Gender, Work and Organization.

Vol. 16 No. 1 January 2009

‘Live to Work’ or ‘Work to Live’? A Qualitative Study of Gender and Work–life Balance among Men and Women in Mid-life
Carol Emslie* and Kate Hunt
Many contemporary studies of ‘work–life balance’ either ignore gender or take it for granted. We conducted semi-structured interviews with men and women in mid-life (aged 50 to 52 years) in order to compare their experiences of work–life balance. Our data suggest that gender remains embedded in the ways that respondents negotiate home and work life. The women discussed their current problems juggling a variety of roles (despite having no young children at home), while men confined their discussion of such conflicts to the past, when their children were young. However, diversity among men (some of whom ‘worked to live’ while others ‘lived to work’) and women (some of whom constructed themselves in relation to their families, while others positioned themselves as ‘independent women’) was apparent, as were some commonalities between men and women (both men and women constructed themselves as ‘pragmatic workers’). We suggest ways in which gender-neutral theories of work–life balance may be extended. Keywords: gender, work–life balance, lifecourse, qualitative analysis

Introduction
his article explores the ways in which men and women in mid-life negotiate the intersections between paid work and other areas of life. As Gregory and Milner (2009) outline in the editorial of this special issue, research in this field has focused on ‘role conflict’, ‘role strain’, ‘work–home conflict’, ‘work–family conflict’ and, most recently, ‘work–life balance’

T

Address for correspondence: *Carol Emslie, Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, 4 Lilybank Gardens, Glasgow, G12 8RZ, UK, e-mail: C.Emslie@sphsu.mrc.ac.uk
© 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

152

GENDER, WORK AND ORGANIZATION

(defined as ‘satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict’ by Clark 2000 p. 751). Rather than ‘work’ and ‘home’ being conceptualized as separate domains that have no bearing on each other, it is now recognized that domestic identities and responsibilities sometimes spill over into the workplace and that organizational identities and responsibilities often cross into home life (Halford et al., 1997; Kanter, 1977). Many contemporary studies of work and home life either ignore gender or take it for granted (Gerson, 2004). One example is Clark’s (2000) work– family border theory that aims to explain how people ‘manage and negotiate the work and family spheres and the borders between them in order to attain balance’ (p. 750). She compares the domains of work and family to different countries with contrasting cultures, and describes people as border-crossers who move between these worlds. Borders are an appropriate metaphor for this process, given that they vary in permeability (the extent to which elements from other domains may enter: this includes psychological permeations such as worrying about work when at home, as well as physical permeations such as a partner or child entering one’s home office) and flexibility (the extent to which borders may expand or contract: this may apply to the flexibility of hours or to the location in which work takes place). Borders may also operate more strongly in one direction than another. For example, some employees are expected to work extra hours at short notice, whatever the consequences for their domestic life, while others may have flexibility in their working hours but not in the time they must collect their children from school. This is a useful theory for conceptualizing work–life balance. However, it is largely gender-blind. One of the aims of this article is to start to integrate gender into Clark’s work–family border theory. Here, gender is conceptualized as a dynamic set of socially constructed relationships, rather than as a fixed and binary category. Following West and Zimmerman (1987), gender is best understood as a verb (‘an ongoing activity embedded in everyday interaction’ p. 130), rather than as a property of individuals, and is continually constructed over the life course. Conceptualizing gender in this way disrupts the notion that masculine and feminine identities are the stable characteristics of individuals. Instead, gender identities are constantly renegotiated. Paechter (2003) integrates Butler’s (1990) theories about the performative nature of gender with Wenger’s (1998) ideas of communities of practice to try to discern which masculinities and femininities we perform, when we perform them and how this comes about. She suggests that: ‘the learning of what it means to be male or female ... results in shared practices in pursuit of the common goal of sustaining particular localized masculine and feminine identities’ (p. 71). Paechter suggests that masculine and feminine identities are related to the communities of practice of masculinity and femininity in five key ways:
Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009
© 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

UK government policy documents also seem to be including men by noting that parents (not just mothers) need more choice about how to balance work and family life (HM Treasury. Given these responsibilities.. Recently. 2005. 1985. and identity as an intersection between the local and the global (local masculinities and femininities are influenced by the mass media. 1987). p. Smith and Winchester. Weiss. as meanings of masculinities and femininities constantly change over time. in practice. 1996. although research began earlier in the USA (for example. doing things to improve or maintain relationships) (Strazdins and Broom. Hatten et al. in parents’ contribution to childcare time’ (O’Brien. The spatial separation of home and work brought about by industrialization in the 19th century was closely bound up with the ideology of separate spheres — public life for men and domesticity for middle-class women (Connell. and the assumption remains that flexible working and work–life balance are predominately issues for the working mothers of young children (Smithson and Stokoe. 2004). giving emotional support to partners. 2004). 2006. 1997). but not equity. the large disparity in maternity and paternity leave entrenches traditional gender roles. Pleck.. 2002. 2004). © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . women are still mainly responsible for domestic labour and childcare (Tang and Cousins. Smith and Winchester. we explore links between different gendered practices (that is. 1998) — and gender roles continue to be constructed around these masculine/public and feminine/private dualities. By the mid 1990s the ‘traditional family’ (with one full-time male breadwinner) ceased to be the most common family type in Britain. identity as a learning trajectory (identity is always work in progress. Gender is integral to any discussion about intersections between paid work and family life. A small body of research has investigated how men perceive the connections between work and home life. Halford. listening to and comforting children. Speakman and Marchington. and dual earner families became the norm (Brannen et al. 2005). 4). 1988. However. 2005. 2002). different ways of doing work– life balance) and constructions of masculine and feminine identities. place and institution). identity as a nexus of multi-membership (identity has to be constructed to encompass the intersections of participation in many different communities). Much of this work has taken place in the last decade (for example. identity as community membership (competent and convincing performances of masculinity or femininity that conform to group norms are central to identity). popular culture. the law and so on). Here. While there appear to be signs of ‘growing gender convergence. 2005). Collinson and Hearn. and also perform most of the emotional work in families (for example. Cohen. most research has focused on how women (particularly women in high status jobs or in dual career families) have reconciled the worlds of family and employment (Guest. 1998.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 153 identity as the negotiated experience of self (the ways that we ‘do’ masculinity or femininity contribute to how we understand who we are).

1997. 1998. 1989. Halford et al. 2004) found different results for different countries... a belief that fathers were willing. 1994). Loscocco’s (1997) study of small business owners in the USA found that men saw the flexibility of their working hours as a symbol of the control they had through being their own boss. Swanson et al. despite evidence that fathers remained peripheral to family life: for example. 2005). while men fulfil them when they put their business first. Parents used coping mechanisms to help maintain a belief in the fairness of division of labour in the household. (1997) also noted the gendered dimensions of home and work in their study of UK local government employees. Lundberg et al. Emslie et al.... Hughes and Galinsky. Mothers who were not in paid employment found it difficult to reconcile the demands of domestic work and childcare.. They found a disjuncture between the emphasis employees placed on a shared commitment to work and home life in partnerships. In many countries. while fathers managed to leave domestic problems behind them physically and mentally as they travelled to work each day. to help at home sustained most families. Backett’s (1982) study of parental negotiation is unusual in sampling middle-class couples in the UK at a particular stage in the life course (early family formation).. rather than employees across a range of ages. This evidence is hard to interpret and does not tell us anything about how men and women understand and negotiate the intersections between work and home life. while one study (Chandola et al. Triplett et al. Winslow. Connell’s (2005) study of public sector workers in Australia found that women were accountable both for running the household and for managing the Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . 2004a. Relatively few qualitative studies have set out to compare how men and women perceive the intersection of work and home life. This made the separation of home and work life particularly difficult for women.154 GENDER. 1994. She concluded that women fulfil gender norms when they accommodate work to family life. In order to do this it is necessary to take a qualitative approach. The results are mixed: some studies have found that women report more conflict between work and home life than men (Frankenhaeuser et al. Similarly. Her findings underline the importance of gender. and their descriptions of daily life in which women continued to bear the brunt of domestic work. while women used flexibility as a key resource in trying to achieve a work–life balance. and available. women work shorter hours and occupy lower status jobs than men. others have found that men and women report similar levels of conflict (Eagle et al. but tended to use it only occasionally. Quantitative studies have attempted to control for this difference by comparing men and women working in similar occupations. WORK AND ORGANIZATION Research on gender and ‘work–life balance’ Research on work–life balance is complicated by the gendered structure of the labour market. 1999. Organizational studies have also found gender differences.

Therefore. 2005. I’m here!’ (1997. different ways of doing work–life balance) were linked to different gender identities. Through this empirical work. we hope to begin to integrate gender into Clark’s work– family border theory. Hochschild (1997) found in her well-known study of an American corporation that there were increasing similarities in the way in which men and women regarded work and home life. p. and look for convergences (rather than assuming divergences) between men and women. she suggests we should analyse diversity among women and among men. 39) Aims Our study aims to make a contribution to the field by taking gender as a central theme. and unresponsive mates behind to arrive at work early and call out. The respondents were born in the early 1950s and so entered adolescence and adult life in the late 1960s and early 1970s. 164). is a different issue from exhaustion because of the double shift. ‘hi. men and women both may leave unwashed dishes. (Connell. 2004. She suggested that. p. We focused on respondents in mid-life partly because most studies concentrate on younger respondents (usually the mothers of young children) and partly because of the rapid changes in gender relations over the lifetime of this cohort.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 155 relationship between the home and the workplace. or not getting promotion because of career interruptions. We chose to take a life course approach as it helps us to appreciate the ‘larger social contexts in which personal choices and strategies are crafted’ (Gerson. in this qualitative study we compare the experiences of work–life balance among men and women in mid-life (aged between 50 and 52 years) in order to explore whether there were gender differences or similarities among the respondents. and thus to diversity among men and women. We also explored whether different gendered practices (that is. 378) In contrast. both men and women regard home as an additional place of work. Connell suggested that work–life problems for men and women may be quite different: Dropping dead from career-driven stress. p. precipitated by © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . or shrivelling emotionally from never seeing one’s children. when widespread challenges to social and sexual mores. crying tots. testy teenagers. the home was seen as a haven from which (male) workers could escape from the unpleasant world of paid work to relax and be appreciated. in the past. unresolved quarrels. Now. Gerson (2004) argues that we should understand work and family through a gender lens. Rather than assuming homogeneity within gender groups and gender differences between them. while the workplace is often seen as a haven (indicated by her subtitle ‘when work becomes home and home becomes work’): Nowadays. fellas.

a quantitative analysis of data from the middle cohort found that reports of work conflict were associated with higher levels of psychological malaise in both men and women (Hunt and Annandale. aged 15. dominant. willing to take risks) or feminine (for example. defend my own beliefs. affectionate.. which asks respondents to rate their personality according to qualities which have been judged to be stereotypically masculine (for example. This longitudinal survey of the social patterning of health has collected quantitative data from three age cohorts in the west of Scotland. the fact that a large gender pay gap (Perfect and Hurrell.156 GENDER. the Abortion Act of 1967. We used self-rated health as another way of Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . the Equal Pay Act of 1970 and the Sexual Discrimination Act of 1975). 1990). but it also has a large number of questions relating to gender and work. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of work–life balance among men and women in mid-life. 1990. WORK AND ORGANIZATION second wave feminism and other political movements. We therefore wished to include in the sample some respondents who had conventional biographies and gender role orientations for their generation. 2002).. 2002. they are useful in selecting respondents with a range of gender role orientations (see also Emslie et al. 1981). making them one of the first generations to have more control over their fertility throughout their reproductive lives (Hunt. and also to explore the ways in which respondents with different ways of ‘doing’ gender perceived and experienced work–life balance. were changing gender relations (Walby. sympathetic) (Annandale and Hunt. However. 2004). Hunt et al. While these instruments may be a fairly crude way of representing how people perceive themselves. 35 and 55 when first contacted in 1987–1988. The Twenty-07 study also includes a measure of gender role orientation (the Bem Sex Role Inventory. 1989).. 2003) remains over three decades after such legislative changes took place is one illustration of the power and persistence of gender divisions. 1993). They also entered their working and reproductive lives as significant pieces of legislation were enacted in the UK (for example. and others who had less conventional biographies and gender role orientations. and so provides an excellent sampling frame for this qualitative study. work (both paid and unpaid) and health has been a major area of interest since the inception of the Twenty-07 study (Hunt. Methodology This article is based on semi-structured interviews with 11 men and 12 women born in the early 1950s (and so aged between 50 and 52 at the time of interview in 2002–2004) who were sampled from the middle cohort of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study (Macintyre et al. The main focus of the Twenty-07 study is on health. The relationship between gender. 1997). Bem. At a time when few studies systematically compared role conflict in women and men. Hunt. 2004b).

The respondents were also asked how they combined work with other aspects of their life and if there had been any occasions when this had been problematic. respondents were free to decide what aspects. and work and domestic life as an adult. of their work–life balance had been problematic (for example. which reflected the relatively homogeneous ethnic composition of this age group in this area. The object was to access the relationships and assumptions that made up the respondents’ world-view so the interview began with a request for respondents to give a brief overview of their life. Ethical permission for the qualitative study was granted by the University of Glasgow. The interviews were transcribed. becoming a young adult. In addition. O’Brien et al. Extreme masculinity scores were defined as those in the top or bottom 10 per cent of the sample. Preliminary analysis began during © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . Using this overview as a guide. never married. or elder-care and other responsibilities) and the period in their life when this had been most difficult. Therefore. the interviewer (CE) then concentrated on particular stages in their biography: childhood. 2007). rather than to select a representative sample drawn from a population (Mays and Pope.. given that there is evidence that poor health can pose a challenge to identity and cause people to reflect on taken for granted gendered beliefs and behaviour (Charmaz. 1995. perceived their health to be poor. we knew that the typical pattern for this age-group was to get married and have children in their twenties. This method of purposive sampling is used when the aim is to select people who possess specific characteristics in order to illuminate the phenomena being studied. All of our respondents. and the accuracy of the transcripts was checked by listening to the tapes. their self-assessed health was excellent. combining childcare and paidwork. good or fair). were from the ethnic majority (white) population. 1995). never had children. or had extremely high or low Bem Sex Role Inventory masculinity scores). calculated separately for men and women using the quantitative data from the Twenty-07 survey. They also had average masculinity scores (according to the Bem Sex Role Inventory) for their sex and perceived themselves to be in reasonable health (that is. if any. From the quantitative data in the Twenty-07 study. all respondents were asked to give their informed consent and were asked whether their accounts could be tape-recorded. We therefore randomly selected 12 ‘conventional’ interview respondents who married and had children before the age of 30 (see Table 1).GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 157 sampling respondents. we wanted to include men and women from a range of socioeconomic positions. We therefore included both working-class respondents (defined as those working in manual occupations) and middle-class respondents (those in non-manual occupations). Although our main focus was on gender rather than on social class. with one exception. 11 respondents were identified who had biographies which were less conventional (for example. After an explanation of the study and assurances about confidentiality.

poor health No children. very low masculinity score Poor health Never married. no children. very high masculinity score Very low masculinity score No children. very low masculinity score Never married. very low masculinity score Very high masculinity score Never married. no children Poor health Poor health. very high masculinity score Note: *All names are pseudonyms. . no children. WORK AND ORGANIZATION © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Jimmy (51) Kenny (52) Council cleansing Own business (training) No children.Table 1: Selected characteristics of interview respondents 158 Name* (age) Current or most recent job Reason for sampling Current marital status Current household composition (in addition to respondent) Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 Husband (children left home) Partner and young son Teenager Husband and teenagers Husband and teenager Husband (children left home) Wife (children left home) Wife and teenager Wife and teenager Wife and teenager Wife and teenager Wife (children left home) Husband Lives alone (children left home) Lives alone Lives alone (children left home) Partner Husband (children left home) Wife (children left home) Brother nd ‘Conventional’ early adult biographies for their age and gender Rona (52) Nurse Married Maureen (51) Teacher Divorced Heather (51) Secretary Divorced Michelle (51) Auxiliary nurse Married Diane (51) Information technology Married May (51) Technician Married Alec (51) Architect Married Trevor (51) Engineer Married Malcolm (52) Electrician Married Steve (51) Postman Married (2nd time) Gary (51) Engineer Married Will (51) Own business (joiner) Married Married and had children before they were 30 years old. average masculinity scores and in reasonable health Less ‘conventional’ early adult biographies for their age and gender Penny (51) Secretary Married Divorced Single Divorced Single Married Married Single Married (2 ) Divorced Divorced Jackie (51) Marilyn (52) Social work Social work Gloria (52) Shona (52) Ruth (51) Ronald (51) Media (freelance) Social care Hospice support work Shift manager Douglas (50) Surveyor George (52) Housing manager Wife and stepdaughter Son (21) Partner GENDER.

stay with my son for a couple of hours . only two women (neither of whom had children) had been in continuous full-time employment. reformulated in a cyclical process. Maureen and Heather spoke about making difficult choices between spending time with ageing parents or with their children: Maureen (51 years): When my father was in hospital . and then go © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . and spontaneously used metaphors of juggling and balance to express these difficulties (for example. I [used to] come home from work. Some questions were modified in the light of these discussions. At the time of interview all of the men were in paid work (with one working part-time). mother. where necessary.. More men than women still had children living at home. and 11 of the 12 women were in paid work (with three working part-time). The men had been the main breadwinners while the women had taken time out of the labour market or arranged their paid work around their family life.. the other respondents’ children were either teenagers or young adults. Many discussed caring for grandchildren or assisting elderly parents with household tasks. no children and worked traditional office hours. friend and daughter.. partner. while more women than men lived alone (see Table 1). the analysis moved from the particular (a detailed analysis of language in each transcript) to the general (a comparison of patterns and themes across all the transcripts). ‘juggling match’. Apart from brief periods of unemployment. ‘can’t keep all the balls in the air’. all but one of the men had been in continuous full-time employment.. The other women found it difficult to combine roles such as employee. tested against the transcripts and. Hypotheses were formulated. many of whom had left home. In contrast. the respondents who were parents described how they had occupied traditional gender roles when their children were young. need ‘more of a balance’).GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 159 fieldwork. Experiences of work–life balance: revealing gender differences Almost all the women had experienced difficulties in co-ordinating different areas of their lives and most of their accounts of these difficulties related to the present or the very recent past. Following McCracken (1988). Findings Looking back over their lives. She explained that she did not experience problems because she had few commitments. Penny was an exception. Only one woman still had a young child at home. with interviews being conducted in batches and then discussed by both researchers before further interviews were set up. The software package QSR Nvivo was used to facilitate the analysis of interviews and field notes.

However.. For example..... There was a wee while when my mum and dad were both ill. I go to my mother’s one night a week. Well that was interfering with my family life . Socioeconomic circumstances influenced the accounts women gave of how they managed different roles in their lives. My son still stays with me. Middle-class women readily described their busy lives and then reflected upon their desire to have more ‘time for themselves’ at this point in the life course. Heather (51 years): After my dad died.. Men’s accounts differed from the women’s in two important ways. paid work was also described in positive terms... but again that didn’t stop me doing anything. WORK AND ORGANIZATION straight to the hospital and stay there overnight. This idea was expressed by women both with and without children.. but it was just what you had to do. anything I have wanted to do I have planned ahead and got it sorted but I could do what I wanted to do really.. I maybe spent too much time with my mother when I should have been spending time with the children. Some women suggested that their workplaces had been a place of refuge when they had difficulties in their personal life.. Indeed.. But it’s too late you know? Many accounts centred on the impact of paid work on women’s lives. In contrast. Some women felt that these stressful situations at work had negatively influenced their health. Their suggestions that ‘you just got on with it’ served to normalize competing demands.. I have to spend a lot of time listening to him . you sit back and you think ‘Oh. including a description of the emotional work she still does for her teenage son: Heather (51 years): I’m doing a course at the moment which takes up two nights a week.160 GENDER. waking up at night to worry about phone calls they had not made and dreaming about work situations) and how their work sometimes left them too exhausted for other activities. Heather gave an eloquent account of this problem. I thought by this time I would have more time for me. to do really what I wanted. working-class women played down the difficulty of reconciling different roles and emphasized that they were coping or managing.... most of the men focused on the way in which paid work dominated their lives. Women described how they worried about work tasks while at home (for example.... I was running up and down there... maybe I should have done it differently’. ever found it difficult . May said that even when she had to combine caring for her sick parents with her paid work ‘that didn’t stop me doing anything’: May (51 years): I never. two women had recently been signed off sick and prescribed anti-depressants due to work stresses. Comments that work was ‘therapeutic’ or prevented them from sinking into depression suggest that paid work can help to buffer stresses from other spheres of life... Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd .. First.

emphasizing that there has ‘got to be better ways of organizing family life’. and no. an architect. Ronald commented that the timing of his shifts had restricted his ability to participate in his children’s activities (see Speakman and Marchington. most men thought they currently had a good balance between paid work and other activities. I don’t do that (now). Alec was the only respondent (male or female) who gave a structural analysis of the situation. Their accounts suggested they perceived this conflict as an individual problem for their family to solve. would have to be done in the evenings and at weekends. working at night .. Many of the men who were fathers identified the time when their children were young as the period when they had experienced most conflict between work and home life: working long hours. men’s accounts of problems tended to be located firmly in the past. overtime and working away from home were all problematic. in pantos and you’re working. I was going home and working at weekends.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 161 while the women had discussed the difficulties of balancing a range of roles at home. balanced this regret with the recognition that the financial © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 .. Alec. in particular. Secondly.. Kenny was a senior manager and felt he had more control over his career now than he had in the past: Kenny (52 years): I’ve got quite a healthy balance.. When I worked for the Council . 2004 for similar findings): Alec (51 years): Any kind of design work . likes of the kids are in school plays. While women discussed recent or current problems. he had previously worked extended hours. as well as balancing home and work life.. Ronald (51 years): The wages weren’t brilliant then and to get the extra money you were doing extra shifts . These accounts suggest that men regretted missing important parts of their children’s early years (see also Hochschild [1997]). Latterly. weekends. Working-class men reported that they had often needed to work extra shifts or overtime to bring enough money into the household. you don’t see a lot of these things. middle-class men.. However. commented that in order to find time for the aspects of his job that he found interesting (design work). although those who continued to work shifts reported that this made it difficult to organize their social lives. I kind of regret that. Middle-class men often described the need to work long hours in order to establish themselves in their profession.. because in the early days when my children were growing up. I hardly saw them out of their pyjamas because I was leaving early in the morning and coming home late at night.. Many men described working longer hours in the past than they did now. For example. your shifts restrict you for certain things. or to finish studying for professional qualifications.

trying to decorate. Like some of the women. I feel as if I’m coming in here now.. the kids were young. I didn’t realize the full extent at the time. He also discussed currently trying to juggle work and family life... these new categories did not correspond to our sampling categories: for example. She’d obviously had a problem doing it.. because I was never here. he described trying to juggle a number of tasks (running the household.. WORK AND ORGANIZATION gain had been important.162 GENDER. He worked for the Royal Mail. A few men did not follow this general trend. especially when he [his son] was younger. using previously collected quantitative data). I was working. I was working till 10 or 11 o’clock at night. Malcolm (52 years): My wife and I were falling out. Jimmy was the only man who currently lived with his (adult) child but without a partner. who underscored the importance of their lives outside paid employment). and all I’m doing is ironing and tidying up. Trevor and Malcolm alluded to past tensions over their working hours: Trevor (51 years): At that time. two men discussed current or recent problems they were having. Others constructed less traditional gender identities (‘independent women’ and men who ‘worked to live’. And you’ve never got enough time. Steve was the only man who had not had any problems co-ordinating different areas of his life. so she [his wife] had to look after them all herself at night. In addition. Will was unusual as he described how he managed to spend time at home with his children when they were young. A final. Some respondents constructed fairly traditional gender identities. oh it’s hellish so it is! [laughs]. (Interestingly.. Some of the fathers’ accounts suggested that time spent at work fulfilling their role as breadwinners conflicted with time their wives expected them to spend at home as fathers. These men noted the centrality of paid work in their lives (‘living to work’) while these women emphasized their caring responsibilities (‘female carers’). mixed-sex group of respondents who had similar class Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . He felt this arrangement had given him lots of free time to see his family and enjoy a social life. respondents who expressed less traditional attitudes in the qualitative interviews did not all come from the less conventional group sampled from the Twenty-07 study. looking after his 21-year old son and working): Jimmy (51 years): It’s only me and my son stay in the house. we grouped respondents into the new categories that emerged from the rich qualitative data. Work–life balance and the construction of gender identities After analysis of the interviews. and so started and finished work by lunch time.

I have this lovely boss at work who’s 30.. They enjoyed their work and did not intend to retire until at least the age of 65. but admitted he no longer had a social life: Trevor (51 years): Work did interfere (with family life) but I’m old fashioned: I tend to accept that as part of the job. All three had caring jobs which they enjoyed in hospital environments. Ruth (a hospice support worker) stated that she would continue to do voluntary work in the hospice after she retired.. Douglas attributed his ability to work exceedingly long hours to his marital status (single). Rona and Michelle (female carers) remarked on their caring responsibilities in both their home and work lives. We describe each in turn. All intended to continue working full-time until around the age of 60.. I wanted a family!’ — you know. which actually suited me very well. Trevor stressed that he was ‘old fashioned’ because he accepted that paid work conflicted with family life. My husband had his career and I had a job.. but . you’ve got to give your best to your employer. Their largely unquestioning dedication to work made them more likely to accept that employment conflicted with other areas of life. Douglas (50 years): I don’t have a social life anymore. They positioned themselves as women whose identities were closely bound up with their families. This was despite the fact that their domestic situation was not always particularly traditional. were categorized as ‘pragmatic workers’.. despite their different situations. Basically the invites become less and less because you’re too busy working and the like.. Constructing traditional gender identities: ‘female carers’ and men who ‘live to work’. Both of these men had a traditional division of labour at home.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 163 backgrounds and perceived their jobs as a means to an end (bringing in income). ‘Oh.. Ruth. so I can get away with it. The following quotations illustrate the way this group of women describe the importance of their families to them: Rona (52 years): We’ve always been an old-fashioned couple and we still are. Indeed. I wouldn’t say that the job comes first. you can’t have it all. and she is just climbing the ladder. All of a sudden she’ll say when she’s 36 or something. The accounts of two men (Trevor and Douglas) suggested that paid work had been crucial throughout their lives and that they ‘lived to work’. Douglas had lived © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . Both Rona and Michelle were currently working full-time while their husbands had been made redundant. Trevor was married with children and felt that it was a ‘mother’s place to be at home and look after the children’.. All had been married to their original partner for at least 30 years and had children.. But as I say I’m single . Ruth (51 years): You could say that I just live for my family..

decided to work part-time as she wanted more time and energy for other projects and to safeguard her health: Marilyn (52 years): I was fed up finding that when I came home on a Friday night I was absolutely exhausted.. WORK AND ORGANIZATION with his parents until recently and his mother had done all the domestic work.164 GENDER. Jackie (51 years): I’m not just a mother or the job I do. the independent women did not position themselves as being dedicated to their families. Unlike the female carers described above. They had all worked in non-manual jobs and had sufficient resources to reduce their hours.. Gloria. Heather and Shona) had reduced. Tiredness and worries about health had also acted as triggers prompting these women to reconsider the balance in their lives. mental health) influenced her decisions about work. you need to keep your mental health. Like Marilyn. In addition.. the hours they spent in paid work in order to have more time for themselves or to develop their own businesses. Extracts from Maureen and Jackie’s interviews illustrate this emphasis on independence:Maureen (51 years): We’re two independent people who have children who live together.. ’cos at the end of the day... Same in relationships.. and in order for you to keep being independent. I like living on my own. All were divorced or had never married. and if you make a mistake then you just walk away from it and that’s it... Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd .. you have to choose properly. First and foremost I’m a woman.. Those with current partners underscored their independence from these men and saw their future plans as an opportunity to fulfil their individual potential and to do what they wanted. so I kind of weighed up the pros and cons and decided that I wanted to go part-time and it’s great: I love it! Gloria was self-employed and made it clear that she had a large amount of control over which projects she worked on. I’ve got a partner. Almost all these independent women (Marilyn. After her death. Constructing less traditional gender identities: ‘independent women’ and men who ‘work to live’. Maureen. so we just choose properly. Jackie. If you make a mistake you just walk away from it . a social worker.. she linked her independence at work with her independence in relationships: Gloria (52 years): We were brought up to be very independent . For example. either through reasonably wellpaid jobs or redundancy money from previous work. rather than what others wanted. I’m diabetic and it’s diet-controlled and I have high blood pressure. We don’t live together — that’s something we decided. health issues (in this case. Marilyn.. or were seeking to reduce. Gloria’s extract illustrates the importance that all the women in this group placed upon their independence. he paid his niece to take over these chores.

For example. male pragmatic workers were aware that unemployment was infinitely worse than the everyday problems of paid work. or felt that it played a less central role in their lives now they were older. We work to live and we live well.. Gary... While paid work did not take precedence over everything else in their lives. attributed this to the influence of their father. while others. Most wanted to retire in their mid-fifties. All these men had partners. Pragmatic workers. I’m always one for life.. 1993). Growing up in the sixties . but had a caravan and a boat. Penny. These respondents (Diane. Alec.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 165 The group of men who constructed less traditional gender identities (Will. George and Kenny) were generally in high status professional jobs or ran their own businesses. although the men expressed some concern about being stuck at home and described plans to join clubs.. but this depended upon their finances. referred to the context in which they grew up: Will (51 years): My dad worked and worked and worked all his life. so I would have to think seriously to move [jobs]. I’m 20 minutes from the house. This also allowed them to get away — physically and mentally — from the demands of work. where they spent time with their families at weekends. This concern has been interpreted by others as an escape from the female-dominated space of the home (Wight. like Alec. Malcolm. like Will. while the © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . I’ve got lots of holidays through longer service et cetera. Jimmy and Steve) had either always been pragmatic about their work (seeing it as a means to an end). I suppose you are carried along by social movements and that does have an influence on you. The pragmatic workers were all looking forward to retirement. For example. The women noted the practical benefits of their jobs. Some. Men with children in this group discussed how they had sought to keep time free at weekends to spend with their families. These respondents occupied similar class positions: almost all the men were manual workers and all had physically demanding jobs. Alec (51 years): I don’t consider work as an end in itself.. All of the men in this group either used the phrase ‘work to live’ or emphasized that they thought there was more to life than work. May. and so their income was of greater importance for their families. Male pragmatic workers differed from the men who lived to work because they had fewer resources to draw upon. or to continue working a few days a week to ensure they did not go ‘stir crazy’. Ronald. There’s no way I live to work. respectively.. and most stressed the egalitarian nature of their relationship. Penny remarked on the proximity of her work to her home and her holiday entitlement: Penny (51 years): I’ve no bus fares. both Will and Malcolm worked long hours during the week..

Hopefully: if I live that long! If I live that long! Conclusions Most research on work–life balance concentrates on the experiences of the mothers of young children. Penny commented that her husband would like to retire immediately because his job was so physically tiring. adult children and ageing parents. and for the parents of older. or preferably imperceptible. WORK AND ORGANIZATION women were all married to men in physical.. they’re dying. Their future plans for retirement were influenced by financial resources and anxieties about health. lack of work–life balance is a problem for men as well as women. Our research also contributes to the body of work which notes the variety of ways in which men and women do gender (Connell. Similarly. our data suggest that gender remains interwoven in the business of negotiating home and work life. Despite the similarities in the current work and family circumstances of these men and women. 2005). ’Cos I’ve seen I think four or five guys all retired in there and they’ve lasted a year. Ron (51 years): My theory [is] that in six or seven years time I’m off. However. while the men tended to locate problems of work–life balance in the past. and that’s it. ‘changes in gender consciousness are the “final frontier” in the quest for greater gender equality in work–family linkages’ (p. 2004.. children (Chandola et al.. while Diane and May had health concerns of their own. As Loscocco (1997) argues.166 GENDER. It was notable that the female respondents discussed their current and varied concerns about juggling paid work.. transitions between the worlds of home and work life (see also Connell. most of whom had teenage (or older) children. Emslie et al. these difficulties lasted longer. for women.. as well as preschool. Our data suggest that. and took more complicated forms. Exploring the boundary between the ‘male’ domain of work and the ‘female’ domain of home life is a fruitful way to explore how gender identities are Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Paechter. 1985. I’ll look forward to it. while the presence of children in the household was associated with a lack of work–life balance for both men and women.. I am out of there. Thus. women are seen as being responsible for maintaining smooth. the men in this group either had concerns about their own health or indicated that they were aware of the possibility of early death amongst working [class] men: Jimmy (51 years): If I reach 65 and I’m due my retiral [retirement]. 223). 2004a). 2003). manual jobs... often when paid work conflicted with the demands of raising young children. Our research contributes to the literature in exploring the experiences of men as well as women in mid-life. across the life course. Our methodology meant that respondents were free to choose the situations and times in their lives when they felt it had been most difficult to reconcile paid work and other areas of life.

While health concerns often pushed them to consider early retirement. In contrast. For example. lack of resources prevented them from doing this. Finally. Our research also points to the importance of socioeconomic position when considering issues of work–life balance. 1996. 2002).. © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . women constructed a range of femininities through their narratives. The women did not discuss motherhood in this way. while others underscored their independence from partners. their role as a father was associated with attending key family events such as school plays or associated with spending time with their children outside the working week as ‘weekend dads’ (Hatten et al. rather than merely distinguishing. For some men in this sample. 2004b for similar findings for an older cohort of men). children and elderly parents) and so women may cross more borders (more often) than men. Speakman and Marchington. noting the importance of life outside paid work. securing sufficient income may be a more pressing concern than balancing work and home life. pragmatic workers — who were manual workers. between men who said that they ‘worked to live’. Future work should take a more nuanced approach to social class. female carers had relatively weak boundaries between home and work life as they integrated these worlds through the identification of similar (caring) aspects in each. the few men who ‘lived to work’. However. Most research on work–life balance concentrates on non-manual (usually professional) employees (although see Collinson and Hearn. Our study suggests that. Clark’s exclusive focus on the border between the worlds of work and family may have more resonance for men than for women: for women the family may comprise many worlds with conflicting demands (for example. we referred to Clark’s (2000) theory of border-crossing as a useful way to conceptualize work–life balance. The range of masculinities constructed by our sample is illustrated by the contrast. illustrating the way in which gender identities are continually reassessed and reconfigured (Paechter. Our empirical data provide some support for this theory and also suggest some ways to extend it. Some men discussed how they had moved from a ‘live to work’ to a ‘work to live’ mentality over time. the temporal borders between work and family may vary for men and women. the ways that people position themselves in relation to social structures such as gender has consequences for the ways they shape the worlds of work and family (and vice versa). between manual and non-manual employees. In the introduction. we identified a group of pragmatic workers (either male manual workers. as we did. 2005). demonstrating a more traditional version of masculinity (also see Emslie.. or women married to manual workers) who discussed the practical and economic benefits of work. Through the analysis of our qualitative interviews. some emphasized their close family ties. Similarly. 2003). on the one hand. and on the other. First. et al. for some groups of employees. Secondly. 2004).GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 167 continually (re)constructed (Smithson and Stokoe. our main focus in this study was on gender rather than social class.

it is interesting that our findings cannot be explained simply by our sampling strategy. or had very high or very low masculinity scores). Pill and Stott’s (1982) study of perceptions of illness amongst working-class mothers came to similar conclusions. while the middle-class independent women had the freedom to reduce their working hours in order to enhance their work–life balance. in influencing gender identities than similarities or differences between people in the same age cohort. our study raises some issues about trying to access respondents’ accounts of work–life balance. 2000). Their narratives suggest that they initially tried to minimize problems with work–life balance. Respondents with greater resources were more able to renegotiate the boundaries between work and home life. Given that it is women who are expected to balance work and family life (Moen and Yu. 69). work and gender (Moen and Yu. those who never married or never had children. through cutting down their hours in paid work (independent women) or by physically removing themselves to a place where they could not be contacted out of working hours (men who worked to live going to their boat or caravan for the weekend). if not more important. it is striking that work–life balance was perceived as a personal issue to be dealt with using individual strategies and not as a structural problem caused by a lack of flexibility in the workplace and a lack of affordable childcare and Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Our data provide some evidence that the working-class women respondents experienced these questions in this way.168 GENDER. Collinson and Hearn (1996) refer to the way that working-class men seek to ‘maintain an impenetrable psychological wall between “public” and “private” life’ as an attempt to distance themselves from organizational cultures that treat them as second-class citizens (p. Secondly. For example. we might expect women to find these questions more threatening than men. this option was not open to those with more limited resources. 50). In conclusion. They found that their respondents defined a good mother as ‘one who “keeps going” and copes with the multifarious demands that her family make of her’ (p. while we have reported respondents’ own accounts of work–life balance it is important to bear in mind that their individual choices were constrained by their socioeconomic resources and cultural norms about family. The respondents who expressed less traditional attitudes to work and gender roles in the semi-structured interviews (men who worked to live and the independent women) were not all from the less conventional group of respondents (for example. In addition. Thus changes in marital status. and parenting experiences seem as important. WORK AND ORGANIZATION or married to manual workers — had stronger boundaries between work and home life. instead noting that they ‘coped’ and ‘just got on with it’. socioeconomic status and resources. This project raises two methodological issues. 2000). Firstly. Integrating work and family life is intimately tied to constructions of identities and therefore questions about this topic may be experienced as threatening.

. and the UK. Clark. Acknowledgements We would like to thank all the respondents who participated in this study. Martikainen. (1997) Mothers. 12. © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . Japan. E. Future research should concentrate on work–life balance among men and women in less privileged class positions in order to further illuminate the relationship between individual choice and structural constraints. Butler. Fathers and Employment. (1995) Identity dilemmas of chronically ill men. M.1. Power and the Body.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 169 elder-care in the UK. 884–893..00. Indeed. International Journal of Epidemiology. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. Sociology of Health and Illness.J.. E. K. and Gordon. P.. Charmaz. Caproni (2004) suggests that balance may be an unachievable goal because it is built on an individualistic. S. D. We would also like to thank Sally Macintyre. Backett. Nasermoaddeli. 208–18. You can’t get there from here. pp. J. S. In Sabo. Thomas Coram Research Unit. A. S. K. (2000) Work–family border theory: a new theory of work–family balance. Owen. J. the editors and the anonymous referees for helpful comments on the manuscript.1300. Michikazu. and Wale. (1982) Mothers and Fathers.. Human Relations.. (1981) Bem Sex-Role Inventory Professional Manual. and Kagamimori. (2004) Does conflict between home and work explain the effect of multiple roles on mental health? A comparative study of Finland.2. Parents and the Labour Market in Britain 1984–1994. To the extent that the work/life discourse remains focused on the individual. London: University of London. CA: Consulting Psychologists Press. and who does not? (2004. P. (1990) Masculinity. femininity and sex: an exploration of their exploration of their relative contribution to explaining gender differences in health. Palo Alto. (eds) Men’s Health and Illness.C. P. Thousand Oaks. 266–71. Moss. D. 40. References Annandale. L.. Institute of Education. The authors are funded by the UK Medical Research Council (WBS U.. power relations will remain beyond the scope of the discourse . (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Caproni. Brannen. Bem.. 747–70. London: Macmillan. who gets to define what work/life balance is? Who has access to available benefits.. p. 33. 215). Gender.F. CA: Sage.6. T. M. Chandola. C.004). achievementorientated model that assumes that people have choice and control over their lives. London: Routledge. and Hunt. 53. Bartley. S. (2004) Work/life balance. C. 24–46. Marmot. K. Lahelma.

(1997) Inter-role conflicts and the permeability of work and family domains: are there gender differences? Journal of Vocational Behavior. K.. Careers and Organisations.2. M. WORK AND ORGANIZATION Cohen. Eagle.-L. the Best Start for Children: a Ten Year Strategy for Childcare. 383–402.W. work–home conflict and morbidity amongst white-collar bank employees in the UK. 255–79. (2004a) Gender. Work & Organization. Emslie. 321–46.2. organization and homeworking. (1997) Gender. B. M. 293–306.2. Lundberg.. 3–15. In Mac an Ghaill M.W. P. B. R. L. 127–34.. Sociology. K.E. (1996) Men at ‘work’. 11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. R. U. Social Relations and Cultural Arenas. work. 54. and O’Brien. and Galinsky.. Treasury HM (2004) Choice for Parents. job and family conditions. 251–70. Hunt. Community. D. Social Science and Medicine. and West.K. 40. 41.1. B. Miles. 632–64.W. M.. (1977) Work and Family in the United States: a Critical Review and Agenda for Research and Policy. A. Gender. E. E. Social Science Information. and family: the impact and meaning of work in men’s family roles. M. Hunt. A. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Collinson. Hunt.5.. Frankenhaeuser.3–4. and Witz. C. Bergman-Losman. Emslie.3. and Annandale. gender equity and social change. S. Halford.2. Norwich: HMSO. Hedman. R. (1993) Just the job? Is the relationship between health and domestic and paid work gender-specific? Sociology of Health and Illness. W. S. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. (2002) Perspectives on the study of work–life balance. 19. Australian Journal of Social Issues. (ed. K. 50. M.5. D. S. Family Perspective. (1994) Gender. Hunt.3. Connell. L. Gregory. and psychological symptoms. Hughes. Open University Press: Buckingham. 18. Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Myrsten. 239–49.W.R. T. 16. 168–84. Work & Organization.4. (2005) A really good husband.4. Hatten.170 GENDER. C. S. Hannah. 663–76. and Macintyre. A. Guest. A. New York: Metropolitan Books. Work/life balance. Gerson. 12. Health Education Research Theory and Practice. Connell.. 22. Journal of Men’s Studies.3. and Hearn. Hunt. K. and Milner.L. femininity and class differences in smoking in men and women from three generations in the west of Scotland. E. When Work becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. Hochschild. Psychology of Women Quarterly. 10. (1985) Theorizing gender. K. (1997) The Time Bind. 7. Vinter.F. (2002) Dads on Dads. (2006) Collapsing the boundaries? Fatherhood. and Icenogle. Melin.3. (2004) Contextualising smoking: masculinity. multiple masculinities/multiple workplaces.L.M. 369–383.. and Williams. K. (1990) The first pill-taking generation: past and present use of contraception amongst a cohort of women born in the early 1950s. Nursing and Local Government. and Wallin. J. Gender. Halford. M. Work and Family.. 207–26. 19.1. K. D. 1–13.) Understanding Masculinities. Needs and Expectations at Home and at Work. (1989) Stress on and off the job as related to sex and occupational status in white-collar workers. (2009) Work–life balance: a matter of choice? Editorial. R. R.. (1988) Gender.. British Journal of Family Planning. 16. (2004b) Masculinities in older men: a qualitative study in the West of Scotland. Kanter.. M. Fredrikson. 260–72. 163–178. (2004) Understanding work and family through a gender lens. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission and MORI Social Research Institute.4. Current Developments in Banking. London: Macmillan. Tuomisto. Savage. pp. Hunt. 15. 61–76. (2002) A generation apart? Gender-related experiences and health in women in early and late mid-life. 13..

J. Women’s Studies International Forum. and Hurrell. Speakman. and Hunt. 12. 147– 68. and Pope. R. E. C. gender and family: an east–west European comparison. and Winchester. and Frankenhaeuser. 47. G. and Simpson. S.H. M. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission. G. Social Problems. F. and Marchington. Pleck.M. H. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Smithson. Gender imbalance in emotional work and women’s psychological distress. Moen. S. (1997) Work–family linkages among self-employed women and men. Jamieson.S. (1998) Communities of Practice: Learning. P. N. 50.C. 356–78. CT and London: Yale University Press. 69–77. K. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology. Paechter. British Medical Journal..) Spouse. (2003) Masculinities and femininities as communities of practice. Triplett. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 204–26.GENDER AND WORK-LIFE BALANCE IN MID-LIFE 171 Loscocco. N. 291–326. K.3.3. (1998) Negotiating space: alternative masculinities at the work/home boundary. J. 35. and Stokoe. and number of children. Parent. J.A. London: Routledge. Gender Work & Organization. (2005) Shared Caring: Bringing Fathers into the Frame. N. Working paper series. Smith. R.J. K. 237–60. 109–21.. and Cousins. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. M.H. J. Journal of Family Issues. D. Mays. International Journal of Men’s Health. Annandale.E.2. 371–85. S. D.D. (1988) The Long Interview. 27. gender. McCracken.6. R. Hart. B. On Gender and Multiple Roles. Mardberg.1. Swanson.8 July. Weiss.. 122–38. Social Science and Medicine.3. K. S... C. Strazdins. 26. (2000) Effective work/life strategies: working couples. Gender. (2003) Pay and Income. M. and MacQueen. Macintyre. K. L.H. Worker. (1987) Men and their wives’ work.3. Wenger. Beverly Hills.P. In Crosby. (1998) Occupational stress and family life: a comparison of male and female doctors.. (1995) Rigour and qualitative research. G. R. S. and Scarborough. 56–74. (1999) Examining the effect of work– home conflict on work-related stress among correctional officers. Work & Organization. 178–200. 43–52. (1997) Gender Transformations.. work conditions. and Wyke. 6. Pill. B.2. In Martin. 25. K.. Women and Men in Britain Series. (1982) Concepts of illness causation and responsibility: some preliminary data from a sample of working class mothers. Journal of Criminal Justice. Power. (eds) Readings for a New Public Health. (2005) Working time. G. V. Ford. (2007) Standing out from the herd: men renegotiating masculinity in relation to their experience of illness. 12. Mullings.4. 527–50. C. and Stott. (2004) Acts of love (and work). Y.3. pp. West. Meaning and Identity. P. (2005) Discourses of work–life balance: negotiating ‘genderblind’ terms in organizations. CA: Sage. C. R. and Yu. (2004) The bounded workplace: defence. Hunt. U.. and Broom. D. O’Brien.. Perfect.1. 16. (1985) Working Wives/Working Husband. (1989) The West of Scotland Twenty-07 study: Health in the Community.G. R. Tang. 327–39. © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 . E. E. 35. 109–12. Newbury Park: Sage.2. 315–27. MacIver. and life quality. 29. (ed. New Haven. Lundberg.. 311. development and domestication strategies amongst male shiftworkers. pp. (1994) The total workload of male and female white collar workers as related to age. H. Manchester: Equal Opportunities Commission. Australian Geographer. 71. Ecob. Walby. occupational level.L. O’Brien. Industrial Relations Journal.4.

(2005) Work–family conflict. C. and parenthood. Journal of Family Issues. 26. Wight.H. S. 727–55. and Zimmerman.172 GENDER. 1977–1997. Volume 16 Number 1 January 2009 © 2009 The Author(s) Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd . Gender & Society.2. Masculine Respectability.6. Consumption and Employment in Central Scotland. WORK AND ORGANIZATION West. gender. (1993) Workers not Wasters. D. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Winslow. 1. (1987) Doing gender. D. 125–51.