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At present, with the development of wind power project in China, there are more and more projects located at the complex terrain and complex environment. At the same time, since the large pl…Full description

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YIN Jianguang, FU Bin GUO DIAN UNITED POWER TECHNOLOGY CO.,LTD METEODYN yinjianguang@gdupc.cn fu.bin@meteodyn.com

Abstract

At present, with the development of wind power project in China, there are more and more projects located at the complex terrain and complex environment. At the same time, since the large planned area of project, the complex mountain area, and limited number of met mast, even without met mast, in order to the reliable development of the wind power project, it is important that how to do the wind resource assessment without actual measurement wind data and other conditions such as less reliable wind data, and the met mast was not considered representative. This paper will use the atmospheric model to do mesoscale simulation calculation of wind resources, and then combine with CFD technology to downscaling computation to get high resolution wind power assessment result. Finally, in order to confirm the validity of this application in the actual project, the comparison between calculation values and measurement values is carried out. The verification result through the actual data of different met mast shows that the wind resource assessment method which combines the CFD and mesoscale technology is reliable. The main contribution of the article is to provide the reference model and approach for regional planning and large scale wind resource assessment when there isn’t enough adequate and effective wind data. Keywords: wind resource assessment, CFD, mesoscale model

**1. The mesoscale technology based on atmospheric model
**

Since the 80s of last century, the mesoscale simulation technology based on the atmospheric numerical model has been developing for a long time. From the last century in the 90's, some mesoscale simulation systems have been very advanced and be used all over the world. With the progress of computer science, the mesoscale simulation platform based on the atmospheric model has entered the stage of practical operation. At present, there are some main systems such as the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the American NCEP model, Japan Meteorological Agency model, and so on. Major EU countries constituted the ECMWF model in 1976, established the global medium range numerical weather prediction system and formally put into operation from 1979. Until now, the ECMWF can provide the result of global simulation calculation with very high-resolution. Data assimilation adopted the most popular the four-dimensional variational technology currently to form model analysis and the initial conditions. In the early 1980s American establishes the global regional assimilation and prediction system, and In the 1990s NCEP realized three-dimensional variational assimilation. As a consequence, a large number of satellite data can be used in numerical weather prediction so that improve the quality of the analysis and prediction. The Japan Meteorological Agency has two models, global spectral model and the Far East regional spectral model. The global spectral model is equivalent to 60km as the horizontal resolution and 40 layers on the vertical dimension. The macro wind resource assessment based on mesoscale technology has been widely used to the planning in the earlier stage of wind power projects, especially in the area that lack of wind measurement data, or difficult to measure the wind speed and direction such as open-sea area. Through mesoscale simulation technology, we can get regional meteorology elements information quickly, not only can get the wind resource information, but also can obtain the information of precipitation, temperature, humidity and snowfall in one region. These meteorology elements information are particularly important during the wind power project construction, the environmental assessment and post-operational phase.

**2. Apply the mesoscale and CFD technologies to do downscaling simulation calculation and analysis
**

Generally the resolution of the mesoscale simulation isn’t fine, set at “km” level. For instance, the distribution trends of wind resources are enough for macro perspectives such as the whole national and provincial region. However, for the micro-planning of wind power projects, the locations of projects are always in complex mountainous regions, this requires higher resolution mapping of the wind resource to meet the requirements of developers and wind resources engineer. For such reason, the CFD technology will be used as the downscaling method for mesoscale simulation, which combines the two models. The purpose of downscaling process includes to get higher resolution mapping of wind resource in the absence of wind measurement data, to do the preparation work in an effective and efficient way, to supplement and reference to the existing data, to compensate or correlatively analyze

for the lack of data. The downscaling simulation process of the different models is shown in the figure1.

Figure 1. From the global model-Mesoscale simulation-CFD micro-modeling

3. Case Study

This paper studies a practical project located in a mountainous area of Yunnan province in China. In the planning area of the project, the highest altitude is 3274 meters, the lowest altitude is 1422 meters, and it has a falling head of 1852 meters and belongs to a typical complex mountain project. The area is very large, but the number of met mast is limited. There will be subsequent projects to be developed but existing wind masts are far away from the subsequent projects. Through the actual project case, the difference between the actual measurement values and downscaling simulation values can be investigated further. It will guide the similar actual projects development in the future: make up the wind measurement data, to analysis the representative of the wind measurement data, to encrypt the wind data which cooperate with existing wind masts, to install the met mast at more representative position, etc. The four met masts of the case project are 7101, 7103, 7105, 7106 along the ridge from south to north. The height is 70 meters for each met mast, the period of wind measurement is from July 20, 2009 to June 12, 2010. Due to communication problems, the data is missing from September 30 to October 6 in 2009 and from March 25 to April 13 in 2010 during the measuring period. The rest of days have integral and high quality measurement data. And these data are suitable for comparative analysis with the values calculated by downscaling simulation.

Figure 2. Illustrates the position of Wind masts in Google earth

The Distance between the four wind-masts is shown in the table below: (The units are in meters) M7101 M7103 M7105 0 M7101 5650m 0 M7103 9700m 4080m 0 M7105 11620m 5970m 1960m M7106 Table1. The distance between the four wind-masts

M7106

0

4. Modeling description

In this paper, the mesoscale simulation is based on WRF-ARW core. At first, the re-analysis data will be inputted to the simulation system as boundary conditions in the mesoscale simulation. And then the project area and calculation resolution need to be specified. In this study the mesoscale simulation resolution is 3 kilometers, the whole mesoscale simulation area is 300km*150km and generates the hourly time serial data for the same period with met masts (2009.7.20-2010.6.12). The hourly time serial meso wind data is extracted based on the location of each met mast. And then the extracted meso data is loaded into Meteodyn WT to make the downscaling computation. The parameters of CFD modeling in Meteodyn WT: the computation radius of project is 9900 meters, the length and width of meso cells defined in WT are 3000 meters during the downscaling simulation calculation because of the meos data resolution is 3 kilometers. The speed-up factors within the scope of meso cells can be uniformly processed to build a relationship with the entire 70m height interesting zone and interesting points. And then the 50m resolution wind map is computed by WT through downscaling simulation. In the CFD simulate process, the minimum horizontal resolution of mesh is 50 meters, the minimum

vertical resolution of mesh is 6 meters, the horizontal expansion coefficient is 1.1, the vertical expansion coefficient is 1.2, the verticality parameter keeps the default value 0.7, the parameter of smoothing data on whole domain also keeps the default value 1. The orography file used in Meteodyn WT is from ASTER database data, and the roughness file is from roughness database-UCL. In the whole domain, the max roughness value is 0.6. In the following figures, the red rectangles represent the four defined meso cells and the orography and roughness information of entrie project.

Figure 3. The four different meso cells defined in WT

There are sixteen sectors to simulate wind flow fields in the step of the directional computation. According to the actual measurement wind data and analysis, the prevailing wind direction is concentrated here, southwesterly winds. Therefore we added 250 degree directional computation in the sector of the prevailing wind direction in order to get more accurate results in this sector. In each directional sector the number of grid is around 6 million.

Figure 4. Directional computation result- speed up factor in whole domain in 247 degree

Figure 5. Directional computation result- speed up factor in 247 degree

The period of meso data is same with the measurement wind data, the following table provides the comparative analysis between the actual measurement values and the downscaling simulation calculation values.

Met Mast -7101 The measured wind speed value The downscaling simulation value The percentage error of wind speed % 10.04m/s 10.01m/s -0.3% Met Mast -7103 8.87m/s 8.42m/s -5.07% Met Mast -7105 9.52m/s 9.59m/s 0.73% Met Mast -7106 9.75m/s 9.25m/s -5.13%

Table 2. The error comparison between the result of downscaling simulation and the actual measurement

Figure 6. The wind-rose of the actual measurement (From left to right: 7101, 7103, 7105, 7106)

Figure 7. The wind-rose diagrams of the result of downscaling simulation (From left to right: 7101, 7103, 7105, 7106)

The simulated results and the actual measurement have the same prevailing wind direction. It can meet the requirements of the wind resource preliminary assessment for large region. The maximum error of the simulated wind speed is 5.23% in the whole computational domain, and the minimum error is just -0.3%. Meanwhile, in Meteodyn WT we do multi meso cells downscaling synthesis computation to generate wind resource mapping of the project. The following figures display the comparison between wind resource mappings of multi-met mast synthesis computation and multi-mesocells synthesessis computation. It shows that the entire trend is consistent and is a meaningful reference method in practical projects.

Figure 8. The left wind resource mapping based on multi-mast synthesis computation, and the right one based on multi-mesoscale cells downscaling synthesis computation

5. Conclusion

According to the simulation results for the practical project, it shows that the downscaling method which combines the high-resolution meso data and CFD technology is suitable under the condition of complex topography and allows getting more accurate wind power assessment over large area. It also provides references and the useful guide for met mast location selection, data compensation, increasing the representative of wind data. In addition, it is helpful for the project investment and return analysis, and to ensure the

reliability of the project development. In the future, the study will apply the finer resolution mesoscale data and re-compare with the actual measurement in order to find the suitable mesoscale resolution in the complex terrain and increase operational efficiency of the whole simulation computation for future work. During downscaling simulation the different atmospheric thermal stabilities will be considered in the future study.

References

1. 2. Meteodyn WT user manual 4.6 version Barker D., Huang W., Guo Y. R., Bourgeois A., Xiao Q. A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for MM5: Implementation and initial results[J]. Monthly Weather Review, 2004 (4): 897-914. 3. Dudhia J. A nonhydrostatic version of the Penn State-NCAR mesoscale model: Validation tests and simulation of an Atlantic cyclone and cold front[J]. Monthly Weather Review, 1993 (5): 1493-1513. 4. 5. 6. Black T. L. The new NMC mesoscale Eta model: Description and forecast examples[J]. Weather and Forecasting, 1994 (2): 265-278. Tremback C. J. Numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective complex: Model development and numerical results[J], 1990. Seaman N. L., Stauffer D. R., Lario-Gibbs A. M. A multiscale four-dimensional data assimilation system applied in the San Joaquin Valley during SARMAP. I: Modeling design and basic performance characteristics[J]. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 1995 (8): 1739-1761. 7. 8. 9. Powers J. G., Monaghan A. J., Cayette A. M., Bromwich D. H., Kuo Y. H., Manning K. W. Real-time mesoscale modeling over Antarctica[J]. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 2003: 1533-1545. Skamarock W. C., Klemp J. B., Dudhia J., Gill D. O., Barker D. M., Wang W., Powers J. G. A description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 2[R]. DTIC Document, 2005. Frederic Tremblay, Jean Marie Heurtebize. Coupling a CFD solver with a high resolution mesoscale simulation. GENIVAR. 10. Didier Delaunay, Sebastien Louineau, Emmanuel Buisson, Tristan Clarenc. A new wind atlas for the region “Provence-Alpes-Cote d’Azur”. European wind energy conference and exhibition 2009 . 11. Rong ZHU, Yanying FANG, Peng WANG, Xiaofeng HE.Study on Numerical Simulation of Wind Energy Resources on Complex Terrain Based on the Combined System of Mesoscale Model and CFD Software. 11th World Wind Energy Conference and Renewable Energy Exhibition. 12. Wu D., Matsui T., Tao W., Peters-Lidard C., Rienecker M., Hou A. Evaluation of Wrf Real-Time Forecast during MC3E Period: Sensitivity of Model Configuration for Diurnal Precipitation Variation[C], 2011: 0129. 13. Doyle J. D., Jiang Q., Chao Y., Farrara J. High-resolution real-time modeling of the marine atmospheric boundary layer in support of the AOSN-II field campaign[J]. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 2009 (3-5): 87-99. 14. Hahmann A. N., Pena A. Validation of boundary-layer winds from WRF mesoscale forecasts over Denmark[C], 2010.

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