GSM BSS Communication Flow

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Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

This unit is the second part of BSS signaling and interface analysis. In the first part, we have learnt basic knowledge of NO7 signaling; in this course, we will continue to learn BSS communication flow, and give the specific explanation based on the actual interface analysis.

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Foreword

Course Purpose:

Grasp the means of interface trace and the method of analyzing it to aid us for fault handling.

How to learn this course:

Copy the interface trace result files.

Use the maintenance console’s interface trace review function to study,

Attention:

It is strictly forbidden to use the interface tracing function when the system is busy or the system is under heavy duty.

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Contents
1. Location Update Flow 2. Call Setup (Originating) 3. Intra-BSC Handover 4. Inter-BSC Handover 5. BSC Normal Release 6. BSC Local-end Release 7. Case Analysis

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Location Update Flow

Purpose of location update:

To inform the system the LA in which the MS is to facilitate paging

When need the MS perform location update?

Getting into a new LA Periodical location update

Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

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First of all, we should know the purpose of location update: To inform the system the LA in which the MS is to facilitate paging. When need the MS perform location update? There are two cases: The first one: Getting into a new LA. This type of location update is called forced location update. The second one: regular update, it is also called periodical location update. Even if the MS doesn’t enter a new location area, GSM system will also require the MS to perform regular location update, thus to grasp the MS current status. For periodical location update, we have two relevant time parameters in GSM network. The first one is periodical location update time limit value in BSC; the second one is location update periodical parameter in MSC. First, let’s talk about periodical location update time limit value in BSC. This time limit value is sent to the MS via system message and is saved in the MS. The MS regular update is completed in accordance with periodical location update time limit value sent by BSC. For example, if periodical location update time limit value is set as one hour in BSC, the MS will update regularly per hour.

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and will not be sent to the MS via system message or other means. the MS will miss one time location update. period parameter in BSC is set as one hour. location update period in MSC should be three times or above of location update period in BSC. it may occur that the MS cannot be paged by the called when the MS is in power-on status. Therefore. When the MS is power-on.. we recommend that location update period parameter in MSC should be set as three times or above of location update period parameter in BSC. even if the MS is power-on. I. the MS will be set as forced power-off status in case that the MS misses one location update. the MS need not know the actual value of this parameter. What’s the meaning of this parameter? For example. the MS will be set as deactivation status.5 hours). this is to say. the MS can generally originate location update to MSC via A-interface. Actually. From the above explanation. MSC location update period is more than BSC location update period.e.The second parameter: MSC location update periodical parameter. 5 . for example. and the MS will be set as forced power-off. we set location update period as three hours in MSC. Generally speaking. it is set as shutdown status. In this case. if MS doesn’t perform one location update to MSC via A-interface within three hours. In some special cases. This parameter is only saved in VLR. If MS has continuously missed several times of location update. If this value is small (for example. this is to say. the MS is in lift or other network blind area when the MS is originating location update. In this case. and period parameter in MSC is set as 1. we know the meaning of location update periodical parameter in MSC and BSC are different. it will cause location update periodical parameter timer in MSC is overflow. MSC will regard the MS is power off or is out of network coverage area.

and MS will originate access message to BTS. So far. The next. it will originate “establish_IND” to BSC. Then BSC perform “channel active” on BTS. then it is transferred to the MS via BTS.Location Update Flow MS Channel_req BTS Channel_Required Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND First SABM UA Establish_IND(Location Updating Req) CR(Complete_L3_ information) CC Location Updating Accepted TMSI Reallocation Complete(NOTE 2) (NOTE 3) Clear_CMD Clear_CMP (NOTE 1) BSC MSC SABM: Set asynchronous balanced mode command——initial access frame UA: Unnumbered acknowledgement response Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.e. Ltd. Page6 In location update flow. BSC will assign this channel to the MS. 6 . I. and gets to BTS. When the MS accepts this “immediate assign command”. and it is link layer message used for the MS first time access to the new channel. the specific channel between BSC and BTS has been prepared. This command is sent from BSC.. This “establish_IND” contains the specific content—” location updating request”. and MS can accessed this channel. it will originate channel application message to BSC. MS will get the corresponding channel parameter from this command. When BTS accepts this channel request message. This signaling is called “immediate assign command”. When BTS accepts this message. All rights reserved. and BTS will perform active response “channel active ack”. This access message is called “first SABM message”.. channel required message. the first message that MS originates to base station is “Channel Request”.

Respond to CR message via CC message to establish a connection number. So far. To understand the details.. Here is a NOTE2. TMSI number of MS will also be updated. Here there is a NOTE1. This CR message contained specific information is called “complete_L3_information”.e. 3. Here we will not talk about this. when MSC accepts CR message. Please refer to “A-bis_logon” result file for specific study. At this time. and completed a normal location update process. I. MSC will perform relevant processing. In normal flow. after MSC completes the relevant processing. it can get the new number. you can analyze each message specifically in these result files. The message number in this page is the SN of the messages in the result file.2. After getting the new number. and specific content in complete L3 information is “location updating accepted”. it will return a “Location updating accepted” message. This message will finally be transmitted transparently to the MS via BSC and BTS. The specific release flow will be described later. connect request message.e. The file name is “A-bis_logon”. 10 and 11. When the MS accepts “Location updating accepted” message. This is optional. what do these numbers stand for? In the above description. 7 . “Location updating accepted” message contains a new TMSI number. I. 5. This release is completed via Clear_CMD and Clear_CMP. So far. this is called “TMSI reallocation complete” message. This message is connect-oriented message of SCCP layer. MSC will return a CC message. We also number these. and the NOTE2 is to describe that TMSI number update is optional.. Actually. it has already received MS location update request via this message. MSC has accepted “TMSI reallocation complete” message. We have complementary notes for this page: we can see the red numbers in the brackets-. In order to establish a connection number at A-interface. the MS will return a TMSI reallocation completion message to the network side. we have mentioned that we prepared some interface trace result files. and we will illustrate NOTE1 later. this is to say. a SCCP connection number has be established.Then BSC will originate connection request (called CR message) to MSC. Generally speaking. transmission channel between MS and MSC at A-interface has been established. to tell the MS that “location updating request” is accepted. when the MS is updating the location. 4. The relevant resource at A-interface will be released. 6. We can configure MSC parameters to select whether or not update MS TMSI number. connect confirmation message.

That means MSC will send transparent transfer message “Identity Request” to MS and MS will report “Identity Response” message which involves IMSI. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. After establishing the SCCP connection between BSC and MSC there might be authentication and encryption in an intact location update flow. Huawei BSS system supports encryption algorithm A5/1 and A5/2.. Identity After establishing the SCCP connection between BSC and MSC there might be authentication and encryption in an intact location update flow. That means MSC will send transparent transfer message “Identity Request” to MS and MS will report “Identity Response” message which involves IMSI. and mainly take charge of the transparent transfer of these message. authentication. Encryption. Ltd. they belong to DTAP message. identity flow is also optional. And normally authentication is mandatory and encryption is optional in practical situation. Actually. authentication and encryption are all optional. For Huawei MSC. Huawei BSS system supports encryption algorithm A5/1 and A5/2. When does the identity flow occur? The ID in Est_IND message reported by the MS is TMSI. When VLR cannot identify the TMSI or TMSI authentication fails. MSC will start Identification flow. MSC will start Identification flow. When VLR cannot identify the TMSI or TMSI authentication fails. authentication and encryption are all optional. Page8 Now we will give the description for NOTE1 of location update flow. Identification: The ID in Est_IND message reported by the MS is TMSI. this is to say. And normally authentication is mandatory and encryption is optional in practical situation.NOTE 1: Authentication. 8 . In addition. For Huawei MSC. encryption and identity are some transparent transfer messages in case that we view from BSS side. BSC and BTS will not translate these message.

. To know more detailed refer to the BSC Normal Release Flow. If MSC chooses “Reallocate TMSI during location update” to “No”. . Page9 In location update flow. in this flow we have simplified the release flow. In NOTE3.NOTE 2 To reallocate TMSI or not during location update is optional in MSC. This is to say. This is to illustrate: when occurring location update in MSC. 9 . MSC will not send new TMSI number for the MS Reviewing the above flow. MS will not report “TMSI Reallocation Complete” message. the MSC can reallocate TMSI number for MS. All rights reserved. we can see that it is actually “location updating accepted” message without newly-allocated TMSI. If this parameter is set as “No”. when the location updates. or not reallocate TMSI number and keep the original number. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. we can see a NOTE2. This selection is completed at MSC side. Ltd. There is a parameter called “To allocated TMSI or not during location update”. t o reallocate TMSI or not during location update is optional in MSC.

. Ltd. when the location updates. Page10 In location update flow. we can see a NOTE2. There is a parameter called “To allocated TMSI or not during location update”. In NOTE3. This is to illustrate: when occurring location update in MSC. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.NOTE3 In this flow we have simplified the release flow. To know more detailed refer to the BSC Normal Release Flow. If this parameter is set as “No”. or not reallocate TMSI number and keep the original number. MSC will not send new TMSI number for the MS Reviewing the above flow. To know more detailed refer to the BSC Normal Release Flow. we can see that it is actually “location updating accepted” message without newly-allocated TMSI. . All rights reserved. t o reallocate TMSI or not during location update is optional in MSC. the MSC can reallocate TMSI number for MS. This selection is completed at MSC side. in this flow we have simplified the release flow. This is to say. 10 .

B. In the above three occasions. location updating rejected.e. this is to say. Communication failed between MSC and VLR. C. Communication failed between MSC and VLR.. i. location update will be rejected. Page11 Now let’s talk about location updating abnormal occasions. All rights reserved. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. 11 .Abnormal Occasion BSC receives “Location Updating Rejected” message from MSC. The possible reason is listed below: A. MS has not been registered in HLR. MS has not been registered in HLR.. MSC has not configured the CGI which has been configured in BSC. MSC will send “Location Updating Rejected” message. The possible reason is listed below: MSC has not configured the CGI which has been configured in BSC.

BSC Normal Release 6. Intra-BSC Handover 4. Inter-BSC Handover 5. All rights reserved. Ltd. Location Update Flow 2. BSC Local-end Release 7.Contents 1. Page12 12 .. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Call Setup (Originating) 3.

this is called initialization access message. then it will adjust its work channel to the target channel. Then BSC can assign this target channel. the MS generally accesses BTS on RACH. What is the channel type of the target channel activated and assigned by BSC? In the normal flow. random access channel. Then BTS will forward this message. After BTS activates this channel. it will return a “channel active”. it will return a “Channel active ACK”. and one SDCCH channel is assigned in AGCH channel. “Immediate Assign Command” message is sent to the MS via AGCH channel. “Channel required” between BTS and BSC is called channel application. this is to say.Call Setup Flow (Originating) MS Channel_req BSC MSC Channel_Required Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND First SABM Establish_IND(CM Service Req) CR(Complete_L3_information) UA CC (NOTE 1) CM Service Accepted Setup Call Processing (NOTE 2) Assignment_Req Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack ASSIGNMENT COMMAND First SABM Establish_IND UA ASSIGNMENT CMP Assignment_CMP Alerting Connect Connect Ack Conversation (NOTE 3) Disconnect Release Release Complete Clear_CMD (NOTE 4) Clear_CMP BTS Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. it will know its target channel. After BSC receives “Channel required”. we can see “Channel required” at A-bis interface. Then BSC will generally activate SDCCH channel—stand-alone dedicated control channel. Page13 The first message sent by MS on Um interface when the MS originates a call is ‘Channel Required ’ . All rights reserved. We can understand “Channel_req” as channel request. and send one “first SABM”. After MS receives this message. 13 . This is to attempt to access link layer of target channel. Ltd. and this signaling message is called “Immediate Assign Command”. which has a very important information—BSC’s description of target channel activated by BTS.

perform number analysis according to the called number. and this service channel assignment is before Alerting tone. Normally. MSC will send one CM service accepted to BSC and BTS. and very early assignment. we will talk about this later . When BSC receives “Assignment request”. there is a MS class mark update flow for dualband MS. There is a NOTE2 at this place. late assignment. Then there is a NOTE1. Meanwhile. 14 . For example. then load CM service request message to MSC. For example.After BTS receives SABM access message. Its features are: when MS firstly applies channel. These three flows are all optional. The assignment methods are: early assignment. which contains the called number. Here in NOTE1. and then the system will assign TCH channel or service channel. CM service request is call management service request. This assignment is completed via “Assignment request”. After MSC receives this “step up” message. it will perform relevant processing according to the called number and other relevant information. an A-interface circuit is asigned with the information of CIC number (circuit identification code) relevant performance description. This is early assignment method. and this is used for establishing SCCP connection at A-interface. MSC can assign relevant circuit resources at A-interface according to the relevant service information. which contains A-interface circuit resources. and this means that MS CM service has been accepted. We will talk about this later for details. BSC will send one “Channel active”. In NOTE2. which is actually to describe that there are several tasks when MSC receives CM service request: authentication. BSC will send one “connect request” message to MSC. to tell BTS that BSC target channel is well established and SDCCH channel is connected. it will respond a “Connect confirm”. When BSC receives Establish_IND message sent by BTS. and perform routing selection. after MSC receives connect request. This establish_IND channel contains CM service request. Early assignment is used in this flow. Connect request has two functions: Establish SCCP connection number. And early assignment is the most frequently adopted in GSM system. encryption and identification. then the MS will send one “step up”. the assignment has certain rules when MS is applying service or logging on the network. then CM service request comes. it will assign SDCCH channel. BTS will generate an Establish_IND—establishing indication. and we have illustrated at the above location update flow.

the network side will send one “connect” command to the caller MS to indicate that the called is hanged-up. Now it formally start the conversation. 15 . the called will feed back one “Alerting” message (one ringback voice) to its network side. Please note this difference. After it gets to BSC. and the radio link L2 is established via the response of “first SABM” and “UA frame”. the relevant circuit resources at the caller side is prepared. “Immediate Assignment command” is used as assigning SDCCH. Then the caller side MSC will send ringback voice “Alerting” to the MS (here Alerting is realized via signaling method). BSC will transparently transfer this signaling to MSC. If the called begins ringing. it will send one “connect” message. and wait for the called to hang up. the MS will send one assignment completion command. Here “Assignment command” message is used. After the MS receives Alerting message. it will know the telephone is connected. it will send “first SABM” at the new target channel. Then BSC will send “Assignment command” to the MS. The next is release flow. If the called is hanged up. BSC activates one TCH channel or service channel via “Channel active”. BTS will send “Establish_IND” (establishment indication).Now let’s talk about early assignment method flow. BTS will feed back one “channel active ACK” confirmation message to BSC. Meanwhile. BTS will respond UA frame to it. Now the caller MS will send one “Connect ACK” connection confirmation message. After MS receives “Assignment command”. Therefore. When will it enter into conversation? It mainly lies in the called wait ringing. and this sending is completed at L2 link layer of TCH channel. this is called “assignment complete” message. In the above. we will elaborate this later. After the MS receives this Alerting message. When MS receives UA frame.

and is to describe that MSC can have several processing flows when BSC sends CM service request. See Note 1 in Location Update Flow. after the SCCP connection is established and before receiving message “CM service Accepted”. Class mark update flow: For dual-band MS. Then MS will send one “Classmark change”. These flows are the same as location update of NOTE1. MSC will send one “Classmark request” message. CR message reports the information of class mark 2.NOTE 1: Class Mark Update Flow 1. Authentication. there will be a class mark update flow. All rights reserved. Firstly. Page16 The MS caller call flow has several notes. Class mark update flow. This is class mark request. 1. 16 . authentication is generally mandatory. CR message reports the information of class mark 2. MS will report class mark 3 information which is related to the dual-band capabilty. MS will report class mark 3 information which is related to the dual-band capability. identification are optional. Ltd. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. 2.. then BSC will convert this message into “Classmark enquiry”. Authentication. Here the class mark update is to make MSC get MS class mark 3. For dual-band MS. encrytion. it is NOTE1. MSC can get the MS class mark 3 via this message. Class mark is originated by MSC. And in the class mark update flow. And in the class mark update flow. encryption and identification are all optional. and convert it into “Classmark update” at BSS. Therefore. In actual network. MSC needs class mark update to get the MS class mark 3. 2. after the SCCP connection is established and before receiving message "CM Service Accepted" there will be a class mark update flow.

What are the features of early assignment. this is to say. After that. In Immediate Assignment. Early assignment method should meet the two requirements: (i). Late Assignment MSC sends “Assignment_Req” after ”Alerting”. This is to say. and then assign TCH channel. the MS TCH channel is not sent at “assignment request” message. The second channel assignment method is late assignment: MSC sends “Assignment_Req” after “Alerting”. and BSS will prepare BSS side voice circuit. Early Assignment MSC sends “Assignment_Req” before “Alerting”. BSC will not assign new channel but perform “Mode Modify” flow. Very Early Assignment Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.NOTE 2: Assignment Method Very Early Assignment In “IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND ” . In the above courses. but sent at “Immediate assignment request” message. MSC will assign A-interface circuit. Thus very early assignment is completed. after “Alerting”. BSC will not assign new channel but perform “Mode_Modify” flow. late assignment and very early assignment? 17 . MSC sends “Assignment_Req” before “Alerting”. MS will report “Assignment _CMP” message to MSC. Firstly assign SDCCH channel. The third method is very early assignment. TCH is directly assigned. the MS need perform relevant signaling exchange. In interface tracing flow. When MSC sends “Assignment _Req” message. After “Mode Modify”. late assignment and very early assignment.TCH is directly assigned. Ltd. All rights reserved. Early assignment is a frequently used method. In this case. Channel assignment methods in case of MS caller or called are: early assignment. (ii) Assignment of TCH channel is before ringback voice. When MSC sends “Assignment _Req” message.. we have learnt early assignment. Page17 NOTE2 of MS caller flow is to illustrate channel assignment methods. MS will report “Assignment _CMP” message to MSC.

is modified to transfer voice. this is to say. TCH is loaded with a lot of signaling information. finally. and the second is channel utilization ratio. the TCH channel. For very early assignment. 18 . all of the radio resource has been prepared. and the message is called “Mode Modify”. i. This slide also gives some descriptions on very early assignment flow. we use early assignment method more frequently in actual application. and ringback voice also comes. therefore. connection interruption. But it may occur that immediate assignment is completed and assignment fails (due to unavailable TCH channel) during connection. very early assignment success ratio is very high. This flow is very early assignment method. there will not be interruption caused by the shortage of radio resource. because the MS assign TCH channel immediately as originating call. which is previously used for transfering signaling. early assignment channel utilization ratio is higher.We will consider this from two aspects: one is connection success ratio. then MS will respond “Channel Mode Modify ACK”. TCH channel utilization ratio is lower. Compared with the aforementioned two methods. For above reasons. After these messages. if “Immediate assign command” can assign TCH channel. assign TCH channel in case of immediate assignment. and then BTS’s response is called “Mode Modify ACK”. Compared with very early assignment. some time is occupied by signaling and this part of time cannot be charged. It is very simple. After ringback information. then BSC will modify channel mode in case that “Assignment request” message of MSC is sent. BSC modifies MS channel mode at radio interface. TCH channel utilization ratio of late assignment is highest. it will assign service channel.e. In another sight of view. This may easily occur the following case: signaling flow of network side is successful. this is called “Channel Mode Modify”. Firstly. conversation and connection is not successful.

and it may be in fault status. The CIC assigned by the MSC is not idle in BSC. Possible reason: A.Abnormal Situation Abnormal Occasion 1: MSC has sent “Assignment_Req” and BSC does not send “ASSIGNMENT CMD” but sends a “Assignment_Fail” message. Page19 Abnormal Situation in case of MS originating call flow: Abnormal Occasion 1: MSC has sent “Assignment_Req” and BSC does not send “ASSIGNMENT CMD” but sends a “Assignment_Fail” message. Ltd. Possible reasons: A. B. All rights reserved. Abnormal Occasion2: BSC has sent “ASSIGNMENT CMD message but MS sends “ASSIGNMENT FAIL”. 19 . BSC has not available TCH. B. BSC has not available TCH. The CIC assigned by the MSC is not idle in BSC.. Possible reason: Downlink bit error rate is too high. Possible reason: Downlink bit error rate is too high. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Abnormal Occasion2: BSC has sent “ASSIGNMENT CMD message but MS sends “ASSIGNMENT FAIL”.

BSC Normal Release 6.. Inter-BSC Handover 5. BSC Local-end Release 7. Intra-BSC Handover 4. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page20 20 .Contents 1. Location Update Flow 2. Call Setup (Originating) 3. All rights reserved.

such as poor quality of voice. or handover from one cell to another cell within the same BSC. BSC can get the causes that trigger this handover. MS handover is from BTS2 to BTS1 and the two BTS are in the same BSC. The MS will report measurement report to BSC during conversation.. Supposing that BSC finds the handover target cell is in another BTS. Page21 The third call flow is Intra-BSC handover. From these measurement result. lower receiving level. inter-BSC handover. this is to say. etc. Inter-BSC handover can be sub-divided into intra-MSC handover and inter-MSC handover. intra-BSC handover.Intra-BSC Handover MS BTS1 BSC BTS2 Measure Report from MS Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack HANDOVER COMMAND Handover Access (NOTE 1) PHYINFO PHYINFO First SABM UA MS MSC Handover_Detect Establish_IND HANDOVER COMPLETE Handover_Performed (NOTE 2) Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. There are many handovers. The typical handover is intra-BSC handover. interference or equipment fault. let’s study intra-BSC handover flow. All rights reserved. or network load. this is to say. Ltd. and BTS2 will also report measurement result to BSC. 21 . What’s the handover for? There are many causes. Above all. such as. the MS handover from one base station to another base station. etc.

The previous MS conversation at BTS2 has some A-bis interface login and other resources. BSC shall start the previous channel release flow at the same time. it will send an Establish_IND. TCH channel link layer is established via SABM and UA frame. it will get the relevant parameters of the target channel such as frequent point number. BTS shall send a “Handover_performed” to MSC. The first message sent by the MS in the target channel is called “handover access”. In asynchronous handover. BSC shall send the relevant message of the new TCH channel to the MS. When BTS1 receives SABM. and this is also a initialization access frame. the channel resources will not be used. The sending of this message is completed in the previous TCH channel. and these problems are described in NOTE2. the MS will forward these to the new target channel. thus the handover is completed. thus a new TCH channel is established via these two messages. BTS will also return a UA frame to confirm the SABM. and this is mainly to illustrate the difference between synchronous handover and asynchronous handover. BTS1 will send “physical information” frame to the MS. and BSC starts the localend release flow. 22 . etc. The flow in the slide is asynchronous handover. NOTE2 is to illustrate that BSC will start the local-end release flow for the previous channel. Then BSC will send a “channel active” to the new target BTS.Firstly. it will send one “first SABM”. When MS receives UA frame. and notify BSC that the handover is detected. time slot number. it will convert this into “handover detect”. it is handover trigger. But this initialization access frame is sent at the target channel. for MSC internal statistics. and then BTS will return one “channel active ACK”. The next is NOTE1. and it is L2 information. After the MS receives “handover command”. MS will also send a “handover complete”. and the release cause: after the handover is completed. After MS receives the “physical information” frame. because the previous TCH channel is still occupied by the MS. After BTS1 receives this message. and the message is called “handover command”. When the handover is completed. and this flow is the same as the above.

. Thus the target BTS shall send PHY INFO message. Intra-BSC synchronous handover: BTS1 and BTS2 belong to the same BTS. MS will send SABM directly. In such occasion there will not be PHY INFO message. Actually they are two cells of one BTS.NOTE1:Asynchronous Handover and Synchronous Handover Intra-BSC asynchronous handover: BTS1 and BTS2 do not belong to the same BTS. All rights reserved. Page23 23 . Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. After “Handover Access” message. Ltd.

NOTE2 After reporting “Handover_Performed” message to MSC. All rights reserved.. Page24 24 . Ltd. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. BSC will start the local-end release flow for the previous channel (in BTS 2).

All rights reserved. 25 .. Its causing value is “handover access failure”. When BSC receives this message. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. BTS1 will send CONN FAIL IND message. there is an abnormal occasion: In case of intra-BSC asynchronous handover. when BTS1 (new cell) has sent PHY INFO message to the maximum time but still can’t the MS access the new channel. When BSC receives this message. BTS1 will send CONN FAIL IND message. Ltd. Page25 In intra-BSC handover flow. it will start localend release flow to release the new channel in BTS1. when BTS1 has sent PHY INFO message to the maximum time but the MS still can’t access the new channel. it will start local-end release flow to release the channel in BTS1. Its causing value is “handover access failure”.Abnormal Occasion In case of intra-BSC asynchronous handover.

All rights reserved. Intra-BSC Handover 4.. BSC Local-end Release 7. Page26 26 . Inter-BSC Handover 5. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Call Setup (Originating) 3. BSC Normal Release 6. Location Update Flow 2.Contents 1.

Generally speaking. and then the target BSC will return “Handover_request ACK”. then BSC1 send “Handover_required” to MSC. Ltd. For synchronous handover. The MS will send SABM to the target channel.Inter-BSC Handover MS BTS1 BSC1 (NOTE 1) Measure Report from MS Handover_Required Handover_Request Channel_Active Channel_Active_Ack Handover_Request_Ack Handover_CMD HANDOVER COMMAND Handover_Detect Handover_Detect Handover Access PHY INFO PHY INFO First SABM Establish_INO Clear_CMD Clear_CMP Handover_Cmp MSC BSC2 BTS2 MS UA HANDOVER COMPLETE (NOTE 2) Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. it is measure report. the MS can directly handover to the new channel and send “handover_access” message for direct access. 27 . inter-MSC handover are asynchronous handover. Message at A-interface during inter-BSC handover is large. to report to MSC that a handover is successfully completed. the previous MSC will send channel number and relevant handover parameters in “handover_request ACK” message to the MS via “handover command”. Inter-BSC handover”. Here let’s have a look at A-interface: first of all. Now the MS will access via the new channel after receiving “handover_command”. the new BTS2 will send “PHY INFO”. many of messages at Ainterface are transparent transfer message.. At this time. All rights reserved. the previous BSC will report the relevant message to MSC and MSC will transit this to the new BSC. Page27 Now let’s study “IV. MSC will send “handover_request” to the target BSC. target BSC will perform “channel_active” to prepare the channel. when there is a new BSC. We have learnt intra-BSC handover flow. What are the differences of the two flows: Message at A-interface during intra-BSC handover is very few. and wait for BTS feed back UA frame for confirmation. this is to say. and only “handover_performed” is sent to MSC after completing handover. for inter-BSC handover.

Here many A-interface messages are involved. it will send a “handover_complete” to BSC2. and are transparently transferred to the target BSC via A-interface (or transferred from the target BSC to the previous BSC). it will send “establish_IND” to the target BSC (BSC2). then BSC1 (the previous BSC) will release the local-end resources. Compared with intra-BSC handover flow. This is inter-BSC handover flow. then BSC2 will send “handover_complete” message to MSC. After the MS receives the UA. We have not saved the trace result files of inter-BSC handover due to lab environment. the message content are basically the same. and MSC will clear the previous A-interface resources. Please refer to intra-BSC handover to see the internal message.After the target BTS receives SABM. 28 .

.NOTE1: Two Different Handover Occasions of Inter-BSC Handover Intra-MSC inter-BSC Handover: Two BSCs belong to the same MSC. this is to say. two BSCs do not belong to the same MSC. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. The A-interface messages are the same for the two occasions above. therefore. this is to say. 29 . intraMSC inter-BSC Handover. The A-interface trace messages are same for the two occasions above. Inter-MSC Handover: Two BSCs do not belong to the same MSC. Now the release flow is completed by BSC1. Ltd. BSC doesn’t know whether the handover target cell are in the same MSC. the processing flow of the two occasions for BSC are totally the same. and this is called local-end release flow. NOTE2: When BSC1 receives Clear_CMD message from MSC. Inter-MSC Handover. (ii). two BSCs belong to the same MSC. Page29 Inter-BSC handover has two notes: NOTE1: two different handover occasions of inter-BSC handover: (i). All rights reserved. it will start local-end release flow for the previously occupied channel in BTS1.

NOTE2 When BSC1 receives Clear_CMD message from MSC. NOTE2: When BSC1 receives Clear_CMD message from MSC. The A-interface trace messages are same for the two occasions above. this is to say. BSC doesn’t know whether the handover target cell are in the same MSC. two BSCs belong to the same MSC. intraMSC inter-BSC Handover. therefore. Page30 Inter-BSC handover has two notes: NOTE1: two different handover occasions of inter-BSC handover: (i). the processing flow of the two occasions for BSC are totally the same. Ltd. two BSCs do not belong to the same MSC. it will start local-end release flow for the previously occupied channel in BTS1.. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Inter-MSC Handover. it will start local-end release flow for the previously occupied channel in BTS1. 30 . (ii). this is to say. Now the release flow is completed by BSC1. All rights reserved. and this is called local-end release flow.

Ltd. Page31 31 . BSC Normal Release 6. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.. BSC Local-end Release 7. All rights reserved.Contents 1. Inter-BSC Handover 5. Call Setup (Originating) 3. Intra-BSC Handover 4. Location Update Flow 2.

Page32 Now we will study “V. we make labels of the number at each message for the corresponding result file. MSC will send “disconnect” to the caller MS. call control management layer resource is firstly released. MM and RR. In the above basic course. let’s have a look at BSC normal release flow. the “disconnect” message is sent to the caller from MSC. 32 . this is to say. All rights reserved. In case of off-hook. the first message is “disconnect” message. BSC Normal Release Flow”. Ltd. to release the relevant resources. The reference file is “A-bis_whole”.BSC Normal Release Flow MS BTS (NOTE 1) Disconnect Release Release Complete Clear_CMD CHANNEL RELEASE Deactive_SACCH First DISC UA Release_IND RF_Release_Req RF_Release_Req_ACK Clear_CMP BSC MSC Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. if the MS is the caller. In the above Figure. After the three messages. Local-end release flow: BSC performs local-end release after handover is completed and the original resources will not be used. the release of CC resources (call control management resources) between MSC and MS is completed. the caller MS will return a “release”.. BSC performs normal release after the conversation is over and the channel will not be used. and MSC will return a “release complete”. and this message indicates that the release flow is for the called terminal off-hook initiatively. Here the release is CC resources. Firstly of all. we have mentioned that the application layer mainly has CC. There is another flow called local-end release flow. in off-hook flow. What is BSC normal release flow? Actually. after the called terminal offhook initiatively.

after BTS receives “deactive SACCH”. first of all. for releasing L2 link resource between MS and base station. then BTS will return a UA frame.After the higher resources between the MS and MSC is released. 33 . At A-bis interface. for releasing SACCH logic channel of BTS. a “channel release” is sent to the MS. MSC will send a “clear command” message to release A-interface circuit resource. Then. the MS will send a “disconnect” message. it will respond a “RF_release_req_ACK”. BSC will send a “RF_release_req (RF resources release request). it will release the relevant TCH and SACCH logic channel. we will talk about UM interface: when MS receives “channel release” message. and also for releasing TCH channel related to SACCH. thus the relevant resources are completely released. BSC will start channel release. and this message is transparently transferred by BTS. after BSC receives “clear command” message sent from MSC. Here we will talk about UM interface and A-bis interface. this “disconnect” and UA is L2 message. and it is RR layer message. and respond a “release_IND” to BSC. Finally. for releasing RR layer resources of the MS. for releasing RF resource of BTS. BSC will return a “clear complete” to indicate that the resources at A-interface is released completely. First of all. after BTS release is completed. BSC will send a “deactive SACCH” message.

. NSS originating release. “release” and “release complete”. In these two different occasions. All rights reserved. all the messages are same except the direction of the first 3 messages. NOTE1 is the notes for two occasions of release: (i). Page34 In BSC normal release flow. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. 34 . (ii). Ltd. there is a NOTE1. The three different directions messages are “disconnect”.NOTE1:Two Occasions of Release NSS originating release MS originating release In these two different occasions all the messages are the same except the direction of the first 3 messages. MS originating release.

Intra-BSC Handover 4. Inter-BSC Handover 5. Ltd. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.Contents 1. Page35 35 . BSC Local-end Release 7. All rights reserved.. Call Setup (Originating) 3. Location Update Flow 2. BSC Normal Release 6.

Page36 Now we will talk about “VI. we seldom analyze local-end release flow. We have talked about the cause of BSC local-end release flow: after the MS is handover to the new channel.Local-end Release Flow MS BTS BSC MSC Deactive_SACCH Release_Req(LOCAL END) (NOTE 1) Release_Confirm RF_Release_Req RF_Release_Req_ACK Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. We also make labels of the number on each message. If you want to further analyze BSC local-end release flow. All rights reserved. and it seldom has problem. and to release relevant TCH channel at the same time. to release SACCH logic channel. thus local-end release is completed. You can refer to the contents of the relevant message. Ltd. which includes the causing value of local end release. you can refer to “A-bis_whole” corresponding result. and BSC will originate the release. The second message is “release request”. The first message is “deactive SACCH”. 36 .. The next is “RF_release_req”. then BTS will respond “RF_ release_req_ACK”. Local-end Release Flow”. because the release flow is fixedly performed inside BSC. BTS will respond a “release confirm”. the previous channel will not be used again. In actual maintenance.

.Contents 1. Ltd. BSC Local-end Release 7. Inter-BSC Handover 5. BSC Normal Release 6. Case Analysis Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Call Setup (Originating) 3. Intra-BSC Handover 4. All rights reserved. Location Update Flow 2. Page37 37 .

.Case Description BSC’s ASSIGNMENT CMD message has been sent but the BTS sends several EST IND messages. Later MS sends ASSIGNMENT FAIL message and the causing value is Protocol error unspecified. Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. Page38 Typical case analysis: BSC’s ASSIGNMENT CMD message has been sent. 38 . Ltd. Later MS sends ASSIGNMENT FAIL message and the causing value is Protocol error unspecified. but the BTS sends several EST IND messages. All rights reserved.

and the BTS reports many EST IND messages. 39 . Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. And this causes that MS reports many SABM frame. it will report an EST IND message to BSC. BTS can decode the SABM frame sent by MS but MS cannot decode the UA frame sent by BTS. And this causes that the BTS reports many EST IND messages.Case Analysis By analyzing the messages we can find that MS has reported several EST IND messages before ASSIGNMENT FAIL message. All rights reserved. BTS can decode the SABM frame sent by MS but MS cannot decode the UA frame sent by BTS. When BTS receives a SABM frame.. we can find that MS has reported several EST IND message before ASSIGNMENT FAIL message. So we know now that the MS must have sent many SABM frames to the BTS. but the downlink level is poor. When BTS receives a SABM frame it will report an EST IND message to BSC. So we know now that the MS must have sent many SABM frame to the BTS. Page39 Fault analysis By analyzing the messages. Ltd. We can conclude: MS uplink level in the newly required TCH channel is good.

the main reason might be the pure downlink receiving power level or receiving quality.. and find that connection between TRX and SCU (CDU) is loosen. Connection between TRX and SCU (CDU). but can’t succeed. In order to verify our conclusion. we perform the following: In the lab we can simulate. Trace the A-bis signaling we can find that BTS sends several EST IND messages to BSC for the newly assigned TCH but can’t succeed. 40 . Thus it verifies that our conclusion is correct. Disconnect the TX antenna to make poor downlink receiving power level or receiving quality. the main reason might be the poor downlink receiving power level or receiving quality. and trace the A-bis signaling. After fixed it. In the field when it appears many ASSIGNMENT FAIL messages. the above fault disappear. And then MS sends ASSIGNMENT FAIL via the previous SDCCH and the causing value is “Protocol error unspecified”. Disconnect the TX antenna to make the downlink signal pure. the field personnel check the BTS. Conclusion: In the practical field. Finally. when many ASSIGNMENT FAIL messages appear. And then MS sends ASSIGNMENT FAIL via the previous SDCCH and the causing value is “Protocol error unspecified”. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page40 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.Case Analysis Case realize: In the lab we can simulate. we can find that BTS sends several EST IND messages to BSC for the newly assigned TCH.

there is a “power class” parameter. and its transmitting power is 2W or 33dBm. 41 . power class 1 2 3 4 5 GSM900 Max peak power ------ DCS1800 Max peak power 1W(30dBm) 0. transmitting power has a tolerance. and its transmitting power is 1W or 30dBm.25W(24dBm) Tolerance(dB) _normal +/-2 2 2 2 2 Tolerance(dB) _extreme +/-2. In MS classmark.5 5W(37dBm) 2W(33dBm) 0. the new MS is phase 2 MS. All rights reserved. we often see the MS classmark.Appendix: Power Class Phase 2 MS output Power Class and the exact power relations.. the tolerance is generally 2dB and the extreme is 2. Now let’s talk about Phase 2 MS output Power Class and the exact power relations. MS power class is to stand for MS max transmitting power.5 2. Ltd. Generally speaking. Power class of 1800M MS is generally 1.5 2. power class of 900M MS is generally 4. In different power classes. Page41 In the above interface trace.5dB.5 2.5 2.8W(29dBm) 4W(36dBm) Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co.

For 1800M MS. Here we will focus on Phase 2 MS Power control level and the exact power relations. and each MS has its own fixed power class. we can often see another important parameter— power control level. or power level. Max transmitting power of 900M MS is generally 2W. MS “power level” can be adjusted by power control algorithms. and this is subject to the distance between MS and base station. power control level 0-2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19-31 output power (dBm) 39 37 35 33 31 29 27 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 Tolerance _normal (dB) 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 Tolerance _extreme (dB) 2. the value will be adjusted down from 5. MS power class is a static parameter.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 Power control level 29 30 31 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15-28 output power (dBm) 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Tolerance _normal (dB) 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 Tolerance _extreme (dB) 2. power class is 4.Power Control Level Phase 2 MS Power control level and the exact power relations. Page42 In power control. this is to say. As performing power control.. In the front page. its power control level is generally 5. etc. Ltd. transmission condition. All rights reserved.5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co. its transmitting power is 33dBm. its max transmitting power is 1W (30dBm). we have talked about power class. so its max power control level value is 5. Power level is adjustable. This parameter is called MS power level. Power control is to control power level of MS and base station. 42 .

the tolerance are different. and max tolerance is 4dB or 5dB. 43 . For different power level. MS transmitting power will lower down 2 dB.e. when power control level increase one level. and 3. For 900M MS and 1800M MS. I. when power control level increase one level. power control level error. MS transmitting power will lower down 2 dB. its power control level should be below 0. There is a tolerance problem.. the general tolerance is 3 dB. 2. 1. For 1800M MS.Let’s have a look at the right part of the film.

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