1.

Introduction to Computer Why this chapter
Computers are an integral part of our lives. Wherever we are—sitting in our homes, working in the office, driving on roads, sitting in a movie hall, staying in a hotel, etc.—our lives are directly or indirectly affected by the computers. In this era of information, we are dependent on the storage, flow and processing of data and information, which can only be possible with the help of computers. The purpose of this chapter is to introduce you to the ―computer‖.
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Digital and analog computers Characteristics of computer—Speed, accuracy, diligence, storage capability, versatility History of computer—Calculating machines, Napier’s bones, slide rule, Pascal’s adding and subtraction machine, Leibniz’s multiplication and dividing machine, punch card system, Babbage’s analytical engine, Hollerith’s punched card tabulating machine Generations of computer o First generation (1940 to 1956): Using vacuum tubes o Second generation (1956 to 1963): Using transistors o Third generation (1964 to 1971): Using integrated circuits o Fourth generation (1971 to present): Using microprocessors o Fifth generation (present and next): Using artificial intelligence Classification of computer—Microcomputers (desktop computer or Personal Computer (PC), notebook computers or laptop, netbook, tablet computer, handheld computer or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), smart phones), minicomputers, mainframe computers, supercomputers The computer system—Hardware, software, data, users The Input-process-output concept Components of computer hardware—Input/output unit, central processing unit, storage unit Application of computers—Education, entertainment, sports, advertising, medicine, science and engineering, government, home

1.1. Introduction

Nowadays, computers are an integral part of our lives. They are used for the reservation of tickets for airplanes and railways, payment of telephone and electricity bills, deposit and withdrawal of money from banks, processing of business data, forecasting of weather conditions, diagnosis of diseases, searching for information on the Internet, etc. Computers are also used extensively in schools, universities, organizations, music industry, movie industry, scientific research, law firms, fashion industry, etc. The term computer is derived from the word compute. The word compute means to calculate. A computer is an electronic machine that accepts data from the user, processes the data by performing calculations and operations on it, and generates the desired output results. Computer performs both simple and complex operations, with speed and accuracy. This chapter discusses the history and evolution of computer, the concept of input-process-output and the characteristics of computer. This chapter also discusses the classification of digital computers based on their size and type, and the application of computer in different domain areas.
1.2. Digital and Analog Computers

A digital computer uses distinct values to represent the data internally. All information are represented using the digits 0s and 1s. The computers that we use at our homes and offices are digital computers. Analog computer is another kind of a computer that represents data as variable across a continuous range of values. The earliest computers were analog computers. Analog computers are used for measuring of parameters that vary continuously in real time, such as temperature, pressure and voltage. Analog computers may be more flexible but generally less precise than digital computers. Slide rule is an example of an analog computer. This book deals only with the digital computer and uses the term computer for them.
1.3. Characteristics of Computer

Speed, accuracy, diligence, storage capability and versatility are some of the key characteristics of a computer. A brief overview of these characteristics are—

Speed The computer can process data very fast, at the rate of millions of instructions per second. Some calculations that would have taken hours and days to complete otherwise, can be completed in a few seconds using the computer. For example, calculation and generation of salary slips of thousands of employees of an organization, weather forecasting that requires analysis of a large amount of data related to temperature, pressure and humidity of various places, etc. Accuracy Computer provides a high degree of accuracy. For example, the computer can accurately give the result of division of any two numbers up to 10 decimal places.

temporarily. the computer does not get tired or fatigued. It could add and subtract. It can perform long and complex calculations with the same speed and accuracy from the start till the end. History of Computer Until the development of the first generation computers based on vacuum tubes. It executes instructions as specified by the user and does not take its own decisions. representing units.4. Secondary storage devices like floppy disk and compact disk can store a large amount of data permanently. Abacus   Napier’s Bones was a mechanical device built for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 AD. At one moment you can use the computer to prepare a letter document and in the next moment you may play music or print a document. Computer cannot do any work without instructions from the user.1 Figure 1. Computer can only perform tasks that it has been programmed to do. It consists of bars in horizontal positions on which sets of beads are inserted.1. multiplication and division. one could perform operations like addition.   Diligence When used for a longer period of time. tens. Figure 1. Versatility Computer is versatile in nature. gears and cylinders. Slide rule  Pascal’s Adding and Subtraction Machine was developed by Blaise Pascal. in the primary memory. etc. Using the slide rule. A limited amount of data can be stored. 1.2. hundreds. by an English mathematician John Napier. subtraction. The machine consisted of wheels. Slide Rule was developed by an English mathematician Edmund Gunter in the 16th century. Storage Capability Large volumes of data and information can be stored in the computer and also retrieved whenever required. The key developments that took place till the first computer was developed are as follows—  Calculating Machines ABACUS was the first mechanical calculating device for counting of large numbers. It was used extensively till late 1970s.2 shows a slide rule. Computers have several limitations too. Figure 1. The word ABACUS means calculating board. there had been several developments in the computing technology related to the mechanical computing devices. An abacus is shown in Figure 1. The horizontal bars have 10 beads each. . It can perform different types of tasks with the same ease.

we will discuss the generations of computer in terms of— i. resulted in the development of the first computer in the 1940s. in the year 1823. Hollerith’s Punched Card Tabulating Machine was invented by Herman Hollerith. The 0s and 1s are the basis of the modern digital computer. Charles Babbage is also called the father of computer. Currently. iv. Figure 1.. Charles Babbage and Lady Ada Lovelace developed a general-purpose calculating machine. there are five generations of computer. 1. He invented the punched card reader that could recognize the presence of hole in the punched card as binary one and the absence of the hole as binary zero. 1. Later.5. computing characteristics (speed. The developments discussed above and several others not discussed here. The machine was called as difference engine.1.e. faster and efficient than their predecessors. Each generation of computer is designed based on a new technological development. The machine could read the information from a punched card and process it electronically. Punch Card System was developed by Jacquard to control the power loom in 1801. . The input to the computer was through punched cards and paper tapes. Generations of Computer The computer has evolved from a large-sized simple calculating machine to a smaller but much more powerful machine. iii.3. ii. resulting in better. cheaper and smaller computers that are more powerful.  Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine was a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide. The output was displayed as printouts. Punched card   Babbage’s Analytical Engine An English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. the analytical engine. The evolution of computer to the current state is defined in terms of the generations of computer.3. A punched card is shown in Figure 1. the technology used by them (hardware and software). The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built it around 1673. and their applications.4) for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory.5. number of instructions executed per second). First Generation (1940 to 1956): Using Vacuum Tubes  Hardware Technology The first generation of computers used vacuum tubes (Figure 1. i. physical appearance. In the following subsections.

they were difficult to program.Figure 1. They used magnetic tapes and magnetic disks for secondary storage. Transistors allowed computers to become smaller. . Application They were used for scientific applications as they were the fastest computing device of their time.5. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in microseconds. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in milliseconds. Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator (ENIAC).2. the size of the computer was also reduced. thus. 1.5) replaced the vacuum tubes of the first generation of computers. Second Generation (1956 to 1963): Using Transistors  Hardware Technology Transistors (Figure 1.5. The machines were prone to frequent malfunctioning and required constant maintenance. faster. as compared to writing instructions in machine language. Machine language uses 0s and 1s for coding of the instructions. It is easier to write instructions in assembly language. The first generation computers used a large number of vacuum tubes and thus generated a lot of heat. cheaper. The input was still through punched cards and the output using printouts. They used the concept of a stored program. They consumed a great deal of electricity and were expensive to operate. where instructions were stored in the memory of computer. Physical Appearance These computers were enormous in size and required a large room for installation. Examples UNIVersal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). such as early versions of COBOL and FORTRAN were also developed during this period. Transistors    Software Technology The instructions were written using the assembly language. energy efficient and reliable. and Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC). High-level programming languages. Assembly language uses mnemonics like ADD for addition and SUB for subtraction for coding of the instructions.4. Physical Appearance Transistors are smaller in size compared to vacuum tubes. Vacuum tube      Software Technology The instructions were written in machine language. The first generation computers could solve one problem at a time. Since first generation computers used machine language. The second generation computers used magnetic core technology for primary memory. Figure 1.

IBM 1401 and CDC 1604.5. as individual components of the computer were not required to be assembled manually. Operating system allowed different applications to run at the same time. The transistors had to be assembled manually in second generation computers. designed using LSI and VLSI technology. High-level languages were used extensively for programming. instead of machine language and assembly language.  Application The cost of commercial production of these computers was very high. Microprocessor is a chip containing millions of transistors and components. Figure 1. 1. multiple transistors are placed on a silicon chip. Semiconductor . Application Computers became accessible to mass audience. They required less maintenance than the first generation computers.3. The keyboard and monitor were used to interact with the third generation computer.7. The maintenance cost of the computers was also less compared to their predecessors. Silicon is a type of semiconductor. Figure 1. PDP 11. Second generation computers generated a lot of heat but much less than the first generation computers. IC chips      Software Technology The keyboard and the monitor were interfaced through the operating system.6 shows IC chips. though less than the first generation computers. Physical Appearance The size of these computers was quite small compared to the second generation computers. Computers were produced commercially. Third Generation (1964 to 1971): Using Integrated Circuits  Hardware Technology The third generation computers used the Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Examples PDP-8. In an IC chip. 1. and. A microprocessor chip is shown in Figure 1. The third generation computers used less power and generated less heat than the second generation computers. This generation of computers gave rise to Personal Computer (PC). instead of the punched card and printouts. VLSI allows hundreds of thousands of components to be integrated in a small chip. Examples IBM 370. Fourth Generation (1971 to present): Using Microprocessors  Hardware Technology They use the Large Scale Integration (LSI) and the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology.6. The cost of the computer reduced significantly.4. manifold. Thousands of transistors are integrated on a small silicon chip using LSI technology. Computing Characteristics The computation time was in nanoseconds. and were smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. The use of IC chip increased the speed and the efficiency of computer. This era is marked by the development of microprocessor.5.

The components of the computer like Central Processing Unit (CPU) and memory were located on a single chip.7. Application They became widely available for commercial purposes. The Intel dual-core microprocessor uses parallel processing. In 1981. resulting in fast random access to memory. The computers were linked to form networks that led to the emergence of the Internet.5. Personal computers became available to the home user. In 1984. The microprocessor has resulted in the fourth generation computers being smaller and cheaper than their predecessors. These computers have large memory requirements. and handheld devices. This generation also saw the development of pointing devices like mouse. This generation of computers supported Graphical User Interface (GUI). IBM introduced the first computer for home use. Fifth Generation (Present and Next): Using Artificial Intelligence The goal of fifth generation computing is to develop computers that are capable of learning and self-organization. instead of serial execution. GUI and pointing devices facilitate easy use and learning on the computer. Secondary storage device like magnetic disks became smaller in physical size and larger in capacity. Apple introduced the Macintosh. Networking has resulted in resource sharing and communication among different computers. The linking of computers is another key development of this era. 1. Figure 1. They generate much lesser heat and require less maintenance compared to their predecessors. High-level programming languages are used for the writing of programs. GUI is a user-friendly interface that allows user to interact with the computer via menus and icons. This generation of computers uses parallel processing that allows several instructions to be executed in parallel. Examples The Intel 4004 chip was the first microprocessor.memory replaced the earlier magnetic core memory. Physical Appearance They are smaller than the computers of the previous generation. The fifth generation computers use Super Large Scale Integrated (SLSI) chips that are able to store millions of components on a single chip. . The fourth generation computers are also portable and more reliable. Some can even fit into the palm of the hand. Computing Characteristics The computation time is in picoseconds. Parallel processing results in faster processing speed. Microprocessors      Software Technology Several new operating systems like the MS-DOS and MSWindows developed during this time.5.

The computers are broadly classified into four categories (Figure 1. It is not very expensive and is suited to the needs of a single user at home.6. as shown in Figure 1. monitor.8. Figure 1. Microcomputers include desktop computers. Although microcomputers are stand-alone machines. 1. hard disk drive. Dell and Lenovo are some of the PC manufacturers. (2) Minicomputers. Classification of computers based on size and type 1. They consist of CPU. Classification of Computer The digital computers that are available nowadays vary in their sizes and types. The advantage of the laptop is that it is small in size (can be put inside a briefcase).8) based on their size and type—(1) Microcomputers. Notebook Computers or Laptop resemble a notebook. output unit. They try to simulate the human way of thinking and reasoning. Artificial Intelligence includes areas like Expert System (ES). IBM PC based on Pentium microprocessor and Apple Macintosh are some examples of microcomputers. has a battery backup and has all the functionality of the desktop. input unit. Externally. small business units. Laptops are costlier than the desktop machines. robotics. voice recognition.9. handheld computer.The fifth generation computers are based on Artificial Intelligence (AI). Natural Language Processing (NLP). Microcomputers Microcomputers are small. etc. Apple. notebook computers or laptop. Microsoft. tablet computer.9. and organizations. it consists of three units—keyboard. HP.1. Microcomputers   Desktop Computer or Personal Computer (PC) is the most common type of microcomputer. and a system unit containing the CPU. can be carried anywhere. . and (4) Supercomputer. storage unit and the software.6. (3) Mainframe computers. They are portable and have all the features of a desktop computer. memory. Figure 1. smart phones and netbook. they can be connected together to create a network of computers that can serve more than one user. etc. low-cost and single-user digital computer. It is a stand-alone machine that can be placed on the desk. speech recognition. Laptops can be placed on the lap while working (hence the name).

PDP 11. It is small in size. PDAs can be connected to the Internet via a wireless connection. and are designed for accessing web-based applications. They can be connected to the Internet wirelessly. Tablet Computer has features of the notebook computer but it can accept input from a stylus or a pen instead of the keyboard or mouse. The word netbook was created as a blend of Internet and notebook. Smart Phones are cellular phones that function both as a phone and as a small PC. IBM (8000 series) are some of the widely used minicomputers.3. They have a limited memory and are less powerful. Minicomputers Minicomputers (Figure 1. download music. PDAs do not have a disk drive. Casio and Apple are some of the manufacturers of PDA. PDA uses a pen or a stylus for input. Over the last few years. An intelligent terminal has the input and output device. PDAs have merged into mobile phones to create smart phones. but. Tablet computer are the new kind of PCs. play games. HTC. etc. Apple. . Minicomputer 1. Starting with the earliest netbook in late 2007. research centers. they have gained significant popularity now. Mainframe computers are large and powerful systems generally used in centralized databases. The users can access the minicomputer through their PCs or terminal.6. They have high processing speed and high storage capacity than the microcomputers.    Netbook These are smaller notebooks optimized for low weight and low cost. The user accesses the mainframe computer via a terminal that may be a dumb terminal. They may use a stylus or a pen. multi-programming and high performance computers. Handheld Computer or Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) is a small computer that can be held on the top of the palm. Instead of the keyboard.6.10. They are used to access the electronic-mail. 1. can do processing. have very large storage capacity and can handle the workload of many users. cannot store data of its own. They are used for real-time applications in industries. emailing. or may have a small keyboard.11) are multi-user.10) are digital computers. Web surfing or instant messaging. etc. They operate at a very high speed.2. Nokia and LG are some of the manufacturers of smart phones. A dumb terminal cannot store data or do processing of its own. It has the input and output device only. Minicomputers can support 4–200 users simultaneously. Mainframe Computers Mainframe computers (Figure 1. It is a portable computer. Figure 1. Blackberry. generally used in multi-user systems. Netbooks deliver the performance needed to enjoy popular activities like streaming videos or music. The dumb and the intelligent terminal use the processing power and the storage facility of the mainframe computer. an intelligent terminal or a PC.

Some of the faster supercomputers can perform trillions of calculations per second.Mainframe computers are used in organizations like banks or companies.12) are the fastest and the most expensive machines. The parts of computer system are shown in Figure 1. 1. Supercomputers Supercomputers (Figure 1. They are also used in major universities. Some examples of supercomputers are IBM Roadrunner. Some examples of mainframes are CDC 6600 and IBM ES000 series. Figure 1. (2) Software.13. nuclear research and aircraft design. (3) Data. IBM Blue gene and Intel ASCI red. and gives the desired output. Mainframe computer 1.7. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. military agencies and scientific research laboratories.11. Parts of computer system [View full size image] . Figure 1.12. The computer system consists of four parts—(1) Hardware. Supercomputers are built by interconnecting thousands of processors that can work in parallel. climate research (global warming). PARAM Padma is the latest machine in this series.6.4. in Pune. such as. processes the input data by performing mathematical and logical operations on it. Supercomputer Supercomputers are used for highly calculation-intensive tasks.13. The Computer System Computer is an electronic device that accepts data as input. molecular research. PARAM is a series of supercomputer assembled in India by C-DAC (Center for Development of Advanced Computing). The speed of a supercomputer is generally measured in FLOPS (FLoating point Operations Per Second). where many people require frequent access to the same data. The peak computing power of PARAM Padma is 1 Tera FLOP (TFLOP). Figure 1. weather forecasting. and (4) Users. biological research.

instructions and the output are stored temporarily in the computer’s main memory. editing. 29. and 1994 just represent values. word. monitor. The hardware needs to be instructed about the task to be performed. Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer about the tasks to be performed and how these tasks are to be performed. processor and motherboard are some of the hardware devices. document. written in a language understood by the computer. play the output. They are also known as skinware. and (4) stores data. the data like 29. Program is a set of instructions. humanware or peopleware. sound. The hardware consists of physical devices of the computer. etc. Programmers. hard disk drive. (3) generates output. A set of programs and documents are collectively called software. 1. The input data can be characters. system analyst and computer hardware engineers fall into this category. etc. data entry operators. Users are people who write computer programs or interact with the computer.7. document. For example. image. text. etc. etc. Process The computer processes the input data. January and 1994 are processed by the computer to give the date of birth of a person. The computer may display the output on a monitor. the data. The action could be an arithmetic or logic calculation. Data are isolated values or raw facts. The concept of generating output information from the input data is also referred to as input-process-output concept. Output The output is the result generated after the processing of data. The data is provided as input to the computer. liveware. which by themselves have no much significance. sound. floppy disk drive.1. Different software can be loaded on the same hardware to perform different kinds of tasks. The hardware carries out these tasks.Hardware consists of the mechanical parts that make up the computer as a machine. which is processed to generate some meaningful information. The output may be in the form of text. . storage and processing of the data. The devices are required for input. January. During processing. modifying a document. The Input-Process-Output Concept A computer is an electronic device that (1) accepts data. Software instructs the computer about the task to be performed. The hardware of the computer system cannot perform any task on its own. to perform a specific task. (2) processes data. images. Keyboard. send output to the printer for printing. printer. The input-process-output concept of the computer is explained as follows—    Input The computer accepts input data from the user via an input device like keyboard. output. For example. it performs some actions on the data by using the instructions or program given by the user of the data. For this.

into a form that is understandable by the computer. intermediate results and output. Central Processing Unit CPU controls. the information to the user. The input data that is to be processed is brought into the main memory before processing. The instructions required for processing of data and any intermediate results are also stored in the main memory. and. o CU controls the overall operations of the computer i. The I/O unit consists of the input unit and the output unit. temporarily.7. controls and coordinates the overall functioning of the units of computer.14. Figure 1. CPU also has a set of registers for temporary storage of data. CPU performs calculations and processing on the input data. Memory Unit. Central Processing Unit (CPU). trackball and mouse. The input is provided to the computer using input devices like keyboard. 2. This memory is also called the main memory or primary memory of the computer. Similarly. instructions. whenever needed. It is responsible for processing of the input data. 1. it checks the sequence of execution of instructions. Some of the commonly used output devices are monitor and printer. the Output unit provides the output in a form that is understandable by the user. Figure 1.e.  Memory Unit Memory unit stores the data. The computer system interaction   Input/Output Unit The user interacts with the computer via the I/O unit. to generate the output. The Input unit converts the data that it accepts from the user. CPU consists of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU). Storage The input data. The stored data can be retrieved later. Additionally. coordinates and supervises the operations of the computer. the instructions and the output information. The Input unit accepts data from the user and the Output unit provides the processed data i. Components of Computer Hardware The computer system hardware comprises of three main components — 1. The memory unit is used to store the data.14 illustrates the typical interaction among the different components of the computer. during the processing of data. addresses and intermediate results of calculation. instructions and output are stored permanently in the secondary storage devices like disk or tape. and 3. The output is stored in . Input/Output (I/O) Unit. instructions. o ALU performs all the arithmetic and logic operations on the input data.e.2.

Researchers use computers to get easy access to conference and journal details and to get global access to the research material. book tickets for cinema halls. or the dictionary meaning of a word. computer is a tool that provides the desired information. Computers are used to develop computer-based training packages. for imparting education. They are also used for the purposes of training players. the business model of Google is mainly dependent on web advertising for generating revenues. etc. etc. The user can download and view movies. video clips. 1. For the advertisers. Another kind of storage unit is also referred to as the secondary memory of the computer.15 shows some of the applications of computer. download and share music. a place in a map. to provide distance education using the e-learning software. Educators use computers to prepare notes and presentations of their lectures. Magnetic disks. whenever needed. the programs and the output are stored permanently in the storage unit of the computer. as a tool and as an aid. incorporate visual and sound effects using computers. play games. computer is a medium via which the advertisements can be viewed globally. Computers are also used to create an advertisement using the visual and the sound effects. etc. The . medical history of a person. optical disks and magnetic tapes are examples of secondary memory. books in a library. images. You may use computer to get information about the reservation of tickets (railways. electronic-mails can be sent and reviews of a product by different customers can be posted.memory before being transferred to the output device. The data. Application of Computers Computers have proliferated into various areas of our lives. improve the game. chat. For a user. CPU can work with the information stored in the main memory. airplanes and cinema halls). play games (like chess. Advertisement can be displayed on different websites. and to conduct online examinations.) and create games. Advertising Computer is a powerful advertising media. etc. In fact. Web advertising has become a significant factor in the marketing plans of almost all companies. Entertainment Computers have had a major impact on the entertainment industry. Figure 1. create music using computers. use multimedia for making movies. view the scores. Sports A computer can be used to watch a game. Figure 1. Some of the application areas of the computer are listed below—     Education Computers are extensively used. Applications of computer  Medicine Medical researchers and practitioners use computers to access information about the advances in medical research or to take opinion of doctors globally.8. The users can also listen to music.15. The information may be presented to you in the form of text.

etc. for the access of land record details. ticket reservation.   medical history of patients is stored in the computers. to maintain the home accounts. food processors. military operations. accounting. The police department uses computers to search for criminals using fingerprint matching. investments. Computers also provide assistance to the medical surgeons during critical surgery operations like laparoscopic operations. Government The government uses computers to manage its own operations and also for e-governance. business organizations. security devices. online submission of water and electricity bills. Give an example each of analog computer and digital computer. etc. The websites of the different government departments provide information to the users. etc. people use computers to play games.2 1. Computers are used for storing the complex data. etc. and information sharing. performing complex calculations and for visualizing 3-dimensional objects. Microprocessors are embedded in house hold utilities like. for communicating with friends and relatives via Internet. washing machines. meteorological predictions. home theatres. for designing and making drawings (CAD/CAM applications) and also for simulating and testing the designs. for paying bills. telepresence. 4. for education and learning. social networking. Questions Section 1. Home Computers have now become an integral part of home equipment. are not possible without the computers. etc. book publishing. police department. The list of applications of computers is so long that it is not possible to discuss all of them here. CAT scan machine. paying taxes. Computers are used for the filing of income tax return. space exploration. web newspapers. Describe the characteristics of the computer. video conferencing. MRI scan machine. Define an analog computer and a digital computer.3 3. TVs. etc.. In addition to the applications of the computers discussed above. Science and Engineering Scientists and engineers use computers for performing complex scientific calculations. etc. computers have also proliferated into areas like banks. stock trading. At home. List the main characteristics of the computer. Computers are also an integral part of various kinds of sophisticated medical equipments like ultrasound machine. Section 1. . 2. Complex scientific applications like the launch of the rockets.

The first generation computers used ____________ for circuitry. Give two examples of second generation computers. Section 1. 14.5. Explain briefly the developments in computer technology starting from a simple calculating machine to the first computer. 13.2 15. The second generation computers used ____________ for circuitry. 17. 10.1 11. List the drawbacks of the first generation computers. and (e) Their applications. What is a calculating machine? What is the key feature of the Jacquard’s punch card? Name the first calculating device for the counting of large numbers. 16. 8. Describe the first generation computer based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance.5. Describe the second generation computer based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance and (e) Their applications. List three significant limitations of the computer. 12. Give two examples of first generation computers. 9. Section 1. . Section 1. Who is called the Father of Computer? 7.5.4 6.

Give two examples of third generation computers.3 19.18. Section 1.5.5. Describe the fourth generation computer based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance and (e) Their applications. 20. The fifth generation computers used ____________ for circuitry. 21.4 23. Section 1.5. Give two examples of fourth generation computers. and (e) Their applications. The third generation computers used ____________ for circuitry. 22. 26. Give two examples of fifth generation computers. List the drawbacks of the fourth generation computers.5 27. Describe the fifth generation computer based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance and (e) Their applications. 25. Describe the third generation computer based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance. 24. 28. List the drawbacks of the second generation computers. 29. . Section 1. List the drawbacks of the third generation computers. The fourth generation computers used ____________ for circuitry.

6. Define an intelligent terminal. 41. Define microcomputer. 33. Give two examples of mainframe computer. Give two examples of microcomputer. Section 1.6. Give two examples of supercomputer. Section 1.30. 32. Define minicomputers. Give two examples of minicomputer.4 40.6. Define a supercomputer.6. Define mainframe computer. List three categories of microcomputers. Section 1. Section 1. Also give at least one example of each generation of computer. 37.1 31.2 34.3 36. 39. Define a dumb terminal. 35. 38. Compare in detail the five generations of computers based on the (a) Hardware (b) Software (c) Computing characteristics (d) Physical appearance and (e) Their applications. .

55. (b) Advertising. mainframe computer and supercomputer. and (c) Government. minicomputer. 53. .42. List the components of computer hardware. Highlight the differences between microcomputer. Section 1. Explain the input-process-output cycle. List the steps in the working of the computer. List two uses of the supercomputer. 52. data and hardware.7 46. 43. Name the supercomputer assembled in India. 49. 45. 50. 51. 44. The speed of supercomputer is generally measured in ____________. 48. List some areas where the computers are used. Explain briefly the use of computers in the following areas—(a) Education. Explain in detail the components of computer hardware. Define (1) Program (2) Software (3) Hardware (4) ALU (5) CU (6) CPU (7) Data. Explain the working of the computer.8 54. Differentiate between software. Define a computer. 47. Section 1.

CPU I/O ALU CU LSI VLSI PC GUI SLSI ES NLP AI PDA FLOPS UNIVAC ENIAC EDVAC Write short notes on a. h. xi. xvii. vii. xiii. o. xiv. ii. viii. iv. n. d. e. l. x. iii. Components of Computer Input-Process-Output I/O Unit Central Processing Unit Storage Unit History of Computers First Generation Computer Second Generation Computer Third Generation Computer Fourth Generation Computer Fifth Generation Computer Microcomputers Minicomputers Mainframe Computers Supercomputer Personal Computer (PC) Notebook Computer Tablet Computer Netbook Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) . xii. f. ix. 57. t. b. g. m. p. j.Extra Questions 56. v. xvi. r. Give full form of the following abbreviations i. s. vi. xv. k. c. i. q.

memory chips.u. decoding. storage devices. c. ports and interfaces. Applications of Computer 58. RISC Interconnecting the units of a computer—System bus. e. b. g. executing. Give differences between the following: a. RAM. j. system clock. expansion bus. i. bus. ribbon cables. storing Microprocessor—CISC. h. f. external ports Performance of a computer—Registers. processor . Analog and Digital Computer Dumb Terminal and Intelligent Terminal Microcomputer and Minicomputer Minicomputer and Mainframe Computer Mainframe computer and Supercomputer First Generation Computers and Second Generation Computers Second Generation Computers and Third Generation Computers Third Generation Computers and Fourth Generation Computers Fourth Generation Computers and Fifth Generation Computers Desktop Computer and Notebook Computer 2. The Computer System Hardware Contents          Central Processing Unit (CPU) o Arithmetic logic unit o Registers o Control Unit (CU) Memory unit o Cache memory o Primary memory o Secondary memory Instruction format Instruction set Instruction cycle—Fetching. cache memory Inside a computer cabinet—Motherboard. expansion slots. d.

The purpose of I/O unit is to provide data and instructions as input to the computer and to present relevant information as output from the computer. CU is responsible for organizing the processing of data and instructions. (2) Central Processing Unit (CPU). In addition to the main memory. Figure 2. computer design focuses on the hardware to be used and the interconnection of parts. and how they connect to the other components. however.2. for example. there is another kind of storage device known as the secondary memory.1. Primary memory or main memory of the computer is used to store the data and instructions during execution of the instructions.3. It deals with how the hardware components operate and the way they are connected to form the computer. Memory Unit The memory unit consists of cache memory and primary memory. instructions during processing. to make instructions readily available to CPU during processing. Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM) are the primary memory. A program or data that has to be executed is brought into the RAM from the secondary memory. instruction format. Given the components. A computer consists of three main components—(1) Input/Output (I/O) Unit. the three related terms that require introduction are— computer architecture. Secondary memory is non-volatile and is used for permanent storage of data and programs.1.1) consists of Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and Control Unit (CU). It includes the specifications of the components. In addition. Different kinds of computer. CPU also has a set of registers which are temporary storage areas for holding data. instruction set and techniques for addressing memory. Given the system specifications. and instructions. It also stores the processed output. The memory unit stores the instructions and the data during the input activity. computer organization focuses on the organizational structure. Computer architecture refers to the structure and behavior of the computer. . CPU uses the registers to store the data. Introduction When we talk of computer hardware. computer organization and computer design. ALU performs the arithmetic and logic operations on the data that is made available to it. CPU controls the operations of the computer and processes the received input to generate the relevant output. Central Processing Unit Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor is also often called the brain of computer. CPU (Figure 2. such as a PC or a mainframe computer may have different organization. basic organization of the computer remains the same. The computer user interacts with the computer via the I/O unit. CU controls and coordinates the activity of the other units of computer. This chapter discusses the hardware components of the computer and the interaction between them. 2. CPU 2.2. and (3) Memory Unit.

SIMM ROM—PROM. optical disk. for an extended period of time. recordable optical disk o CD-R o CD-RW o DVD-R Magneto-optical disk Using the computer memory 3. instantly. secondary memory (magnetic disk. . features of magnetic disk. Introduction The computer’s memory stores data. Different types of memories. but are slow memory devices. The cache memory. primary memory). cache memory Primary memory—Random access memory. and RAM are fast memories and store the data and instructions temporarily during the processing of data and instructions.1. instructions required during the processing of data. Computer Memory Contents              Memory representation Memory hierarchy—Internal memory (registers. features of magnetic tape Magnetic disk—Working of magnetic disk. and output results. Storage may be required for a limited period of time.3. The secondary memory like magnetic disks and optical disks have large storage capacities and store the data and instructions permanently. their characteristics and their use in the computer. each having its own unique features. registers. DVD-ROM. SRAM. In this chapter. magnetic tape) Registers. direct access devices Magnetic tape—Working of magnetic tape. we discuss different types of memories. cache memory. read only memory RAM—DRAM. are available for use in a computer. or. memory modules—DIMM. The memories are organized in the computer in a manner to achieve high levels of performance at the minimum cost. EPROM. EEPROM. flash memory Secondary memory Access types of storage devices—Sequential access devices. finding data on magnetic disk o Floppy disk o Hard disk o Zip disk Optical disk—CD-ROM.

erased.5-inch reel of 9-track tape Questions Section 3. ______ is the basic unit of memory. 1 Byte = ____bits 1 Kilobyte (KB) = _____ bytes .2 1. They are durable. It is a storage medium on a large open reel or in a smaller cartridge or cassette (like a music cassette). and re-written.1–3. 10. can be written. 5.9.3. 4. What is the unit of memory representation in a computer? A bit is a single binary digit ____ or ___. What is the significance of a byte? One byte can store _____ different combination of bits. They are generally used to store back-up data that is not frequently used or to transfer data from one system to other.7. 6. 7. Magnetic tapes are sequential access devices. which mean that the tape needs to rewind or move forward to the location where the requested data is positioned in the magnetic tape. Define a word. A 10. 8. 9. Define a byte.7). magnetic tapes are not suitable for data files that need to be revised or updated often. 2. Magnetic tapes are cheaper storage media. 3. Due to their sequential nature. Define a bit. Figure 3. Magnetic Tape Magnetic tape is a plastic tape with magnetic coating (Figure 3.

Cache memory. List the different memories available in the computer in order of their hierarchy with respect to the CPU. Cache Memory Give the approximate speed and size of the Registers. Magnetic Tape. 19. 16. Show the memory hierarchy. (2) Access time of memory. . List the key features of the main memory. 22. 12. RAM and Magnetic disk. 17. 21. The registers are located inside the _____. RAM. 20. The memory is fundamentally divided into two types ______ and _____.11. 1 Megabyte (MB) = _____KB 1 Gigabyte (GB) = _____ MB = _____ KB 1 Terabyte (TB) = _____ GB = ______ KB Section 3. What are the two key factors that characterize the memory? Define (1) Capacity of memory. List the key features of the internal memory.3 14. Which is the fastest memory? Arrange the memories in increasing order of speed — Register. 24. 23. Hard Disk Drive. 15. 18. 13.

barcode reader Output devices—Hard copy devices. OMR. non-impact printers (ink-jet. audio response (speakers. Different kinds of input and output devices are used for different kinds of input and output requirements. source data entry devices Human data entry devices o Keyboard o Pointing devices—Mouse. joystick. digital camera) o Optical input devices—Scanner (hand held. output unit Input devices—Human data entry devices. soft copy devices Hard copy devices o Printer—Impact printers (dot matrix. Why is primary memory faster than the secondary memory? 4. video output. flat bed). speech recognition) o Video input device (video camera. .1. externally. laser) o Plotter—Drum plotter. visual display terminal. In this chapter. Input and Output Devices Contents        Input-output unit—Input unit. Input device is used for providing data and instructions to the computer. digitizing tablet o Pick devices—Light pen. After processing the input data. touch screen Source data entry devices o Audio input device (microphone. to the computer machine are also called peripheral devices. sound card. OCR. computer provides output to the user via the output device. drum). MICR. Introduction A computer interacts with the external environment via the input-output (I/O) devices attached to it. daisy wheel. headphone) 4. flatbed plotter o Computer output on microfilm (microfiche) Soft copy devices—Monitor. we shall discuss different kinds of input devices and output devices. The I/O devices that are attached. trackball.25.