Anita Desai

Anita Desai was born in 1935 in Delhi to a German mother and a Bengali father. She grew up speaking German at home and Bengali, rdu, !indi and "nglish at s#hool and in the #it$ streets. She has said that she grew up surrounded b$ %estern literature and musi#, not reali&ing until she was older that this was an anomal$ in her world where she also learned the "astern #ulture and #ustoms. She married a businessman at twent$'one and raised se(eral #hildren before be#oming known for her writing. !er first book, Cry,the Peacock was published in "ngland in 19)3, and her better known no(els in#lude In Custody *19+,- and Baumgartner's Bombay*19++-. She on#e wrote. /0 see 0ndia through m$ mother1s e$es, as an outsider, but m$ feelings for 0ndia are m$ father1s, of someone born here/ *Griffiths-. She ne(er #onsidered tr$ing to first publish in 0ndia be#ause there was no publisher in 0ndia who would be interested in fi#tion b$ an 0ndian writer *2ussawalla- and it was first in "ngland that her work be#ame noti#ed. .S. readers were slower to dis#o(er her, due, she belie(es to "ngland1s natural interest in 0ndia and the .S.1s la#k of #omprehension regarding the foreignness of her sub3e#t. But Desai onl$ writes in "nglish. 4his, she has repeatedl$ said,was a natural and un#ons#ious #hoi#e for her. /0 #an state definitel$ that 0 did not #hoose "nglish in a deliberate and #ons#ious a#t and 01d sa$ perhaps it was the language that #hose me and 0 started writing stories in "nglish at the age of se(en, and ha(e been doing so for thirt$ $ears now without stopping to think wh$ /*Desai-. She is #onsidered the writer who introdu#ed the ps$#hologi#al no(el in the tradition of 5irginia %oolf to 0ndia. 0n#luded in this, is her pioneer status of writing of feminist issues. %hile man$ people toda$ would not #lassif$ her work as feminist, she belie(es this is due to #hanging times. /4he feminist mo(ement in 0ndia is (er$ new and a $ounger generation of readers in 0ndia tends to be rather impatient of m$ books and to think of them as books about #ompletel$ helpless women, hopeless women. 4he$ find it somewhat unreal that the women don1t fight ba#k, but the$ don1t seem to reali&e how (er$ new this mo(ement is/ *2ussawalla-. Also, she sa$s, her writing is realisti#. /%omen think 0 am doing a disser(i#e to the feminist mo(ement b$ writing about women who ha(e no #ontrol o(er their li(es. But 0 was tr$ing, as e(er$ writer tries to do, e(en in fi#tion, to get at the truth, write the truth. 0t would ha(e been reall$ fan#iful if 0 had made 6for e7ample, in Clear Light of Day8 Bim and 4ara modern'da$ feminists /*in Griffiths-. Desai #onsiders Clear Light of Day, her most autobiographi#al book, be#ause she was writing about her neighborhood in Delhi, although the #hara#ters are not based on her brothers and sisters. %hat she was e7ploring in this no(el, she has said, was the importan#e of #hildhood and memories as the sour#e of a life. She had wanted to start the book at the end and mo(e ba#kwards, into the #hara#ters1 #hildhood and further,

into the #hildhood of their parents et#., but in the end. /%hen 0 had gone as far ba#k as their infan#$ the book 3ust ground to a halt9 it lost its momentum. 0t told me that this was done, that 0 #ouldn1t #arr$ it further. But 0 still ha(e a sense of disappointment about that book, be#ause the intention had been different/ *2ussawalla-. 4he #hara#ter of :a3a is identified with her in the sense that he is so immersed in all different t$pes of literature and #ulture, and is so #on#erned with prote#ting the multi#ultural heritage of 0ndia. !is worries about the ;uslim neighbor famil$ is not 3ust about them parti#ularl$, but rather worr$ about the loss of all that the ;uslim #ulture and literature #ontributes to 0ndia. %hile Desai has taught for $ears at ;ount !ol$oke and ;04, and spends most of the $ear outside of 0ndia, she does not #onsider herself part of the 0ndian Diaspora. Although she does not fit in the 0ndian bo7 an$more *Griffiths- as she said, she #onsiders herself lu#k$ for ha(ing not left 0ndia until late in her life, be#ause she feels that she has been drifting awa$ from it e(er sin#e. /0 #an1t reall$ write of it with the same intensit$ and familiarit$ that 0 on#e had./ <et she #annot feel at home in an$ other pla#e or so#iet$ *Griffiths-.

Awards
• •

1978 – Winifred Holtby Memorial Prize- Fire on the Mountain 1978 – Sahitya Akademi Award ( ational A!ademy of "etter# Award$- Fire on the Mountain

• •

198% – Shortli#ted& 'ooker Prize for (i!tion – Clear Light of Day 198) – *+ardian ,hildren-# (i!tion Prize – The Village by the Sea: an Indian family story

.*+ardian !hildren-# fi!tion /rize rela+n!hed0 1ntry detail# and li#t of /a#t winner#.2 guardian.co.uk 13 Mar!h 3%%12 4etrie5ed 3%13-%8-%6278ref9
• • • • •

198: – Shortli#ted& 'ooker Prize for (i!tion – In Custody 199) – eil *+nn Prize 1999 – Shortli#ted& 'ooker Prize for (i!tion0 Fasting Feasting 3%%% – Alberto Mora5ia Prize for "iterat+re (;taly$ 3%%) – 'en#on Medal of 4oyal So!iety of "iterat+re <8=

*?ompare the #hara#ters !aresh. a law against homose7ualit$. !is famil$ li(ed in man$ #ities in#luding the Bata Shoe ?ompan$ town of Batanagar. he be#ame a leader of the #ampaign against 0ndia1s Se#tion 3DD. tra(el writer.in the Australian maga&ine Good %eekend that he has studied se(eral languages. espe#iall$ S#hubert. biographer and memoirist. 2usti#e =eila Seth has said in her memoir Cn Balan#e that other #hara#ters in A Suitable Bo$ are #omposites but !aresh is a portrait of her husband >rem. and !indi. =ata. "nglish *whi#h he des#ribes as /m$ instrument/ in answer to 0ndians who Guer$ his not writing in his nati(e !indi-. and in Delhi. #hildren1s writer. Seth studied philosoph$. rdu *whi#h he reads and writes in HastaIliG s#ript-. whi#h he reads and writes in the De(anagari s#ript. Arom there. C7ford. Business Acumen . politi#s. Aradhana. leads Buddhist meditational tours. is a film'maker married to an Austrian diplomat. Born and Early Life 5ikram Seth was born to =eila and >rem Seth in ?al#utta *now @olkata-. German and. Danapur near >atna. !is $ounger brother. Shantum. Aren#h in addition to . and e#onomi#s at ?orpus ?hristi ?ollege. !a(ing li(ed in =ondon for man$ $ears. no(elist. Work Themes A pol$glot.Vikram Seth 5ikram Seth is an 0ndian poet.ehta1s mo(ies "arth and Aire. in#luding %elsh. !e pla$s the 0ndian flute and the #ello and sings German lieder. After re#ei(ing primar$ and #ommen#ing se#ondar$ edu#ation at the Doon S#hool in Dehradun in 0ndia.andarin. and in =ondon. Seth has been #andid in a#knowledging that man$ of his fi#tional #hara#ters are drawn from life9 he has said that onl$ the dog ?uddles in A Suitable Bo$ has his real name B /Be#ause he #an1t sue/. Seth returned to "ngland to 4onbridge S#hool. Seth self'identifies as bise7ual.Seth spent part of his $outh in =ondon but returned to his homeland in 195D. !is $ounger sister. and has worked on Deepa . Seth mo(ed to ?alifornia to work on a graduate degree in e#onomi#s at Stanford ni(ersit$. After lea(ing C7ford. later. where he is a parti#ipant in lo#al literar$ and #ultural e(ents. "ngland. Seth now maintains residen#es near Salisbur$. Sa(ita and two of the ?hatter3i siblings in A Suitable Bo$. 0n EFF). ha(ing bought and reno(ated the house of the Angli#an poet George !erbert in 199). librettist. where he li(es with his parents and keeps his e7tensi(e librar$ and papers. Seth detailed in an inter(iew *in the $ear EFF5. where he de(eloped an interest in poetr$ and learned ?hinese.

Gone sin#e $ou ha(e. <ou1re on this line to sta$. 0 re#all drinking sherr$ in ?alifornia and dreaming of m$ earlier student da$s in "ngland. Death #annot put down e(er$ #on(ersation. $ovels in #rose ./ Seth later e7plained to Gordon that he had passed the inter(iew not be#ause of #ommer#ial #onsiderations. Seth followed what he has des#ribed as /the ludi#rous ad(an#e for that book/ *JE5F. Cr share spa#e with old 3o$9 it must be so. Sage #omment. /5ikram sat at one end of a long table and he began to grill us. /0n#reasingl$ of late. !e wanted to know our literar$ tastes. "a#h sa(oured referen#e.35#oetry Seth has published fi(e (olumes of poetr$. who is #andid about the realit$ and effe#t of li(ing abroad B though not in parti#ular of being in diaspora B a theme whi#h arises in his poetr$ but nowhere in his fi#tion. indis#reet remark. 4ra(els 4hrough Sinkiang and 4ibet *19+3. but spare us some elation. though he offered Seth en#ouragement. 0 heard $our (oi#e toda$.usi# and J1. 0 find m$ thoughts drawn into the past rather than impelled into the future. and parti#ularl$ when 0 drink. bad pun. 0 tried to make out what the words might mean. 0t offers insight to Seth as a person.with J5FF. !e prepared an a#rosti# poem for his address at Gordon1s EFF5 memorial ser(i#e. where 0 ate dalmoth and dreamed of Delhi. =ike something seen half'#learl$ on a s#reen. ea#h laughing bark.Seth1s former literar$ agent Giles Gordon re#alled being inter(iewed b$ Seth for the position. of all this restlessnessK 0 sometimes seem to m$self to wander around the world merel$ a##umulating material for future nostalgias./ Writing Travel writing: rom !eaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang and Ti"et !is tra(el book Arom !ea(en =ake. but be#ause unlike the others he was the onl$ agent who seemed as interested in his poetr$ as in his other writing.was his first popular su##ess and won the 4homas ?ook 4ra(el Book Award./ *p. /Gone though $ou ha(e. !is first. . referred to it s#ornfull$ among his intimates. C(er and out. our (iews on poetr$. 0 wonder. :est then in pea#e. %hat is the purpose. was originall$ pri(atel$ published9 it attra#ted little attention and indeed >hilip =arkin. million for 4wo =i(es.. our (iews on pla$s.FFF for A Suitable Bo$. as $ou on#e used to sa$K Hot on $our life.appings *19+F-. grief too in time will go. whi#h no(elists we liked. 0t was absolutel$ in#redible. 0n EFF9 Seth #ontributed four poems to C7fam whi#h are used as introdu#tions to ea#h of the four #olle#tions of @ stories whi#h form C7fam1s 1C7'4ales1 book pro3e#t. to whom he sent it for #omment.FFF for An "Gual .

4he no(el #ontains a strong element of affe#tionate satire. =i#hfield Aesti(al 2ul$ EFF+.and a#hie(ed health$ sales.for the "nglish Hational Cpera 4he 4ra(eller 6EFF+8 with #omposer Ale# :oth.in de(elopment b$ =i(el$%orks and Ameri#an Cpera >ro3e#ts and re#ei(es a staged workshop produ#tion at the :ose Studio at =in#oln ?enter in Hew <ork ?it$ in 2anuar$ EF1F. Seth had en#ountered ?harles 2ohnston1s 19DD translation of it in a Stanford se#ond'hand bookstore and it #hanged the dire#tion of his #areer. shifting his fo#us from a#ademi# to literar$ work. 4he likelihood of #ommer#ial su##ess seemed highl$ doubtful B and the s#epti#ism of friends as to the no(el1s (iabilit$ is fa#etiousl$ Guoted within the no(el9 but the (erse no(el re#ei(ed wide a##laim *Gore 5idal dubbed it /4he Great ?alifornia Ho(el/. $on+fiction Arom !ea(en =ake *19+34wo =i(es *EFF5Awards ..usi# *1999A Suitable Girl *EF13#oetry . /4he Golden Gate. /4he Golden Gate/ *19+). >remiere. A Suitable Bo$.The %novel in verse%: The &olden &ate '!y"rid( 4he first of his no(els. Vikram Seth)s Works: $ovels 4he Golden Gate *19+)A Suitable Bo$ *1993An "Gual .*hildren)s "ook Beastl$ 4ales *1991=ibretto Arion and the Dolphin *199.appings *19+F4he !umble Administrator1s Garden *19+5All <ou %ho Sleep 4onight *199FBeastl$ 4ales *19914hree ?hinese >oets *199E4he Arog and the Hightingale *199.is a no(el in (erse about the li(es of a number of $oung professionals in San Aran#is#o. 4he no(el is written entirel$ in Cnegin stan&as after the st$le Aleksandr >ushkin1s "ugene Cnegin. as with his subseGuent no(el. an opera in two a#ts with musi# b$ ?onrad ?ummings and libretto from the no(el'in'(erse b$ 5ikram Seth adapted b$ the #omposer/ is #urrentl$ *EF1F.

ulti#ultural .# "uitable Boy 199. L ?ommonwealth %riters >ri&e *C(erall %inner.edia Award. Best Book.• • • • • • • 19+3 L 4homas ?ook 4ra(el Book Award for From Heaven Lake !ravels !hrough "inkiang and !ibet 19+5 L ?ommonwealth >oetr$ >ri&e *Asia. L %! Smith =iterar$ Award # "uitable Boy 1999 L ?rossword Book Award #n %&ual 'usic EFF1 L "..!he Humble #dministrator's $arden 1993 L 0rish 4imes 0nternational Ai#tion >ri&e *shortlist.A *B4 "thni# and .for Best BookMHo(el #n %&ual 'usic EFF5 L >ra(asi Bharati$a Samman EFFD L >adma Shri in =iterature N "du#ation • • .# "uitable Boy 199.

ll+#trated Weekly of .ndia and he ha# been a 5i#itin> /rofe##or at #e5eral +ni5er#itie# both in .ommi##ionerD# offi!e in "ondon had not in any way made him #la!ken hi# intere#t either in hi# intelle!t+al /+r#+it# or in hi# !reati5e effort#2 Che /oet in him >rew and de5elo/ed a# m+!h o+t of hi# intelle!t+al mental make-+/ a# o+t of an emotional make-+/ and one find# in hi# /oetry a !lo#e and meanin>f+l intera!tion between the /hilo#o/her and the /oet2 Che dominant /a##ion of hi# life ha#& howe5er& been /oetry and /oetry to him #eem# to ha5e been a 5o!ation to whi!h he ha# taken #erio+#ly with a dee/ #en#e of !ommitment2 1zekiel ha# held many im/ortant /o#ition# be#ide# that of a /rofe##or at 'ombay2 He wa# the 1ditor of E+e#t& .212M2 Aoad he #howed no le## an intere#t in the theatre and the 5i#+al art# a# al#o in /oetry and hi# !areer a# a !lerk in the Hi>h .olle>e& 'ombay and later went to 'irkbe!k .ndian& Aewi#h Par#i reli>ion and !+lt+re& he >rew to be an .Nissim Ezekiel i##im 1zekiel who i# !on#idered the foremo#t amon> the modern .ndia and in the @2S2 and A+#tralia2 He wa# a #o Fire!tor of a theatre @nit in 'ombay2 1zekielD# fir#t 5ol+me of /oem# a//eared +nder the title A Cime to .m/rint and the /oetry /a>e of Che .olle>e "ondon2 Cho+>h he went to 1n>land to #t+dy /hilo#o/hy +nder .ndian both in hi# belief# and world-5iew and de5elo/ed into a /er#onality that wa# too !om/leB for ea#y analy#i#2 1zekiel wa# born in 'ombay in 193:2 After hi# early #!hoolin> he ?oined Wil#on .han>e (1963$ and the other 5ol+me# whi!h followed were SiBty Poem# (196)$& Che Chird (1969$& Che @nfini#hed Man (19G%$& Che 1Ba!t Man (19G6$ and Hymn# in Farkne## (197G$2 While the /oem# in the#e 5ol+me# fo!+# on a 5ariety of theme# #+!h a# lo5e& #eB& death& loneline## and /rayer& they bear te#timony to the fa!t that 1zekiel #howed a !on#i#tent /reo!!+/ation with the .ndian /oet# writin> in 1n>li#h i#& like 4aman+?an and Partha#arathy& an a!ademi! /oet in more than one #en#e0 He wa# a Profe##or of 1n>li#h in 'ombay @ni5er#ity and more im/ortantly& he i# a# m+!h an intelle!t+al and a /hilo#o/her a# a /oet2 Hi# birth and ba!k>ro+nd were #+!h that while hi# root# were in a non-.

t i# thi# !on#tant attem/t on hi# /art to make a H?o+rney into the heart of eBi#ten!e& into the root# of oneD# #elf& Hthi# endle## K+e#t for identity& intertwined with the #ear!h for L /oeti!#J whi!h >i5e# 1zekiel a #en#e of !reati5e !ontin+ity in hi# own life and e#tabli#he# a !lo#e relation#hi/ between the man and the arti#t2 (Mide the *eneral .ntrod+!tion to thi# antholo>y for a more detailed note on 1zekielD# /oetry$2 .ent+ry .ndian Poet#& H1zekielD# /oetry i# both the in#tr+ment and the o+t!ome of hi# attem/t a# a man to !ome to term# with him#elf2 Ine find# in hi# /oem# the im/rint of a keen& analyti!al mind tryin> to eB/lore and !omm+ni!ate on a /er#onal le5el& feelin># of lo## and de/ri5ationJ2 .banality a# well a# the !om/leBity of /re#ent day !i5ilization a# he /er!ei5ed it in the .ndian #!ene2 Chey al#o affirm hi# belief in the reli>ion of the #elf and the effi!a!y of /rayer and #how a !on#tant attem/t to !ome to term# with him#elf2 A# Partha#arathy ha# /+t it in hi# introd+!tory note on the /oet in hi# Cen Cwentieth .

Daruwalla esta"lished himself as a name to reckon with in 4ndian .nder /rion in 0123. ni(ersit$ of >un3ab. After the >artition. !e obtained his master1s degree in "nglish =iterature from Go(ernment ?ollege. in =oni.ation with diverse cultural.a . /4he @eeper of the Dead/.is a ma3or 0ndian poet and short stor$ writer in "nglish language.Keki Daruwalla @eki Hasserwan3i Daruwalla *@eki H. Daruwalla or @eki Daruwalla.ic canvas with a miniaturist9s eye for detail5 . in 193D.reoccu. *areer !e 3oined the 0ndian >oli#e Ser(i#e *0>S.inister on 0nternational Affairs. !is father H.su.lauded his work as 7im. Literary Life With the . 0ndia1s Hational A#adem$ of =etters.Daruwalla9s . !e has written o(er 1E books and published his first no(el /Aor >epper and ?hrist/ in EFF9. !e was awarded the Sahit$a Akademi Award.atterns and free verse.le imagism. =udhiana.acity to com"ine an e. who taught in =oni 0nstitute of =iterature *=0=-. b$ the Sahit$a Akademi. then to :ampur. was an eminent professor.ressive evidence not only of mature . and mo(ed to 2unagadh in Gu3arat.historic and mythic landsca.intellectual strength and social awareness85 /ver nine "ooks and more than three decades. !e subseGuentl$ was in the ?abinet Se#retariat until his retirement. his famil$ left >un3ab while his elder brother sta$ed ba#k.. !e is also a former 0>S offi#er. in 19+.an evocation of the multi+layered contradictory realities of 4ndian life..an a"ility to segue "etween metrical . burhanpur-.oetic talent "ut of literary stamina.u"lication of his very first "ook. who retired as Additional Dire#tor in the :esear#h and Anal$sis %ing *:A%-.in 195+.oetry5 Senior 4ndian . and e(entuall$ be#oming a Spe#ial Assistant to the >rime .it retains certain strong distinguishing characteristics: an ironic stance. As a result he grew up stud$ing in (arious s#hools and mediums and started writing short stories in s#hool. Daruwalla.and a ca.oet and critic $issim E6ekiel a.es.sustained narrative drive.a tersevigorous and tensile style..?. for his poetr$ #olle#tion. Burhanpur *now in loni. Early Life and Education @eki Hasserwan3i Daruwalla was born in 193D.oetry has :ourneyed a long way "oth formally and thematically5 !owever.

suggesting that the .oet who takes into his aesthetic stride the sights and sounds of England.for instance.Stockholm.ost+4nde.aint.ers.olis of Bom"ay '7 rom the le.The characteristic features of his .olitical and social issues is a result of his long career as a &overnment of 4ndia official5 A remarka"le feature of Daruwalla9s .!elsinki.+maker from <a:orca.=eki $5 Daruwalla has so far .a vast .4 feel> should "e stratified so that> 4 ru" shoulders only with my kind8( as well as rural and small+town 4ndia 'Benaras is unforgetta"ly evoked as the .rawling defeat?8 But it can also offer a fine+tuned vision of the .ulent .hy of nations to a searing moment of ..+maker 'A33A(.er of the deadLandsca.Volgograd.utees> 4 turn my face5 The road.you are near at hand> one vast.e .death and domination.olitical leader: 7Within the em.u"lished a"out 0A "ooks.and <oscow which he has visited for .oetry has the narrative energy and swee.ient of Sahitya Akademi Award and *ommonwealth #oetry Award.hysical is integrally linked to the concrete and the singular.ortraying living individuals5 Daruwalla readily admits to critics) charges of "eing too much of a landsca.assionate interest in other cultural and historical milieu@ is alive and well5 But there is also a more marked fascination with inner worlds.ortant works are .hical notions of time and s.consisting of mostly .lace where 7cor.ty "elly> the en6ymes turn multi+lingual> their s.ermanent unrest B other stories5 !e also edited Two decades of 4ndian .oems and a cou.knife+edge tone.tic and indignant cynicism a"out the .hy: 7$ow my dreams ask me> if 4 remem"er my mother> and 49m not sure how 49ll handle that5> <igrating across years is also difficult58 Awards A reci.the acid+scarred.oetry readings5 !is thematic canvas transcends the "oundaries of 4ndia and stretches itself into the rest of the world5 *ritics maintain his concern for "road landsca.se+fires and cooking+fires> "urn side "y side8.ugoslavia.ace and time.nder /rion.for e@am.es e@tend from the ancient kingdom of =alinga under the reign of the great 4ndian em.to strike a creative tension "etween image and statement5 !is .es.oetry5 The Li"rary of *ongress has all his "ooks5 .oetry is its a"ility to vividly materialise its a"stractions.ortrait of .ace5 4n <igrations.eech vociferous> simmering on stomach wall85 !is landsca.<a.the meta.elling series of dramatic monologues "y figures as diverse as a disci.The kee.endence 4ndia as 7a landsca.from the violent "iogra.e imagery rather than .a ske.7dark as gangrene8(5 !is most recent "ook.articular.the am. to .s.oem e@.eech of a cor.A summer of tigers and The minister for .le of the Buddha and an old ma.le.lores the theme of migrations across s.an a"iding and infatuated concern with love.evident in his evocation of the rum"ling innards of a misera"le multitude listening to the s.le of fictional works5 Some of his im.offers a com.hiloso.with .as the .oetry can also "e descri"ed as vigor and immediacy of language.even while the sacred river &anga flows on.light of human society and a rare intensity in .e of meaninglessness8: 7Then why should 4 tread the =afka "eat> or the Waste Land-> when <other.eror Ashoka to the seething contradictions of the modern metro.ersonal "iogra.

oems5 Allied #u"lishers.A33E5 .arition in A.a B *o5.A33H5 *ollected #oems ' 0123+A33D(5 '#oetry in English(5 #enguin Books 4ndia5.01C25 A summer of tigers: .=eki Daruwalla)s Works: Books .A33A5 The Scarecrow and the &host5 Fu.er of the Dead5 /@ford .niv5 #ress.ril5 Writers Worksho.+maker: #oems5 /rient Blackswan.nder /rion5 Writers Worksho.4ndia5 0123 A.niversity #ress..01C35 The =ee.oems5 4ndus.A33G5 A !ouse in Fanikhet5 Fu.011D5 The <inister for #ermanent unrest B other stories5 /rient Blackswan.niversity #ress.01205 Sword B a"yss: a collection of short stories5 Vikas #u"5.011E5 $ight river: .a B *o.A3335 The <a.01CA5 *rossing of rivers5 /@ford .es5 /@ford .01CD5 Landsca..01215 Winter .a B *o5..oems5 Fu.

won the 2ohn =lewell$n :h$s . with his adopted famil$. 4he Hight 4rain at Deoli. Sin#e then he has written se(eral no(ellas *in#luding 5agrants in the 5alle$.. 2amnagar. he has written o(er a hundred short stories. 4he Alight of >igeons was adapted into a mo(ie. 4he >enguin Book of 0ndian Ghost Stories and 4he >enguin Book of 0ndian :ailwa$ Stories. !ima#hal >radesh . 5agrants in the 5alle$ was also written in his teens and pi#ks up from where 4he :oom lea(es off. essa$s. 0n the #ourse of a writing #areer spanning thirt$ fi(e $ears.ussoorie. Collections • • • • • !arland of Memories !host Stories from the "a# Funny Side $% "ain in the Mountains&'otes from the (imalayas )ur trees still gro* in Dehra . !he (oom on the (oof. Awards !e re#ei(ed the Sahit$a Akademi Award in 199E for )ur !rees "till $ro* in Dehra and the >adma Shri in 1999 for #hildrenKs literature.ountains was also mu#h a##laimed.a$. where he spent his #hildhood. .Fuskin Bond Fuskin Bond was born in @asauli. :ain in the . he spent four $ears in the ?hannel 0sland and =ondon. 4ime Stops at Shamli and Cur 4rees Still Grow in Dehra ha(e been published b$ >enguin 0ndia. no(els and more than thirt$ books for #hildren. and the (alle$ of Dehra Dun. A Alight of >igeons and Delhi 0s Hot Aar-. written when he was se(enteen.emorial >ri&e in 195D. poems and #hildrenKs books. !is non'fi#tion writing.ussoorie. Fuskin Bond?s first no(el. !is no(el. 193. and grew up in Shimla. on 19th . 4hese two no(ellas were published in one (olume in 1993. 2unoon. Bonds writing is greatl$ influen#ed b$ the hills. 4hree #olle#tions of short stories. essa$s. Fuskin Bond has also written o(er 5FF short stories and arti#les that ha(e appeared in a number of maga&ines and anthologies. !e has also edited two anthologies. !e now li(es in =andour. Dehradun and . As a $oung man.

Che Fo!tor .y times *ith $ncle /en The Death )f Trees Tales and Legends from India Time sto%s at Shamli !rand%a tickles a tiger Four Feathers School Days The Tiger In The tunnel The -arrot 0ho 0ouldn1t Talk .entures of "usty The Lost "uby Cra. (i% (o% 'ature 2oy and )ther -oems<)=<:= Novels • • • • • The "oom on the "oof Vagrants in the Valley Scenes from a 0riter1s Life + Flight of -igeons Landour Days 3 + *riters 4ournal .• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Dust on the Mountain + Season of !hosts Tigers Fore.er + To*n Called Dehra +n Island of Trees The 'ight Train at Deoli + Face in the Dark and )ther (auntings -ot%ourri The +d.

born :asipuram @rishnaswami A$$ar Hara$anaswami.e The /ashmiri Storyteller The 2lue $mbrella The Tiger In The Tunnel Delhi is 'ot Far +nimal Stories Funny side u% "uskin 2ond5s children omnibus Maharani 62ook7 +ngry "i. is among the best known and most widel$ read 0ndian authors who wrote in "nglish. !is writing st$le was simple. Hara$an1s no(els are #hara#teri&ed b$ ?hekho(ian simpli#it$ and gentle humor. though he was not sh$ .a$ 13. unpretentious and witt$. Hara$an *C#tober 1F. @. with a uniGue fla(or as if he were writing in the nati(e tongue. !e told stories of simple folks tr$ing to li(e their simple li(es in a #hanging world. often resulting in tragi'#omi# situations.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Sensualist by "uskin 2ond The "oad To The 2a. EFF1-.an$ of Hara$an1s works are rooted in e(er$da$ life.er "oads To Mussoorie +ll "oads Lead To !anga F5 =5 $arayan :. 4he #hara#ters in his no(els were (er$ ordinar$. .aar The -anther1s Moon )nce $%on + Monsoon Time The India I lo. down'to'earth 0ndians tr$ing to blend tradition with moderni&ation. 19F) ' .

of in(oking !indu tales or traditional 0ndian folklore to emphasi&e a point. 4hough Hara$an1s writing ha(e been e7tremel$ popular amongst the masses. Hara$an was short listed for the Hobel >ri&e for =iterature se(eral times but ne(er won. :. =iterar$ #ir#les often 3oke that the Hobel ?ommittee ignored his works. mistaking them instead for self'help books due to their #urious titles *!he %nglish !eacher. !he Painter of "igns.@. with his simple language and stories of (illage life. 0t has been said that his writing was pedestrian. though in general he is (iewed as an a##omplished. !is stories are in#redibl$ eas$ to read be#ause of their simpli#it$. et#. and usuall$ put #ultural influen#es about 0ndian life in his works. sensiti(e and reasonabl$ prolifi# writer. Works   Edit The Painter of Signs The Guide Edit *ollections   The World of Malgudi 'A333( Salt and Sawdust: Stories and Table-Talk Edit Short story collections An asterisk indicates a collection .u"lished only in 4ndia5           Dodu and Other Stories '01GH(I Cyclone and Other Stories '01GD(I n strologer!s Day and Other Short Stories '01G2( "awley #oad and Other Stories '01DE(I $orse and Two Goats '0123( Malgudi Days '01CA( %nder the &anyan Tree and Other Stories '01CD( The Grand'other!s Tale and Selected Stories '011H( The Watch'an (ruition at (orty . literar$ #lasses ne(er reall$ warmed up to him.-. !e almost alwa$s wrote about 0ndia in some wa$. the upper. !is eas$'going outlook on life has sometimes been #riti#i&ed.

ambrid>e @ni5er#ity& >rad+atin> with a PhF in 19392 F+rin> thi# time he for>ed friend#hi/# with member# of .-+.  )ndian Thought! *+. The Missing Mail Edit $on+fiction       /e0t Sunday '01E3( My Dateless Diary '01EG( My Days '012G( The 1'erald #oute '01C3( Writer!s /ight'are '01CC( "ike The Sun Edit <ythology    Gods2 De'ons and Others '01ED( The #a'ayana '012A( The Mahabharata '012A( Mulk Raj Anand Mulk Raj Anand (13 Fe!ember 19%6 – 38 Se/tember 3%%:$ wa# an .ndo-An>lian fi!tion& he& to>ether with 42 N2 arayan& Ahmad Ali and 4a?a 4ao& wa# one of the fir#t .ndian #o!iety2 Ine of the /ioneer# of .ndian writer in 1n>li#h& notable for hi# de/i!tion of the li5e# of the /oorer !a#te#in traditional .ndia-ba#ed writer# in 1n>li#h to >ain an international reader#hi/2<1=<3= 'orn in Pe#hawar& he #t+died at Nhal#a .olle>e& Amrit#ar& before mo5in> to 1n>land where he attended @ni5er#ity .olle>e "ondon a# an +nder>rad+ate and later .

n it (or#ter write#0 .ntelle!t+al .ate Life of an Indian -rince& were more a+tobio>ra/hi!al in nat+re& and in 196% Anand embarked on a /ro?e!t to write a #e5en-/art a+tobio>ra/hy& be>innin> with Se.ndian literat+re i# a #tran>e /henomenon.i5ilization#-2 Anand al#o deli5ered a #erie# of le!t+re# on emninent . in "ondon& where he be!ame a friend of *eor>e Irwell2 Irwell /enned a fa5o+rable re5iew of Anand-# no5el Che Sword and the Si!kle and remarked that .ndian !a+#e alon>#ide .t i# the #tory of a #in>le day in the life of 'akha& a toilet-!leaner& who a!!identally b+m/# into a member of a hi>her !a#te2 'akha #ear!he# for a #al5e to the tra>edy of the de#tiny into whi!h he wa# born& talkin> with a .the 'loom#b+ry *ro+/2 He #/ent #ome time in *ene5a& le!t+rin> at the "ea>+e of ation#S!hool of .ndia-# .2<G= He wa# al#o a friend of Pi!a##o and had Pi!a##o /aintin># in hi# !olle!tion2 Anand ret+rned to .A5oidin> rhetori! and !ir!+mlo!+tion& it ha# >one #trai>ht to the heart of it# #+b?e!t and /+rified it.ndia-# f+t+re Fefen!e Mini#ter M2N2 Nri#hna Menon& while tryin> to make a li5in> a# a no5eli#t and ?o+rnali#t2<6= At the #ame time& he al#o #+//orted freedom el#ewhere aro+nd the >lobe and e5en tra5elled to S/ain to 5ol+nteer in the S/ani#h .ndia-# +nto+!hable !a#te2 .ndian# #+!h a# Mahatma *andhi&Aawaharlal ehr+ and 4abindranath Ca>ore& !ommemoratin> their a!hie5ement# and #i>nifi!an!e and /ayin> #/e!ial attention to their di#tin!t brand# of h+mani#m2 -ri.en Summers2 Ine /art&Morning Face (19G8$ won him the Sahitya Akademi Award2<7= "ike m+!h of hi# later work& it !ontain# element# of hi# #/irit+al ?o+rney a# he #tr+>>le# to attain a hi>her #en#e of #elf-awarene##2 He died in P+ne on 38 Se/tember 3%%: at the a>e of 982 $ovels .harle# Fi!ken#2 Che introd+!tion wa# written by hi# friend& 12 M2 (or#ter& whom he met while workin> on C2 S2 1liot-# ma>azineCriterion2 .i5il War& e5en tho+>h hi# role in the !onfli!t wa# more ?o+rnali#ti! than military2 He #/ent World War .ne5itably& Anand& who #/ent half hi# time in "ondon and half in . addin> that the >rowth .ndian#& b+t by the end of the book Anand #+>>e#t# that it i# te!hnolo>y& in the form of the newly introd+!ed fl+#h toilet that may be hi# #a5io+r by eliminatin> the need for a !a#te of toilet !leaner#2 Chi# #im/le book& whi!h !a/t+red the /+i##an!e of the P+n?abi and Hindi idiom in 1n>li#h wa# widely a!!laimed and Anand won the re/+tation of bein> .of an 1n>li#h-lan>+a>e .oo/eration2 Anand-# literary !areer wa# la+n!hed by family tra>edy& in#ti>ated by the ri>idity of the !a#te #y#tem2 Hi# fir#t /ro#e e##ay wa# a re#/on#e to the #+i!ide of an a+nt& who had been eB!omm+ni!ated by her family for #harin> a meal with a M+#lim Woman2<)=<:= Hi# fir#t main no5el& $ntouchable& /+bli#hed in 19)6& wa# a !hillin> eB/o#O of the day-to-day life of a member of ..ndia& wa# drawn to the .hri#tian mi##ionary& li#tenin> to a #/ee!h abo+t +nto+!hability by Mahatma *andhi and a #+b#eK+ent !on5er#ation by two ed+!ated .ate Life of an Indian -rince (196)$& /erha/# the mo#t im/ortant of hi# work# written in .ndia in 19:G& and !ontin+ed with hi# /rodi>io+# literary o+t/+t there2 Hi# work in!l+de# /oetry and e##ay# on a wide ran>e of #+b?e!t#& a# well a# a+tobio>ra/hie# and no5el#2 Prominent amon> hi# no5el# are The Village (19)9$& +cross the 2lack 0aters (19)9$& The S*ord and the Sickle (19:3$& all written in 1n>land& and Coolie (19)G$& The -ri.ndian inde/enden!e mo5ement2 F+rin> hi# time in "ondon& he wrote /ro/a>anda on behalf of the .nternational Pro>re## Ir>anization (.ndia2 He al#o fo+nded a literary ma>azine& Marg& and ta+>ht in 5ario+# +ni5er#itie#2 F+rin> the 197%#& he worked with the.2P2I2 in .altho+>h Mr2 Anand-# no5el wo+ld #till be intere#tin> on it# own merit# if it had been written by an 1n>li#hman& it i# im/o##ible to read it witho+t rememberin> e5ery few /a>e# that i# al#o a !+lt+ral !+rio#ity&. .2P2I2$ on the i##+e of !+lt+ral #elf-!om/rehen#ion of nation#2 Hi# !ontrib+tion to the !onferen!e of the . workin> a# a #!ri/twriter for the ''.nn#br+!k (A+#tria$ in 197: had a #/e!ial infl+en!e on debate# that later be!ame known +nder the /hra#e of -Fialo>+e Amon> .

and the 0nner 4emple in =ondon. Sin#e then he has been . !e pra#ti#ed law at the =ahore !igh ?ourt for se(eral $ears before 3oining the 0ndian .inistr$ of "7ternal Affairs in 19. !e began a distinguished #areer as a 3ournalist with the All 0ndia :adio in 1951. =ahore and at @ing1s ?ollege. !e was edu#ated at the Go(ernment ?ollege. ?ambridge ni(ersit$.D. one of the best 'known 0ndian writers of all times. was born in 1915 in !adali *now in >akistan-.• • • • • $ntouchable (19)6$ Coolie (19)G$ The Village (19)9$ +cross the black *aters (19)9$ The S*ord and the Sickle (19:3$ =hushwant Singh @hushwant Singh.

!is Saturda$ #olumn /%ith . and a number of translations and non'fi#tion books on Delhi. nature and #urrent affairs. and 4he #ompan$ of women-. in protest against the nion Go(ernment1s siege of the Golden 4emple in Amritsar-. he was awarded the >adma Bhushan in 19D.from 19+F to 19+). 4he =ibrar$ of ?ongress has ninet$'nine works on and b$ @hushwant Singh.ali#e 4owards Cne and All/ in the !industan times is b$ far one of the most popular #olumns of the da$. a forthright politi#al #ommentator./ Among the se(eral works he published are a #lassi# two'(olume histor$ of the Sikhs. editor of the 0llustrated weekl$ of 0ndia *19D9'19+F-. @hushwant Singh1s name is bound to go down in 0ndian literar$ histor$ as one of the finest historians and no(elists.founder'editor of <o3ana *1951'1953-. 4rain to >akistan. Books • • • • • • • • • The Mark of Vishnu and )ther Stories& 196% The (istory of Sikhs& 196) Train to -akistan& 196G The Voice of !od and )ther Stories& 1967 I Shall 'ot (ear the 'ightingale& 1969 The Sikhs Today& 1969 The Fall of the /ingdom of the -un#ab& 19G3 + (istory of the Sikhs& 19G)<1%= "an#it Singh: The Mahara#ah of the -un#ab& 19G) .an of the <ear Award/ b$ the Sulabh 0nternational So#ial Ser(i#e Crgani&ation for his #ourage and honest$ in his /brilliant in#isi(e writing. 0n 2ul$ EFFF. and editor of the !industan times *19+F'19+3-./ At the award #eremon$. the #hief minister of Andhra >radesh des#ribed him as a /humourous writer and in#orrigible belie(er in human goodness with a de(il'ma$'#are attitude and a #ourageous mind. and an outstanding obser(er and so#ial #riti#./ 4he 0ndian e7ternal affairs minister said that the se#ret of @hushwant Singh1s su##ess la$ in his learning and dis#ipline behind the /(eneer of superfi#ialit$. #hief editor of Hew Delhi *19D9'19+F-. b$ the >resident of 0ndia *he returned the de#oration in 19+. he was #onferred the /!onest . @hushwant Singh was a member of the :a3$a Sabha *upper house of the 0ndian >arliament. Among other honors. se(eral no(els *the best known of whi#h are Delhi.

"ondon& Sat+rn Pre##& 196%2 . Scotch and Scholarshi%: Selected 0ritings& 1993 'ot a 'ice Man to /no*: The 2est of /hush*ant Singh& 199) 0e Indians& 199) 0omen and Men in My Life& 1996 $ncertain Liaisons< Se.el& 199% Se.e and a Little Malice (an a+tobio>ra/hy$& 3%%3 0ith Malice to*ards )ne and +ll The =nd of India& 3%%) 2urial at the Sea& 3%%: -aradise and )ther Stories& 3%%: + (istory of the Sikhs: 8>?9&8@A@& 3%%:<13= Death at My Doorste%& 3%%6 + (istory of the Sikhs: 8@A9&BCC>& 3%%6<1)= The Illustrated (istory of the Sikhs& 3%%G 0hy I Su%%orted the =mergency: =ssays and -rofiles& 3%%9 The Sunset Club& 3%1% +gnostic /hush*ant Singh There is no !)D& 3%13 Short story collections • The Mark of Vishnu and )ther Stories.e in Four Languages by Nh+#hwant Sin>h and Sharda Na+#hik& 1997 The Com%any of 0omen& 1999 Truth Lo.olution& 19GG + (istory of the Sikhs& 19GG (3nd edition$<11= + 2ride for the Sahib and )ther Stories& 19G7 2lack 4asmine& 1971 Tragedy of -un#ab& 198: Delhi: + 'o. Strife and Togetherness in $rban India& 1996 Declaring Lo.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • !hadar 898:: India1s first armed re.

e +ffair In London . 2lack 4asmine.'S1 in Horn 'ill The Strain Success Mantra + Lo. 'ombay& Aai!o& 19672 + 2ride for the Sahib and )ther Stories.• • • • • • • • The Voice of !od and )ther Stories. 2/2& 4a5i Fayal& 19892 ew Felhi& Hind& 19G72 The -ortrait of a Lady11th . 'ombay& Aai!o& 1971 The Collected Stories.

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