1.

Which statement explains why ammonia can act as a Lewis base?
A.

Ammonia can donate a lone pair of electrons.

B.

Ammonia can accept a lone pair of electrons.

C.

Ammonia can donate a proton.

D.

Ammonia can accept a proton.
(Total 1 mark)

2.

Consider the equilibrium below.
CH3CH2COOH(aq) + H2O(l)

CH3CH2COO–(aq) + H3O+(aq)

Which species represent a conjugate acid-base pair?
A.

CH3CH2COOH and H2O

B.

H2O and CH3CH2COO–

C.

H3O+ and H2O

D.

CH3CH2COO– and H3O+
(Total 1 mark)

3.

Which salts will produce an acidic solution when dissolved in water?
I.

CH3COOK

II.

NH4NO3

III.

Al2(SO4)3

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

1

4.

The Kb value for a base is 5.0 × 10–2 mol dm–3 at 298 K. What is the Ka value for its conjugate
acid at this temperature?
A.

5.0 × 10–2

B.

2.0 × 10–6

C.

2.0 × 10–12

D.

2.0 × 10–13
(Total 1 mark)

CH3CH2COO–(aq) + H3O+(aq)
Which species represent a conjugate acid-base pair?
A.

CH3CH2COOH and H2O

B.

H2O and CH3CH2COO–

C.

H3O+ and H2O

D.

CH3CH2COO– and H3O+
(Total 1 mark)

5.

Which compounds can be mixed together as solutions of equal volume and concentration to
form a buffer solution?
A.

Nitric acid and potassium hydroxide

B.

Nitric acid and potassium nitrate

C.

Propanoic acid and potassium hydroxide

D.

Propanoic acid and potassium propanoate
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

2

H3O+ and OH– D. H2CO3 (Total 1 mark) 8.6. Which is not a conjugate acid-base pair? A. Which 0. CH3COOH D. HCl B.10 mol dm–3 solution would have the highest conductivity? A. It increases by a factor of 1000 C. It increases by a factor of 100 (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 3 . NH3 C. It decreases by a factor of 100 D. It decreases by a factor of 1000 B. The pH of a solution changes from pH = 2 to pH = 5. CH3COOH and CH3COO– C. HSO4– and SO42– (Total 1 mark) 7. HNO3 and NO3– B. What happens to the concentration of the hydrogen ions during this pH change? A.

10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide. C. Based on information in the table below. B. which acid is the strongest? Acid pKa Ka A.10 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid with 100 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide. HB – 1 × 10–3 C.0 – D. Which combination will form a buffer solution? A. 100 cm3 of 0. D. HA 2.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide. 100 cm3 of 0. HC 4. 50 cm3 of 0.9. (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 4 .10 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid with 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm–3 hydrochloric acid with 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide. 50 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid with 100 cm3 of 0. HD – 1 × 10–5 (Total 1 mark) 10.0 – B.

The initial pH B. The indicator methyl orange was used to determine the equivalence point.2–4. B. a salt and water. The pH at the equivalence point C. The colour of the titration mixture just before the equivalence point is reached (Total 1 mark) 12. Acids react with reactive metals to produce hydrogen gas and a salt. The graph below shows the titration curve of 25 cm3 of 0. C.11. Methyl orange has a pH range of 3. Which property is characteristic of acids in aqueous solution? A. a salt and water. Acids react with metal carbonates to produce hydrogen gas. The volume of strong base. NaOH. (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 5 .100 mol dm–3 concentration.100 mol dm–3 of hydrochloric acid with sodium hydroxide. which property of the titration would remain the same? A.4. Acids react with ammonia solution to produce hydrogen gas and a salt. If the hydrochloric acid was replaced by ethanoic acid of the same volume and concentration. of 0. Acids react with metal oxides to produce oxygen gas. needed to reach the equivalence point D. D.

A Lewis acid accepts an electron pair. Which statement about acids is correct? A. A Brønsted-Lowry acid accepts a proton. Sodium hydroxide has a higher hydroxide ion concentration than ammonia. What is the Kb expression for the reaction of ethylamine with water? A. [CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ][OH − ] [CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ] Kb = C. B. D. Sodium hydroxide has a higher hydrogen ion concentration than ammonia. C.13. A student has equal volumes of 1. C. A Lewis acid donates a proton. B. (Total 1 mark) 14. (Total 1 mark) 15. [CH 3 CH 2 NH 3 ][H 2 O] [CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 ] Kb = D. Sodium hydroxide has a lower electrical conductivity than ammonia.0 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide and ammonia solutions. Which statement about the solutions is correct? A. Sodium hydroxide has a higher pH than ammonia. D. Kb = [CH3CH2NH3+][OH–] B. A Brønsted-Lowry acid donates an electron pair. Kb = [CH3CH2NH2][H2O] + + (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 6 .

78 × 10–5 mol dm–3 at 298 K (Total 1 mark) 17. HIn(aq) colour A H+(aq) + In–(aq) colour B What is the effect on this acid-base indicator when sodium hydroxide solution is added to it? A.0 mol dm–3 acidic solutions are arranged in order of increasing strength (weakest first). B. X<Z<Y B.16. Consider an acid-base indicator solution. Equilibrium shifts to the right and more of colour A is seen.38 × 10–3 mol dm–3 at 298 K acid in solution Z Ka = 1. Equilibrium shifts to the left and more of colour B is seen. When these 1. Y<X<Z acid in solution X Ka = 1.74 × 10–5 mol dm–3 at 298 K acid in solution Y Ka = 1. Z<X<Y D. Equilibrium shifts to the left and more of colour A is seen. C. what is the correct order? A. (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 7 . X<Y<Z C. D. Equilibrium shifts to the right and more of colour B is seen.

pKw for water at 10 °C = 14. I.00 C.27 D. Which species behave as Brønsted-Lowry acids in the following reversible reaction? H2PO4–(aq) + CN–(aq) A. 6. Which of the following are weak acids in aqueous solution? I. II and III only D. 7. HCN and CN– B. HCN and HPO42– C. I and II only B. 7.54 (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 8 . 7. H2CO3 III. I and III only C. II and III (Total 1 mark) 20. HCl A.54. CH3COOH II. HCN and H2PO4– HCN(aq) + HPO42–(aq) (Total 1 mark) 19. H2PO4– and HPO42– D. What is the pH of pure water at this temperature? A.73 B.18.

Which of the following could be added to a solution of ethanoic acid to prepare a buffer? A. 6.8 × 10–4)(1. H3CO3+ D.8 × 10 − 4 B.8 × 10 − 4 D. Sodium chloride D. 6. HCO3– C.0 × 10–14 and Ka for HF is 6. What is the conjugate base of H2CO3 according to the Brønsted-Lowry theory? A.0 × 10–14) 1. CO2 (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 9 . Sodium hydroxide B.21.0 × 10 −14 C.8 × 10–4 (Total 1 mark) 22. What is Kb for the aqueous fluoride ion given that Kw is 1.8 × 10–4 at 298 K? 1 A. 6. (6. CO32– B. Hydrochloric acid C. More ethanoic acid (Total 1 mark) 23.

..... Acid A is stronger than acid B B........................ [A] > [B] C................ ... The concentration of H+ ions in B is twice the concentration of H+ ions in A (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 10 .................... Acid A is stronger than acid B B....... The concentration of H+ ions in A is higher than in B D............................................... Define the terms acid and base according to the Brønsted-Lowry theory and state one example of a weak acid and one example of a strong base..............................................................................................24............................................................................................. Which statement must be correct? A....................... ............................................................ Which statement must be correct? A.............................. The concentration of H+ ions in A is higher than in B D..... [A] > [B] C......................................... ................................................ The concentration of H+ ions in B is twice the concentration of H+ ions in A (Total 1 mark) 25.... (Total 2 marks) A solution of acid A has a pH of 1 and a solution of acid B has a pH of 2.............. A solution of acid A has a pH of 1 and a solution of acid B has a pH of 2......................... ...............................

.................. ...........................................................................................................................26........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Identify which is more acidic and deduce how many times the [H+] is greater in the more acidic product...................... other than measuring the pH... ................................ ........................................................ one chemical and one physical.............................................. .......................................................................................................................................... (Total 4 marks) 27...................................................................................................... that could be used to distinguish between ethanoic acid and hydrochloric acid solutions of the same concentration................................................................................... .................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... (Total 2 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 11 ....................................................................................... .................................................. .................... ................................................................................................ .............................................................. .......... Describe two different methods............... Black coffee has a pH of 5 and toothpaste has a pH of 8............................................................................................... ..................................................

............................................................................................................ (3) (ii) Weak acids in the environment may cause damage........................................... ..................... ................... (i) Define the terms acid and base according to the Brønsted-Lowry theory......................................................... Identify a weak acid in the environment and outline one of its effects...........28........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................. ......................... .............................................. ......................................................................................................................................................................................... Distinguish between a weak base and a strong base........................................................ ...................... (2) (Total 5 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 12 .................................................................................................. ................................................................................................... ........................ ........................................................... State one example of a weak base.....

...................................... identify the volume of KOH(aq) and the pH at the equivalence point... ............. ............................................. .....................................................100 mol dm–3 of CH3COOH(aq) with 0..................................................................................................... From the graph....................................................... The graph below indicates the pH change during the titration of 20..................29............................................................................................ ....................0 cm3 of 0............... (Total 2 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 13 ..............................................................100 mol dm–3 KOH(aq).....................................................................

.............. (Total 5 marks) 31.......................... Determine the pH of the solution resulting when 100 cm3 of 0..................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................... ............................................................ ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Deduce............................. giving a reason..................................... (Total 2 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 14 .................... ......................... ............................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................ ......................................................................................................50 mol dm–3 HCl(aq) is mixed with 200 cm3 of 0................................ Define an acid in terms of the Lewis theory. . ..........................................................10 mol dm–3 NaOH(aq)................................................................................................. .....30.... whether NF 3 is able to function as a Lewis acid or as a Lewis base....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................

........................................................................ Describe two different properties that could be used to distinguish between a 1..... .............................................. .......... (Total 2 marks) 33................32............................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................... (Total 2 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 15 ............................ ........................................................................................................ Explain...................................................... using the Brønsted-Lowry theory................................................................................................. how water can act either as an acid or a base.........................................................................................................................................................................................00 mol dm–3 solution of a weak monoprotic acid................... ............. ............................................................................................................................................... ...................... In each case identify the conjugate acid or base formed.................................................................................................00 mol dm –3 solution of a strong monoprotic acid and a 1.

................................................... Ammonia...... (1) (ii) Calculate the pH of 0....................................................... .................................................... ................................... Calculate the pH of a 1..............................................................................................................................................00 × 10–2 mol dm–3 aqueous solution of ammonia at 298 K.. .................................................................................................................... (3) IB Questionbank Chemistry 16 .................................................... ...................................................................... ............... (a) (i) State an equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with water............ ........................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................. .........................................75.............. ........................................................................................................ NH3................................................................................................ is a weak base................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................ ...................................................................................................................................... It has a pKb value of 4.................... ........................................................ .... ........... ........... (Total 4 marks) 35.......................................................76).................................................................................................................................................................34.............................................200 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid (pKa = 4........................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................

.. ........600 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide......................................................... (4) (c) Explain how the solution formed in part (b) can act as a buffer........................ .............................................. CH3COOH(aq).................................... (1) IB Questionbank Chemistry 17 ...................................................................... ................................................................................ NaOH(aq)............ (1) (ii) Explain why even a very acidic aqueous solution still has some OH– ions present in it.................................................................................. ..................... Use equations to support your answer.................................... ..................00 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid................................. Water dissociates according to the following equation........................................................................................................................0 cm3 of 1...... (2) (Total 10 marks) 36............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ............................................................0 cm3 of 0........ H2O(l) (i) H+(aq) + OH–(aq) State the equilibrium constant expression for the dissociation of water................................................................................. to 50....................................................................(b) Determine the pH of a solution formed from adding 50................................................ ............................................................................. ..................................................................... Water is an important substance that is abundant on the Earth’s surface.............................................................................................. ..................................................... ............................................................................................ ........................................ ...............

(3) (ii) Describe how the phosphate buffer minimizes the effect of the addition of a strong base. (i) Deduce the acid and conjugate base ions that make up the phosphate buffer and state the ionic equation that represents the phosphate buffer. (2) IB Questionbank Chemistry 18 . Kw. OH–(aq). deduce how the hydrogen ion concentration changes. (3) (iv) State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the pH of water. in which NaH2PO4 produces the acidic ion and Na2HPO4 produces the conjugate base ion. If its pH is increased to 6. to the buffer. Water is an important substance that is abundant on the Earth’s surface. Illustrate your answer with an ionic equation. (3) (iv) The pH of a solution is 2. A phosphate buffer can be made by dissolving NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 in water.(iii) State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the equilibrium constant above given that the dissociation of water is an endothermic process. (1) (iii) State and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the value of Kw given that the ionization of water is an endothermic process. (2) (Total 7 marks) 38. (2) (Total 7 marks) 37. Buffer solutions resist small changes in pH. (1) (ii) Explain why even a very acidic aqueous solution still has some OH– ions present in it. (i) State the expression for the ionic product constant of water.

(2) (Total 7 marks) 39. (2) (iii) State the equation for the reaction of ammonia with water and write the Kb expression for NH3(aq).(iii) Describe how the phosphate buffer minimizes the effect of the addition of a strong acid. (3) (vi) Describe the significance of the half-equivalence point in terms of its effectiveness as a buffer. Deduce the relationship between [NH 3] and [NH4+] at the halfequivalence point. (2) (iv) When half the ammonia has been neutralized (the half-equivalence point).25. the pH of the solution is 9.10 mol dm –3 hydrochloric acid solution. H+(aq). Illustrate your answer with an ionic equation. to the buffer. (i) Explain why the pH of the ammonia solution is less than 13. (1) (v) Determine pKb and Kb for ammonia based on the pH at the half-equivalence point. (2) (ii) Estimate the pH at the equivalence point for the titration of hydrochloric acid with ammonia and explain your reasoning.10 mol dm–3 ammonia solution is placed in a flask and titrated with a 0. A 0. (1) (Total 11 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 19 .

.................... can be used to clean deposits of calcium carbonate from the elements of electric kettles............................................... (2) (Total 4 marks) 42............ (1) IB Questionbank Chemistry 20 .... CH3COOH.................................................... (i) Calculate the Ka value of benzoic acid........................ using Table 15 in the Data Booklet.... State the equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with calcium carbonate.40........................................... Some of the most important processes in chemistry involve acid-base reactions... is a weak acid....... (2) (ii) Vinegar...... .............. (i) Define the term weak acid and state the equation for the reaction of ethanoic acid with water.. F–(g) + BF3(g) BF4–(s) (2) (Total 5 marks) 41.......... which contains ethanoic acid.......... (i) Define a Brønsted-Lowry acid.......... ... (1) (ii) Deduce the two acids and their conjugate bases in the following reaction: H2O(l) + NH3(aq) OH–(aq) + NH4+(aq) (2) (iii) Explain why the following reaction can also be described as an acid-base reaction........... C6H5COOH. Ethanoic acid..

...........................(ii) Based on its Ka value............................................................................... (2) (iii) Determine the hydrogen ion concentration and the pH of a 0...................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................ The equations of two acid-base reactions are given below.................................................................................................... .................................... ... Reaction B NH2–(aq) + H2O(l) NH 3 (aq) + OH–(aq) The reaction mixture in B consists mainly of products because the equilibrium lies to the right.................................................................................... ............................ IB Questionbank Chemistry 21 ........ ...................... .............................................................................................................. ............ .............................. state and explain whether benzoic acid is a strong or weak acid..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... State one assumption made in your calculation.......................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................... ...................................................................... (4) (Total 7 marks) 43...................................010 mol dm–3 benzoic acid solution...................................................................................................................................... ............................. .................................................................................... + Reaction A NH3(aq) + H2O(l) NH 4 (aq) + OH–(aq) The reaction mixture in A consists mainly of reactants because the equilibrium lies to the left................

NH4+ or NH3 (underlined) and explain your answer. (2) (iii) In reactions A and B. identify the stronger acid. (i) Calculate the hydrogen ion concentrations in the two solutions and identify the stronger acid.(i) For each of the reactions A and B. X and Y. (5) (b) Two acidic solutions. (2) (ii) In reaction B. of equal concentrations have pH values of 2 and 6 respectively. (1) (Total 8 marks) IB Questionbank Chemistry 22 . NH2– or OH– and explain your answer. (2) (Total 6 marks) 44. deduce whether water is acting as an acid or a base and explain your answer. identify the stronger base. (2) (ii) Determine the ratio of the hydrogen ion concentrations in the two solutions X and Y. (a) Describe two different experimental methods to distinguish between aqueous solutions of a strong base and a weak base.

1 mol dm–3 sodium ethanoate II. II and III only D. 100 cm3 0. 100 cm3 0.5 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide A. I and II only B.45. 100 cm3 0.1 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid and 100 cm3 0.1 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid and 100 cm3 0.1 mol dm–3 sodium hydroxide III.1 mol dm–3 ethanoic acid and 50 cm3 0. I and III only C. II and III (Total 1 mark) IB Questionbank Chemistry 23 . I. Which mixtures act as buffer solutions? I.