contract amount (unit prices if any). Date of commencement and completion. while the final contract is made up of items B through G below. 7. Final payment procedures (all work satisfactory). Final agreement for signature 2. but the difference is in the details.13. A construction contract is made up of more documents than just the technical specifications and drawings. and addenda) 10. It can have many formats depending on the type of contract (design-build. The Contract Agreement generally includes the following information: 1. Bid bonds (protects the owner if the low bidder withdraws and the second low is selected at a higher cost) B. Table 1 Contract Documents A. 4. Typically the architect creates the contract utilizing American Institute of Architects (AIA) standard forms. Instruction to bidders 3. because the responsibilities and duties of the contract parties are subtly shifted. but this is not the only source of contract formats. The Association of General Contractors (AGC) and the Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) also produce standard formats. construction management. Names and addresses of the owner and contractor. Progress payments including retention. Invitation to bid 2. Miscellaneous (interest on late payments) Termination Enumeration of contract documents (list every drawing and specification. They are all generally the same. etc. depending on the perspective of the agency that created the documents. Bidding Requirements 1. 5. Would you expect the AGC document to have a stronger bias toward the contractor’s point of view than the AIA format? Your general counsel should review the document to avoid any onerous clauses that you need to modify. The “legal” fine print needs careful review. 3. 6. 9. Contract Forms 1. Brief narrative describing the work. The bidding documents include items A through F below. lump sum construction.). Performance Bond protects the owner if 13-1 . 8.

unless there is an orderly process to eliminate the confusion. Supplementary Conditions (included in the Specification package. AIA.) 2. The Agreement (signed form with administrative clauses. total price. and also references the specs and drawings to include them in the contract. Step one is to determine the correct technical solution to the irregularity. and created the contract what do you do when different sections of the contract contradict other sections? The legal implications of confusion and contradiction are going to cost you more money to resolve.) 3. then decide if it is a change order or not. D. such as time for completion.C. Addenda (those with a later date have precedence over earlier versions). 2. It is generally accepted that the precedence of the contract documents is as follows: Table 2 Precedence of Contract Documents 1. 4.16 Technical Drawings Addendums (changes issued before bidding) Contract modifications (changes issued after award) Now that you have assembled all of these documents. Change orders issued after award. Payment Bond (guarantees the subs payment) 4. Certificates of insurance (Workman’s Compensation. Federal. Division 1 Administrative 2. F. Supplementary General Conditions Specifications 1. AGC. E. General Conditions (preprinted fine print clauses that don’t vary for each project) 6. Divisions 2. This is not an automatic process. contractor fails to perform the work) 3. Liability) Contract Conditions 1. G. General Conditions (owners use various versions. This means that you should spend more time reviewing the nonstandard clauses. etc. Builder’s Risk. they vary for each project) 5. since the meaning of a single word could cost one of the parties to the contract substantial sums. Usually the material typed specifically for your project will govern over preprinted standard clauses. Division 1 of the Specifications (Administrative) 13-2 .

Drawings: a. Detailed project drawings b. General project drawings c. Divisions 2-16 of the Specifications (project specifications precede referenced standard specifications) 8.7. Standard (reference) drawings d. Shop drawings from contractor Return to Table of Contents 13-3 .

but in reality there are multiple opportunities for your project to be tied up in court. Is it too low to be realistic? ii. responsive. The courts get involved with lawsuits. Price evaluation. ii. Work exclusions are not acceptable. The Supplemental General Conditions in the Invitation for Bids usually define the process to be followed including rejection of all bids. 3. ii. and responsible bidder. Responsive evaluation a. bonds. Are there unit prices included which may be excessive? i. Small quantities won’t cost much. When the bids were opened at the specified time. With this 14-1 . 1. Will they cut corners or ask for excessive change orders? b. a. Your flexibility however. Privately bid work does not have to follow the same strict procedures the public institutions are bound to follow by law. why did you include someone who is not qualified? (Possibly a Trustee “suggestion” was included?) This evaluation process appears simple. Your architect then filled out a bid tabulation sheet.14. Bid alternatives added to equal the grand total? ii. Rock removal at $2000/cy ii. and no work being done. After bids were opened. they must be evaluated to insure that the contract is awarded to the low. If you have a private bidder list. Clarifications and suggested deductions are not fatal issues. No exceptions or qualification to the specified work. which included the designer’s estimated cost (SEE BID TABULATION). or else you will not get ethical contractors to bid on your work. no bidders or other members of the public were invited to attend. Responsible evaluation a. if you reject the low bidder. Very difficult to reject based on this factor. Can this contractor perform the work? i. Who has the lowest price? i. Unit prices for work times the estimated quantity? 2. BID EVALUATION Bids were received in your office and each one was stamped with a time and date of receipt. Bid on time? c. The bid evaluation process includes the following steps. and it turns out that you did not clearly state the procedures to be used in evaluating the bids. should not be stretched to include unethical practices. but what if the quantities are much larger due to unforeseen conditions? c. Forms completed properly? i. Signed bid. and then she protests to your superior that it was not fair. so the whole project has to start over again (years later??). For example. Is the math correct? i. addenda acknowledged? b. “Bid shopping” is one of the worst possible tactics to employ. i.

responsive. AND responsible. Bid bond. Three addenda acknowledged c. 4. a. No notes on bid d. Addendum #3 changed bid time to 30 Nov @ 3pm c. Utilizing the attached Bid Tabulation form see if you can determine the low. Addenda #1 & #2 were technical changes b. Okay Contractors.000. Bid $698. and sure to get your name on the list of less desirable clients. Slowe Contractors. Not an ethical practice. Alternative #1 $3. Bid bond required e. Giantt Contractors.000 b.2. Original bid date 28 Nov 2001 @ 3pm. responsive.000 b. Alternative #1 $2000 d.000 b. Bid bond attached e. Bid $781. Fill in the spreadsheet with the contractor and owner data given above. Received 3 PM 30 Nov 2000 e. Write a brief one-page recommendation letter to your boss enclosing the bid evaluation sheet. Three Addenda acknowledged c. 14-2 .000 d. 3. 2. Alternative #1 $5000.000 b. a. Architect/Owner data: a. Alternative #1(brass door knobs) $3000 d. Smalle Contractors. You then tell the low bidder that her price has been beaten and she needs to lower her bid. Addenda 1 & 2 acknowledged c. Addendum 1.3 acknowledged c. Estimate $640. a. 5. that sidewalks do not include any brick pavers. you tell the second low bidder that she has to “beat” the low bidders price to get the job. Received 2:59pm 30 Nov 2000. Add $4000 if brick pavers desired. received 3pm 30 Nov 2001. a. Bid bond e.technique. Bid bond f. Note. Received 2PM 28 Nov 2001 f. Bid $510. Bid $695. and responsible contractor given the following: 1. Remember the winner must be low. and describe why you did not award to any bidders with lower prices. Justify which contractor you recommend awarding the contract to. Find: 1. Alt #1 $2500 d. 2.

Bid Tabulation Bidder Addenda Base Bid Alternate 1 Alternate 2 Total Bid with Alts Unit price 1 Unit price 2 Unit Notes Price 3 on bid? AE Est dated Bidder 1 Bidder 2 Bidder 3 Bidder 4 Bids opened by: Return to Table of Contents 14-3 .

15-1 . because you are supposed to start the work now. especially. and equipment costs). The well has been poisoned and you are going to take a big drink. but the integrity of the design intent should be maintained by telling the contractor not to pursue unacceptable reductions. since they know there is still a chance someone else will get the job if their final price is too high. where you are trying to discover how the cost reductions are calculated (labor. while you will be degrading the quality of the work by “dollars” and getting “pennies” in return. Therefore you just have to decide which alternatives to choose. they have reminded you that they had previously said it would be an $11. so on the rebid they will be adjusting downward from their high bids in microscopic slices. that way you can maintain the “look” of the facility. At least you won’t loose as much time. Redesign and rebid the project. material. You should not be paying extra for the redesign. The contractor is going to explain that the labor costs won’t vary significantly no matter how much you delete. Also significant time delay will occur for redesign. since you don’t have the extra funds. No cost saving idea is a bad one at this stage. or reduced scope of work. The contractor submits and the architect validates cost savings. Unfortunately.000. which will be the least visible when the work is done.15. The contractor is invited to a meeting with you and the architect to discuss his ideas for cost reduction. which allow you to choose lesser products. but you chose to see what the “market forces” would produce. and fund raising. Lists of possible reductions are created and prioritized for their dollar value and relative impact on the design (SEE SAMPLE VALUE ENGINEERING LIST). Bidders have already decided what they think the job is worth.000. Now what do you do? After making rude noises at the architect and the cost estimator. unless you chose to ignore the budget estimate and bid the work anyway. Negotiate with the low bidder and reduce costs by value engineering. 2. Since value engineering is the lesser of the two evils. Focus on those items. so you have two choices: 1. and designing for years. there are not enough dollars being reduced by the alternatives.000. The low bidder is only going to reduce cost enough to get the job. (Note: The opposite position is presented when you have additive change order. you will probably proceed with that path. If two contractors have reasonably competitive bids. Your designer has a contract with you to design a facility within a reasonable variation from the budget estimate.) Material substitutions usually generate the most cost savings. The low bid totals $12. there were bid alternatives.000 academic building that you have been planning. All of these pricing activities are going to take place under severe time constraints. so the new building will be ready as planned. This is a bid bust. This will provide some competitive pressure on the contractors. This phase resembles a change order negotiation. Thankfully. then ask each one to meet separately with you.5m job. if you can get the contractor to get competitive bids. VALUE ENGINEERING You have just opened bids for your new $10.

Months later the subcontractor discovers these changes and submits an additive change order). 15-2 . which were not part of the official value engineering scope. so the architect exerted more design hours with no compensation to issue revised drawings. the design team inserts additional changes. Outside cost consultants could have been hired by you to critique the design team’s efforts in a non-confrontational process. The probing questions posed by the cost consultant will force the design team to explain the logic of their design as it relates to cost. but did not feel that she was getting full dollar value for the reductions. or clarifications on the plans.Value engineering is not a rewarding experience for any of the participants. (Sometimes. The contractor had to study a new set of plans and develop subcontracts that were binding when the wording of the value engineering changes is not clear. or standard materials not unique fabrications. plus she knows that there will be future changes as well. The owner had reduced the scope of the work. More effort should have been spent with the design team prior to bidding to resolve differences in the budget versus the design estimate. less complex finishes. The plans have been shredded to make the cost reductions. Everyone thinks they have given too much and exposed themselves to unnecessary risks. Options could be identified for simpler heating and cooling systems.

$30. Delete 44 Y fittings for future field drains (6") Change field drain material from ADS-N12 to Hancor Co.488 NO 2 3 4 5 Eliminate the poured-in-place concrete ring on the outer perimeter of the track. (This procedure has been eliminated on most projects due to potential environmental problems.976 $1.500 NO $3.600 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 GC GC GC GC GC GC GC $3.388 ?? GET SAMPLE see note Return to Table of Contents 15-3 .000 $2. . Change fence black bottom pipe to 6ga tension wire Eliminate the Prime Coat under Asphalt Paving.400 $1.BUT NOT Synthetic Surfacing.000 $91.000 by others later OWNER $5. Change vinyl fence fabric to galvanize Change channel drains to ACCO 4010 with #420 galvanize grate Utilize WASHED WHITE sand in lieu of Bunker Sand.788 $41.500 $2.600 $5. Eliminate the Herbicide Treatment under Asphalt Paving.000 $7.000 $1.000 $2.000 $2.000 $2.) Utilize Quarry Screenings in lieu of Decomposed Granite.000 $2.600 $1.600 $1. Eliminate the Site Construction Fence.000 $1.600 $3.AND Line Marking.000 $129.788 Previously deleted by Addenda #2.Track Value Engineering Ideas ITEM VALUE ENGINEERING IDEAS # 1 Eliminate the import of 6” of TopSoil fill on the field inside the track. JHA had included by mistake. Asphalt Paving. 58 CY Delete Sprigging infield and 90 day Maintenance Period Eliminate the “As-Built” certifications for ABC. 2094 CY SOURCE VALUE OWNER ACCEPTED NOTE ?? $41.400 $1.000 $20.000 $11.500 ?? CALL S&ME ?? VALUE ?JHA to verify ? Ken verify 13 14 GC GC $1. TOTAL GC OWNER GC $20.

16-1 . Preconstruction would be first and Warrantees last. then how will you be able to rationally interpret requests for changes or monitor the construction? Project files start with the planning documents. The capital project will have a unique accounting code. If you can’t find the latest Addenda or change order drawings. which allow tracking expenditures by the various budget managers. but you need to establish sub codes. (SEE CONTRACT FILES. (SEE CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION COST CODES. there will be purchases for furniture. or rejected a proposed substitution in material.16. Addenda. Your accounting system may not be structured to accommodate multiple purchases over several years. Filing is done by type of document and their sequence of occurrence. or directed the contractor to delete the fire proofing in the building that just burned down. design fees.) Filing is boring and routine until you are looking for a particular document which proves that you did not authorize a particular change order. with multiple budget managers. Large organizations that have separated planning from construction will have two sets of documents.) In addition to retrieving technical information. engineering. and abatement. and are closed out when the final inspections and turnover is complete. and Changes. In addition to construction costs. data/telephone equipment. physical plant support. The construction contract file must contain a complete set of documents including the Agreement. when researching a problem involving planning and intent of design. moving. PROJECT FILING STRUCTURE Prompt and accurate retrieval of contract documents is essential to successful project management. it is also crucial that financial information be readily available in a manageable format. which makes the Project Manager’s job more difficult.

fire proofing.)  Permits o Erosion Control o Road Crossing o Sewer/water service o Check Requests for permits Construction Phase:  Construction Contract o Addendum o Invitation for Bids o Bids and evaluation form  Bonds. etc. precast. Workman’s Comp. o Value Engineering  Submitted VE ideas  Approved VE Ideas  Formally Issued Change Orders in numeric order  Pre-Construction Meeting o Insurance Certificates 16-2 . insurance.Contract Files Planning Phase:  Customer’s initial scope of work  Preliminary Planning Data o Facility size o Approximate budgets o Master Plan site options  Planning layouts for rooms  Preliminary funding options  Approved planning scope of work and budget Design Phase:  AE Contract +Addendum to AE contract  Design Stages o Schematic Design  Submissions/Review comments o Design Development  Submissions/Review Comments o Construction Documents  Submissions/Review Comments  Additional AE services o Furnishings Plan o Other services  Engineering Contracts o Surveys o Engineer’s Construction Field Reports o Construction Test  Soil  Concrete  Other (steel. roofing.

grass. 2. Technical Data per Specification Division 1 – 16) 1. lights. warrantees. carpet. 1.Site work (paving. 8-Doors and windows 9. 3-Concrete 4. Photographs ii. 15b-Plumbing 17. gypsum wallboard) 10. 13-Special construction (metal buildings) 14. 14-Conveying systems (elevators) 15. wiring) 16-3 . o Certificate of Occupancy Project Blue Prints o On a stick file in the project office Submittals (Shop Drawings.. food service) 12. 12-Furnishings (lab case work. stairs. theatre seats) 13. 9-Finishes (flooring. 4-Masonry 5.          o List of Subcontractors GC Progress Payments & Lien Release Requests For Information (RFI) o RFI Summary Log Changes o Proposal Requests o Change Order Log o Pending Change Orders (PCO’S) o Change Directives pending formal change order General Contractor Daily Reports Progress Meetings (Bi-Weekly Minutes) General Correspondence from o AE o GC o Other Project Schedules / Monthly Progress Reports Close Out o Punch list inspections o Administrative close out documents o Manuals.Administrative (General requirements/special conditions) i. 15a-Mechanical HVAC 16. Warrantees and bonds 2. 11-Equipment (projection screens. lockers. flag poles. insulation) 8. 16-Electrical (fire alarm. 7-Thermal and moisture protection (roofing. 10-Specialities (toilet accessories. 6-Wood & plastics 7. 5-Metals (structural. termites) 3. railings) 6. paint.) 11. as built drawings. O&MN manuals iii.

Accessories Tele Outside Cable Tele Equipment Room Tele Inside Wiring Tele Instruments Data Outside Cable Data Equipment Room Data Inside Wiring Data Instruments Cable TV Wiring Move in/out. Removal Contractor #1 Contractor #2 Contractor #3 Contractor #4 Contractor #5 Contractor #6 Contractor #7 Landscape Office Equipment Computers A/V Equipment Food Equipment & Design Furniture. Art.. The following categories are provided for your accounting cost codes: Cost Codes CATEGORIES ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS Planning Designer #1 Designer #2 Plan Reproduction Interior Designer Lands Designer Surveys. Each of these managers needs a specific budget and the means to track costs.In order to keep accurate track of project costs it is essential that your accounting system be able to monitor multiple lines of budget and cost data. Studies. Etc. Permits OBJECT CODE 87110 87111 87112 87113 87114 87115 87120 87121 87122 87150 87101 87102 87103 87104 87105 87106 87107 87108 87130 87131 87132 87133 87140 87160 ENGINEERING ABATEMENT CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT FURNISHINGS TELEPHONE/DATA 87164 87168 87170 87180 87190 MOVING PHYSICAL PLANT PERMITS 16-4 . You may have additional budget managers involved with the project each responsible for a different aspect of the work. Borings Job Testing #1 Job Testing #2 Survey. furnishings. Fire Ext. audio visual. such as computers. Storage Locks. and telephones.

TELE.)___ portion of subject project.Separate budget authorization letters should be issued to each budget manager like the following sample. Briefly describe the rationale for the additional expense and the dollar amount needed. If the contingency funds are not sufficient. etc. FE. Authorized spending limit $__________________ 3. Contingency available $___________________ If you need to exceed the authorized spending limit and utilize the contingency funds. Return to Table of Contents 16-5 . then submit to me an amended Capital Authorization Form for approval. Date______ MEMO TO: ( Project Budget Manager) FM: VP Business SUBJECT: Budget for Project_______________________ You have been designated as the Project Budget Manager for the _(AV. then a written request must be submitted to me for approval prior to expending any additional funds. Account number________________ 2. The following information is provided for your use: 1.

Builder’s Risk by owner 3. Emergency response process (accidents. etc. etc. Shop drawing submission paper flow (number of copies. MEP) 4. b. Signed documents b. Quality control a. Plumbing) 3. Design Contract Administrator (Structural. Contractual a. 2. Security b. Telephone services c. crimes. Bonds c.17. fax number. Phone numbers. The Project Manager meets with the following people to verify that the project is ready to start in an orderly manner: 1. Monthly due date b. Project Field Inspector 6. Progress meeting dates (biweekly. Contact person for testing lab b. Prime Contractor 2. Utility services d. General Administrative a. Spare parts and operations manuals 8. Schedule of Values (billable items of work) 5. Workman’s Compensation. Other a. Scheduling procedure for field tests (GC call lab direct) 7. Contract procedures a.) The agenda for this meeting includes information in the following general categories: 1. Close out procedures a. etc.) 4. PRE-CONSTRUCTION AGENDA The Pre-Construction Conference is the last administrative check point before work commences. etc. Payment processing a. Insurance i.) 17-1 . Processing sequence (designer to owner) c. Training b. monthly) b. Other (security. Change orders processing a. Electrical. Contact names b. Principal subcontractors (Mechanical. Customer Representative 5. Only the owner’s Project Manager can authorize changes 6. liability by contractor ii. NO verbal changes.

Division 1 of the specifications and the Supplementary General Conditions, which were written specifically for your project, contain most of the information needed to create the Pre-Construction Agenda. (SEE SAMPLE PRECONSTRUCTION AGENDA.) The resultant of this meeting is permission for the contractor to proceed with the site work. If you have not verified proper execution of the contract documents including the insurance certificates and bonds, then do not proceed.

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Sample Preconstruction Agenda Fill in the contract data before the meeting, and the specification requirements as well. 1. Project Title and Location: 2. Contract Documents i. Contract signed 1. Addenda included 2. Value Engineering included ii. Bonds 1. Performance. 2. Payment. iii. Insurance Certificate iv. Building Permit 3. Contract Dates: i. Contract Award date: ii. Contract Completion date: iii. On site start date: 4. Project Organization: i. Owner 1. Construction Manager: 2. Customer Representative: ii. Design Contract Administrator: 1. Design Contract Administrator 2. Structural Engineer 3. MEP Engineers iii. Prime Contractor Representative: 1. Project Manager 2. Superintendent 5. Specification SECTION 01010 Summary (owner work) i. Owner to install telephone/data and kitchen equipment. ii. Security limited access and minimum light 5 ft candle. iii. Coordinate with owner as required and make coordinated shop drawings if required. 6. SECTION 01025 Payment, Modifications, Completion (billing process, change process) i. Use AIA format. ii. Due on the 25th iii. Schedule of Values (Itemize the work for progress payment billing verification. Normally follows the 16 Divisions in the specification).

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7. SECTION 01030 Alternatives, Allowances, Unit Prices (if any) i. List allowances. ii. 8. SECTION 012000 Progress (schedules, meetings) i. CPM schedule. ii. Progress meeting agenda, schedule, format. 9. SECTION 01300 Submittals (how many copies) i. Submit ___ copies to AE. 1. Send a copy direct to Owner ii. Three copies will be retained (AE, Engineers, Owner). 10. SECTION 01400 Quality Control (by who) i. Testing lab contact person ii. Process for scheduling tests. 11. SECTION 01500 Temporary Facilities (provided by) i. Trailers, parking. 12. SECTION 01600 Product Requirements (substitutes) i. Process for requesting substitutes. 13. Section 01700 Construction Procedures (training) i. Training for maintenance personnel. 14. SECTION 01800 Project Records (drawings) i. Maintain accurate notes of changes or field conditions. 15. General Items: i. Owner concerns (personnel behavior, access, etc.) ii. Safety program by contractor NOTE: Copies of forms to be used are usually distributed at the meeting. (Transmittals, Request For Information, Change Request, Change Log, and Submittal Log)

Return to Table of Contents

17-4

Critical path schedules are the most prevalent technique used. PERT. Installed equipment. ceiling) 9. Structure (walls. The activities that have the same dates for both the early and late sequence are “critical” since any slippage in them will cause the whole schedule to slip. (SEE SAMPLE CPM CALCULATION. Clear site 2. Trade sequencing in tight areas (Mechanical room roof cannot finish until large HVAC ducts are installed) 4. while multi-million dollar.SEE TOPIC 28). the schedule requirements vary greatly. Weather sensitive work (large excavations in December) 3. All other activities are “noncritical” and can slip (“float”) based on the difference between the early and late start dates. Clean-up. Roof 5. Repetitive work opportunities which will increase efficiency (multi floor. which will drive the schedule such as: 1. turnover. Then she assigns estimated time durations to each one.18. other than the one in the mind of the builder. In addition to the construction work activities. and feeds the data into a schedule program. Depending on the complexity of the project. punch-out. fixtures. floors) 4. Reference literature and on line web sites abound with products and systems. or multi buildings the same layout) 18-1 . multi-prime contractor projects might have several very complex critical path schedules with full time schedulers to monitor progress. Plumbing (site. flooring. Simple garage additions may be done without any formal schedule. operate) 7. Foundations 3. CRITICAL PATH SCHEDULE TYPICAL ACTIVITIES There are many techniques for scheduling a project such as CPM. or Gantt Chart. Finishes (paint. and design schedules. multi-phase.) For building projects the same logic applies for one or ten stories: 1. there are many other potentially critical items such as long lead material submittals and delivery. Electrical. Every activity is given a calculated set of start and finish dates (early sequence and late sequence). casework 8. Mechanical. formal inspections by government agencies (including the Certificate of Occupancy. Interior walls 6. The contractor creates a precedence of work activities and generates a network of activities (what comes first. rough in. Long lead material (special glass windows from Canada) 2. and what follows in a logical progression of work). (SEE TYPICAL PROJECT SCHEDULE) Good schedulers look for the hidden factors.

When two paths join (B & D meet at E) the highest cumulative duration is used. At the end of the project. The back pass calculation is made following the logic path.Monitoring progress can be done by simply marking the individual activity’s progress and noting if you are meeting the time line. but the ultimate decision on means and methods rests with the GC. The contractor is mobilizing and ordering materials early in the project.D E Duration Early Start Late Start 1 2 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 3 4 5 0 2 1 3 4 5 Float 1 The critical path is A-C-D-E-F. and has not performed the work. Options for regaining lost time are discussed.) Schedules are updated for each progress meeting when the General Contractor must make a detailed review of the progress to date. then you have assumed direct responsibility for failure of the time line. If you start directing his efforts. which indicates how many days the activity can be delayed without effecting the total project duration. The “start dates” are based on a cumulative addition of the durations along the logic path. Activity Start A B C D E F Finish Predecessor A A C B. and does not gain maximum momentum until the middle third of the work. (SEE “S” CURVE. The contractor has taken more of your money. most of the work is done. either early or late. The mathematical difference between late start and early start is the “float” time. but this time the smaller cumulative duration governs. When the early and late dates are identical the activity is on the critical path. then you are in trouble. not just the red line ones. A secondary means of monitoring progress is to make a cumulative addition of all progress payments to see if the cash flow is matching the projection or a standard “S” curve. If your project has an unbalanced cash flow. and activity B has one day of float. and the billings are relatively less. Non-critical activities can slip and become critical so all paths must be monitored. Sample CPM Calculations The following table shows the logical relationships for six activities. Funds are not expended in a straight-line method. 18-2 . or else is significantly behind schedule.

WALL INSUALTION ROOF SHEATH 29 31 32 33 31 13 27 28 SITE WORK: MOBILIZE CLEARING SITE SITE EARTHWORK TEMPORARY SITE UTILITIES FINAL SITE UTILITIES PARKING GRAVEL BASE SITE LIGHTING CURB & GUTTER PARKING PAVEMENT PARKING STRIPE SIDEWALKS LANDSCAPE 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 19 20 19 22 DESIGN: Program Definition Schematic Design Design Development Construction Documents Bid Bid Evaluation Award Preconstruction Meeting 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TASK PREDECESSOR 18-3 . construction. WALL COVERING EXT. and milestones. inspections.BUILDING PROJECT TYPICAL ACTIVITIES The following activities are commonly used for a building project. If you enter these activities into a CPM schedule program then you can assign durations and develop a timeline for the project. ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 BUILDING: SLABFOUNDATION EXCAVATE & FORM FOUNDATION POUR POUR SLAB SHELLEXTERIOR. DOOR/ WINDOW EXT. which includes design. WALL FRAME EXT .

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 ROOFING INTERIORINT WALL FRAME INT DOOR FRAMES INT.52.53 54 38 42 42 45 45 45 43 59 60 60.62.51. PRIME COAT PAINT CEILING GRID CEILING TILES DOORS HUNG / HARDWARE FINISH PAINT FINSIH FLOOR ( VCT/CARPET) FINAL CLEAN UP 35 35 38 39 40 41 42 41 41 45 46 MEP: UNDER SLAB UTILITIES ROUGH IN ELECTRIC ROUGH IN PLUMBING ROUGH IN HVAC ABOVE CEILING MEP CONTROL WIRING HVAC TELE/DATA CABLES ABOVE CEILING HVAC DROPS IN CEILING LIGHT FIXTURES IN CEILING TRIM OUT TELE/DATA OUTLETS TRIM OUT ELECTRIC SET PLUMBING FIXTURES TEST & BALANCE HVAC TELE/DATA OPERATIONAL FIRE ALARM SYSTEM OPERATIONAL MEP SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL 28 38 38 38 38.61. WALL DRYWALL INT.64 INSPECTIONS: FOUNDATION SITE MEP UNDER SLAB MEP FRAMING ROUGH IN MEP INSULATION ABOVE CEILING MEP ABOVE CEILING FIRE STOP FINAL ELECTRIC FINAL PLUMBING FINAL HVAC 27 16 50 40 54 40 54 43 60 61 63 18-4 .

59.84 18-5 .80 65 82.83 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 MILESTONES: SLAB POURED DRY IN BUILDING SHELL PERMANENT POWER ON CEILING TILE DONE HVAC SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL FLOORING DONE AE PUNCH LIST ALL WORK PUNCH OUT ALL WORK FURNITURE & EQUIPMENT INSTALLED TURNOVER TO CUSTOMER 29 36 76 43 65 46 46 93 82 95.82.79 80 81 82 83 84 FINAL STRUCTURAL/ ADA ELEVATOR INSPECTION FIRE INSPECTION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY COLD STORAGE INSPECTION HEALTH INSPECTION FOR FOOD 43.78.44 64 80.77.64 76.

Early in the project the progress is slow due to mobilization and the need for large numbers of workers is limited. Return to Table of Contents 18-6 . If your project is ahead or behind the curve then more attention is needed by you to find out why.The cash flow for a project is also a good indicator of timely progress. At the end of the job few workers are needed and the cash flow slows down. During the middle portion maximum output is expected since most trades are able to work on site.

The stated purpose of the meeting is to monitor progress and to identify corrective actions needed to maintain the schedule. Old Business (Review action items from previous meetings) a. PROGRESS MEETING MINUTES Even with electronic messaging and digital images. Schedule review a. Summarize work progress a. Minutes of the progress meeting are taken by either the contractor or the designer. Request For Information a. Technical meetings should take place before the progress meeting. Technical problems should have been processed by Requests For Information (see Topic 21). Status of previous requests b. Normally the attendees at the meeting are not the technical experts. Projected for the next two weeks (or until the next meeting) 4. Since the last meeting b. Document list of attendees (sign up sheet) 2. which the contractor submits directly to the designer. owner. Date action due 19-1 . Depending on the size and nature of the project the meetings might be weekly. Action party (GC.19. It is inefficient for someone to raise a technical problem for the first time during a progress meeting. which means that the problem will have to be sent back to the design office. A formal agenda is needed which includes the following topics: 1. because there is no time to analyze the issues and determine a solution. Date item was first discussed iii. Decisions are made and directions are issued at these meetings. It is useful for the designer to bring technical experts to the meeting to discuss options and to observe the site conditions. Review the status of submittals a. and the results presented for approval to the owner’s representative. AE. Verify satisfactory progress on the critical path activities. Identify new requests and their status 6. They become part of the official record for the contract and are useful in resolving disputes later. Verify the milestone status c. Verify coordination with other contractor and owner activities 3. Each item is briefly summarized and is identified with the following information: i. there is no substitute for a periodic on site meeting with the general contractor and the designer to resolve issues and monitor progress. When will the design review be done 5. What is to be submitted b. b. but most likely they are biweekly or monthly. Unique identification number ii.) iv.

Change Order Log. Add new changes to the Change Order Log (see Topic 23). and a summary project schedule (time scaled CPM bar chart). an accurate set of minutes will be an essential tool to monitor the progress of everyone. This document is sent to the attendees and other interested parties (your boss for one). Based on the meeting discussion determine if any new changes have been created. Submittal Log. Designer review and recommendation to owner iii. including the owner representative. Pricing submission by contractor ii.b. c. b. When the minutes are distributed. Review the status of pending changes i. Return to Table of Contents 19-2 . 8. Changes a. 7. New Business a. Additional notes are added like a diary with new dates until the item is closed. Notes taken in the same manner as Old Business b. Contractor is asked to submit any new items prior to the meeting. With so many action items to remember and a multitude of action agents. they also include a copy of the RFI Log. Assignment of formal change order numbers to approved changes.

Time allowed for review c. HVAC duct. The critical path schedule also includes activities for the delivery of long lead or complex items. the contractor was directed to create a submittal log and to list the items he was planning to submit for approval. Submittal b. generators. Long lead times are not always the same for each project. What is the impact on the schedule of work? (Critical path can change if materials don’t arrive on time). Items requiring factory codes (door locks) 6.20. Owner opinions needed (furniture fabrics) 5. physical samples of materials. triple pane-three coat window glass) 4. 4. Specification section 2. Fabricated materials (structural steel. elevators. On larger project the long lead items usually have something to do with: 1. Special order items (marble from Italy. Date approval due to meet schedule 20-1 . How long is the lead-time for approval? (Some require designer to check detailed calculations). unique carpet patterns. pipe organs made in Canada. The submittal log should include the following information: (SEE SUBMITAL LOG) 1. the specifications require many items to be submitted for approval. etc. 3. SUBMITTAL LOGS In order to prove that the contractor is complying with the technical requirements of the contract. detailed shop drawings for fabrication of steel. If there were no submittals then the only way to check the work would be after it was installed. switch gear) 3. and then it is tooooo late to make “pencil” corrections. bronze bells from Holland. Name of subcontractor 4. On short (3 month) jobs everything is long lead since there is very little time. manufacturer certifications. motorized shelving) 2. These submittals might be field test results. The construction manager must be aware of: 1. During the Preconstruction Conference. What is supposed to be submitted? 2. Scheduled Dates for: a. How long does it take to deliver the item? (Some items are not off the shelf). This list is used as a guide to identify any critical submittals that have been overlooked by the contractor and to provide an indication of the designer’s workload. Special equipment (large HVAC units. Lastly anything else that does not come in when it should and creates a delay on the critical path of the work. Description of item to submit 3.

and the status of pending approvals. Final approval 6. Remarks When the progress meetings are held with the contractor and architect. When a project is just starting it is easy to overlook the door and light fixture submittals.5. Unfortunately. these items can have long lead delivery times. since the material won’t be needed for months. it is important for them to review the status of items to be submitted. but you can’t install something that is not on site yet! 20-2 . You can do many things on a job with money. Resubmittal date d. which may not match the contractor’s list of submitted items. The architect has a list of items received. Submittal b. Actual dates for: a. Review time c. The project manager needs to keep pressure on both parties to submit and process this paperwork quickly and accurately. which make them critical from day one of the project. and management skill. muscle.

01/18/02 01/29/02 02/06/02 02/12/02 12/04/01 12/07/01 12/18/01 12/07/01 01/11/02 02/12/02 12/21/01 12/21/01 None required Handrail bracket Cabinets Approved as noted Approved as noted 11/20/2001 2 wks. Piedmont Metals Decorative Metal& Welding Locust Grove SH Basnight & Sons SH Basnight & Sons Southern Plate & Window Glass Southern Plate & Window Glass Concrete-Floor patch Structural Steel 12/28/2001 3 wks. 12/28/2001 2 wks. 4 wks. 20-3 .Submittal Log Scheduled Date Section Vendor/Subcontractor Description of Work Submittal Date Actual Date Review Final Submittal Time Release Date Review Time Resubmit Date Final Release Notes Notes 3300 5120 5500 6400 8110 8200 8400 Sharp Carter Corp. 8520 11/6/2001 10 days 11/16/01 12/04/01 12/12/01 8700 8800 8810 SH Basnight & Sons Southern Plate & Window Glass Southern Plate & Window Glass Door Hardware Glazing Fire Rated Glass/Framing System 12/4/2001 6 wks. 01/15/02 12/07/01 02/08/02 02/08/02 12/21/01 Approved as noted-**Glass sample needed Approved as noted 12/28/2001 6 wks. 12/28/2001 6 wks. 12/4/2001 2 wks. Metal Fabrications Architectural Woodwork Steel Frames Flush Wood Doors Aluminum Framing System Aluminum Windows 1/15/2002 1/15/2002 2 wks.

6 wks.Scheduled Date Section Vendor/Subcontractor Description of Work Metal Studs Submittal Date 12/4/2001 Actual Date Review Final Submittal Time Release Date 6 wks. 3 wks. Sharp Carter Corp. 6 wks. Carpet Tile* Sharp Carter Corp. Fritz Tile S & L Painting* Painting Polyvision Markerboards Clayton's Interiors Horizontal Blinds Plumbing Fixtures Professional Plumbing HVAC-Air Handlers Superior Mechanical Rotary Water Chillers Superior Mechanical Vane axial fans Superior Mechanical 12/4/2001 12/4/2001 12/4/2001 12/4/2001 6 wks. 01/15/02 12/04/01 01/15/02 12/04/01 01/15/02 12/04/01 01/29/02 02/04/02 02/05/02 01/15/02 12/04/01 01/15/02 01/31/02 01/15/02 01/31/02 01/15/02 01/31/02 1/31/2002 01/15/02 1/14/2002 11/19/2001 02/12/02 1/7/2002 01/25/02 1/11/2002 12/21/2001 12/21/2001 12/21/2001 Review Time Resubmit Date Final Release 12/12/01 12/12/01 12/12/01 Notes Notes 9100 9210 9250 9300 Central Carolina Interiors Central Carolina Interiors Central Carolina Interiors Commercial Tile Commercial Tile Central Carolina Interiors Sharp Carter Corp. Gypsum Plaster 12/4/2001 Gypsum Drywall Porcelain Tile* Grout 12/4/2001 1/15/2002 resubmit 12/12/01 02/12/02 02/12/02 2/12/2002 2/12/2002 1/25/2002 1/17/2002 1/14/2002 2/12/2002 1/11/2002 1/11/2002 1/11/2002 rejected 2/12/02 9510 9650 9680 9690 9900 10100 12511 15010 15501 Acoustical Ceilings VCT/Base* Broadloom Carpet* Sharp Carter Corp. 12/28/2001 4 wks. 6 wks. 12/4/2001 6 wks. 11/19/2001 2 wks. Satin Finish 20-4 . 1/15/2002 4 wks. 2 wks. 6 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 6 wks.

3 wks. 12/21/2001 1/11/2002 11/28/2001 1/17/2002 1/16/2002 1/16/2002 1/16/2002 11/28/2001 11/28/2001 11/28/2001 11/28/2001 11/28/2001 11/28/2001 12/21/2001 1/30/2002 Review Time Resubmit Date Final Release 1/11/2002 2/11/2002 12/19/2001 1/29/2002 1/29/2002 1/29/2002 1/29/2002 12/3/2001 12/3/2001 12/3/2001 12/3/2001 12/3/2001 12/3/2001 1/11/2002 2/11/2002 Notes Notes Heating coils AHV-1 Chemical water treatment Insulation Qualifications Flex Duct Duct sealer TDF Duct system Compression tanks VAV terminal units Fire dampers Pumps Heat exchanger/valves Air distribution Chiller Controls 20-5 . 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks.Scheduled Date Section Vendor/Subcontractor Description of Work Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Mechanical Superior Submittal Date Actual Date Review Final Submittal Time Release Date 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks. 3 wks.

K. 1/29/2002 resubmit resubmit rejected 2/12/02 12/18/01 12/18/2001 1/11/2002 to King 1/10/2002 resubmit E1. 4 wks. on L rejected resubmit 1/31/2002 aan 2/12/02 approved as noted Return to Table of Contents 20-6 . 4 wks. 12. 13 16000 Fire Alarm Electrical Gear Lighting Lighting 3 wks. 4 wks.Scheduled Date Section Vendor/Subcontractor Description of Work Mechanical Superior Mechanical King Electric King Electric King Electric King Electric Submittal Date Actual Date Review Final Submittal Time Release Date Review Time Resubmit Date Final Release Notes Notes Fan coils #11. 11/20/2001 4 wks. G.

Typically the dimensions shown on the plans will not work. without any analysis of the impact on the whole project. Remarks (brief summary of the answer and note if a change is needed).) 21-1 . Date architect replied 6. where the contractor uses the top half to describe the problem and recommend a possible solution. A simple one-page form can be used. Verbal directions given on the spur of the moment. Moving the door 2’ will result in the electrical conduits being unable to pass through the wall beside the door. 5. 3. Date initiated 3. Site elevations are different on the civil and landscape plans. is a formula for disaster because: 1. The field superintendent is the most likely source of these questions. 3. The quickest source of directions is for the superintendent to ask the owner’s representative.21. Raising the grades 12” will cause extra excavation cost for the pipeline contractor. Copies of the RFI must be sent to the owner’s representative because they will probably result in a change order. or anyone else that happens to walk on the site that day. The mechanical specifications require the electrical contractor to provide equipment that is not specified in the electrical section. since he is on the front line of issues. Shifting the air-conditioning ductwork infringes on the safety clearance for the electric panel and the hot water heater control panel. or else: 1. (SEE RFI LOG. RFI number 2. The RFI log is reviewed at each progress meeting to ensure that all parties are aware of unresolved issues. REQUEST FOR INFORMATION LOG During the course of construction the contractor will need clarification and direction to implement the design. Description of problem (describe. or could delay the project if timely action is not taken by the design team. which will delay the work if not resolved quickly. Date answer needed by to keep the work on schedule (ASAP usually). 2. 2. while the architect utilizes the lower half to answer the question. but the architectural show a plaster ceiling. The contractor is told during the Preconstruction Conference that the architect must issue all clarifications and directions. The elevations shown on the structural are not the same as the architectural. These Requests For Information are listed on a RFI log with the following data fields: 1. The electrical plans show a drop ceiling. 4. what and where) 4.

Request for Information Log RFI # DATE DATE REPLY PROBLEM DESCRIPTION SUBMITTED NEEDED DATE REMARKS (CHANGE?) AE REPLY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Return to Table of Contents 21-2 .

changes to one segment of the work creates additional cost in areas not directly involved in the change. changed requirements and changed conditions. then the design team should evaluate the impact on the operational and safety aspect of the project before issuing an change. and the PM is not even aware that a change has occurred.customer changes her mind and creates revisions in the work. Differing Site Conditions. SOURCES OF CHANGE ORDERS Change orders (contract modifications) are generated from numerous sources. Before taking this expensive (lawyers for each party plus years of everyone’s time) it is essential that you have not improperly rejected the change request. constructive work. This claim process can lead a long and twisted path up through the hierarchy of your organization (Governments have many layers of this).material or exiting conditions are not as shown on the plans. the “Constructive Change” is the most dangerous for the Project Manager. Usually the contractor initiates modification requests for changed conditions. Of all the changes listed above. then the next step is for the contractor to formally proceed with a claim for equitable adjustment. Changes can be initiated by the contractor or the owner/designer.errors or omissions in the plans & specs.22.Revisions to design codes which must be included in the work. (normally the code in effect at time of bidding is not corrected if a new code is subsequently issued). 5. since the PM is not tracking the change. The other types of change are easily identified quickly. (Lost critical submittals for approval and material delivery impacted). 22-1 . If life safety or other significant issues are modified by a new code. Improvements. (Added work delayed whole project into bad weather season). Delay or Acceleration.unknowing action or inaction by the Project Manager causes the contractor to perform additional or different work. When the contractor and owner cannot reach agreement on the validity or value of a proposed change order. or owner to enhance the work. designer. which means that there will be deficiencies. Constructive. Criteria. The following list is an indication of the diversity of contract modifications: 1. 2. Design Deficiencies. and eventually end up in a court of law. The contractor will just present a bill for services rendered.contractor is paid for owner interference with the project schedule. Designer’s limit of liability is to meet the professional standards of the design industry. This means that documentation will be scarce. and appropriate action is taken.value engineering ideas are developed by the contractor. Changed Requirements. design errors. 8. while the owner usually issues change requests for design changes. 7. 3. and that negations will be more difficult because they will take place after the fact. delay and time extensions. 4. 6. The Constructive Change can be in effect. when there is no option to discuss the most efficient means of construction. Ripple.

then the other side will certainly win the case. the provision will be construed against him. Pettit.Normal meaning of words. which must be added to enable the system to operate successfully. 5. Words. symbols. If he fails to inquire. Photos. Schedules.Manifest intent. Rule 2.) 1. 3. Rule 4. (details over generality.Order of precedence. This rule is applied when the specification required a complete installation or system installed by the contractor. (Note: These rules are based on the work of W. capable of interpreting complex legal precedence with your handy eight-rule guide. Rule 7. but through an oversight. because there will be no way of determining what you intended when the work is changed incorrectly. 8. or legends he used as the drafter. and is bound by the meaning he induces in the other party to understand and act upon.Duty to seek clarification. 2. The intention of the drafter is to be construed by a review of the words. Rule 5. 2. 5. symbols. Do not make any verbal changes.” 4. 6. and marks will be given their common and normal meaning. 4.Principle apparent purpose.The interpretation of the a contract term must be reasonable or logical. If your position can pass the following compendium of rules of evidence then you probably should proceed with denial of the change request. If after applying all of the previous rules the contract issue is still not clear (ambiguous) the provision will be construed against the party that drafted it (you). You need to review your position in light of the scrutiny that a court would apply so that you won’t loose the case because of a technicality or misinterpretation of the facts. If you can’t prove your position. Submittals. he cannot take advantage of the error by his silence.F. when you are trying to establish the intent of the plans and specifications in cases of missing data or conflicting information. Test reports. the designer neglected to specify a necessary detail. samples 6. The last rule of changes is to get all of the facts: 1. but if you can’t pass the test then settle at the best price and move on. Daily reports by contractor and your inspector. phrases.Construed against drafter.Interpretation of the contract documents is not an exact science. specifications over plans) 7. If a party knows of a glaring error on the part of the drafter. Rule 1.Whole agreement. Contract documents are interpreted in a specified order of precedence as stated in the Supplemental General Conditions. Rule 6. When asked by anyone if it is okay to change something ALWAYS ask what did the plans require. The Court must look to the four corners of the contract to ascertain the meaning to establish a “harmonious whole. Rule 3. 22-2 . Correspondence. Rule 8. and Kostos. 3. STOP and seek competent counsel before your go on to disaster. Now you know why it is important to DOCUMENT your actions. (SEE CASE STUDIES) Now that you are a “certified construction lawyer”. Nash & Cibinic.

It is essential the Project Manager proceed from a position of seeking equitable adjustments. until you have reviewed all the facts. The following table is a summary of the various sources of changes and the resulting impact on the contract.When in doubt. Source of Change Acts of God: -Weather -Differing Site Condition Owner: -New requirements -Late delivery of equipment -Slow decisions -Stop work -Constructive changes Designer: -Defective design -Over inspection General Contractor: -Defective work -Slow subcontractors -Under staffing = Ripples Impacts on Contract Ripples Time: -Delay -Acceleration -Liquidated damages -Termination for default Ripples Ripples Cost: -More labor -More OH -More idle equipment -More material -Inflation -Legal fees Other: -Strikes -Code inspectors -Accidents Ripples Quality: -Rework -Substitutes -Less quality Note: Expect cost to be 3% on new work and 10% on renovations 22-3 . you will probably lose the case. and not merely “stone walling” issues just because you don’t want to admit an error (and pay more money!). but don’t automatically give up every time.

The HVAC specification has a general note that indicates miscellaneous power for HVAC devices is to be provided. The cost to rework the panel is $3000. It showed a nine-month duration for a twelve-month contract. What is your basis for approving the change? i. What is your basis for denial? c. a. Is there a valid change? b. Due to bad weather. What is your basis for denial? 2. the contractor has revised his schedule to show ten months duration and is asking for $60. Architectural plans show roof drain details for a 20. There are liquidated damages of $2000 per day. nor do the control plans. Twenty inches of water will pond on the roof without drains. Is there a valid change? b. The electrical prints do not show any power drops. Do you have to pay if the line must be relocated due to your new deep footings for the building? 4. which is not shown on the plans. The site utility contractor has ruptured an existing UG electric feeder line. The contractor’s CPM schedule was submitted to you for review. What is your basis for denial? c. The HVAC control dampers require 110v power to operate.000 of extended overhead. but the civil drawings show exterior downspouts connected to site drain pipes. When you visited the job site six months ago the contractor asked you if it was okay to move the electric panel three feet. and $1500 per day liquidated damages. How would you establish the number of days extension? 6. What is your basis for denial? 3. a. Is there a valid change? b. You agreed and now the code official won’t approve the mechanical room because the electric panel is too close to the pumps.000 SF flat roof. What is your basis for denial? 5.Case Studies 1. During the Precon it was noted that prior to all excavation the utility locator service must be notified to locate UG lines. What is your basis for denial? Return to Table of Contents 22-4 . Is there a valid change? b. Due to your designer’s very. very slow response in reviewing shop drawings. The contractor has a one-year project with a CPM schedule showing 12 months duration. a. and you approved it. a. a. because of the one month delay. Is there a valid change? b. Drains are not specified. Is there a valid change? b. and don’t show on plumbing plans. she has asked for 15 days time extension with no added cost? a.

but they need to be documented. Amount recommended by designer and date. Field changes are normally authorized for work. Amount approved by owner and date. or by designer issued notes. The following multi-copy form is useful in making the written record of field changes. which is minor and does not cost very much. Date item was initiated 3. which the designer issues. but the owner is the only person who can approve the directive. No changes are authorized without the permission of the owner. The following data needs to be included in the change order log: 1.23. These changes are documented in the contractor’s Daily Report. If no one knows the status of changes. but cannot now recall. some will fester to become bigger issues (delayed work). Remarks (status) In order to obtain the total pending and approved changes add up the following three columns: Target + Amount Submitted + Amount Approved. 23-1 . 5. The Project Manager needs a tool to use with both the contractor and designer to keep them focused on the pending changes. 7. some will become incomprehensible due to the passage of time (no one remembers the details). Other changes are inconsequential and are process as field changes at no cost or time increase.) 4. CHANGE ORDER LOG Keeping accurate track of all changes (pending and executed) is one of the primary tasks for the Project Manger. The owner. the changes will be collected and processed as a formal change to the contract. 9.) Documentation of changes is essential if you are going to avoid arguments at the end of the project. 2. A simple excel format status log is used at every progress meeting to achieve this focus. (SEE CHANGE LOG. since they affect the work. Description of the change (leave plenty of space to describe what and where). then some will be lost (probably the credits). Request for Information. 6. Some changes may not result in a net change in the contract price. Reference for the change (Designer letter. when the contractor submits a change request for work that you allegedly verbally authorized. or contractor may initiate the need for a field change. etc. Contract Change Order number assigned 10. After negotiation. but you are the only one who can spend the owner’s money by issuing a change order. Target cost (SWAG). designer. and some will cost more because the timing of the change now requires rework (under slab pipe added after the concrete is set). 8. Unique identification number for each change. Amount submitted by contractor and date. The designer may recommend.

Furnishings: more expensive furniture 3. no change in cost or time. construction costs are not the only costs changing. Design costs: added fees. power. Yellow-GC. SIGNED:_______________________. Equipment: more expensive 4. water. Distribution: White. sewer increases. Elon University. ____Proceed with work at a cost not to exceed $_____________.Elon. increased reimbursable (travel. Utilities: telephone. Separate budget logs are needed for: 1. and_______ days time extension. 23-2 .________________________________________________________________________ Elon University CONSTRUCTION DEPARTMENT Field Direction / Clarification Notice PROJECT:____________________________ DATE:_________ CONTRACTOR:_______________________________________ ATTENDEES:_________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ QUESTION/PROBLEM:__________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ______ ______________________________________________________ ANSWER/DIRECTION:__________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ACTION BY CONTRACTOR: ____Provide a cost proposal BEFORE proceeding with work. ____Information only. printing). Pink-AE ________________________________________________________________________ Remember. 2.

xxx yyy zzz Return to Table of Contents 23-3 . This will allow easy summation of the total without double counting. clear the "Target" column and place the estimated cost at the end of the Description field.Change Order Log Proposal Date Reference Description # entered Document Target SWAG $ Pending Date Date Amount Change Remarks Amount Submitted Approved Approved Order by AE $ Submitted to AE # $ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Total Target $ Total Pending $ Total Approved $ Total all Changes (target+ pending+approved) Note: After the change has been submitted. Likewise when a change has been approved delete it from the Pending column.

4. LF. Reassignment of Manpower. Means have specialized databases to address this issue. While the supervisor is analyzing the change. CHANGE ORDER ESTIMATES Change order estimates are prepared before requesting a proposal to ensure that adequate funds are available prior to asking the contractor to spend time creating a proposal. The following listing is an indication of some of these price considerations: LABOR: 1. Overtime disrupts the rhythm of the work. since they typically involve small quantities of work. productivity of the other workmen is adversely affected. 24-1 . etc. organizing the assignment of workers. 4. Estimating guides such as R. $/ day. Overtime is often required to complete the additional work within the specified contract period. 2. and lowers work output per hour. because efficiency decreases with fatigue. Change order estimates are difficult to price. This keeps un-fundable changes from clogging up the paper system. 5.24. Your estimate should be based on: 1. A new field activity associated with integrating the change work into the base contract requires a diversion of the supervisor’s attention from the base work. etc. 2. Impact on the critical path. Dilution of Supervision.S.) Current labor rates by trade ($/hr per man or crew) Current equipment rates (rental or owned $/hr. procuring additional material. CY. They are also made in advance of receiving the proposal so there is an independent perspective on the cost. tool locations. but don’t cover every possible change situation. which don’t allow large-scale efficiency of production. An accurate material take off (SF. Learning Curve. 3. etc. In addition to the book rates for construction work. and finding equipment and tools. then the learning curve is correspondingly multiplied. and wasting everyone’s time. Reassignment of workers is generally required when unexpected changes occur. work procedures. adjustments should be made to allow for hidden costs of the changed work.) Estimated time to compete the work by subcontractor. Fatigue. Productivity decreases because there is not enough time to plan an orderly transition in the work flow. plans. 3. When personnel are added to perform additional work a period of familiarization must be considered until these workers are oriented to the job. If multiple crews are required to perform certain task.

Management costs. 2. Superintendents. Delay time waiting for new material. 2. and price increases. cleanup. Delay. If work is delayed. and working hour limits all contribute to increased cost. 3. MATERIAL: 1. require changes in crew sizes and crew assignments. Full day rental for partial day use. The cost of additional working drawings and field layout. Beneficial Occupancy. Site Access. Changes interrupt the schedule. 5. then added costs are incurred for off site storage. 2. 3. 3. makes the site more congested which reduces efficiency and increases cost. The cost of estimating. 5. 5. 4. 2. 4. and also may require work to proceed without detailed plans. 3. 6. Morale and Attitude. Cost of clerical work to purchase new material. EQUIPMENT: 1. Additional equipment needed because base contract equipment already fully committed. OTHER: 1. negotiating. clerks Payroll taxes Payroll fringe benefits Travel and subsistence Job insurance 24-2 . Delayed work or new work. Indirect costs include: 1. Delayed work can result in the owner moving into areas where the contractor has more work to do. noise limits. Small quantities increase the unit cost. The job progress is held up and workmen may be scheduled to move on to another project. Restocking fees for material not used. or they are not available to for assignment to this project. access. Once the direct costs have been identified.5. which will result in lower productivity and also lower the quality of work. then the indirect costs must be added to establish the total estimate. equipment rental. Increased waste factor when material is bought in standard lengths. 6. Plans and layouts. Security. All of these factors contribute to a poor morale. then there will be a resentment by those who are not getting overtime. Skilled workers have pride in their work and the timely completion of the project. and processing the change. If overtime is being selectively used. 4. Escalation. Mobilizing and demobilizing equipment on site. Cost of additional submittals for new material.

6. Small tools expense 7. Equipment rental 8. Job supplies (water, paper) 9. Telephone on site 10. Site trucks 11. Taxes 12. Construction and Performance Bonds 13. Permits 14. Temporary services (toilets) 15. Cleanup 16. Warrantee and call back 17. Delay penalty and liquidated damages 18. Home office overhead Typically the owner will specify a format for change orders to provide uniformity of pricing data over all of the projects being administered. It also forces the contractor to provide more information, which will be useful to the PM during change order negotiations. The proposal should have a summary page and backup data. Back up data includes the quantity take off plus direct labor and equipment costs. The summary page should show sub and prime mark ups. (SEE CHANGE ORDER SUMMARY PAGE.) When a change is first identified, you should establish an order of magnitude estimate with the contractor, so all parties can focus on the big problems, and not be consumed by a myriad of small changes. A simple calculation of the main material quantities with rough prices, plus an estimate of labor at an all inclusive rate (cost plus overhead markups) can be used as a scientific-wild-ass-guess (SWAG). (SEE CHANGE CASE STUDIES.)

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Change Order Summary ITEM Subcontractor a. Material Cost b. Labor Cost c. Total Direct Cost 1. Field OH cost __10___% of ‘c’ 2. Home office OH _3__ % of ‘c+1’ 3. Profit _6_% of ‘sum c thru 2’ 4. Bond _0.5__ % of ‘sum c thru 3’ 5. Total sub cost add ‘c’ thru ‘4’ Prime contractor a. Prime direct costs b. Sub total costs ‘5’ c. Total prime cost ‘a+b’ d. Prime Field OH _10__% of ‘c’ e. Home office OH_3_ % of ‘c+d’ f. Profit _6_% of sum‘c thru e’ g. Bond _0.5_% of sum ‘c thru f’ h. Total change cost add ‘c thru g’ COST $

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Change Order Case Study 1. How many cubic yards of concrete are needed for a sidewalk 4” x 6’ x 90’? a. How many if waste is 10%? 2. How many cubic yards of dirt will be moved from an excavation 400’ x 200’ x 9’ deep? a. How many truck loads will be hauled if each truck carries 9 CY and the soil swell factor is 20%? 3. A 200’ run of 250 MCM electric cables is to be placed with three phase and one ground cable. How many feet of cable is needed? 4. A room is 55’ x 80’ by 12’ high. How much paint is needed for a three coat job if each gallon covers 200 SF? 5. Scaffolding rents for $100/day, or $400/week, or $1000/ month with a $300 delivery and removal charge. What is the most cost effective rate if you need the scaffold for: a. 7 days? b. 15 days? 6. Electricians cost $50/hr and light fixtures cost $120 each. For a room with 9’ layin ceilings, how much will it cost to replace the 12 existing lights? a. Total material Qty? b. Total material cost? c. Total labor time? d. Total labor cost? e. Total change cost using summary page format given on prior page?

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Review and reconcile proposal vs estimate a. and then you proceed to explore the less factual issues. The quantities of material are generally factual since they are based on the plans or field measurements. Areas of agreement ii. Verify quantities c. What work is added/deleted? b. but extraneous factors such as waste. and other that require a mutual understanding: 1. shrinkage and swell can be variables to discuss. CONSTRUCTION CHANGE ORDER NEGOTIATION PROCEDURES Negotiation of construction change orders is very similar to the AE design negotiations. Your estimate of cost must be made before the proposal is received to you can compare the two independent versions of the cost for the change. The hourly labor rates are obtainable and can be audited. 25-1 . then you will probably miss something. The following check list is useful for the PM to establish her strategy for a successful negotiation: (SEE NEGOTIATION CASE STUDY) 1. or labor.25. 2. 2. Define scope of the change a. Verify pricing 3. Identify and analyze a. since you try to isolate the cost items that are factual and establish pricing for them. Areas of significant cost difference i. 3. Time needed for work per CPM. or pricing? b. Double check to be sure there are no errors (if too many items match too closely then be curious as to why). The following is a list of some items that are factual. because you did not have a yardstick to measure the validity of the proposal. The amount of time to complete the work is subject to interpretation of duration for demolition and rework prior to the new work commencing. If you just blindly follow the contractor’s proposal. Material. Group work by sub trade b. but care must be taken to ensure that no extra markups have been added which will be doubled during the final mark up of the costs (percentages for supervision included with direct labor). Total cost of work (proposed/estimated)? c.

seeking to maintain profits. Customer representative. Write a memo to your approving authority.4. iv. The design subcontractor and the general subcontractor will be discussing technical issues in a jargon that is alien to outsiders. but make mental notes as you agree to spend more money.defensive and wary of liability claims for defective design. ix. General Contractor. 2. Attack the major items first? v. You also need to manage the emotions of the players involved: 1.seeking to minimize cost and keep profits.wants everything for nothing. Plumbing). Subcontractor. b. What was changed in the proposal? (Qty. vi. Establish your role as one who is seeking an equitable adjustment.) a. there is a terminology problem to overcome. 3. (Qty. Additionally. deletions/additions to the work). Mechanical. but only if no other course is productive. Record keeping a. Positions and goals a. 4. you will not be able to decipher the contract requirements from the smoke and flames being thrown up by all 25-2 . What was changed in the estimate? (Qty. Dispose of minor items first? b. Portions of your estimate may be discussed. Define your iii. hrs. d. Strategy for the negotiation agenda a. Without a clear understanding of the technical terms. hrs…) x. Summarize the total cost/credit and time impact at the end of negotiations to verify the agreement. which documents the results in a logical sequence.even more defensive of the design liability issue. Electrical. you are reviewing the contractor’s proposal. b. 5. Architect. Don’t focus on keeping a running total of the cost. vii. Set the tone of the negotiation as professional and fact finding not accusations and emotion. c. 5. Design subcontractor (Structural. As negotiations progress note the agreed items and move on to the next issue. viii. You are not negotiating your estimate. Total cost and time maximums you are willing to settle for. DO NOT REVEAL YOUR ESTIMATE AT ANY TIME. Why did you agree to change your estimate? Your personal skill as a negotiator is not the only factor that will minimize the negative impact of construction changes. hours.

Be sure your design team is giving you the whole picture and not a slanted version of the facts. Automatic smoke dampers in the HVAC system are not needed if the total tonnage is under 5. and you will be spending your money to buy their time. For example: 1. and the unit is not being used for multifamily units. then the next step is either arbitration or law suits. settle at the best possible cost. 3. Remember you are the only person at the negotiation who will ultimately pay the bill. but you have the money. When in doubt. Either way lawyers are involved. The E value of the third glazed surface is not high enough to meet the thermo gains in the lights. so the CFM of the HVAC will not hold the design criteria for the space. not new buildings. 25-3 .parties to the discussion. 2. Everyone else has an opinion. Slow down the pace of the negotiation until it is clear what is being discussed. When you decide not to settle the change. The balance of the CFM with a RH of 50% is not being recycled at the optimal rate based on the psychometric chart.

What is your estimate of the quantities involved? 1. The new walk will be 6” thick x 6’ x 90’ with a 13’ x 40’ patio at the end.5% ‘c+1+2+3’ Sum ‘c thru 4’ COST 3.000.Negotiation Case Study 1. The client has asked for a new sidewalk at the Health Center to replace the existing one.000. Field OH 2. 1. Home OH 3. 2. Demolition $7. 3. 2. New work $10. Total $17. Demolition CY? 2. According to the plans the existing walk is a 4” thick x 5’ x 90’ with a 40’ x 30’ patio at the end. Total Change 10% ‘c’ 3% ‘c+1’ 6% ‘c+1+2’ 0. Profit 4. Bond 5. What do you do? 4.000. The contractor has given the following breakdown of her cost. Demo $400 /cy b. What is your total cost estimate given the following: ITEM QTY Unit Cost a. New $200/cy c. Total Direct 1. The contractor has said she will not provide any more information. What do you do? Return to Table of Contents 25-4 . New work CY? 3.

Elevator. The desired qualities of the construction materials are identified along with the appropriate tests to be conducted. Plumbing 2. Manufacturer Representatives You need to hire an independent engineering testing company that has Professional Engineers on their staff to verify that the crucial materials being used on your project meet the specifications set by the designer.) 1. 5. Government Inspectors a. then an estimated total cost is calculated based on the plans. 26-1 . They have the most familiarity with the site and the project. Fire Marshal. They are selected based on their technical and professional qualifications followed by a fee negotiation with the most qualified firm. Independent Inspectors (hired by the owner) 3. 4. 2. Most likely. ADA. Additional services are priced using an hourly cost scale for professionals and technicians. plus you have already selected them from the competition before. Mechanical. Your testing program is documented by the design team in the technical portion of the specifications (Divisions 2-16). QUALITY ASSURANCE INSPECTION OVERVIEW There will be many different construction quality and compliance inspectors on your project. Building Code Officials (Mechanical. Plumbing.) 4. An essential factor in making the selection of the testing company is their relative proximity to the work site. When failures occur on a project (often many years after the fact) you will discover that the basic questions will involve whether or not the construction materials were faulty. Design team a. Structure. They will include inspectors from: 1. Soils (type of soil and compaction) Concrete (reinforcing steel placement and concrete strength after 7 and 28 days) Steel (torsion on bolts) Fireproofing (thickness) HVAC system (balance air flow through the duct work) The professional testing company is chosen using the same process as the design team. Electrical. the firm you hired to make the original site soil investigation will be a strong candidate to perform the construction testing. Typical tests involve: (SEE QUALITY CONTROL FIELD TESTING. Structural. Electrical. since timely inspections and reduced travel costs are crucial. 3.26. Health/Food. Normally the construction tests are itemized with a unit cost.

or deflect excessively. rock. Prior to filling. A meeting should be held on site with the Grading Contractor and testing agency prior to grading to discuss any unusual conditions or potentially problem items which could exist. previous structures and utilities. stumps. FILL PLACEMENT 1. In wet or unstable soil conditions. The testing frequency can be reduced on large projects where full time testing and monitoring is 26-2 . and intent of the Designers. Repair any areas that pump. 5. Verify that all topsoil. etc. etc. Have a sample of the soil to be used as fill tested a week or more before grading begins. This applies to mass filling. wave. buildings or in fill embankment slope areas. These items should be described in the subsurface exploration (geotechnical) report for the project. There may be other items that should be evaluated depending on surface and subsurface conditions on the job site. 2.Construction Quality Control Field Testing By Brad McLester P. evaluated.. It is assumed that an adequate subsurface exploration (geotechnical evaluation) has been performed during the design phase and that the conclusions and recommendations contained in that report are included in the design plans and specifications. 4. proofroll the exposed soil with a loaded pan or dump truck. rootmat. Therefore. one test should be performed for every 2500 to 5000 square feet or one foot of fill depth. This should at least include moisture content and standard Proctor compaction testing in the lab. have been removed from the grading limits and are not buried in fills under parking areas. determine if special grading measures such as rench drains. undercut/soil replacement or other measures are needed. this information should only be used as a guide. 3. complexity of the structure. or observed by the independent engineering/testing firm. Excess topsoil can potentially be spread out and blended with soil in a controlled manner and placed in nonstructural areas provided that the resulting blend can be moderately compacted. SITE PREPARATION: 1. stabilization with geotextile fabric and stone. The following information is general in nature and is intended to provide a broad overview of construction activities/materials that should be tested. Have all fill tested for compaction.E. such as wet or plastic soils. fill behind retaining walls. S & ME Inc. and in embankment slope areas. For most projects.

performed. The required percent compaction should be on the plans or in specs. If not, assume 95% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density of soil is required in all but the top 24 inches below slabs and pavements where 98% can be assumed. (Specs may vary.) 2. Have utility trench backfill tested at least every one to two vertical feet of fill depth. This is particularly necessary under buildings and pavements and for fill around large diameter storm drain lines, catch basins, etc. 3. Observe/monitor the fill under equipment to verify that it does not pump or wave to confirm the test results are reasonable. 4. Rock pieces and boulders can normally be incorporated in the lower parts of deeper fills provided that they are not stacked on top of each other and the surrounding soil is well compacted. Some construction debris such as concrete or asphalt can potentially be buried in deeper fills if it is well documented and soil is well compacted around it. 5. Bench new fill into existing slopes by notching into the slope in 12 to 24 inch vertical heights so that fill can be compacted horizontally and not on an incline. 6. Walk the face of fill slopes with a small dozer or loader to help compact the slope face and provide indentions in which grass seeds can grow. Divert rain-water runoff away from the top of embankment slopes to reduce erosion potential. 7. Fill embankments should be constructed as flat as reasonably possible. They should be no steeper than 2:1(horizontal: vertical) unless a geotechnical engineer says otherwise. Even at 2:1, some silt and clay soils in this area will slough and require repair. Establish vegetation or mulch on slopes as soon as possible. EXCAVATION 1. After cut areas are lowered to design grade level, proofroll the exposed soil to confirm that it is uniformly stable to support the slab and/or pavement. This can be very important in deeper cuts that extend near the groundwater table. 2. If rock is encountered in either trench or mass grading, have it quantified by the testing lab to confirm its measurements and verify that it is classified as “rock” in the specs. 3. If you must blast rock in developed areas or near structures, consider having the blast vibrations monitored with seismic equipment to document that the shock waves are not considered “damaging”. The perception by the public that the blast is damaging can be worse than reality. 4. Walk the face of cut slopes with a dozer or tracked loader similar to that suggested for fills.
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FOUNDATION EVALUATIONS 1. A qualified soil technician or engineer should evaluate the soils in the bottom of all foundation excavations (in cut and in fill). The evaluation should include visual observation and probing the entire footing trench. Representative hand auger borings that include dynamic cone penetration testing (dcp) should be performed. The number and location of these tests should be determined on a site-by-site basis. At a minimum, one hand auger/dcp test should be performed in every other column footing excavation and in every 75 linear feet of wall footing. The hand auger test depth should be equal to the footing width in most cases. In uniform conditions or where a significant amount of compaction test data is available, the test depth and frequency could potentially be reduced. 2. Where footings cross utility lines, the lines can be sleeved or the footing stepped down to bear below the utility line. This is particularly important for column footings or heavily loaded wall footings because stresses will be applied to the utility lines by the footing loads. The structural engineer should be consulted if there are any questions regarding foundations bearing over or near utility lines. CONCRETE TESTING 1. For most projects, water should not be added to concrete. The time of placement should be less than 90 minutes from batch time and the temperature of the mix should be greater than 50 degrees and less than 90 degrees. Note that less time will be available for concrete placement during hot weather and with higher strength mixes (high cement content). Special projects or conditions could require additional testing and control. 2. Slump the concrete on as many trucks as practical, but not less than one slump test per set of cylinders. Slump before and after plasticizer or add-mixtures are applied if possible. Other routine tests such as temperature, unit weight, and air content should be performed on each set of cylinders. 3. At a minimum, one set of 4 concrete cylinders should be cast for each days pour and for every 50 yards poured. The cylinders should be made after any plasticizer or other add-mixture is added. Cylinders should be made at the point of discharge if a pump truck is used, when possible. Do not move, vibrate or otherwise damage the cylinders! 4. An insulated curing box or large Igloo type cooler should be available to the testing lab to set fresh cylinders in overnight during very hot or cold weather. The cylinders should not be moved for about 20 +/- 4 hours. They should be transported to the testing lab for wet curing and compression strength testing. Standard compression testing includes a 7-day break and two 28-day breaks. The spare cylinder can be broken (normally at 56 days) if a low break is recorded at 28 days, otherwise it is discarded.
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PAVEMENT TESTING 1. Thoroughly proofroll the soil subgrade and repair any problem areas prior to placing stone. This is imperative for the successful long life of the pavement. 2. Prior to placing stone for pavement areas, confirm that samples of the stone have been subjected to laboratory standard Proctor compaction and gradation testing to verify that the stone meets NCDOT specs. This is often the responsibility of the paving contractor but it ultimately falls under the job superintendent and project manager if there is a problem. This lab test data will be required during field compaction testing. 3. Crushed aggregate base course (CABC) stone should be tested for compaction prior to asphalt placement. A degree of compaction equal to 98 to 100% of the standard Proctor maximum dry density is typically required. The stone layer thickness should also be measured after compaction. 4. Evaluate the stone base by proofrolling with a loaded dump truck immediately prior to paving and repair any areas that have deteriorated due to construction traffic or weather. 5. The temperature, thickness and density of asphalt can be tested during paving to confirm that the spec requirements are met. The density can be measured with a nuclear gage on site or by a combination of field and laboratory testing during paving. A degree of compaction equal to 95% of the Marshall Mix design maximum density is typically required. (Note: use type I-1 or HDS surface mix for heavy duty drives and truck areas. Type I-2 is smoother and performs best in automobile parking areas) STEEL INSPECTION Have a random sampling of bolts torqued and welds visually inspected to confirm that the steel erector is performing satisfactorily. On special projects, the Structural engineer may require more extensive testing in both the plant and on the job site.

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The state OSHA inspector makes random inspections and will levee fines on the contractor depending on the severity of the infractions noted.  Construction vehicles hitting your students/faculty/staff/visitors. Typical fines are thousands of dollars for seemingly minor infractions:  Improper grounding of extension cords (ground pin missing = electrocution). 27-1 . As a Project Manager you are the owner’s representative looking out for their interests.27. explosions (blasting). but most of the time it has involves an act of carelessness. (visitors count too! = things fall on site.  Ladders not tied off at the top. (SEE SAFETY INSPECTION CHECKLIST. PROJECT SAFTEY People die on construction projects.  Not wearing hard hats. or your local OSHA office’s web site. and you have builder’s risk and third party insurance for damages to the work site or other parties. = people fall.  Ditch being dug without shoring.  Construction materials dropping from cranes and hitting others.  Rolling a scaffolding by grabbing the ceiling grid and riding the scaffold. or flooding (burst pipes or run off water). You have Workman’s Compensation Insurance required in the contract to protect your liability exposure. Your primary concern is to minimize the impact of construction activities on your campus. There are many sources of safety inspection materials from other agencies such as your insurance company. = fall again. The contractor’s risk management inspector (usually from their insurance carrier or an in house employee in larger construction firms) will make periodic site safety inspections.) The following table summarizes the frequency of occurrence of the typical accidents.  Are you responsible for the safety of the contractor’s workers?  Should you be the inspector of safety on the job?  What is your responsibility if you see something unsafe on site? The general contractor is responsible for his work and the action of his workers.)  Working on roof without safety harness.= dirt falls on people. = more falling. Sometimes it is an act of God.  Construction debris falling or blowing off the site and hitting others.  Fires.

or run over you. Struck by = something might fall on you. Crushed = temporary supports or piles of material collapse and you are crushed to death.CATEGORY Fall off = you might fall off something or trip over something and then fall. # of OCCURRENCES IN CHECK LIST Most frequent Second most frequent Third most frequent Fourth most frequent 27-2 . EE = electrocution F = burned to death Eye = you can’t see again Ear = you can’t hear anymore Paper = your paper work is not good enough to prove your safety procedures and you pay a lot of money in fines as a result.

lights (head. ventilated) Motor Vehicle & Equipment Brakes. covered or handrails Stairways.Party Meets Standards Yes No Ladders Sound & properly secured Correct height Non-skid shoes Resp. Wall Openings & Stairways Barricades & handrails Floor openings. daily & annual Conditions of wire ropes. Party Floors. Hoists & Elevators Posting requirements Hand signals posted & used Inspections. U bolts fastened properly Guards and barricades Power lines (distance) Hoist cable barrier Safety hooks Personal Protective Equipment Hard Hats Eye and Face Protection Hearing Protection & Respirators Fire Protection & Prevention Fire Extinguishers Flammable & Combustible liquids Portable heaters (safe. Storage & Disposal Work areas safe & clean Materials properly stored Waste disposed of properly Hand and Power Tools Excavation.100.Safety Inspection Checklist Meets Standards Yes No Recording. tail) Back-up alarm Seat belts and roll bars Material Handling.102 OSHA Posters & Citations Emergency Phone Numbers Crane Signals OSHA Signals on-hand First Aid Kit and Card Drinking water and toilets Lighting information HAZCOM posted HAZCOM Material Safety Data Sheet Resp. Posting & General Requirements Good Housekeeping Safety Meeting Minutes OSHA Forms 100.etc. clips . Trenching & Shoring Angle of repose Supporting system (bracing) Material storage Adjoining structures Access ladders 27-3 . handrails Cranes.

secured. gauges in Good condition Arc welding. grinders. saws Mushroomed heads on chisels Wood handles. grounded Temporary lights & power Junction boxes. etc. split. drawings & Plans Storage of forms & shoring Clean-up Steel Erection Permanent & temporary flooring Safety nets. railing & belts Welding and Cutting Compressed gas cylinders. storage & placement Shoring requirements. leads & grounds Eye protection Other (Specify Electrical Main Power lines (location) Extension cords. Air tools Concrete Equipment & materials Reinforcing steel. torches. covered Return to Table of Contents 27-4 .General condition of all tools Electrical tools properly grounded Guards on drills. Secured & capped Hoses.

Success is defined as a timely completion of ALL work. etc. Inspector (who found the deficiency? AE or Engineer? If questions arise you’ll know who to ask for more details). For example: 1. See the Construction Contract Completion Checklist for a typical list of these items. etc. The GC will assign the tasks to the appropriate subcontractors for action. etc. If the quality was not built into the job as work progress. doors.). by trade. The administrative clauses and each technical section of the specification contain particular submissions. etc. Division 1 requires: As Built drawings.).. plumbing fixtures. then AE. and no significant warrantee call back work. Your customer will be very interested in these items as well. Once you have made the final payment and released the 28-1 . Responsible party (filled in by GC to indicate which Sub is responsible). and make the AE send it within 24 hours so the trades can proceed. Electrical. Many systems are no longer visible at the near the end of the work (Mechanical. (SEE CHECKLIST) The final payment to the GC is dependent on successful completion of both the physical and administrative work. Specific location of deficiency (west wall over door. Punch list inspections are made by the Subcontractors. Status (complete. In addition to physically verifying that all of the work is complete. so agree on the format for the report beforehand. ceiling. By using a spread sheet you can list the deficiencies by room. Now that the end is near you can inspect the remaining work.). and Certificates for Warrantee. then General Contractor (GC). Timely processing is crucial. Typically the inspections start after the painting is done. structural elements. by floor. room#. You should have been inspecting this work as it progressed. You can also email the lists with updates on status for the Project team to review. extra material for maintenance (paint. Plumbing (MEP) systems above ceiling and in walls. which is mainly finishes. The best format is to make an Excel spread sheet identifying: (SEE PUNCH LIST) General Location (area. Description of deficiency (missing door knob). 2. Manuals. it is unlikely that it will magically become an acceptable quality job in the last few weeks of work. and all of the finishes are present (flooring. PROJECT TURNOVER One of the most difficult tasks for a Project Manager is to successfully close out a construction project. etc. cancelled.). training for operators of equipment. and finally by your customer. Division 2-16 require: Spare parts. etc. you must also have a checklist to insure that all of the administrative items are done as well..). Your project will have these plus other unique requirements that your team developed.28. carpet). with specified quality.

5. 5. Planning for the final turnover will require close attention to detail to ensure that all of your hard work does not disintegrate into chaos during the last few days of the project. By the time the final inspections are made. very difficult to get the GC’s attention on items of low dollar value. Too early = list too long. 4. Keys to the right customer 2. Systems functioning in an orderly sequence 4.) and then observe the tests by the subs. most of the subcontractors and manpower resources have left your job. gasoline purge line in processing plant. Enthusiasm Disillusionment Panic Search for the Guilty Punish the Innocent Praise for the Non-Participants Return to Table of Contents 28-2 . Outside consultants not part of the design team are hired to oversee every element of the ultimate successful turnover. and delivery of the furnishings. It is crucial that the inspections are not made too late or too early in order to take advantage of on site resources. 2. Manuals and training for operators 3. Two outcomes: 1. Too late = no one left to do the work. 2. and moved on to the next project. monitor field work and develop testing protocols for making systems operational (oxygen piping in hospital. For major projects with complicated systems (hospitals. They review designs for compliance and maintainability. The last 5% of the work will take you more than 30% of your total efforts on the project depending on the GC’s capability and your AE’s professionalism. processing plants. Projects don’t just smoothly transition from construction to operational facility without the careful attention to detail by you to ensure it is done right: (SEE TURNOVER LETTER) 1. Move in plan includes telephones. Good luck and remember that every project is comprised of the following phases: PROJECT PHASES 1. etc.retention funds (5 to 10% of the progress payment held to insure successful completion of the contract) then it will be very. room keys. etc. And more and more….) the turn over process is more formalized. 3. 6. many items not even done yet.

Punch List XZY Project ABC University ITEM # AREA SUITE RM # # AE ITEM # RESPONSIBLE PARTY ITEM DESCRIPTION NOTE: Only one issue per line Assigned Assigned by AE by GC Format: Action word (clean. patch). Describe the item and its location in the room DATE DONE VERI.REMARKS FIED BY OWNER 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Lobby North North South 200 300 301 100 800 34 67 Acme GC Buss 98 Extron 10 West 56 56 GC Adjust door 11/1/20 closer 02 Install soap dispenser Paint touch up west wall Remove dead cat from duct Clean bugs from 15 light fixtures 11/3/200 2 11 12 13 14 15 16 Return to Table of Contents 28-3 .

List of warrantee agents 8. Warrantee Certificates 3. Spare parts and attic stock turned over to owner 6. Provide copies of Maintenance Manuals 3. Provide copies of Warrantee and Agents 4. Operation and Maintenance Manuals 4. 2. Process final payment DATE DONE Return to Table of Contents 28-4 . Test and balance reports for HVAC sent to Architect 11. Training for Maintenance Personnel 5. Keys returned 9. Record drawings prepared from As Builts. Certificate of Occupancy 2. All punch list work complete 12. Forward spare parts. Approval of test and balance reports Owner Project Manager Issues: 1. Notify Maintenance Department and Security of acceptance of facility 2. All claims and change orders settled 10. As Built drawings sent to Architect 7.Construction Contract Completion Check List ITEM Contractor Issues: 1. keys. Submit final pay request with release of liens Architect Issues: 1. All change orders and claims settled 3. Verify all changes and claims are settled 6. and as builts 5.

P. etc. Architect Return to Table of Contents 28-5 . 2. 2002. and also keep unnecessary warrantee calls from being sent to the contractors. 5. then the following actions are to be taken: • For emergency work such as leaking pipes. Operation and Maintenance Manuals Warrantee Contact List of Subcontractors Plans and Specifications (in the Plan Room) Warrantees Test and Balance Report Per our normal warrantee procedures. CC: w/o encl 1. tighten belt. Campus Security 2. any customer service request would be checked by the appropriate PP Shop to verify the nature of the reported problem. Shop Supervisor then calls warrantee contact to request corrective action. Once a service call has been determined to be a warrantee item. Shop supervisor will notify the appropriate warrantee agent. 4.P.). computer with Construction Department as the action shop. Note date and person contacted.April 15. or power failure.P.P. Forward copy of emergency work order to Construction Department for follow up. 2002 TO: Director of Facilities Management FROM: Director of Construction Management RE: Danieley Center Unit 8 As of April 15. Danieley Center Unit 8 has been accepted by Elon University. • This way we can track any pending items. Physical Plant Personnel will take immediate action to contain the problem. to be sure that a maintenance action was not needed (reset breaker. Routine work should be processed with a work order put into the P. 3. The following documents are attached for your use: 1. P.