Process Diagrams and P&IDs

for Typical FGD Plant

0. Engineering Milestones

1. General

2. Process Diagrams 2.1 Block Flow Diagrams 2.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)
3. P&IDs

0. System Engineering Milestones

1. General The The process process industry industry describes describes its its plants plants and and their their instrumentation instrumentation by by a a P&ID P&ID
(pronounce (pronounce P.N.I.D.) P.N.I.D.)

(Piping (Piping and and Instrumentation Instrumentation Diagram), Diagram),
sometimes sometimes called called

(Process (Process and and Instrumentation Instrumentation Diagram) Diagram)
German German name: name: R&ID R&ID (Rohr (Rohr and and Instrument Instrument Diagrams) Diagrams)

P&ID P&ID is is one one of of the the 3 3 major major types types of of process process diagrams. diagrams.

2. Process Diagrams
…to convert the physical reality or design concept to
Block Flow Diagram (BFD)

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

something we can analyze:

Three major types of process diagrams.

2.1 Block Flow Diagrams
Block flow diagrams show linear flow of materials in process Give a clear overview of a process Starting point for PFDs Useful in presentations

2.1.1 Typical FGD Plant


2.1.1 FGD Block Diagram

Typical FGD Plant is composed of the following 5 sections: - Flue Gas and GGH - Limestone Slurry Preparation - SO2 Removal - Gypsum Dewatering & - Utility section

2.1.2 Block Flow Diagram - Example

Block Flow Diagram is Basic P&ID

2.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

>PFD is a schematic illustration of the system and more complex than a BFD. > Standard symbols are used to identify units.

2.2.1Process Flow Diagram - Example

2.2.2 PFD's - PFD's shows the relationships between the major components in the system. - PFD also tabulate process design values for the components in different operating modes, typical minimum, normal and maximum. - PFD's do not show minor components, piping systems, piping ratings and designations.

3. P&IDs 3.1 3.1 General General 3.2 3.2 Identification Identification 3.3 3.3 Importance Importance & & Responsibilities Responsibilities 3.5 3.5 Revisions Revisions and and Standards Standards 3.5 3.5 Wet Wet -- FGD FGD P&ID’s P&ID’s

3.1 3.1 General General
P&ID, is a schematic illustration of functional relationship of piping, instrumentation and process equipments. P & ID’s represent the last step in process design Requires completed process flow diagrams (PFD’s) P&ID represents the basis for plant construction, and with system descriptions, means by which the plant is started up, operated and shut down.

3.1.1 Piping, Instrumentation and Equipments

Gate Valves;

3.1.2 P&ID Example

3.1 P & ID Function:
The P&IDs will contain sufficient information to enable:
} communication between Company, Contractor and Authorities } preparation of data sheets. } communication with the project departments to ensure a consistent design.

3.1.3 P&ID Design
P&ID should include all: • Mechanical equipment with names and numbers • Valves and their identifications • Process piping, sizes and identification • Miscellaneous - vents, drains, special fittings, sampling lines, reducers and increasers • Flow directions • Interconnections • Instrumentation • Control inputs, outputs and interlocks

Standard symbols & Identification names are used for identification.

3.2 P&I Identification
The P&ID defines a name (“Tag") for each instrument, along with additional parameters. This Tag identifies a "point" not only on the DCS screens and controllers, but also for the objects in the field.

3.2.1 Instrumentation identification
The first letter defines the measured or initiating variables such as Analysis (A), Flow (F), Temperature (T), etc. with succeeding letters defining readout, passive, or output functions such as Indicator (I), Record (R), Transmit (T), and so forth

FIC V1528 tag name of the corresponding variable S

mover (here: solenoid)

function (here: valve) P&ID mixes pneumatic / hydraulic elements, electrical elements and instruments on the same diagram

3.2.2 P&I Identification
P&ID uses symbols and names defined in ISA standard!

ISA S5.1 - Instrumentation symbols and identification standard defines how each symbol is constructed using: graphical elements, alpha and numeric identification codes, abbreviations, function blocks, and connecting lines.

(ISA—The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society)

3.2.3 Instrument graphical symbols
Primary location accessible to operator Discrete instruments Shared display, shared control Computer function Programmable logic control
1. Symbol size may vary according to the user's needs and the type of document. 2. Abbreviations of the user's choice may be used when necessary to specify location. 3. Inaccessible (behind the panel) devices may be depicted using the same symbol but with a dashed horizontal bar.

Field mounted

Auxiliary location accessible to operator

3.2.4 ISA S5.1- Instrument Identification
ISA standard defines: > Graphical elements:
- discrete instruments, - shared control/display, - computer function, and - programmable logic controller and

> location categories:
- primary location (control room), - auxiliary location (local control panel), and - field mounted.

3.2.5 ISA S5.1- Instrument Identification
Single horizontal bar across graphical elements indicates the function resides in the primary (control room) location. Double line indicates auxiliary (local control) location, No line: Device or function in the field Devices located in some other inaccessible location (e.g.switchgear) are shown with a dashed horizontal line.

3.2.6 ISA S5.1- Instrument Identification
Letter combinations appear inside graphical element are defined by the ISA standard: First letter: - measured or - initiating variables (Analysis (A), Flow (F), Temperature (T), …) Succeeding letters define: - readout, - passive, or output functions (Indicator (I), Record (R), Transmitter (T) …)

Identification letters
First letter Measured or initiating variable A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Analysis Burner, combustion User's choice User's choice Voltage Flow rate User's choice Hand Current (electrical) Power Time, time schedule Level User's choice User's choice User's choice Pressure, vacuum Quantity Radiation Speed, frequency Temperature Multivariable Vibration, mechanical analysis Weight, force Unclassified Event, state, or presence Position, dimension X axis Y axis Z axis Well Unclassified Unclassified Relay, compute, convert Driver, actuator Unclassified Multifunction Safety Integrate, totalizer Record Switch Transmit Multifunction Valve, damper, louver Multifunction Momentary User's choice Orifice, restriction Point (test connection) User's choice Scan Time rate of change Light Control station Low Middle, intermediate User's choice Indication Ration (fraction) Glass, viewing device High Differential Sensor (primary element) Modifier Readout or passive function Alarm User's choice User's choice Control User's choice Succeeding letters Output function Modifier

3.2.8 Instrument Identification - Examples
Transmitters/sensing elements: • FT – flow transmitter • LE – level element Indicators: • FI – flow indicator • AI – analytical indicator • LI – level indicator • PAH – pressure alarm high Controllers: • TIC – temp indicating controller Controlled devices: • FCV – flow control valve • PV – pressure valve

3.2.9 Instrument Identification - Examples
Pressure & Temperature:

3.2.10 P&ID Valve Symbols

F.O – Failed open F.C – Failed close F.P - Failed in place

3.2.11 Common connecting lines
Connection to process, or instrument supply Pneumatic signal Electric signal Capillary tubing (filled system) Hydraulic signal Electromagnetic or sonic signal Internal system link (software or data link)
Source: ISA S5.1 standard

3.2.12 Example of P&ID
The output of FIC 101 is an electrical signal to TY 101 located in an inaccessible or behind-the-panel-board location. TIC 101’s output is connected via an internal software or data link (line with bubbles) to the setpoint (SP) of FIC 101 to form a cascade control strategy

Square root extraction of the input signal is part of FIC 101’s functionality. FT101 is a field-mounted flow transmitter connected via electrical signals (dotted line) to flow indicating controller FIC 101 located in a shared control/display device

The output signal from TY 101 is a pneumatic signal (line with double forward slash marks) making TY 101 an I/P (current to pneumatic transducer)

TT 101 and TIC 101 are similar to FT 101 and FIC 101 but are measuring, indicating, and controlling temperature

3.2.13 Referring to the (DCS) Example P&ID
FT-101 is field-mounted flow transmitter connected (via electrical signals - dotted line) to FIC-101 - flow indicating controller located in a shared control/display device.
A square root extraction of the input signal is applied as part of FIC-101's functionality.

FIC-101 output of is an electrical signal to TY-101 located in an inaccessible location. TY-101 output signal is a pneumatic signal (line with double forward slash marks) making TY-101 an I/P (current to pneumatic transducer). TIC 101's output is connected via a data link (line with bubbles) to the setpoint (SP) of FIC 101 to form a cascade control strategy.

3.2.14 Referring to the (PLC) Example P&ID
Typical YIC indicates an on/off valve. YIC is controlled by a solenoid valve and is fitted with limit switches to indicate open (ZSH) and closed (ZSL) positions. All inputs and outputs are wired to a PLC that's accessible to the operator (diamond in a square with a solid horizontal line). 'Y‘ - letter indicates an event, state, or presence. 'I' - letter depicts indication is provided, and 'C‘ - letter means control takes place in this device.

3.3 Importance of P&IDs
The P&ID is the last stage of process design and serves as a guide by those who will be responsible for the final design and construction. Based on the P&ID:
• Mechanical and civil engineers will design and install equipments. • Instrument engineers will specify, install, and check control systems • Piping engineers will develop plant layout and elevation drawings. • Project engineers will develop plant and construction schedules.

3.4 Responsibilities – Process Dept.:

3.4.1 Responsibilities – Instrument Dept.:

3.4.2 Responsibilities – Electrical /Mechanic Dept.:

3.4.3 Responsibilities – Safety / Piping Dept.:

4. Revision & Standards:

P&ID revisions
P&IDs revisions shall be performed at the same time for all drawings, and in such a manner that a given revision number reflects the same status for all P&IDs issued.

Design of P&ID shall comply to engineering standards & rules and company internal regulations.

5. Wet FGD P&ID’s:


Flue Gas Booster Fan Gas-Gas Heater (GGH) Limestone Limestone silo & fluid. air fans Absorber & Limestone Slurry

5.1 Wet FGD P&ID’s cont.:


Absorber & Gypsum Slurry Oxidation – Air Fans Process Water & Filtrate Tank Emergency Storage Sump Hydrocyclone Station Belt Filter Gypsum Storage

5.2 Typical P&I Diagrams List

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 /09 10 11 12 13 14 16

Flow sheet Symbols and legends Flue gas path Booster fan GGH Limestone slurry preparation Fluidizing air system Absorber system: Limestone slurry pipe & Gypsum slurry pipe Oxidation air fans Process water system Emergency storage system Gypsum slurry dewatering (Hydrocyclone Station) Belt filter Gypsum storage