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1.

Which statement explains why ammonia can act as a Lewis base?


A.

Ammonia can donate a lone pair of electrons.

B.

Ammonia can accept a lone pair of electrons.

C.

Ammonia can donate a proton.

D.

Ammonia can accept a proton.


(Total 1 mark)

2.

Consider the equilibrium below.


CH3CH2COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

CH3CH2COO(aq) + H3O+(aq)

Which species represent a conjugate acid-base pair?


A.

CH3CH2COOH and H2O

B.

H2O and CH3CH2COO

C.

H3O+ and H2O

D.

CH3CH2COO and H3O+


(Total 1 mark)

3.

Which salts will produce an acidic solution when dissolved in water?


I.

CH3COOK

II.

NH4NO3

III.

Al2(SO4)3

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

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4.

The Kb value for a base is 5.0 102 mol dm3 at 298 K. What is the Ka value for its conjugate
acid at this temperature?
A.

5.0 102

B.

2.0 106

C.

2.0 1012

D.

2.0 1013
(Total 1 mark)

CH3CH2COO(aq) + H3O+(aq)
Which species represent a conjugate acid-base pair?
A.

CH3CH2COOH and H2O

B.

H2O and CH3CH2COO

C.

H3O+ and H2O

D.

CH3CH2COO and H3O+


(Total 1 mark)

5.

Which compounds can be mixed together as solutions of equal volume and concentration to
form a buffer solution?
A.

Nitric acid and potassium hydroxide

B.

Nitric acid and potassium nitrate

C.

Propanoic acid and potassium hydroxide

D.

Propanoic acid and potassium propanoate


(Total 1 mark)

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6.

Which is not a conjugate acid-base pair?


A.

HNO3 and NO3

B.

CH3COOH and CH3COO

C.

H3O+ and OH

D.

HSO4 and SO42


(Total 1 mark)

7.

Which 0.10 mol dm3 solution would have the highest conductivity?
A.

HCl

B.

NH3

C.

CH3COOH

D.

H2CO3
(Total 1 mark)

8.

The pH of a solution changes from pH = 2 to pH = 5. What happens to the concentration of the


hydrogen ions during this pH change?
A.

It decreases by a factor of 1000

B.

It increases by a factor of 1000

C.

It decreases by a factor of 100

D.

It increases by a factor of 100


(Total 1 mark)

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9.

Based on information in the table below, which acid is the strongest?


Acid

pKa

Ka

A.

HA

2.0

B.

HB

1 103

C.

HC

4.0

D.

HD

1 105
(Total 1 mark)

10.

Which combination will form a buffer solution?


A.

100 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid with 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 sodium
hydroxide.

B.

100 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 ethanoic acid with 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide.

C.

50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 hydrochloric acid with 100 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 sodium
hydroxide.

D.

50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 ethanoic acid with 100 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide.
(Total 1 mark)

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11.

The graph below shows the titration curve of 25 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm3 of hydrochloric acid
with sodium hydroxide, of 0.100 mol dm3 concentration. The indicator methyl orange was used
to determine the equivalence point. Methyl orange has a pH range of 3.24.4.

If the hydrochloric acid was replaced by ethanoic acid of the same volume and concentration,
which property of the titration would remain the same?
A.

The initial pH

B.

The pH at the equivalence point

C.

The volume of strong base, NaOH, needed to reach the equivalence point

D.

The colour of the titration mixture just before the equivalence point is reached
(Total 1 mark)

12.

Which property is characteristic of acids in aqueous solution?


A.

Acids react with ammonia solution to produce hydrogen gas and a salt.

B.

Acids react with metal oxides to produce oxygen gas, a salt and water.

C.

Acids react with reactive metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt.

D.

Acids react with metal carbonates to produce hydrogen gas, a salt and water.
(Total 1 mark)

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13.

A student has equal volumes of 1.0 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide and ammonia solutions.
Which statement about the solutions is correct?
A.

Sodium hydroxide has a lower electrical conductivity than ammonia.

B.

Sodium hydroxide has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than ammonia.

C.

Sodium hydroxide has a higher pH than ammonia.

D.

Sodium hydroxide has a higher hydroxide ion concentration than ammonia.


(Total 1 mark)

14.

Which statement about acids is correct?


A.

A Brnsted-Lowry acid donates an electron pair.

B.

A Lewis acid donates a proton.

C.

A Brnsted-Lowry acid accepts a proton.

D.

A Lewis acid accepts an electron pair.


(Total 1 mark)

15.

What is the Kb expression for the reaction of ethylamine with water?


A.

Kb = [CH3CH2NH3+][OH]

B.

[CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ][OH ]
[CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ]
Kb =

C.

[CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ][H 2 O]
[CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ]
Kb =

D.

Kb = [CH3CH2NH2][H2O]

(Total 1 mark)

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16.

When these 1.0 mol dm3 acidic solutions are arranged in order of increasing strength (weakest
first), what is the correct order?

A.

X<Z<Y

B.

X<Y<Z

C.

Z<X<Y

D.

Y<X<Z

acid in solution X

Ka = 1.74 105 mol dm3 at 298 K

acid in solution Y

Ka = 1.38 103 mol dm3 at 298 K

acid in solution Z

Ka = 1.78 105 mol dm3 at 298 K

(Total 1 mark)

17.

Consider an acid-base indicator solution.


HIn(aq)
colour A

H+(aq) + In(aq)
colour B

What is the effect on this acid-base indicator when sodium hydroxide solution is added to it?
A.

Equilibrium shifts to the right and more of colour B is seen.

B.

Equilibrium shifts to the left and more of colour B is seen.

C.

Equilibrium shifts to the right and more of colour A is seen.

D.

Equilibrium shifts to the left and more of colour A is seen.


(Total 1 mark)

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18.

Which species behave as Brnsted-Lowry acids in the following reversible reaction?


H2PO4(aq) + CN(aq)
A.

HCN and CN

B.

HCN and HPO42

C.

H2PO4 and HPO42

D.

HCN and H2PO4

HCN(aq) + HPO42(aq)

(Total 1 mark)

19.

Which of the following are weak acids in aqueous solution?


I.

CH3COOH

II.

H2CO3

III.

HCl

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

20.

pKw for water at 10 C = 14.54. What is the pH of pure water at this temperature?
A.

6.73

B.

7.00

C.

7.27

D.

7.54
(Total 1 mark)

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21.

What is Kb for the aqueous fluoride ion given that Kw is 1.0 1014 and Ka for HF is 6.8 104
at 298 K?
1
A.

6.8 10 4

B.

(6.8 104)(1.0 1014)

1.0 10 14
C.

6.8 10 4

D.

6.8 104
(Total 1 mark)

22.

Which of the following could be added to a solution of ethanoic acid to prepare a buffer?
A.

Sodium hydroxide

B.

Hydrochloric acid

C.

Sodium chloride

D.

More ethanoic acid


(Total 1 mark)

23.

What is the conjugate base of H2CO3 according to the Brnsted-Lowry theory?


A.

CO32

B.

HCO3

C.

H3CO3+

D.

CO2
(Total 1 mark)

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24.

A solution of acid A has a pH of 1 and a solution of acid B has a pH of 2. Which statement must
be correct?
A.

Acid A is stronger than acid B

B.

[A] > [B]

C.

The concentration of H+ ions in A is higher than in B

D.

The concentration of H+ ions in B is twice the concentration of H+ ions in A


(Total 1 mark)

25.

Define the terms acid and base according to the Brnsted-Lowry theory and state one example
of a weak acid and one example of a strong base.
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(Total 2 marks)

A solution of acid A has a pH of 1 and a solution of acid B has a pH of 2. Which statement must
be correct?
A.

Acid A is stronger than acid B

B.

[A] > [B]

C.

The concentration of H+ ions in A is higher than in B

D.

The concentration of H+ ions in B is twice the concentration of H+ ions in A


(Total 1 mark)

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10

26.

Describe two different methods, one chemical and one physical, other than measuring the pH,
that could be used to distinguish between ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions of the
same concentration.
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(Total 4 marks)

27.

Black coffee has a pH of 5 and toothpaste has a pH of 8. Identify which is more acidic and
deduce how many times the [H+] is greater in the more acidic product.
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(Total 2 marks)

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11

28.

(i)

Define the terms acid and base according to the Brnsted-Lowry theory. Distinguish
between a weak base and a strong base. State one example of a weak base.
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(3)

(ii)

Weak acids in the environment may cause damage. Identify a weak acid in the
environment and outline one of its effects.
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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12

29.

The graph below indicates the pH change during the titration of 20.0 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm3 of
CH3COOH(aq) with 0.100 mol dm3 KOH(aq). From the graph, identify the volume of
KOH(aq) and the pH at the equivalence point.

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(Total 2 marks)

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13

30.

Determine the pH of the solution resulting when 100 cm3 of 0.50 mol dm3 HCl(aq) is mixed
with 200 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm3 NaOH(aq).
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(Total 5 marks)

31.

Define an acid in terms of the Lewis theory. Deduce, giving a reason, whether NF 3 is able to
function as a Lewis acid or as a Lewis base.
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(Total 2 marks)

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14

32.

Describe two different properties that could be used to distinguish between a 1.00 mol dm 3
solution of a strong monoprotic acid and a 1.00 mol dm3 solution of a weak monoprotic acid.
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(Total 2 marks)

33.

Explain, using the Brnsted-Lowry theory, how water can act either as an acid or a base. In each
case identify the conjugate acid or base formed.
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(Total 2 marks)

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34.

Ammonia, NH3, is a weak base. It has a pKb value of 4.75.


Calculate the pH of a 1.00 102 mol dm3 aqueous solution of ammonia at 298 K.
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(Total 4 marks)

35.

(a)

(i)

State an equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with water.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Calculate the pH of 0.200 mol dm3 ethanoic acid (pKa = 4.76).


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(3)

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(b)

Determine the pH of a solution formed from adding 50.0 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm3 ethanoic
acid, CH3COOH(aq), to 50.0 cm3 of 0.600 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide, NaOH(aq).
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(4)

(c)

Explain how the solution formed in part (b) can act as a buffer. Use equations to support
your answer.
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(2)
(Total 10 marks)

36.

Water is an important substance that is abundant on the Earths surface. Water dissociates
according to the following equation.
H2O(l)

(i)

H+(aq) + OH(aq)

State the equilibrium constant expression for the dissociation of water.


(1)

(ii)

Explain why even a very acidic aqueous solution still has some OH ions present in it.
(1)

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17

(iii)

State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the equilibrium constant above
given that the dissociation of water is an endothermic process.
(3)

(iv)

The pH of a solution is 2. If its pH is increased to 6, deduce how the hydrogen ion


concentration changes.
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

37.

Water is an important substance that is abundant on the Earths surface.


(i)

State the expression for the ionic product constant of water, Kw.
(1)

(ii)

Explain why even a very acidic aqueous solution still has some OH ions present in it.
(1)

(iii)

State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the value of Kw given that the
ionization of water is an endothermic process.
(3)

(iv)

State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the pH of water.


(2)
(Total 7 marks)

38.

Buffer solutions resist small changes in pH. A phosphate buffer can be made by dissolving
NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 in water, in which NaH2PO4 produces the acidic ion and Na2HPO4
produces the conjugate base ion.
(i)

Deduce the acid and conjugate base ions that make up the phosphate buffer and state the
ionic equation that represents the phosphate buffer.
(3)

(ii)

Describe how the phosphate buffer minimizes the effect of the addition of a strong base,
OH(aq), to the buffer. Illustrate your answer with an ionic equation.
(2)

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(iii)

Describe how the phosphate buffer minimizes the effect of the addition of a strong acid,
H+(aq), to the buffer. Illustrate your answer with an ionic equation.
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

39.

A 0.10 mol dm3 ammonia solution is placed in a flask and titrated with a 0.10 mol dm 3
hydrochloric acid solution.
(i)

Explain why the pH of the ammonia solution is less than 13.


(2)

(ii)

Estimate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of hydrochloric acid with
ammonia and explain your reasoning.
(2)

(iii)

State the equation for the reaction of ammonia with water and write the Kb expression for
NH3(aq).
(2)

(iv)

When half the ammonia has been neutralized (the half-equivalence point), the pH of the
solution is 9.25. Deduce the relationship between [NH 3] and [NH4+] at the halfequivalence point.
(1)

(v)

Determine pKb and Kb for ammonia based on the pH at the half-equivalence point.
(3)

(vi)

Describe the significance of the half-equivalence point in terms of its effectiveness as a


buffer.
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

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19

40.

(i)

Define a Brnsted-Lowry acid.


(1)

(ii)

Deduce the two acids and their conjugate bases in the following reaction:
H2O(l) + NH3(aq)

OH(aq) + NH4+(aq)
(2)

(iii)

Explain why the following reaction can also be described as an acid-base reaction.
F(g) + BF3(g)

BF4(s)
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

41.

Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, is a weak acid.


(i)

Define the term weak acid and state the equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with
water.
(2)

(ii)

Vinegar, which contains ethanoic acid, can be used to clean deposits of calcium carbonate
from the elements of electric kettles. State the equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid
with calcium carbonate.
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

42.

Some of the most important processes in chemistry involve acid-base reactions.


(i)

Calculate the Ka value of benzoic acid, C6H5COOH, using Table 15 in the Data Booklet.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

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(ii)

Based on its Ka value, state and explain whether benzoic acid is a strong or weak acid.
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......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii)

Determine the hydrogen ion concentration and the pH of a 0.010 mol dm3 benzoic acid
solution. State one assumption made in your calculation.
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(4)
(Total 7 marks)

43.

The equations of two acid-base reactions are given below.


+

Reaction A

NH3(aq) + H2O(l)

NH 4 (aq)

+ OH(aq)

The reaction mixture in A consists mainly of reactants because the equilibrium lies to the left.
Reaction B

NH2(aq) + H2O(l)

NH 3 (aq)

+ OH(aq)

The reaction mixture in B consists mainly of products because the equilibrium lies to the right.

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21

(i)

For each of the reactions A and B, deduce whether water is acting as an acid or a base and
explain your answer.
(2)

(ii)

In reaction B, identify the stronger base, NH2 or OH and explain your answer.
(2)

(iii)

In reactions A and B, identify the stronger acid, NH4+ or NH3 (underlined) and explain
your answer.
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

44.

(a)

Describe two different experimental methods to distinguish between aqueous solutions of


a strong base and a weak base.
(5)

(b)

Two acidic solutions, X and Y, of equal concentrations have pH values of 2 and 6


respectively.
(i)

Calculate the hydrogen ion concentrations in the two solutions and identify the
stronger acid.
(2)

(ii)

Determine the ratio of the hydrogen ion concentrations in the two solutions X and
Y.
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

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22

45.

Which mixtures act as buffer solutions?


I.

100 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 ethanoic acid and 100 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 sodium ethanoate

II.

100 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 ethanoic acid and 50 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide

III.

100 cm3 0.1 mol dm3 ethanoic acid and 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm3 sodium hydroxide

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

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