Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92

Comparison of fly ash properties from Afsin–Elbistan coal basin, Turkey
Suphi Ural∗
Department of Mining Engineering, Cukurova University, 01330 Adana, Turkey Received 14 January 2004; received in revised form 16 August 2004; accepted 25 October 2004 Available online 1 January 2005

Abstract Afsin–Elbistan (AE) coal fly ashes obtained by burning coal samples from top, middle and bottom sections of the AE coal seam were characterized and their properties were compared. Chemical analysis of the AE coal fly ashes showed that they are mainly composed of CaO, SiO2 , Fe2 O3 and Al2 O3 . Quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out using an interactive data processing system (SIROQUANTTM ) based on Rietveld interpretation methods. Lime is found in all the samples, ranging from around 7% to just over 38%. Amorphous contents of fly ashes are ranged between 19% and 25%. Different types of AE fly ashes revealed that bottom section coal fly ash is very similar to Class F, while medium and top section coal fly ashes are close to Class C and they might be used as mineral admixture in concrete. But also they do not comply with any of the standard. The results presented here show new possibilities for AE coal fly ashes in a wide range of fields, resulting in great advantages in waste minimization, as well as, resources conservation. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Afsin–Elbistan A power plant; Coal fly ash; Mineral composition; Chemical properties; Quantitative XRD analyses; Waste minimization

1. Introduction The Afsin–Elbistan (AE) basin is a multi-layer coal deposit with associated clays and calcareous gyttja partings. The basal part of the coal seam consists of clay, marl and sandy clay. These formations are overlain by gyttja enveloping coal seam. The term gyttja refers to a formation that is of sapropelic, black or brown mud with organic matter and have many gastropod shells. The AE coal basin is divided as upper seam, where the gyttja formation occurs as a sterile intercalation and lower seam, where clay occurs instead of the gyttja [1]. These intercalations strictly affect mineral matter contents of the AE coals. Generally, the most of mineral matter in coal ends up as a fly ash. Physical properties and chemical composition of a fly ash depends on the composition of mineral matter of the coal from which the ash is derived. Coal production is currently exploited in Kislakoy

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opencast mine and supply feed coal to AE A power plant, which has four boiler units each with 340 MW capacity. The AE A power plant consumes 18.0 × 106 metric tonnes of coal per year and generates about 3.24 × 106 metric tonnes of fly ashes. Then, these ashes return to the dumping area of the mine as combustion waste. The management of fly ash produced by coal fired power plants remains a major problem in many parts of the world. Although, significant quantities are being used in a range of applications and particularly as a substitute for cement in concrete, large amounts are not used and this requires disposal. This is not an ideal situation as there are concerns that this may cause long-term adverse environmental effects. Fly ash consists of fine particles that contain leachable heavy metals and is therefore, classified as a toxic waste [2,3]. Research is needed to develop new alternative applications that can further exploit coal fly ash, which needs to be increasingly regarded as a raw material, with potential for processing into new products rather than a waste. Potential applications for fly ash are grouped into following

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zinc [Zn(II)]. Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from an aqueous solution.5.86 S. Data on the development of pH with time of solutions of ashes in water are presented in Fig. Experimental Chemical compositions of the AE fly ashes change at the vertical direction of the coal seam [14]. it is evident that both bulk density and specific gravity increased as the particle size of the fly ash decreased. 1). Study of the particle size. a determination of 12. The water-soluble contents of the AE fly ashes are examined according to ASTM C 593 [17]. It was noted by Sear [16] that an increase in the percentage retained on the 45 ␮m sieve results in a decrease in the strength of the concrete. An estimate of the overall goodness of fit of each analysis is also provided. . The results of the quantitative XRD analysis (Table 2) represent the final output from each task. for their ability to remove nickel [Ni(II)]. Fig. C3A. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical. bulk density. the bulk density of the fly ash samples ranged from 0. 3. H32 and H36. when the best possible fit had been achieved between the observed and calculated XRD patterns (Fig. Results and discussion Chemical compositions of the fly ash samples are presented in Table 1.5 (4)% refers to 12. Elemental analyses of these samples were carried out by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry technique. They were found to be a metal adsorbent. copper [Cu(II)]. chemical and mineralogical properties of the AE coal fly ashes obtained by burning coal samples from various sections in the coal seam and to compare their properties.5% with an error of ±0. Gehlenite and melilite are present in significant proportions in the bottom section and the middle section coal fly ash samples. and specific gravity ranged from 2. The error is expressed in each case as an absolute percentage with respect to the last digit. The representative samples were taken from the top section. H36 and H32. when it is used as a replacement material. activated carbon. L1 and L4 for the bottom section coal fly ash. The specific surface area of the ashes was found by the laser beam method. Lime and anhydrite are the major crystalline phases in the middle section and the top section coal fly ash samples. may be masked by the rapid rise in pH resulting from the reaction of the cement grains. quartz and anhydrite are the major crystalline phases in the bottom section coal fly ash sample. Hematite. to the ash L1 where coarse particles comprise about 85% percent of the ash. M11 and M21 for the middle section coal fly ash and H32 and H36 for the top section coal. geotechnical applications (road pavement and embankments). This value should approach 1. Generally. thus. Fineness of fly ash affects the performance of concrete and grouts. M11. In addition. as effective as. the coals were produced from the top. As also seen from Table 3. Particle size measurement of fly ash sample was carried out by sieving technique. Table 2 also shows the error associated with each individual component from the estimated standard deviation (e. M21. Quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out using an interactive data processing system (SIROQUANTTM )1 based on Rietveld interpretation methods [15]. C4AF and ␤C2S cement minerals are present in small proportion in all the samples. 2 presents the range of the particle size distribution of the AE fly ash samples. These samples were then named as L1. the effects of coal fly ash on the pH of the mixing water. specific surface area. middle and bottom sections of the coal seam and they were burnt up to 1100 ◦ C at the boiler of the AE A power plant.63 to 1. A large amount of information is available on the application of coal fly ash [4–10].12] studied the AE fly ashes. a universal glass pH probe and pH meter.s. glass and glass–ceramics). SiO2 . In the cases of fly ashes M21. agriculture and miscellaneous (sorbent and sludge conditioning) [3]. Bayat [11. Fe2 O3 and Al2 O3 . Ural / Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92 main categories: construction materials (cement production. separately. 3.0 for a perfect fit between the measured and interpreted patterns.27 g/cm3 . middle section and bottom sections of coal fly ashes. accounting for 74–85% of the material on a dry weight basis. expressed as the relevant global χ2 value derived as indicated by Taylor [18]. Diffractograms of the samples were obtained using a Philips diffractometer system with Cu K␣ radiation.36 g/cm3 . Fig. specific gravity and pH development of ash is interesting from the point of view of characterization of the fly ash itself. A pycnometer was used to determine the specific gravities of fly ash samples. ceramics.80 to 3. 2 shows the large variation between the ashes – from the small amount of coarse particles found in ash H36. Fly ash samples of weigh 2 g were suspended in 100 ml of deionized water by continuous stirring. The immediate pH of the solution and pH values each hour.). They are mainly composed of CaO.%) clay and silt size (<75 ␮m).02◦ and counting time of 2 s/step. concrete. L4. Knowledge of mineralogy is a key component of any investigation into why a fly ash behaves in a certain way in its utilization and disposal. It indicates that the fly ash contains important proportion of (20–72 dry wt. Development of pH in suspensions of each fly ash in water was monitored by 1 Registered Trademark. was recorded. there is a relationship between the percentage retained on the 45 ␮m sieve and the coal type or ash source. When used as a partial replacement for cement. Samples were run from 5◦ to 65◦ 2θ with a step of increment of 0.4%. Ash samples except L4 are highly alkaline at around 12. Yasar et al. For that reason. the pH of 2. CSIRO.d. [13] studied the strength properties of lightweight concrete made with the basaltic pumice and the AE fly ash. The specific surface areas of the fly ash samples are given in Table 3. thereafter for a period of 24 h. The low bulk density makes these fly ashes a good material for lightweight building material.

490 1.000–30.%) Al2 O3 CaO Cl Cr2 O3 Fe2 O3 K2 O MgO MnO2 MoO3 Na2 O NiO P2 O5 SO3 SiO2 SrO TiO2 V2 O5 ZrO2 CO2 LOI Bottom section coal fly ash 12.515 0.9 (4) 0. Na)2 (Mg. If .800–9.6 (3) 24.8 and 13.095 0.1 (3) 2.700 0.260–2.560 Top section coal fly ash 1. In the case of fly ash L4. for the pozzolanic properties to be exhibited.100 0.2 (4) – – 1.16 3.600 0.5 h and decreased 9.7 (3) 1. The absence of significant amorphous material was revealed for the AE fly ashes by inspection of XRD patterns.2 (3) 0.97 3.400 0.200–20.531–0.109–0.700–46.750 0.3 (3) 7. CaO and Al2 O3 is depicted Table 3 Specific surface areas and density distribution of the samples Sample L1 L4 M11 M21 H32 H36 Specific surface area (cm2 /g) 1560 2550 2040 2160 2820 3020 Bulk density (g/cm3 ) 1. Al)2 O7 ) Melilite [(Ca.03 2. It shows the typical composition range for ordinary portland cement (OPC) and coal fly ash based on their typical Si.340 Middle section coal fly ash 6. respectively.500–6.350 1.494 12.2 (3) 1.8 (4) 2.190–4.555 1.600–19.120–0.008 0. Chemical composition of OPC [20] and the AE fly ash samples compared in Table 4.370–23.6 (4) 19.750–17.S.020–0.34 1.200–0. Chemical composition of the middle section and the top section coal fly ash samples are close to that typical of OPC. Al)(Si.300–0.042 0.104–0.%) Mineral Anhydrite (CaSO4 ) Lime (CaO) Quartz (SiO2 ) C3A (orthogonal) (3CaO Al2 O3 + Na2 O) C3A (cubic) (Ca3 Al2 O6 ) Calcite (CaCO3 ) Portlandite (Ca (OH)2 ) Spinel (MgAl2 O4 ) Hematite (Fe2 O3 ) C4AF (Ca2 Fe 1.027 0.0 (4) 8. Ural / Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92 Table 1 Chemical composition of the AE coal fly ash samples Element/element oxide (dry wt.230–11. 12.240 – 0.230–0.110–0.1 (3) 1.9 (4) 2.07 0.200–0.900 2.27 2.000 6.210 27.240–0.6 the solution reached a peak value of 12.490 – 0.000 0.064 0.460–0.059 0.3 (2) 1.100–0.84 2.117 – 0.000 0.4 (4) 1.600 0. Fly ashes classified as high calcium and low calcium fly ashes according to its CaO content.750–4.1 (3) – – 4.000–0.061–0.070 9. If the CaO content is less than 10% then the ash classified as low calcium or Class F.186 0.1 (4) 6.131–0. However.6 Top section coal fly ash 23.790 0.013–0. But mineralogical compositions of the AE fly ashes are not similar to OPC [21] (Table 5).320–24.092–0.200–1. It is apparent that the bottom section coal fly ash sample positions in the ternary diagram have pozzolanic and also cementations properties.087 – 1.830 0.6 at 4 h and then remained almost constant at approximately 9.200 0.066–0.940 87 Number of samples 24 24 6 6 24 24 24 24 6 24 6 6 24 24 6 24 6 6 6 6 Table 2 Mineralogy of the coal fly ash from the AE power plant (wt.6 (4) 22.510–50.332 0.111 3.7 Middle section coal fly ash 18.100–74. silica must be present as amorphous glass SiO2 .850 0.5 (3) 16.4 (2) – 1.4 (4) 1.80 in Fig.5 (3) 2.2 (4) 3.9 (4) 11.460–4.200 14.053–0.290–1.10 1.640–3.550 0.413 5.250–0.550–25.3 (3) 1. the pH value reached a peak value of 11.056–0. Al)3 O7 ] ␤C2S (Ca2 SiO4 ) Amorphous content Global χ2 Bottom section coal fly ash 12.250 – 0.850 0.090 – 0.570–4.7 (3) 25.36 1.960 0.035–0.060–1.100 6.007 0.6 (4) 1. 4. which accounts for its chemical reactivity.037–0.600–0.200–0.270–3.2 at 0. Al and Ca oxides content [19].5.5 (4) 38.074 1.006–0.5.100 0.3 (4) 1.003–0.7 (4) 3.006–0.071 0.620 6. and then remained at the same level for the period of 24 h.918–20.820 2.72O5 ) Gehlenite (Ca2 Al (Si.2 (3) 13.400 22.8 (3) 0. The ternary composition plot for the AE coal fly ashes based on the content of the SiO2 .052–0.013 0.3 (3) 3.81 0.100 48.8 (4) 2.0 at 6 h.5 (2) 2.28Al 1.8 (4) 2.63 Specific gravity (g/cm3 ) 3.1 (3) 6.

67 1.70 0.80 10.27 0.10 9.80 0.43 3.65 0.55 45.45 2.60 3.34 M11 9.17 17.35 3.24 4.94 H36 4. 1.35 1.47 0.23 45.56 1.50 L1 19.51 6. Particle size distribution of the AE coal fly ash samples.22 27.88 S.29 L4 12.25 10.27 55.32 0.65 17.80 1.79 0. Comparison of observed XRD trace (top).46 Fig.30 26.673 3.92 0.95 25.83 7.10 0.63 11.92 2. calculated trace (middle) and difference between them (bottom) for bottom section coal fly ash.87 4.64 H32 7.60 0. Table 4 Chemical composition of OPC and the AE fly ashes Element oxide (dry wt.15 3. Ural / Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92 Fig.65 0.20 19.%) Al2 O3 CaO Fe2 O3 K2 O MgO Na2 O SO3 SiO2 LOI OPC 5.83 2.25 0.13 0.79 20.14 2.40 4.37 15. .10 22.72 18. 2.20 3.55 0.80 0.57 0.56 M21 6.47 1.31 64.55 35.60 61.

9 4.6 C3A 12 (5–14) 1.7 3. 3.7 3. The most effective way to improve the properties of the vitrified products without major alterations to the process itself.5 C4AF 8 (6–12) 1.0 2.3 38.9 (2. by forming a glass–ceramic [24]. tiling and cladding Fig.8 (0–1. the AE coal fly ash might be used in concrete between 15 and 30% as cement replacement. It is also seen from Table 6 that the total alkali content of Na2 Oeq of all the types AE ash is made up of both Na2 O and K2 O and comply with ASTM C 618-97 [22] standard. for example Atis et al.5 Free CaO 0.5) 16.2 CaSO4 2. then the ash is classified as high calcium or Class C. Different types of the AE fly ashes revealed that bottom section coal AE fly ash is very similar to Class F. [25] studied the characterization of glass–ceramics developed from Seyitomer/Turkey thermal power plant fly ash and reported that the glass–ceramic samples produced from Seyitomer/Turkey fly ash have several desirable properties that would make them attractive to industrial use in construction. It is reported that.6–3.%) C3S OPC [20] Bottom section coal fly ash Middle section coal fly ash Top section coal fly ash 49 (42–67) – – – C2S 25 (8–31) 2.4) 14. while middle section and top section coal fly ashes are below the Class C requirement for (Si + Al + Fe) oxides. while middle section and top section coal fly ashes are close to Class C.3 18. Ternary composition grid for the AE coal fly ash samples as compared with OPC. pH development of the AE coal fly ash samples.S. All the types of AE fly ash have high SO3 content and coarse particle size. the CaO content is more than 10%. Ural / Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92 89 Fig. But also that each type fly ash failed to meet one or more criteria of the standard.6 1. It was shown that a nonstandard fly ash can also be used in concrete. Table 5 Comparisons of mineral content of OPC with the AE fly ash (wt.2 24.e. Erol et al. as defined in the ASTM C 618-97 [22] standard (Table 6). ASTM C 618-97 defines the chemical and physical requirements of coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan for use as a mineral admixture in concrete [22]. i. is the induction of a controlled crystallization. 4.2 6. Concrete structures can suffer from alkali-aggregate reaction.2 . [23] studied the effect on compressive strength of replacing cement with the AE coal fly ash.6 23.

Use of fly ash could be more economical. forms a hardened cementitious mass capable of obtaining high compressive strengths. %) 70.45 19. as equivalent.98 10. iron chlorosis is a very common and serious problem.63 and 1.4 0. %) Available alkalies.0 H32 1.30 0. and decrease the concentration of water-soluble phosphorus. as well as deficient levels of P and K. [26] reported that cement and lime are the most common grouts.29 66 M11 30. Ural / Journal of Hazardous Materials B119 (2005) 85–92 Table 6 Comparison of chemical composition and some physical properties of the AE fly ashes with to limits of ASTM C 618-97 standards of fly ash ASTM [21] Class F SiO2 + Al2 O3 + Fe2 O3 (min.0 5. soluble calcium. magnesium. if the public can be shown through appropriate research that the AE fly ashes can improve certain types of soils without significant damage to the environment. lime and fly ash can be used for improving the engineering properties of soil.0 L4 4. Bradsley and Lancaster [31] stated that virtually all of the sulfur in fly ash is in soluble form. The protection of open pit slopes against water and earth pressures. since smaller loads would be imposed on soils thus resulting in less significant ground settlement. Fly ash contains silicon and aluminum compounds that.0 32.0 34 ASTM [21] Class C 50. in addition to being pozzolanic because it contains a high percentage of lime.5 6. The importance of this finding in terms of soil and vegetation enrichment of fly ash-derived sulfur is very important for the AE fly ashes.0 3. B. chemical and mineralogical composition of the AE bottom section coal fly ash is very similar to Seyitomer fly ash. %) 10.2 3. 200 (75 ␮m) sieve (max.14 17. The AE fly ashes might be used as a substitute of cement or lime replacement for grouting.94 33 applications.64 75 H36 15.0 44.0 1. Principal applications of chemical soil stabilization are in highway and airfield engineering. Several studies have shown that attributes of some types of fly ash can improve plant growth and crop yield.3 1. sodium. The sulfur (SO3 ) content is found to be high for all the AE fly ash samples.3 0.90 S.18 22.6 5.4 0. 30 (600 ␮m) sieve (max. However. amount retained. Lime and fly ash in combination. Ural and Yuksel [28] indicated that slope instability is a continuing problem in the open pit mines located at the AE coal basin.51 0.3 0.0 H36 1. their high buffering capacity will resist changes in pH induced by fly ash additions. when mixed with lime and water. Use of the AE fly ashes as a soil amendment has the potential as an increasing outlet for the AE fly ashes. gypsum and elemental sulfur are used for fertilization to prevent iron chlorosis.33 1.56 50 H32 27.2 20.91 1. The alteration of soil properties to meet specific engineering requirements is known as soil stabilization [26].0 M21 4.0 5. they must penetrate deeply and seal effectively against the ingress of bulk water. high concentrations of Al.13 0.65 0.8 3. Ingles et al.0 69.5 12.0 L1 4.0 34 L1 75.53 4.0 1.4 66.0 M11 6. In practice. Since most of Turkish soils are mainly calcareous and alkaline.0 3. lime–pozzolan strength should be investigated according to ASTM C 593. there is an advantage in replacing conventional fill materials with fly ash. Mn or soluble salts. Thus. fly ash could be used as a limiting agent to raise the low pH of acid soils in humid Table 7 Comparison of some physical properties of the AE fly ashes with to limits of ASTM C 593-89 ASTM C 593-89 [16] Water-soluble fraction (max.0 Fineness.0 72. %) SO3 (max.50 84 L4 65. The increase in pH of acid soil suggests that.1 1. Different types of the AE fly ashes revealed that water-soluble fraction and fineness properties of the top section coal fly ash meets the requirements indicated in ASTM C 593 (Table 7). when wet-sieved: No.34. Especially. Class C fly ash is self-reactive or cementitious in the presence of water.48 0. may cause problem [29. frequently calls for grouting. sulfur and boron. Due to bulk density values of the AE fly ash are between 0.34 78 M21 28. Since most of Turkish soils are calcareous.1 10. [32] indicated that addition of fly ash to soil tends to increase soil pH. %) 2. Stabilization of coarse-grained soils having little or no tines can often be accomplished by the use of lime–fly ash or lime–fly ash–cement combinations [27].15 7.30]. The AE fly ashes might be used in soil stabilization. Phung et al. with which the lime can react. Class F fly ash requires the addition of lime to form a pozzolanic reactions.72 0. Grouts are important to improve strength and stability.9 1.0 30.83 11.22 0.3 0. lime–fly ash or lime–fly ash–cement stabilization is often appropriate for base and sub-base coarse materials [27]. However.41 3. Bulk density of the AE fly ashes is less than other fill materials used in construction of embankments. soil salinity. can often be used successfully in stabilizing granular materials since the fly ash provides an agent. as revealed by NH4 OAc analysis. as a substitute of lime or cement due to their pozzolanic characteristics.0 .55 0. %) Moisture content (max. as Na2 O (max. %) Loss on ignition (max. %) No. therefore. Quality requirements of fly ash used for stabilization are indicated in ASTM C 593 [17]. Some additives such as Portland cement. %) Amount retained when wet-sieved on 45 ␮m sieve (max.

Production of glass from coal fly ash. Sear. J. By increasing soil pH. [17] ASTM. Appl. A mixture of fly ashes as road base construction material. Bayat. [4] J. 16 (1996) 587–595. Classification of the Afsin-Elbistan lignite and determination of effect of its on the Power Station. Prof. [8] C. Ing.S. [2] C. Environ. Acknowledgments The author would like to acknowledge Afsin–Elbistan Lignite Establishment (AEL) to support this study. [7] E. magnesium and manganese. K. C 593-89. Mining Engineering Department. pp. [10] S. MMF2003BAP5). Comparative study of adsorption properties of Turkish fly ashes. It is evident that both bulk density and specific gravity values increase as the particle size and CaO content of the ash samples decrease. Thanks are also expressed to Cukurova University Research Fund to fund this study (Under Project no. 22 (2002) 631–641. Rio.C. Mater. H. 16 (1996) 15–20. Bayat. Atis. Gulsen. market strategy and UK practice. [9] S. M. B95 (2002) 81–90.7%. 140 p. Waste Manage. Waste Manage. J. C3A. due to the wide range of the density of ash samples. J. [1] S. The bottom section coal fly ash sample positions in the ternary diagram have pozzolanic and also cementations properties. Hazard. they could be also used as a limiting material to raise the low pH of acid soils. Paper #36. 1989. [5] A. A. Yasar. Ph. Gold. I. etc. Dr. References 4. Fly ash-lime-phosphogypsum hollow blocks for walls and partitions. 1969. excessive use of the AE high-calcium fly ash in soil could possibly impede root development by creating hard areas near the soil–fly ash interface in a closed ash disposal area. 2001. A. 95 (2002) 275–290. of the Mining Engineering Department of the Cukurova University. Zhang. [3] C. However. Fuel 82 (2003) 153–159. D. Das. On the other hand. M. Catalytic oxidation of gaseous reduced sulfur compounds using coal fly ash. Mater. Sheng. 6 (1991) 2–9. Turkey. Kentucky. Hazard.C.63 to 1. [11] B. Dr. Waste Manage. . Ottosen. Fuel 82 (2003) 181–185. Ash samples are highly alkaline except the bottom section fly ash sample L4. Xenidis. 38 (2003) 291–295. B. K¨ oln. as a substitute of lime or cement. Thesis. Kastner. Lett. 95 (2002) 251–273. p.D. costs of the facility. The bottom section fly ash could be used in tiling and cladding applications due to its chemical and mineralogical composition. The case of nickel(II). Mater. Zhang. Evangelia. 22 (1993) 227–247. M. Melear. Kumar. such as sulfur. H. C32. and specific gravity ranged from 2. A profile refinement method for nuclear and magnetic structures. 8. Cryst. J. 2 (1969) 65–71. Hazard. I. Dr. 1999. Fly ash standards. The AE fly ashes could act as a source of some essential elements to plants. and cadmium(II). University of Kentucky. J. Water-soluble fraction and fineness properties of the top section coal fly ash meets the requirements and it might be used in soil stabilization and for grouting the open pit slopes. while middle section and top section coal fly ashes are close to Class C. Building Environ. The chemical composition of the middle section and the top section coal fly ash samples are close to that typical of OPC.R. D. Kilic. for his useful literature. Strength properties of lightweight concrete made with basaltic pumice and fly ash. [14] O. they have the capacity of being used as an amendment for acid soil capable of improving soil conditions for proper plant growth. C4AF and ␤C2S cement minerals are present in small proportion in all the samples. S. Cukurova University.T.D. Qual. Utilizing coal fly ash as a landfill barrier material.L. [18] J. C.A. quartz and anhydrite are the major crystalline phases in the bottom section coal fly ash sample whereas lime and anhydrite are the major crystalline phases in the middle section and the top section coal fly ash samples. Powder Diffr. Graydon. Conclusions Physical properties and chemical compositions of the AE coal fly ash depend on the location in the coal seam from which it is produced. CaO content of fly ashes vary from 6. and Assoc. particular attention has to be paid for the design and construction of ash handling system. copper(II) and zinc(II). Chemical composition of bottom section coal fly ash is very similar to Class F. Leaching of fly ash to recover minerals to produce other useful products has been investigated and reported in detail in the literature [33–37]. Yu. Bulk density of fly ash samples ranged from 0. O. Hazard. Mater. Bayat. Hematite. Ribeiro. Computer programs for standardless quantitative analysis of minerals using the full powder diffraction profile. 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