Northwest-Semitic Names in a List of Egyptian Slaves from the Eighteenth Century B. C. Author(s): W. F.

Albright Source: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 74, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1954), pp. 222233 Published by: American Oriental Society Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/595513 . Accessed: 20/02/2014 07:18
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20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ostkanaanaer (Leipzig. JES Ltterature. in the glottal stop is represented Syllable-initial occurits that fact the of spite (in transcription between or vowel any before predictable is rence anyvowels22) becauseI) there are contrastssuch as the following: /ya?/ ' kind of low jar ' vs.BRIGE:T U}aVBB8ITY TEB JORN8HOP:EINS and ThirteenthDynasties (cir.30 on Thu.' Xlha interpretation. nw. the as consistingof two Cw and Cy are interpreted each (CC) ratherthan as of single comphonemes becausethey parallel phonemes*Cwand *CY plex syllable structure: the in closely and Cr very C1 ' hail. The Alalakh Tablets (London.'/nsehpisX 'knife sheath. 1926). Ges.'XnyamZ rice. Wiseman.222 SMALLEYSre Phonemesand Syllables becausethere is parallel to them in /2y/. 1685 have hithertobeen found in Egyptian recordsof SURPRISINGLY FEW Research. e. structuralcriteria call the the uniting of the voiceless vowels into one for which has the place of a consonantin phoneme pattern. JS = Jaussen Archaeology archeologrqueen Arabre (Paris. Sue= D. B. = GPL lo).20However. 229-231.' the of hull ' /nkarkoy/ [ vb b ] and [ vd d ] are interpretedas a sequenceof two phonemes/9b/ and /9d/ respecStem and William A. OS = Orrentalia of Oriental BASOR = Bulletin of the Atnericon Schools This content downloaded from 193. leren Rewhes (Berlin.. Die Language of Btblical Journal = JBL Society. Die akkadische Natnengebung (lJ{itt. " Alternate Phonemic Osborn Henry occurin initial position. ARI = W. tX ' asleep.205.). 1926). J. JPOS Stamm. here as in the cases above because otherstrong only nasals precedestops in consonantcluswise ters. des qnitt= Journal of the JAOS 1936). this With /rhya/ ' one hundred. otherconsonants manche. 1950-). ch. 15 IJAL and Word Formation. /mh. The same statement could be made about any consonant (but of only one) ! 22 EGYPTIAN SLAVES FROM NORTHWEST-SEMITICNAMES IN A LIST OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY B.nh. Dre ARM = Archives royales de Mari (Paris. AI.' /nhaypra77/ are analyzedas stops 21 Nasals plus homorganic complexphosingle than of CC rather consisting as combinations such parallel they because nemes /nti7?/ /nk/: /ns. satisfactory [ph.ny/ and contrastwith 'bone. = J. pattern pressureis not as simplified. 2 ) no medial syllable begins languages where such 20 Cf. Journal = agyptischen Personennaqnen (Hamburg. and the Religion of Israel ( Baltimore. (1949). tively is thus considerably the chartingof phonemes and However. (New Ranke. G. th. support. aeg. F. rh/: /mharg ' quickly.' 'a wild edibleplant. OK = Theo Bauer. 19091 Note the following abbreviations: Aechtung = iEZurt und toorte 56ndEigennaqnen of the Phoenwian A Graqnqnar Sethe. = Aqnerican Journal of Setnitic Languages. voiceless vowels are phonemic and contrast with is therebynot broken.Journal of the Palesttne Oriental Society.and 4) all Coof Analyses initial consonant Venda Riggs."IJAL 15 (1949).. AePN = EI. J. Die Johtt6ng feindlicher Fisrsten. Mrssron 1942-1953 Les noqnspropres sudRyckmans.' same point of articula21 I.in this case as in tribution case of /w/ and /y/. ANG JNIfS = Journal of Near lfastern Studres. Vorderas. The constructionof consonant clusters is thusslightly more complicatedfor this decision. 1935). AqnericanOrrental AJSL = of ClbnerforqnStudies.. 1991Semitic personal names the Twelfthaside from the ExecrationTexts listC. (Louvain. Smalley " Formulae for Comanche 93-99. Z. Albright. Burchardt = Die altkanaanarschen FreqndimzSgyptischen (Leipzig.' 'coveredj'/lnhat/ ' drop (n). nr.'/nwat/ ' be cold.136.' 4 /pwal/ ' dry season. Ananalysis as unit phonemeswould be equally to us. d.'/nravko/ 'rack for holding jars upright in ' good. AT 1934-35). = NPSS 1909ff.1 W. some American Indian witha vowel. ).' /byaplan/ Xmiwpyar. and with them.' enterperfectlyinto canonicalCCC phonemes these combinations. F.' thehouse. / vya7?/' happy'. C.'/nhap/ nh.' /nha/ 'leaf of tree.well. and Savignac. 3) the canonicalpatternof syllable/h/. voiced stop made at the tion as the nasal in question: /mb nd/. seqntttqt4es 1953). kh] are consideredCC rather than aspiratedstops becauseof parallelsin single-unit lh.). nh. 1939). Volker Harris. Dinge auf altagyptischen Tongefassscherben Haven.

Palastina-Vereins. its verso containsa long list of slaves with statementsthat they are to becomethe propertyof their new owner'swife. 1446. This content downloaded from 193. this is possible. M. Gordon. ed. Needlessto say. RA = Revue d'Assyriolopie. Alt. . ddw n. most of them bear Egyptiannames. Over half of these namesare ordinaryEgyptiannamesof the period. and wherechildrenof the Asiatic slaves are mentioned. the argument based on the possible identity of the fathers of two Nubian prinees in the Posener texts with ehieftains of the same lands mentioned in the Sethe texts. my Peliean Archaeology of Palestine [19493. 13ff. Since at least twenty-eightof the nameson this list are female and since women'snamesare quite rare in any period of Northwest-Semitic history. 38 f.ALBRIGHT: Northwest-Semitic l7Vames in a List of Egyptian Slaves 223 ing potebntial rebels in the external provincesof the Egyptian Empire. Safaitic Inscripttons (Leyden. is more than problematical. 1940 ). 80ff. 1945). Simpson.he. Moreover. and Palastina jahrbuch. JNEJS12 ( 1953).) . JAOS 73 ( 1953). SI= E. 21-39. since the supposed t' (my ti ) does not really look like any of the forms given by Moller. t.. 37 of which are labeledas Semitic (though a few of these are really Egyptian. but it is not likely that acceptance of Parker's date for the end of the dynasty (1786 instead of 1778 B. about 1740 B. for some details. The new phonetic informationhelps materially to clear up hitherto insoluble problemsin our onomasticon. Posener called my attention to the fact that Hayes was preparing this papyrus for publication.30 on Thu.C. The Vocalization of the lSgyptian Syllabic Orthography (New Eaven.).Since the Egyptian consonantal structure enables us to distinguish between the laryngal and guttural sounds 'aleph. gain (written as g or q in hieroglyphic). Moreover. Hayes. I followed Edgerton for the relative date of the end of the Twelfth Dynasty (based on a beginning in 1991 B. g. f Rs-snb. IIayes of the MetropolitanMuseum in New York. TRSU = R. 37 [1941].) requires us to push back the date of Sebekhatpe III. G. 1943). 1875.136. 'aytn. in the same hand as the namesthemselves. my estimate for the length of time covered by the first 19 kings of the Thirteenth Dynasty was several years too low in any ease ) . 34 ff. On the other hand. 1953) . van de Walle's suggestion that Sethe's Stqtnkh (whieh the latter regarded as " sicher ") should be read St'kh in the light of hieratic writings of this group listed by Moller.C. A.2 We now possessa notable exceptionto this rule. 16-21. it has been possible for me to study these names well in advanceof publication. " femaleAsiatic. my discussion of the ehronology of the Thirteenth Dynasty in BASOR 99 (1945). and the Posener texts in the seeond half of the 19th eentury B. In each case the namesare preceded by the Egyptian "m . The dates whieh I now favor (the Sethe texts between e. 1950). is far from being eonelusive.. 2 On the Exeeration Texts published by Sethe and Posener see my artieles in JPOS 8 (1928). Princes et pays d'Asie et de Nubie ( Brussels. VIfSO= W. " who is called Res-seneb ") . These statementsare datedin the first and secondregnal years of Sekhemre'Sewadjtawi SebekhatpeIII. A1bright." and they are alwaysfollowedin a secondcolumn by an Egyptian name (e.given herewith.' is really considerable when one bears in mind that ' probably represents R or L. 223-256. 3 Pap. and these are all cases wherewe are dealing with hieratic signs closely resemblingone another. Deutsch. " maleAsiatic.205. SM = Studta Mariana. s See Hayes.. For the date cf. Littmann. since the new regnal year (sixth) for an immediate predecessor of his is higher than anything we should have inferred on the basis of previous data (in other words. BASOR 81 (1941).. 1934). the task of interpreting thesenameshas beenmore difficultthan anticipated. E. and W. F.4 The papyrusin questionis nearlycontemporary with PapyrusBulaq. 18. PPAN = G.5 There are 95 slave names. Les tesstes de Ras ShaqnraUgarit et leurs rapports avec le qnilieu biblique de l'Ancien Testaqnent (Gembloux. B. Posener. and the latter then placed the material at my disposal for study (letter of February 28th. William C. C:. K. cana. de Langhe.C.has been checkedwith the original or with photographsby both of us repeatedly.3 Owing to the generouscollaboration of Dr. 64 [1941]. among which are many Semitic names. extremelyfew modifications have emerged in the course of our study. UE= C. thanks to the discoveryby Dr. and 83. 1925 and e. but very unlikely in view of the tremendous difference between the stage of settlement refleetedby the Palestinian data in the two series ( cf. which are not distinguished in cuneiform(ex4 In eases where two or more transeriptions are theoretieally possible we have adopted the one whieh fits in best with Semitie parallels. as in Asiatic names. heth. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Zeits. 30-36. The distance between Sethe's 'w'w and Posener's 'w. Brooklyn 35. w. and ha. A. No. Posener has urged that the Sethe texts be lowered to a generation before the statuettes whieh he published (PPAN 34 ). sinee rather foreed assumptions must be made in both cases. as we shall see). Parrot (Leyden. His admirabletranscriptionfrom hieratic into hiero glyphic. of a Thirteenth Dynasty papyrus in the Brooklyn Museum containing a list of slaves."or"m . but attention is always called to the fact that such uncertainty exists. Ugaritic Eandbook (Rome. 1947). the precisionwith which we can date them and the clarity of the script (which contrastsso strikingly with the uncertaintyof many names in the Execration Lists) make the list exceptionallyimportant. 87. and the occurrence of the group in the Sethe texts is improbable a priori (see below).) are substantially the same as those adopted in 1941.

sw (and percontaining signs nw) in use. l9. sw.30 on Thu. distinit since respects than Egyptian. Sethe of the true (loafof bread). that he regarda groupa auch aa my than rather pqz.t-q$) conaa ayllabic.224 Narnes Northwest-Sernitic ALBRIGHT: Slaves in a List of EgyptwFn for ha part of the time. it Particularlyinterestingresultsmay be obtained of of the orthography systematiccomparison from the of that with tests Posener and Sethe the material. represented normally was :liingdom New and 1925 cir. TW. T."lord. ti. ia quite correct inaofar aa origin ia New cerned.and DW du) which survive asnormal syllabic groups in later times. nw. of the ayllabic 7 Elmer Edel haa preaented a view 44-47) orthography (eapecially in JNBS 8 [1949]. of tion in about appears cir. O. whereasboth the Posener and agreein writing only two reed-leaves. we note that the Sethe texts write it regularly (always. royal consistentlyin the the In orthography.) R (L) appears personalnames and in the same proporSemitic (between In the Posenerte2rts place-names. We turn first to the chronological lished interesting item. it can scarcely be accidental haps these are the only such signs that continued that form a regularpart of the syllabicgrouplist of to we find the later theNew li:ingdom. but using liv none and to write the vowelql. Moreover. I have not yet had opportunity in colto publiah my projected aupplementary paper ( acorea laboration with Dr. reflectthe element ba'al. Lambdin) containing last of new or corrected equationa. The just as in Hyksosand New Wingdom in comparholds relationship chronological same ing the use of syllabicgroupsformedof consonant plus vowel.. Hia PW= divergence." ba'alot.6 legible of 10So just in 1875 B. a.both separately regularly The dw. apellthirty new equationa of Egyptian and cuneiform ( fifinga of the aame non-Semitic namea in the aame concluaive aa juat are that reaulta yield century teenth) and in their way aa the parallela between cuneiform the Egyptian apellinga of Anatolian place-namea in minor thirteenth century should have been. ita it haa become a definite ayatem. 1934). However. historical approved the duced Hayes list (about 1740 B. a. In only two cases of B(L) in fact there are probably by '. whereasin the use.136. but in the li:ingdom Middle Old and early the by Eg. mw. since the three lots of material Hayes be dated about 50-100 years apart in estabmay order. 'a. etc.but of the biliteral itself W we find only rw.in the New lE:ingdom a writing in used be not probably would which which of list of only thirty-sevennames (several arefragmentary). in groupsa. with the referencea to other acholara new material. personal Semitic of all legible 31So apthe names. however diverae aourceamay have been. TW= tqx. In the Sethe texts (between . This content downloaded from 193." to have enough common which was presumably centuries.) R(L) appearsin some 44So of the Semitic personal names. Certain my modificationa of my ayatem emerge from Edel'a and ° See VESO 8.1850 and 1800 B. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . place the of 10% about in only by may easily be explained the discrepancy parent factthat Semitic personalnames were very numerousand seldom achieved fi2redorthographic were restatusin Egyptian.it is evidentthat Egyptianwas alreadywell on the way toward developing an system of indicating vowels in foreign adequate present evidence suggests that the Our names. the syllabic orthography of the reRingdom ia too obvioualy patterned in important apects on cuneiform spelling (aa Mas Miiller recognized long ago ) to be analyzed into ita formative elementa.7 Since themaximalnumberof syllabic groups employed most of was about si2rty. already syllabic groups tz the te2rts. Hayes te2rts names.) R(L) though names. but the publication Northaummerby Donald Wiaeman of a large numberof Syrian place-namea in cuneiform tableta from Alalakh Over haa confirmed my equationa moat atrikingly. ta.tqz. ra. other and stops Semitic between more clearly guishes esand rule) a (as consonants double indicates combine to vowels. and both thesenameswhich are reproduced "lady.we can generallyreconstruct same correctly. in my opinion) with three reed leaves. earlier in spelling fixed a achieved Turning to Y. now spellings cuneiform in most better is transcription cuneiform hand.In the Hayes list we find W still used by to indicatethe vowel ql. and ti. When we are able pecially and cuneiform transcriptions of the Egyptian name or word. Egyptian transcripcept the mass of are of great valuein interpreting tions the other On available.whereasplace-names rather spelled been lativelyfew and must have reprowhich archives. rarely very have we tests Posener In addition to these two sets of syllabic groups wehave at least three alphabeticsequences(PW pu. inn. signs the biliteral in texts employ both W by itself and the Posener signs containing W (particularlythose biliteral sw) morethan we find mentionedand rmv. and ra (mouth) begin to appear. we find the Sethe texts employing of the later syllabic groups.205. aa alphabetic (p-qz. the Semitic sound R(L). chief which ia very close to mine (VEJSO. most into Egyptian in was regularlytranscribed which as '. ra also all and in the at appear not do Setheseries they 'a. a. 'w.

etc. beforethe name of a god or land is now settled.ALBRIGHT: Worthwest-Semitic Namesin a list of Egyptian Slaves 225 systemin questionwas workedout in the chancel. where it is pointed out that the syllabic spelling is already fully developed by the third quarter of the 16th century B. "Fosterling of E1". and T. It ia not necesaary to inaiat on the theophoroua character of the aecondelement.10We havea perfectlysatisfactory etymology 16 The divine name 'An? haa been diacussed by myself. This has already been suggested by Hayes. JAOS 73 (1953). HD m (fem." stone ostrakonfrom our 1926-27 excavationsat 12 For a convenient collection and diacusaion of theae Deir el-Bahri . 125 (1952). . " number. 242. 1953. waa such a god. which pointa out that namea of tribea or landa and goda were often the aame. we follow the numeration " Nurtured by Zeus.OS I (1952). 14 The aecond element has hitherto remained obacure. T2SU II.9 (Mas.feed.). Noa.l7 Among the Northwest-Semitic names he wrote: "I have just this minute run across 11Cf. which I should derive from the AJSL 41. but we have a slave in questionshouldnot have borne an Egyp. Now Ugaritic 'bd'n. Save-Soderbergh. see especially W. Simpson. (Ranke. 31 f. . shortenedfrom a whole series of us Apru-anu. JPOS 8. meaning are also GFreek namessuch as lliotrephes. for Thutmose III . Q often tranacribeaSemitic G in the ginning with 'pr." Trophtmos. 86ff. At first sight these There is. Cit. The name perhapa originated in an imitation of SumeroAccadian An-Anu. aince Eg.g. 9a On these names cf. "to provide. to foster. . etc." SamasDynasty. where I have alao menanotherexampleof the name 'pr-F{spw on a lime.9^Any lingering doubtas to the New Kingdom (cf. VXSO 12. 254-257." etc." have furniahed the required proof." of the attachedplate: Turning to parallelnames. with which we may 9. 306. 32.l4 while the Posenertexts give Kingdomtimes. 'fr. cf.136. p. "to neither of ua aucceeded in proving that there actually 8 Cf. already JPoS 8. In tian name even beforeshe receivedher new Egyp. spelled the aame way. with meaninga auch aa "voice. 13 For these namea aee Burchardt. 16The aecond element ia naturally identical with the name of the Semitic tribe." Syr.l2 Good parallels in In the following transcriptionof these names epirt. it has nothing to do with the name of the people hegyan4.op. Aprname is not Semitic at all. (twice).we have from the New T. Efa-ia-ab-ni-ilqb (four times)." Fosterlingof Dagal (= Dagan)." Fosterling of Baal ". Stn-eptrt. Syrra."13 The Sethe nine hypocoristicon ( abbreviated name) of Middle texts yield tAprqb-hq. 'p-ra-Rspw ('Apra-Rclspqb). 10On the name 'Aptr?scf.).205. It appears sporadically in scarabs of the Hyksos Age.we^). 225.) must be studied together 3).tion if it ia that. hfig4." Ugaritic hg.there is no object in citing a number of discussions which erroneously derive the element from the ethnic 'Aptr?ffi. ness ' hand. §§113-117." Son of 'Anu. 5-14. and PPAN 71. it is complete and clearly written in a good mid-XVIIIth Dynasty 'busi. atudy..tioned the cognate Egyptian 'pr. 213. b?s may This content downloaded from 193. sible. underdate of October lSth. a." Fosterling.. no reason why the Asiatic two names seem quite ine2rplicable.8 etc. with No. "reading.. (Fem.) This Kingdom'Apr(a)'el.30 on Thu.) Any pos. 242. AePN 225: 18). especially my discussion BASOR. complete or partial.good many parallels. as is not impos. 222.ll in Accanumleries of the Hyksos empire of the Fifteenth dian we have parallelnamesin considerable bers (e. 242. but is Eg. the similar name ." This is a very valuableadditionto aince no Semitic deity with a comparablename ia known.. dle-:Singdom date (Ranke.plete names.further comparethe "AmoritenJpersonalnames sible doubt about Hayes' reading of this name is Ha-ia-ab-il1b (once). however.ffy'abn. of the word.the last name aee alao JPOS 8.just as in the case of No. but Northwest-Semitic cognateof Accadianeperu. 8. Efa-ia-bu-um in anothertext. of course. and PPAX 68 ff. it may be Hebrew hag?st. our stock of some half dozen certain names be. lklarduk-epirt. below."Sin Fosters Me. 9 For this name and its significance. hs. dispelledby the fact that he later found the name Ha-ic^-ab-ni-nqb (or -ilu? once). Ely'b'rw(fem. Burchardt. Virolleaudhas published tian name. aince the name may mean aimply " Foaterling of (the Tribe) 'Aa'apa'. etc. In Old Babylonian acript ha. K. a masculineand femi. following the identification of his Accadian conaort Antu with the Wea t-Semitic goddeas 'Anat ( 'Antu) . 62. 86 f. 61. ." 17 OK 18.l5 Aprqlas apals and three incommale and femalenamesof almostexclusivelyMid.Syr?a28 (1951). Apr(a) d (a) gal. JPOS 8." and Bqw-'n = Amarna Btn-Atwa. whose excharacterof the first elementas a constructnoun amplea are by no meana complete). Ba-hury(pronouncedRah. hepe. The variety of posaible 'Apiru unless the latter is itself derivedfrom an meaninga ia ao great that it ia idle to apeculate on the apecific aenae underlying thia particular divine appellaabbreviated name of this type.. 225: 19 226: 10. 249. nourish>'=Arab. Ox1 the name cf. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Dusaaud. sound.. " Servant of Anu. into roman characters. and R. meditation. it dates from the reign of namea aee ANG 54.However. R&wy (a) ba'al.

as such 1928..24The latter is one exampleof Arabic. 239 and n.was not necessary. the we can say that they as h in Accadiantranscription. 327 b. Note that the verb h' became hy in New Egyptian ( Sethe. second name. 126) is extreme. No. '?s. after Landsberger. beginning with Aya. Syria. 2. to 28 Between Old and New Egyptian ' often shifted Y in phonetic value. element second pointed out that the name appearedas 'Ay'ah. 138 ff. century 18th the A-ia-a-hu-iin a seal of as 'aleph with beginning words publishedby Van Buren. Jean. Though Sethe transcribed this name correctly as "'Ij-bm. 2 See Van Buren. 135: 23.'abu(m) meant "Where Is (My) Father?" and in the Mati documents um twice (once probablyas king of the Damas." is changedfrom 'u''ud to hq4''ud. as The solution of the problemwas brought indi. 1939.28^ occasionally in foreign names for 'a. W. e. who explained the write to tendency overwhelming the of and rea." which were first explained by B. cf." he also erroneously transcribed the triple reed-leaf ( which stands exclusively in these texts for the consonant Y) as 'ij = our 'y.Northwest-Semitic Accadian names contemporary as diversified as of the and it is also the 'ybm('Ayyabum) tury. II. AR71{ II." as in Arabic). Similarly.136. ?sh also represent the latter meaning "Where Is Our Hayabni-ilu.18 Among the 18th-centurynames in the " Job.'m'.. 15. Landsberger. von Soden. at'. would Similarly." is simply the dissimilatedand contracted cene and form of the name. I. to like " ? name must mean " WhereIs My Brother AccadianAli-ahz. " where. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 'Ayya. JaS VIII. ) .. 88. etc.probably No.22 C.. Goetze. 4'." WhereIs the Maternal This A-ia-bqb ). 48 ff. in Alalakh Ugaritic parallel Hy'abn supports him in this instance. O means but also shows that his doubt about the connection of standsfor 2. 4a). names from same formationare A-a-ha-am-mq (lengthened while among ISth-century A-ia-sarri.the form 'Ayyvbum. name of the prince of Ashtaroth in Clan?" 26 There is no reason to doubt that the (Ayab names of this type were just Bashan (IIauran) in the early fourteenth cen. and Aya-ram (A-a-ram-muof Edom). Das akkadische Syllabar (1948). without dissimilation reflect 14th the of list Accadian an in TUR-A-ya-ah-hi changed been has name same the in centuryfrom Ugarit. Ali-aSq. § 83 ) . IIayes. n.) ('Ayya-'abu. as I pointed to the names confidently turn now may We 21 Job. the same place we have A-ia-bu and A-qa-hu.The ali.." " biblical with name the identified I when IIayes List.l9 form of Aya-hammu. 133 f. cit.205." and presumably referred to religious concepts or ent. in a Ugariticlist.20 etc. the in 62 and 10 Nos. 5. loc. p. it also appears i. 's. p. cf. Sethe. Weidner. in out Sethe ExecrationTexts. Ali-abt. King^" the cuneiform names beginning with gaya. 2S See the detailed treatment of these names by Stamm. Ayabi-sarri> " Where Is My Father. 11. 109.paleographically. 138 f. cit. 23 Thureau-Dangin. 28a We should then probably vocalize these contracted elements in Hebrew names as 'e ( for earlier 'ayy ). Semitic 'aleph did not occur at all in Accadian. Landsberger's assertion to the Father.25 " WhereIs My Father. such as f-kabod. like cuneiform Amorite Hayabilu and stand for 'a.30 on Thu. 18." Where Is the Paternal is evidently the Amarna A-ia-ab Clan? ") and A-ia-ha-lu. sh. the name should be normalized as Ayyab. 2 (1951). Jahrbuch fur Kleinasia22 Jas tische Forschung.. 18 Dossin. Our Egyptian *Hy'm'. find.A-qycl-bi-sar-ri. e. This has confused scholars.whichappear above. Among other names of the Alalakhtabletswe find A-ia-bi. the of two 'alephs Palestinian modern in g. al JPOS 8. 19 AT 126 b.. I have since gone a step farther and render 'amm?s as {' pa- ternal clan " ( not simply paternal uncle or clan in general) and the parallel halX as " maternal clan " (not simply "maternal uncle.23As Goetzepointedout.28 that be show to and seem evidence names Ugaritic These the names now confirm like AccadianAlq-ummq. The name A-ia-m?s given in AT should be corrected to A-ia-b?s (Wiseman. 317. However. so ordinary Accadian transcriptional habits do not necessarily apply).with those ?". whence IIebrez lyyob. where the imperativeof classical qa'ada. ANG 27 See the list of such names given by Stamm. exalted one. 284 f. the an abbreviated *Hay'abni. the strong Westf-zebel. " Where Is My Mother Hay'qmmq. we may be dealing throughout with dissimilated forms reflectedindirectlyby a group of names found in (though I still insist that Accadian ha may be used muchlater NorthwestSemitic. Xy'b'rw (Hy'b'tw is just as good but difficultto explain). n. O God^" Ugaritic Hy'abn then reflects contrary (JaS 8. prince ( ?). ANG 90 f.ities of some kind. we as just h.O Hay'abi-ilu. Das aegyptische Verb?sm. latest discussion of the meaning of hamm?s = 26 lWy 'amm?s in these names appeared in JBL 64. i'. be vocalized God? ". exactly like the same elements in 'e-po.27 Ali-ummt.Syria. 'Ayya'aSqb The first contraction. cf. just as azh. 50. II. but there is absolutely no reason for further misunderstanding. cited Hy'abn Ugaritic the of light the name In the rectly by A. a large group of Accadiannames beginningwith "to sit. B. op. Gordonhad names containing initial with etc. 60.226 Names in ALBRIGHT: Northwest-Semitic a List of Egyptian Slaves we also find Ha-a-ia-a-bu. we may add. 291 f. line 24. The second element in these names means " honor. This content downloaded from 193. 20BASOR 89.

and derivatives. it is more likely that its Mqznah. We may per. Sk-ra-tw must be studied together with Skrt." ris.may mean somethinglike " favorable."and in the God's relation to man." and (h)imqzat IJgarit. it was pronounced as we know from two occur. both in the names as Umm-I§tar. " The Goddess kur'il) in Sabaean. Umm-tdbat. Nikkal-ummi. The preceding becauseof the nominative masculineending. Yskr'l (Yast.TJmmu-Hepa. but mutaqattilun.The and Sakartil Goddess Ishkhara Is My Mother.hNnotam). 26. 16 (also Sk-ra-tw). 17. a it highly probable that we should follow Heb." as name of Asherah see possible. are particularly and Skr'l tions.and Ummi-nams. g." nine and cannot be separatedfrom the biblical No. ra-'pt). Y§kr. SBSRand early Northwest-Se. and saktr is ' one who is hired for a gratuity.Minaean." and Sakar'il (or Wakir+l)would millennium. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The stem SXR is generallyrendered"to reward " ristic) MunaShtma'."Issaending in char.Ali-waqrt4m. 21.'ts sdkar. All these names are femi. n.WhereIs the IIonorable(One)?'"." or the like. rived verbal conjugations was vocalized mu.. etc.ment of our namecan scarcelybe verbor adjective B.'> and Umm-I§hara. panttum-qzmmt.29 rences of the name in an Accadianlist published related senses. Proto-Arabic personal names.28. No. BASOR 110. and Lidzbarski. corresponding exactly to Hebrew Abtnotam (cf.Yagaskir.which apNos. MnSm' (fem. 77. TJmmt-waqrat. in all the dialects: e.36 other Semitic languages and that its first vowel thus " Holiness" 37 Is My Mother.pears both in the Hayes List and in Lihyanite. 22 (Sk.30 on Thu. the feminine name haps read W instead of the two strokes (y or i).as in the In this case our name Asherah. Umm-Samst. a. Ryck." is linguistically im- ALBRIGHT: Narnesin a Lqst of Egyptian Slaves Northwest-Sernitic 227 ." All these theophorous names Salarn>-sakar ( Greek Sachrelos) in Thamudic and Safaitic. Istar-ummi>.34The causative.period we have Umm-Batla(t).man. In from Alalakh. From the earlier period we have we find deriva." The name appearscommonlyin while this meaning is well attested in Arabic of Hebrew as MenaShem." The feminine 13. Ahina'am. '. etc.and Hadraml.charming. perhaps to be pronounced Immtsukru. " Issachar" (appear.. well attested. the cuneiform writings make 32 The traditional consonantal form YSSXR and the pronunciation Yissd ker both point to this original.Is My Favorite. Manof the Corvee. wage 30 Cf. Shows Mercy. the first element in the name Sukur-ilf (son of Ashu-%b) This content downloaded from 193. J§akar-wadd south and in the north.to judge Hebrewnames *Yasaskir.. the hypocoristicaSkr. Skr 11. 49f." " the Gkoddess etymo. 36 We have the excellent parallel A-bi-na-ah-mi (Wise31 The end of the name is uncertain. 33 XpSS 34 Heb. 250 f. and the notes. cuneiformAli-tukultt. SarAnunttum-ummt.as do also such Accadian in Sabaean." 29^Syrta. like Qudshu. 2f. previous data are mentioned in follows Philippi's Law and its corollary. just as in the case of Arabic yataqattalu." would mean approximately"May (God) Hypocoristica by Virolleaudin 1951. we 29 It follows that the Ugaritic participle of the deprobably have a goddess Sukru. 75. whereas the ARI2. A." (Such and Such a God) where it appears in South-Arabiannames but." favorable.other Batlat Is My Mother. etc. I.32 ing as the name of one of the twelve tribes of from Accadian and especially from NorthwestIsrael and as a later person) and Sakar (which Semitic parallels of the 18th and lSth centuries also appears as the name of two persons).33but several of publishedcollecthem also appearin subsequently etc. 7 ff. pronounced Sakratu or Sukratu. The vocalization of the first and last syllables now BASOR 134.favor. a. II. and I have not been able to explain the second element.30 mean " God has favored (favors).must be explainedsomewhatdifferently. namesbelongto women.. (My) IIelp ?"."Menahem.205. "Holiness. '. tives of the stem SK#.) is an abbreviated(hypoco." whence ' wage. Since nearly which appearsin a Ijihyaniteinscription(JS 345) all of these names contain the name of a deity which I shoulddate in the fifth or fourth century (generally a goddess) and since the second elenames all appearin G. Incidentally. and M§kr. early 14th centuryB. JCS 8. 14 ('mskrw). for long lists of later examples.) in 18th-century Alalakh. 36 For Qudsu. logically to Heb. 14. XXVIII: 3.ancient meaning was like that of Latin gratus. which corresponds "My Mother for Urnm-natmi>. as well as the feminine Skrt. 37 It might be tempting to identify our Sukru with two medial sibilants have been reduced to one by assimilation. We also find. 78.29a 'aleph were particularlycommon in the second Grant Favor." " Sukru would mean lmmtstlkru finite the corresponding differed from the first vowel in forms. Ephemeearner. EJlna'am shin causative of the stem SKR.gratta. South Arabianand Proto-Arabic Khepa is Mother.3l 67 (Sk-ra). the usual explanation = EX^aayand vocalize Abina'am.' WhereIs mans' valuable handbook of South-Arabicand cf.136.35 From the later mitic SX2. sakar then means " gratuity.

are both certain. lowsfrom my identification series with *Ah(u)15. also name of a in all the nameswhich I havebeen rect form).40 any In Tablets the Evening. 19. the of earlier even an " Adad is Lord " ( Syria. cf. 23 ff. the second syllable." 41JPOS 8." in Since Hebrew and Phoenician 'adon may Ugarit. 'dwfw. the correct sibilant. to judge from the about has been corrected by on hia 38 OK 30. two however. we are forced 'adqxn older we reflect *adantzu. (Hebrew SXB with the stem woman. Iraq. in strict accordance with the sequence of (written ad-da-a-ns twice.'' is the later feminine of 'Apum in hieratic with an initial 'aytn.228 Nalmes Northwest-Sensitic ALBRIGET: in a Llst of Egyptian Slaves mean '. literally " Most lable goddess. ( note signs. Langdon.205. thus reflect so the X is probably original. There is some question about the vocalization contract a in mentioned names with a is Semitic pleoThe 16." which appears in the Amarna of the Planet Venus was the appellation Pleasing.'Adot. an or be eithera hypocoristic know that the stem occurredin Northwest.43 it is quite fre8. 288: and 26 287: the Amarna Letters is also common in Amorite territory. alternating 40 For addUnqb ).42 plicable. 32. I am harassed by ?earadRi-is-ilim. other such secondary feminine forms and 'Eltqb 'Antt4.This can scarcely be right. 91 f. 319 b.but the equation is very hazardous unless Assyrian name PJn-na-A-ya Old good the bore father in Askzur name evidence turns up. RA 27. changed not was & (where see Ugaritic in word the X in cunei39 For the occurrence of GIPL South Canaanite. and that the defectivethat 13f.30 on Thu. The same initial elethat the sibilants are etymologically phasized discussing ment also appears in No. least at seems.despitethe wrong ofthe fourteenthcentury and in Phoenicianin. feminine of Hadad (cf. to ^d under the accent. No. of divine names). 4 ). should we that feeling the at (:hagar Bazar fortunately.) . second the Yaws-kql-ur-il.which is so common in both Mari which spelling adqb might be rendered " Servant of the Lady. 85ff. on the other hand. Bauer's transcription Egyptianizing character of the garb repreaentedshould Landsberger.Jas 8. and my remarks.That it is Semitic 'akdfu. n. and who must have flourished is probably of Sumerian origin. lines 13 and tzu(m for addt4. "lady. In favor of vocalizationAbdzu-Adaline f.can scarcely Sethe and Posener Lady." The element Martha). 52.im-Adad in parallelism with qxm-mi-ia and a-bi-ia spelling with Adad."sister. at as in name. 43 See my discussion. cf. which nastic spelling is no more surprising than the defective ) (Syria. ( Martd Aramaic as read North-Syrian cylinder seal with the inscription by Adatt4. The quent." is well attested. " Wild-bull of 3. 83. state.. Moreover." and have nothing to do with IJgaritic 'adn just as Arabic Ruda. and it is possible that the sibilant was more reference to the North-Syrian name Adqmns-abia. just babylonwhose ili. since to 'adottqbas the early pronunciation to prefer adt4ttqb have the Mari name ( 18th century ! ) A-dzu-na-Add1s. M1st-Askzur the 15th-14th century B. PPAX in Ris-ilum Rlm-Addu would then be a precursor of 35f. 18.] reigning over some unidentified Mesopotamian JAOS 66 ( 1946). (f. 'ad. from Jerusalemas addanq4. The name cuneiform the from and statue read be also must royal name in the Khorsabad List "Amorite " rather than South-Canaanite vocaliwith the variant in the Horn tablet. 82. scriptions but in Egyptian. 252. Favor."and appearsboth in Ugaritic texts appears 'adon. I have maintained for years that the words in nameSukruwouldpresumably The had an originalshortu in the secondsyland would be an appellationof some question Favorite.).. It must again be emwith cor17. :Dossin (RA 27. " father. ble in Egypt was much weaker (as we know from many tranon a Syrian seal from our general age found in written ( 208 ." If the alternative reading '-r?X-w-{w in the The latter texts also mention a prince of " muti. 248 f. 1941 ( 38 RA Virolleaud in perhaps the Ugaritic name Abdq-Adatr or 16 ).. where the 'ayin Semitic. ) 35 7. 247. see PPAN 81 f. and the early Amorite script. ianized. JEA scriptions and permutations) and published by Sidney Smith.may we 'Adunq4) (for 'Adon masculine corresponding personalnames in the early centuriesof Semitic to be alwayshypocoristic. These " lord. C. just as in the case Ia-as-kqmr-il1s zation. no such difficulty arises This content downloaded from 193." folconnection in of the name 'hwrn(w)t be anythingbut 'Adqlffu.38 of the Amoritename occurrences 16 see No.) A-da-at-ta dJamsi-dAddi rrLar read Ilzu-ni-Rtm-a-d1s . of form transcription) we have the name Addqxnqx. The word 'ah means "brazier" in EgypD SU-EUR-XI-NI) but the as in the name Istar- divinename may be feminine.39 laryngal. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and so would not appear aa among Gordon UH 207. 'h-ts-rn-ra(fem. in the appellative.). 109) and " Lady. see that the name Rtm-Add1s (R. 13. may stand for *Hadottu < ad dRamas 'Attortlh. " Our God Is formation is like Ilzuni-sarrum. 16. BASOR 42 See Posener. 71f mar Ri-is-ilim warad dAd zu-ni-A dA-d [Un. however." The name event. Ba'altqz.41 inexquite be correct the name becomes should whose name also named 'Ahu-kabkabu. have we since millennium. by published 74.. with However this may be. Amorite Ugarit giving us at least three occurrences of this of the Mari name cited above. Gadd. alsothe Eing. RA 27. 33. and < case the second element would stand for *adattzu just as well as 'adan.*Eadadtt4. in Phoenician see Harris. sibilant is opposed. has the same meaning name 'Adt4ttqx The word.identifications The sequencetahis absolutelyimpossifrom the tenth and seventh century. The Amorite divine (Dossin.136. CanaaniteAstarte.

In Phoenician this name appears on a seal as 21. The second midwife. h8mah ( also for *hamtyatu) suggests may easily stand for this vocalization. Best known is the name Ahat-milkq/." Syria 21. certain. BASOR 62.nameof one of the twelvetribesof Israel and their Phoeniciansee my dis. SWR.30 on Thu. tation. 267-271.belong pgt is also a common noun meaning "girl.whichwrites HW' and HY'G."and certainlythe same (with lookswestern. in in the 18th-centurytablets from ChagarBazar46 the Hayes list we have examplesin Nos." The etymology is clear: Arab. No. PXutah older *PI'ah ( 8 before an accented syllable sometimes becomes u ).45 found in Ugaritic.. FGW = PXWG.'A&ab) haps even ultimately the same as AramaicSapAccadian ptrah.as Dodthu (MT Dodawhq/." Ugaritic kot. Tw-ti-w't (mas. Dotan. both in Accadian are common Semitic. 76." but the name Ahat-abi(cf.and especially 26. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .from a name beginningwith the elementspr (vowhich was calization unknown) from the familiar lIebrew scription as Ahut-milki 'A&ot-milk. 156. Accadian Ahata-lam?hr. Hot. since 'ahty is also the sibilant which appearsin Arabicas s. cisive for the correctness in a somewhat different category). See the Sister! " (ANG5 33. 48 Cf.51 in ClassicalIIebrewas demonstrated Sea Scroll Isaiah. 29." ht/'atare preserved LXX Odiafor *Dodia) 44 andin Northwest. 1. as 6°Ugar.but an Egyptian shorten." Arab. doher(a).) is *Dodz-hq/'at(t/) 23. This occurrenceof the corresponding line ht/'atin tenth-century cussion in JAOS 67 (1947). noun of the third person in these names cf. 326b). and 52.205. GIPL 46 Iraq. " fragrant blossom( S ) ( of certain trees ) . whose sibilant has been etyIt is now certainthat both by the Dead mologicallyobscure. hq/'ah The fact that the correctgendersare used. a fact (1Ieb. men living in or about the eleventhcentury is.). See No. p. 183).Pvghttu 50 ing o-fa refractorySemitic name. Dt/dt/. a.ancestor. bears a This would not be a Canaanitename meaning " lass. n." For the use of the emphaticproof the same type as the masculine'Aser. is de. coristic No. Ah-abi . " Sapphira. 31. e.136. above. 20: 37 as the father of a ninth-century queenof the fourteenthcenturyin alphabeticand prophet. girl. which is supported by Arabic tagiyatun. are Accadianor " Amo. It is well known also that words for " boy " and " girl " tend to be derived from words for " shoot. Dotayna " chariot-driver. The vocalization pagttu is not cer5 See Stamm." Cf. milkot for 'A&ot-milkot. since feminine is important for the interpretationof when the same forms have been found to survive the biblical name. 47 Or should we vocalize Ahdtimrd. A. in IIeThe hypocoristicon 'A&ot-melqart.'> hypocoristicformation. " wall "-Heb. " to shine." hi-ra." to say.47 22. Our name is related to perin northernMesopotamia rite."diifuse fragrance. it was borrowedas *'ah in Eebrew. Dotoyim). however. XI." No." " Let Me hence " to speak.detailed form which they merit. [ ]h'tw= [ ]hi'att/ (fem.whereasthe latter is the name of three Accadiantablets (to be publishedby Nougayrol). The shift in meaning came through the factitive sense " to show. 22.as against the well-known Ahat-abisaand Ahat-abist/. shortenedto the normal Phoenician form Zot. 17 is obscure unless it is an abbreviated name of one of the two Hebrewmidwivesof Exoform of 'A&atz-mil(kattz)Phoenician Zot-mil.and Aramaic stem SPR meaning " to be fair. 46 See Harris. and Dodo (for *Dodahq/). Egyptian transcriptionof Can. B. We also have Zotelat for 'A&ot-'elat. is always found in Canames containing the initial element ahat found naanite words transcribed into Egyptian as s. is certain from the text published by Virolleaud in 48 Tt/-ta-y-nafor Can. in biblical Hebrewonomastics Feminine names beginningwith 'ahatu. Pu ah. 62 ( this equation may. 30. for illustrations. provisionally VE7SO 44 tain. hamstu ( for *hamiyatu).dus 1 :15. " Behold Ye the Sister! "? It should be noted that the original meaning of Hebrew '1UR.49Our *Dodz-ht/'at. 9. ANG 326 b. the analogy of Ugar. The meaning of our slight morphological adaptation) as " Shiphrah. 13. blossom.) is evidentlya feminine hypoBelovedIs IIe. I§p-ra(fem. virgins. and perhaps Tq-ft4s and the related*Do'dathat illustrates the reciprocalphonetic situation. For the mascu.The formerappearsII which first appears as the name of a Ugaritic Chron.ALBRIGHT: Names in a List of Egyptian Slaves Northwest-Semitic 229 tian." as in Accadian and probably in Ugaritic (UH 212. " My Sister Is Queen. 7. The spelling Tw-ti for Dodz is like tu. III." 61It was until now possible to derive 'Aser from the This content downloaded from 193. No.beautiful. 1. It is uncertainwhetherseveral brew and Aramaic as s.) is an obvioushypocoristicon 'Ahtmlk and in seventh-centuryAssyrian tran. " sister. though I have not presented my data in the and hi'ah for older *hq/'at i." The treatmilk. In my opinion this etymology is and *hi'at. 35 f.49 JNES 5. " My 18. 's-ra (fem. since Heb." and fragrant blossoms suggest marriageable girls. of this obviousinterpre.and Zot-melqart for ment of the sibilant is absolutelycorrect. top of page. 23." was " to see.

t9: 'lo .t go Ct E _ 9T 8qP .ep 9 10 pp . 69 .. ..205. p9 ...9t z p . 9"s | oY p t&4 .. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . * ..X L LP<nS////mx p .9 I 9 ) o W] ^ 9 fi b 7 230 ALBRIGHT: Names in a Ltst of Egyptian Slaves Northwest-Semitic who X [ - 32 33 35 .30 on Thu.x..81 ? 11 6 59 61 16 9°P@LPs7m ? 62 63 64 o I 6 n S 17 18 l9 eL tX ...6 P IL° Bm g z A . @59& -N? tO X 67 69 80 85 21 papS cS /W )y 105 22 23 25 26 Bo g X PF X m// 9 X 9tLX * - 87 88 9tq 9 27 29 9>SttX This content downloaded from 193. 37 51 52 55 l l 12 13 14 15 ..t d C fim//>.136.

" yassar. cf. Such names were estremely commonin early NorthwestSemitic.or Samsttlb. The first elementiIl our name is not legible. Now." 'xre . BASOR 9S. Names formed with the elements ba'(a)l(X)." 26. [ ] b" [ ]-ba'al. where it is written dIM-lqb-ra. 114: 12-16). above.remains obseure."and Bawhllb-gaylbm (AR:M V. 87: 5). 7. as well as in Palestine as a place-namein the ISth century B. Etymological possibilitiesare numerous but all unconvincing. Namesof this type. 17. cf..blessed. plate 203). 177). Ugaritic Spsyn. 191.'aysara. biblical *Samson (Simson). 53Amarna 170: 2. n. but in neitherhas the appellativebecome a divine name as yet. B"twy (fem.. verso. . ARZA¢ XV. cf."and ba'altqb or Ba'alat (Ba'alt). correspondingto the masculine hypocoristicon Ba'alqiya. in Aramaicas 'isha. Posener (letter of 3 Sept.these casesmay preservehistoriatem 'TR.No. a. literally. G."Arab. and seems to furnish clinching evidence for the etymological identity of Sapag and Sama§. 39. however. Ya'qub-Bar(not Ya'qub-'El). " happy. (Gadd.line 14): [ ]wb"w [ ]X-batlqs. an 18th centuryname from Alalakh. 19.54 64 For these names see JBL 54.) are typical hypocoristica of names derivedfrom the stem QB.30 on Thu. n." propitious. above. p. This content downloaded from 193.Syria 28 [1951]. " AxlathIs My Mother. cal spelling. a.in Arabicas 'lbsb. See No. cf. hypocoristicaformed with the name Samas or J§apasare common enough: cf. t pr) B"twmw. SM 81b. Turning to my copy of the book I found that I had proposedthe same reading on the margin. Jean. Samsatqx.). of course. This nameand No. probably" The Nation Is Lord" (cf. 51 (on Ya'qmbbHar) and BASOR 88. " X Is Lord."which also appearsat ChagarBazar in the 18th centuryB. it seems to be the only exampleof Semitic R (L) transcribed by ' in the IIayeslist. 37. like fA-na-ti-lbm-me (Virolleaud.. " lady.. Incidentally. 35. 'qbtw 'Aqabtqs or 'Aqbatqs(fem. for examples. Finet. biblical " Jacob.sislcethe B might also be read D or T." To the kindnessof M." were extremelycommonboth in NorthwestSemitic and Accadian." be prosperous.we can without further hesitation date the wand in the Twelfth or ThirteenthDynasty and identify the name with Ba'(a)lat-lbmmlb. guard. 1954) I owe knowledgeof an unpublishedname of an Asiatic prince on a statuette of the esecratory type from Brussels (No. iGms-tw(fem. As observed above. 64.Ya'qqsb-'el. Feminine nouns are frequentlyemployedas names of men in Semitic. 27. with a T-which would appear in Middle and Late Egyptian transcription as S. mentioning the lady (nb. 42.) is again probablyhypocoristic." etc. See No. probably " The Moon-GodIs (My) Lord. 32.Iraq.t)n' looks like a hypocoristicon with the ending 'aleph.ALBRIGHT: Northwest-Semitic Names in a List of Egyptian Slaves 231 names are derived from the stem which appears in IIebrew 'oser. also the lIyksos royalname Y'qb-hr.'> which appearsin E[ebrew as 'eseb. " lord.in ourintroductoryremarks. At Alalakhwe have among the earlier names Ba-li-e-pa ( cf. " The GodYapu Is (My) Lord. 33. where pretonic short vowels are often syncopatedand replaced by a prothetic vowelbeforethe initial consonant. derivedfrom somesuch a nameas the feminine Sapsi-abi (The Sun-god Is My Father). 36. 14. Goetze. the sibilant is correct and the transposedform I'sibtqsis perfectly normal in Egyptian.left hand (euphemistic). the nomen lbnitatisof the collectivenoun *'tsblb. like Umm-Ba-ala(-at) of fifteenth-century Alalakh (AT lSOb). "to watch. 10. " Ba alat Is My Mother. 15. 'A-r-(d. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions ..MegiddoII.) is almost certainly 'zsibtlb. protect" (as we know from Ethiopic and South Arabic). At Mariwe have so far at least two: Bali-Erawh (ARM II. 25. (My) Lady" were rare in this period. with the proviso that the object dated from the Twelfth and not from the Eighteenth Dynasty (Wilson had prudently left the two alternatives open). Niqmi-epa Niqmi-Eplbwh for *Niqm-Yaplb').) and No." E[e has also reminded me of a " magicwand" from Megiddo(Loud.205.it followsfrom our presentmaterialthat the feminine Ba'alat achievedindependentstatus as a divinenamebeforethe masculineBa'al. 52 AT 145 b. 145. 38). 59. 18. n. This name is uncertain.53 Together with the other feminine name No. 87.136. 200). p. 29. 141f. 'n-ti. the convenient table and the references given BASOR 110. " good fortune. AP{MXV.) is almostcertainlyBa'alt7iya. 'n[ ]' (fem. " herbage. and Sapsi or Sapseat Alalakh. are both feminine and are thus undoubtedly formedwith the name of the goddess Anat.52Whetherthe name was pranounced Samclstqx. The best known early name of this type is. This name proves that Sapgu was not feminine but masculine in Alalakh. 'qb' 'Aqba'(fem. ' 'sbtw (mas.

) is probably Egyptian like Nos. Since these dates cover the beginnings of Israel as well as the period of the Sojourn in Egypt. 62. " Shaddaishines. (if correct). 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .As might be supposed. This does not necessarily apply to the gadi>l. No. meanlNg 62.'>AmongIsraelitenamesfrom the time of to the Exodus (and hence belonging presumably Sede'gr have we a. Culture and Religion (1949). pp. 10."father. *'Ayya'abum. 63."57 Hadad-Ba 8S." It mighZ 'Ammu. see provisionally my remarks in L. 80. 7 and 51) Egyptian (Ranke. the well-known geographical name transcribed Sa-dr-'-ms ( Sadde-'Ammt.) is the name of the son of No. we shouldexpectsignificantpoints of contact with Israelite tradition. a. The 'ayin is.) is again (like Nos. 35. 88 is badly prewhen compounded becomes servedand uncertainty we attempt to explain it. 188. of Dan(i)el. See No. 8S. in name Hebrew 14th-century n. Following are the most striking new data bearingon biblicalpersonalnames: 1. 7 and 56.55 we shouldexpectto find Accadiannames.58 2.30 on Thu.232 ALBRIGHr: Slaves Namesin a Lisf of Egypfian NorfAwes{-Semific ize Bayyu-ur. Nearly thirty of the precedingnames are defiwell and are sufficiently nitely Northwest-Semitic practianalysis satisfactory a to make preserved cable." No. 3T. 88. 88. a. from fully understand the etymological relationships between statives tob and bos. 13. Zilpah (cf. and for the 'A-sa-ru of 68a E. Bywr (fem. 216. the latter of whomwas also a hero of the MiddleBronzeAge. No.. attested for the Old and New liingdoms. however. bright." belonging to two of the northerntribes descendedfrom Leah and her maid. respectively. 69.Sln. BASOR 130. n. since a composite to be pronounced and end with 'aleph. reflect a Semitic hypocoristicon pos6ibly 59. See No.205." We may perhapsvocal* i sibilant ).. for a recent statement. above. The Jews: Their History. and " living " is a common appellation of Yahweh.but was presumably line. with the correct This content downloaded from 193. If the explanation of the second element of the name is right. "to be light.. See No. century 14th the late or the (Masoreticvocalization) for *Sadday-'or like. 61. goes back to 'ur. name does not look quite like the usual arm SigIl. See No. Ezekiel mentions him twice between Noah and Daniel. S and S in South Arabic. 41. If it is completeit would seem to reflectthe two stems HWY. and I do not know of any Northwestern hybridnamesformedwith Stn. This namewas verycommonin the MiddleBronze Age and had already modified its form by dissimilationand contraction. Ra-'ntf ] (fem. 13 and 23). No. 26 f. above. Nor are we disappointed. [ ]'b' is perhaps name [ ]. If the first two signs reflectthe name of the Accadianmoon-god. "to live. AePN. No. 'b'[ ]m (mas.since we have no clear evidence that the deity was worshiped under this name anywhere among the Semites. and may be somethingelse. can scarcelybe hypocoristic mascuThe sex is doubtful. Job was the central figure of a story going back into the first half of the secondmillenniumB. Nos. 63. 67. 6qBaal (Hadad) is spoken of as " living " ( hayya ) 56 in the Canaanite epic of Ugarit. we have a proremost see Semitic in god this of name 66 On the demonstration that this particular stative visional SYN misprint: a is (there 8 n. New light on the etymologyand meaning of the names "Issachar" and "Asher. p. The explanationof the original form and meaning of the name " Job " (cf. just as vadOI i8 derived '6r) (later yet not do we in line 6 of the note should be SYN. 7 and 61. 16). "The Living One (appellationof al ?) Shines. "mw (mas. clear68 Cf." and 'T#. 55. and 69. 20. impossiblein transcribedAccadiannames. Tn'( ?)fr( ^){'. Finkelstein. g. Tn'(?)t'sa is probablyto be consideredtogetherwith No. his namebeginswith the commonSemitic element'abu. cently BASOR 128.abt.) lookslike a compositename. 64. 66 On this name and its congeners see JBL 54. 10) as " WhereIs the Father9 " 'Ayyabum. home geographical the up ing Egypt. 2S.-See Nos. of the namesand inferences Previousexplanations from these explanations have been invariably wrong58^(except for the meaning attributedto 51. The 1S O Dscure. 8T. meaning" The Asiatic.) B. iFromthis analysiswe have deducedmany interestingpoints which fit exceedinglywell into the patterns now known to be characteristicof Northwest-Semiticpersonal names belonging to the period between about 1900 and about 1300 B. 69 is perbut the third hieraticsign in the fectly preserved.136.

i. 1953. INTRODUCTION. who wrote rather hastily in his the system fully developed.l Furthermore. as illustrate the authenticity and antiquity of " Job. The name of one of the iEl:ebrew midwives. In the following four sections the first four points will be dealt with. published for the Brooklyn Museum by the Yale University Press. stem QB (No. Persoql.6°and that it is actually hypoco3.cv Shiphrah " and from variousdirections.59 Texts betweencir. e.but they seen above that there is now a mass of material to are more firmly establishedtoday than ever. and the Hayes list from cir.136. NEW ARAlTATC TEXTS E. 37). the new the same form (No. its origin in time and place. legal terms.and the problemof law.s times."alreadywell attestedfor is to be explaineddiiferentlyfrom my proposals this period. 30: 13)." It will appear when the unpublishedmaterial now must be remembered. 1925 and 1875 B. risticon of a theophorousname beginning with " Shiphrah" (Ex. Noth. 6° BASOR 125. through 4. ARAMAIC STUDIES are still in a position where a scholar may further elucidate any newly edited test. C. B. e. " fosterling. Among later names which can now be e2rthe Posenertexts from the secondhalf of the 19th hieratic texts has nothing to do with " Asher " in either century B. C. scattereddata from the lFth and 16th centuriesto p. This content downloaded from 193. which is also the source of 5." properly names of the House of Jacob go back to early *Dodthx'ah(cf. 1: 15) appearshere in nearly 'apruor 'ipru. Gray and availableis published. that Noth was the first who effectively disproved the views of G. Ijast but not least. KUTSCHER JEWI8H THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA § 1. There are enough valuable work. even if it is as conscientiously edited as the new Eraeling volume. 1.205.Puah " are thus perfectly good Northwest-SeOf less direct significancefor historicalstudies. Dre wraelsttscheql. halte ich fur ad hoc gebildet und kunstlich. 21)... C. No. 15. interrelationsof languages. 10: " Aunstlich sind wohl auch die Namen der beiden indicate that the system was put into approsiHebammen in Ex." On the next page he went on to write: " Auch den Namen m5 5" der Angefeindete mately its later form during the iElyksos period. down to the fifteenth century. i. tory at the beginning of the MosaicAge. 18) and the parallel" Dodo. 69 Contrast M.31.however. C. E = Eraeling. these tests provide the opportunity to reconsider some out1 Emil G. c. they are essential for a re-survey of the problem of Biblical Aramaic.ALBRIGET: Northwest-Semitic Names in a List of Egyption Slaves 233 { Asher" in GEen. three years ago. commentson the tests (limited only to essentials). the language and linguistic backgroundof the Aramaic Papyriand OfscReichsaramaisch " in general and the problemsof the development(and interrelation) of law in the Near East during that time. Nor is and the speculations connected with it are entirely it accidentalthat there are two names from the baseless. Eraeling.. and the tribes had alreadyhad a long his. Virtuallyall the tribal plained satisfactorily is " Dodavah.atneql. It is quite possiblethat the name " Epher' the hypocoristic " Jacob. and the other name has light compels the problemof these already been duplicatedthrough Ugaritic finds. names in a us to approach way quite opposed to recent proposals though not hithertorecognized." In any case. 20 Feb 2014 07:18:41 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1740 B. others that the early names in the Priestly Gode were artificial constructions of late date. The abbreviations used are those of the editor. standingproblems concerningthe legal terms. New CEIaven.This nameis not theophorous as formerlybelieved.and there is no reasonto consider them as not authentic in their appearance whichmakesit possibleto fill in an importantgap aboutthe end of the 14th centuryB.enql. Y. mitic names of womenfrom the first half of the but of even greater indirect value is the evidence secondmillennium. A short review will appear in JBL.30 on Thu.when we find consonantal or vocalic structure. The Brooklyn Mt4seumAraqnaic Papyrs. in iEl:ebrew in the developmentof Egyptian syllabic orthography (groupwriting) from the Sethe Esecration tradition. (1928)." We have My views have been repeatedlyattacked.