Multiple intensive care unit outbreak of Acinetobac... [Am J Med. 1988] - PubMed - NCBI


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Am J Med. 1988 Nov;85(5):624-31.

Multiple intensive care unit outbreak of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus respiratory infection and colonization associated with contaminated, reusable ventilator circuits and resuscitation bags.
Hartstein AI1, Rashad AL, Liebler JM, Actis LA, Freeman J, Rourke JW Jr, Stibolt TB, Tolmasky ME, Ellis GR, Crosa JH.

Author information Abstract
PURPOSE: Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subspecies anitratus (A. anitratus) can cause nosocomially and community acquired pneumonia. Source identification of the organism is often difficult. An outbreak of respiratory infection and colonization with A. anitratus affecting 93 ventilated patients in all six of a hospital's intensive care units (ICUs) over 10 months is described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In April 1984, the infection control staff started to review positive culture results from all patients in all ICUs. At this point, information on significant isolates was recorded by patient, site, date, genus and species, and antimicrobial susceptibility. During the month of August 1984, an increased number of A. anitratus isolates from sputum began to be detected. Information was expanded to include the date of hospital admission, ICU admission, intubation, and extubation; the dates and types of all surgical procedures; the results and dates of all prior sputum cultures; and the use of nebulized bronchodilator medications. Monthly numbers of cases were compared for four months prior to the outbreak, during the outbreak, and for seven months after the outbreak. Plasmid DNA from isolates was prepared, electrophoresed, and visualized. Isolates were designated according to the molecular weights of visualized plasmids. RESULTS: Barrier precautions and improved staff handwashing did not diminish the frequency of new cases. When pasteurized, reusable ventilator circuits and resuscitation bags were cultured for the possibility of low-level contamination, 18 percent were positive for A. anitratus. Terminal ethylene oxide sterilization of these devices was associated with prompt control of the outbreak. Plasmid DNA analysis of isolates from patients involved in the outbreak, contaminated devices, and the hands of personnel responsible for device disinfection revealed two predominant plasmid profiles. After outbreak control, isolates with these profiles were found much less frequently in patient specimens. CONCLUSION: Contaminated, reusable ventilator support equipment may be a leading cause for the extent of A. anitratus in the sputum of intubated patients. This problem is potentially correctable by the use of terminal etyhlene oxide sterilization of reusable ventilator circuits and resuscitation bags.
PMID: 3189366 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



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