CHINA FROM THE SELF-STRENGTHENING MOVEMENT TO THE MAY FOURTH MOVEMENT

Why did the Boxer Rising take place? What impact did it have on China? Causes/impact: 12/13 either ay !n part one" attention should #e given to #ackground causes" #ut credits ill #e given to candidates ho can #rie$ly state the nature o$ the uprising% &o ever" unrelated narrative on the course o$ development should #e marked sparingly% !n part t o" emphasis should #e laid on the immediate e$$ects ' ho the uprising and its a$termath a$$ected China in the period up to the 1(11 Revolution% &o ever" discussion on e$$ects #eyond this period ould #e accepted% !n part one" it is desira#le to point out the anti')an*hu and" eventually" the anti'$oreign nature o$ the Boxer +prising% ,he gro th o$ anti'$oreign sentiment should #e discussed% !n explaining this" the candidate should point out the political economic" social and religious e$$ects o$ $oreign encroachment upon China during the 1(th century and specially -ermany in .hantung in the 1/(0s% !mmediate causes" such as natural disasters" should also #e descri#ed% Candidates should sho hy Boxer movement received o$$icial sanction in the last years o$ the 1(th century #y re$erring to the return o$ conservative princes and o$$icials to the court a$ter the $ailure o$ the &undred 1ays Re$orm and the policy o$ #lind resistance o$ the Conservative court% !n discussing the impact" attention should #e given to the di$$erence made to China2s prestige and status as a result o$ the allied occupation o$ 3eking and the Russian advance into )anchuria% Candidates should also discuss ho the Boxer 3rotocol in$ringed upon China2s sovereignty and $urther eakened China2s political" military and economic po er% Candidates should also descri#e the reaction #y the )an*hu -overnment ' the institution o$ some hal$'hearted re$orms" the semi'autonomous actions o$ the south'eastern provinces" and the ays in hich #oth o$ these $actors in$luenced the 1(11 Revolution%
Trace the developme t a d d!"c#"" the "!$ !%!ca ce o% the Sha do $ &#e"t!o '()* to ')++, %rom

1evelopment/signi$icance : 14/10 5t the #eginning o$ the ans er candidates should explain ho the .ino'6apanese War o$ 1/(7'4 revealed China2s eaknesses and the 3o ers took advantage o$ her eakness to demand #oth economic and territorial concessions% ,hey should then mention ho the .handong 8uestion started ith -erman ac9uisition o$ the province in 1/(/% Candidates should then descri#e ho 6apan entered WW! in 1(17 and took over all -erman interests in .handong% &er position in the province as rein$orced #y presenting to :uan .hikai the 21 1emands hich prevented the restoration o$ -erman rights in .handong to China at the end o$ the War% Candidates should also mention that ,uan Chi';ui" in return $or a large loan also recogni*ed 6apan2s position in .handong in a secret exchange o$ notes ith the 6apanese government in 1(1/% 6apan2s position as $urther rein$orced #y signing secret treaties ith Britain" <rance and !taly in 1(1= in hich they agreed to support her claims in .handong at the peace con$erence% ,here$ore 6apan2s position as strong in regard to her claims in .handong at >ersailles Con$erence 1(1(% 5ll the 3o ers gave in on this issue though the Chinese delegates re$used to sign the peace treaty% !t as not until a$ter the Washington Con$erence o$ 1(21 that 6apan agreed to ithdra $rom .handong #ut to keep the ,singtao',sinan Rail ay $or 14 years% Credit should #e given to candidates ho could explain hy 6apan as $orced to give up her control over .handong ?i%e% pressure $rom +.5 and other estern po ers" especially Britain@% !n part t o" candidates should point out that the -erman occupation o$ .handong aroused $urther strong anti' $oreign $eeling in China% ,he Boxer +prising $irst started and gre in strength in .handong% 6apan2s occupation o$ the province" the imposition o$ the 21 1emands and the attitude o$ the po ers at the peace con$erence aroused strong nationalist $eeling in China hich mounted to a violent nationalist explosion in the )ay'<ourth )ovement in 1(1( hich as marked #y anti'6apanese #oycotts" strikes and demonstrations% ,he result as a violent reaction against imperialism and an intense drive to end the une9ual treaties% !n addition" candidates should point out that the shi$t o$ the control o$ .handong $rom -ermany to 6apan during the WW! marked the

5 and other 3o ers pav! $ the 2a1 %or the -hat part d!d the Late &! $ Re%orm pro$ram . in essay $orm should #e con$ined to a maximum o$ 10 marks% 2% +n$ocused narratives o$ the re$orms ith little attempt to dra comparison should BC.ectives $rom the nature and scope o$ the re$orms% Results 1% Candidates may compare the impact o$ the t o re$orms on aspects such as: a% )an*hu rule #% revolutionary movement c% constitutional movement d% relations ith the 3o ers 5ns ers that examine only the reasons $or the $ailure o$ the re$orms should #e marked cautiously% B%B% 1% Candidates ho make comparison in ta#le or note $orm and BC. #e given more than / marks% .')/'-')''0 pla1 ! ')'' Revol#t!o 3 . C#.o play do n the importance o$ the Re$orm in leading to the Revolution" candidates may discuss aspects such as a% deep'rooted and long'standing causes o$ revolution ?e%g% administrative de$iciency" economic and $inancial di$$iculties" de$eats in ars@" #% the role o$ revolutionaries and overseas Chinese" c% the attitude o$ $oreign po ers% Bote: !$ a candidate emphasi*ed the unimportance o$ the Re$orm as a cause o$ the Revolution and ela#orated the importance o$ other causes" a mark allocation o$ 4/14 ith 4 marks $or overall assessment ould #e appropriate% Compare the o45ect!ve" a d re"#lt" o% the H# dred 6a1"7 Re%orm .'()(0 2!th tho"e o% the Late &! $ Re%orm .ectives: 1% Comparison should $ocus upon the motives o$ the re$ormers" and the domestic and external circumstances leading the re$ormers to advocate changes% 2% )ark up clear indication o$ a kno ledge that one as initiated #y Chinese o$$icials and the other #y ruling )an*hus% 3% Credit perceptive candidates ho in$er the o#.rise o$ 6apanese po er in China% 6apan thus came into con$lict especially Britain% ith the interests o$ +.he role o$ Aate 8ing Re$orm/other causes : 14/4" ith 4 marks $or overall assessment% 1escription o$ the re$orm programs ithout relating them to the 1(11 Revolution should #e con$ined to a maximum o$ 4 marks% )ark up candidates ho argue that the re$orms ?including educational" constitutional and military@ helped to create a situation $avora#le to the gro th o$ a revolutionary movement" and that the nationali*ation o$ rail ays triggered o$$ the revolution in 1(11% .ectives/Results 12/13 either ay C#.')/'-')''0.

ung'meng &ui@ 3% rallying popular support ?including secret societies" returned students" overseas Chinese" the Be 5rmy@E 7% raising $undsE 4% enlisting $oreign support ?B%B% negotiations ith Britain and <rance in 1(11 $or the prevention o$ $oreign loans to the 8ing government" and $or the recognition o$ the revolutionary government@E F% laying the ground ork $or a repu#lican government B%B% Candidates ho give a mere description o$ 1r .hese may include a discussion o$ the political" social and economic conditions during the late 8ing period" as ell as the government2s domestic and $oreign policies hich generated anti')an*hu sentiments among di$$erent social sectors% .-hat 2ere 6r.un2s career ithout clearly relating it to the revolutionary movement" should BC.un2s contri#utions in the $ollo ing aspects: 1% advocating and spreading revolutionary ideologies ?D.cram#le $or Concessions" the sei*ure o$ rail ay and mining rights" missionaries2 a#use o$ their rights@ helped to #ring a#out the Boxer +prising% Cther $actors .un :ixian and other revolutionaries in relation to revolutionary organi*ations" ideologies and programs" $und raising" and popular support $or the cause o$ revolution% Cther $actors . score more than / marks% A""e"" the part pla1ed 41 the Empre"" 6o2a$er ! &! $ 61 a"t1.hese may include the decadence o$ the )an*hu government" the decline o$ the traditional economy" natural disasters" etc% To 2hat e8te t 2a" the do2 %all o% the Ma :h# $over me t the 2or. S# &! $ per!od3 Contri#utions Yat-"e 7" co tr!4#t!o " to the revol#t!o ar1 moveme t d#r! $ the late Candidates may discuss 1r . o% revol#t!o ar!e"3 Work o$ revolutionaries/other $actors 10/14 either ay Work o$ revolutionaries Candidates may discuss the ork o$ . 4r! $! $ a4o#t the do2 %all o% the Candidates may #egin ith an introduction o$ the Gmpress2s character and vie s on politics% 5 good ans er ould need to discuss her roles in the &undred 1ays2 Re$orm" the Boxer +prising and the Aate 8ing Re$orms" and relate these to the collapse o$ the 8ing 1ynasty in 1(11% Credit candidates ho include some other $actors that contri#uted to the do n$all o$ the 8ing 1ynasty% To 2hat e8te t 2a" the 9o8er Upr!"! $ 4ro#$ht a4o#t 41 %ore!$ act!v!t!e" ! Ch! a3 <oreign activities/other $actors 10/14 either ay <oreign activities Candidates should discuss ho $oreigners2 political" economic and missionary activities in China ?e%g% the .hree 3eople2s 3rinciplesD@E 2% $ounding revolutionary organi*ations ?e%g% the &sing'Chung &ui" the .

%eat#re" o% %ore!$ <oreign activities/China2s response 12/13 either ay <oreign activities Candidates are expected to point out the main $eatures o$ $oreign activities in China in the period speci$ied" as sho n in the scram#le $or political privileges" economic interests" territorial concessions and missionary rights" etc% China2s response .'+ mar."0 -hat 2a" the "!$ !%!ca ce o% th!" moveme t ! moder Ch! e"e h!"tor13 ?13 marks@ Reasons Candidates may explain ho internal conditions and $oreign relations gave rise to the )ay <ourth )ovement and a$$ected its development in the early Repu#lican period: a% !nternal: e%g% disillusionment ith political development a$ter 1(11E the rising tide o$ nationalismE changing social and economic conditionsE the in$luence o$ the Be Cultural )ovement% #% Gxternal: e%g% 6apanese am#itions/activities in ChinaE disillusionment ith" and humiliation in" the 3aris 3eace Con$erence hich triggered o$$ the )ay <ourth !ncident% .his may include the various e$$orts made to strengthen China and save the country $rom $oreign imperialism ?e%g% the &undred 1ays2 Re$orm" the Aate 8ing Re$orm and the Revolution o$ 1(11@" as ell as anti'$oreign sentiments re$lected in anti'missionary riots and the Boxer +prising" etc% I 2hat 2a1" d!d the re%orm" carr!ed o#t 41 the &! $ $over me t d#r! $ the per!od ')/''' help to 4r! $ a4o#t !t" do2 %all3 Candidates are expected to give an account o$ ho the economic" political" educational" military and social re$orms carried out in the period 1(01'11 led to conditions un$avora#le to the 8ing government% Re$erence could #e made to the resentment o$ the various social sectors" the gro th o$ a ne generation o$ intellectuals and soldiers inclined to revolutionary ideas% 5ns ers hich give a $actual description o$ the late 8ing re$orms and/or give an account o$ the reasons $or the do n$all o$ the 8ing government" should not score more than / marks% -h1 2a" there a Ma1 Fo#rth Moveme t ! Ch! a3 .igni$icance Candidates may discuss the signi$icance o$ the )ay <ourth )ovement ith regard to political" social and cultural aspects" as ell as in terms o$ international relations% .!!0 Ch! a7" re"po "e to the"e act!v!t!e".!0 the ma! act!v!t!e" ! Ch! a< a d .-!th re%ere ce to the per!od '()*-')''< e8am! e .

"0 .+/ mar.&G R!.= 6o 1o# a$ree 2!th th!" "tateme t3 G!ve rea"o " %or 1o#r a "2er.a0 -hat 2ere the a!m" o% the &! $ $over me t a d the Me!5! $over me t ! re%orm" ! the!r re"pect!ve co# tr!e"3 . 5 WCRA1 3CWGR .he aims o$ the 8ing government may include the $ollo ing: strengthening the military" enriching the country" maintaining )an*hu rule and the traditional institutions and practices" etc% .or issues o$ its $oreign relations ?e%g% $orced opening o$ the countryE une9ual treatiesE missionary activitiesE territorial" economic and political encroachments #y $oreign countries@ in the period speci$ied% Credit candidates ho can sho the interaction #et een internal and external $actors% Bote: 5ns ers hich merely give an indiscriminate account o$ anti'$oreign incidents/ activities" or o$ $oreign aggressions in China" should not score more than 4 marks% =The ')'' Revol#t!o ! Ch! a 2a" ot a "#cce""%#l revol#t!o .G C< 6535B 5.el$'strengthening )ovement" the &undred 1ays2 Re$orm" and the Aate 8ing Re$orm% . ! etee th ce t#r1< there 2ere a t!-%ore!$ .he $ocus should #e on reasons" and should relate to China2s internal developments ?political" social" economic" cultural@and the ma.heir arguments may make re$erence to the achievements o$ the aims o$ the 1(11 Revolution and to its repercussions on the social" political" economic" diplomatic" and intellectual conditions o$ China% Credit candidates ho can give a clari$ication o$ hat they conceive to #e a Dsuccess$ul revolutionD and ela#orate their ans er ith re$erence to their clari$ication% . Candidates may either agree or disagree partly or holly ith the statement% But reasons must #e provided% .i government may include: strengthening the military" enriching the country" $oreign expansion" securing an international position o$ e9uality ith the po ers" etc% Credit candidates ho sho an a areness o$ the priority order given to the various aims" and point out that some o$ the aims changed or #ecame increasingly expanded ith time% Gxtent o$ success ?China/6apan 10/10 marks or 20 marks overall@ Candidates may treat the t o countries individually or collectively% <or China" candidates may evaluate the degree o$ success in achieving the various aims stated in their ans er to part ?a@ o$ the 9uestion #y 9uoting instances $rom the contents and conse9uences o$ the .E8pla! 2h1< d#r! $ the latter hal% o% the %eel! $" amo $ ma 1 Ch! e"e people.'/ mar.i Re$orm and discuss the extent to hich the various aims stated in their ans er to part ?a@ o$ the 9uestion ere achieved% Credit candidates ho illustrate the di$$erent degrees o$ success achieved #y the t o governments #y comparing their respective achievements% .40 Ho2 "#cce""%#l 2ere the1 ! ach!ev! $ tho"e a!m"3 ."0 carr1! $ o#t 5ims ?China/6apan 4/4 marks or 10 marks overall@ Candidates may treat China and 6apan individually or collectively% 5ns ers should make re$erence to the re$orms carried out #y the t o governments circa 1/F1'1(12% .imilarly" $or 6apan" candidates may dra on the contents and conse9uences o$ the )ei.he aims o$ the )ei.

5@ )G!6! )C1GRB!H5.!!0 attempt" to lear helped to moder !:e >apa d#r! $ the Me!5! per!od.he social implications o$ the a#olition o$ $eudalism such as the change in the social and economic status o$ the various classes should #e discussed% 1evelopments in education included sending students a#road" encouraging estern learning" compulsory education and a ne school system% .he a#olition o$ $eudalism Candidates should discuss ho the a#olition o$ $eudalism created conditions $avora#le to 6apan2s moderni*ation" e%g% 1% the uni$ication o$ 6apan under a strong" centrali*ed governmentE 2% the removal o$ $eudal restrictions on trade and occupationE 3% the provision o$ a steady revenue $or the government% 5ttempts to learn $rom the West Candidates should discuss ho the attempts to learn $rom the West contri#uted to the moderni*ation o$ 6apan2s economy and de$ence ?e%g% armaments" industrial technology" modern transport and communications@% B%B% 5 mere narrative o$ the )ei.!CB -hat 2ere the ma5or "oc!al a d eco om!c re%orm" ! trod#ced ! >apa %rom '(?/ to '()@3 Ho2 d!d the1 co tr!4#te to the tra "%ormat!o o% >apa ! to a moder "tate3 Re$orms/contri#utions: 14/10 Candidates are expected to point out that social and economic re$orms introduced in this period ere part o$ the )ei.i moderni*ation movement% .he ne national system o$ the education #rought a#out a high degree o$ literacy helping to provide the technical kno ledge essential to industriali*ation% 5chievements in the economic $ield ere even more impressive% 6apan2s economy as trans$ormed" ithin a $e decades" $rom a developing and mainly agrarian one into a highly industriali*ed one% >arious kinds o$ industries sprang up% &er $oreign trade #oomed and her cheap la#or ena#led her products to compete $avora#ly in the orld market% 5 sel$'sustaining economy as achieved ith such industrial and commercial progress% !ncrease in agricultural production also made her sel$'su$$icient in $oodstu$$s% .he a#olition o$ $eudalism/attempts to learn $rom the West 12/13 either ay .or achievements in the social and economic $ields should #e discussed% . %rom the -e"t< .uch methods as setting up model $actories and mines" providing manu$acturers ith su#sidies" capital and technical advice" and selling government esta#lishments to Hai#atsu on an installment #asis ere adopted% )ilitary industries ere given priority" #ut pro$it'oriented industries ere also encouraged% !ndustriali*ation as accompanied #y measures $or moderni*ing transport and communication and $acilitating #oth domestic and $oreign trade" and the improvement o$ agricultural methods $or increasing agricultural production% Aand tax provided the government ith regular revenue and served to hasten the end o$ $eudalism% !n part t o" the ma.he a#olition o$ $eudalism dealt a last #lo to the rigid social strati$ication o$ the $eudal society% .!0 the a4ol!t!o o% %e#dal!"m< a d .or social re$orms ere the a#olition o$ $eudalism and educational re$orm% .o o$$set the economic #ack ardness o$ the country and to provide a sound economic #asis $or the country2s de$ence" estern'style industries ere sponsored #y the government% .he improvement o$ transport and communication trans$ormed her into a more compact geographical unit% E8pla! ho2 . score more than 10 marks $or the hole 9uestion% -hat are the mer!t" a d demer!t" o% the re%orm" carr!ed o#t d#r! $ the Me!5! per!od3 .he ma.i re$orm measures ithout relating them to 6apan2s Dmoderni*ationD" should BC.

'( mar.)erits/1emerits 10/14 either ay )erits Candidates are expected to sho ho the re$orm measures ena#led 6apan to remove $eudal restrictions and paved ay $or her moderni*ation in political" social" economic" educational and military aspects% 1emerits 5 discussion o$ the negative e$$ects o$ the re$orms is re9uired" hich could #e related to aspects such as the rise o$ the *ai#atsu" extreme nationalism and militarism% Bote: 1etailed descriptions o$ the re$orm measures are not re9uired $or this 9uestion -hat !" mea t 41 7moder !:at!o 73 ."0 2)oderni*ation2 Candidates are expected to point out the characteristics o$ 2moderni*ation2" hich may cover political" social" economic and military changes" etc% 6apan as a moderni*ed state Candidates should discuss ho re$orms carried out during the )ei.i Constitution" the $ormation o$ political parties@E 'social ?e%g% the a#olition o$ $eudalism" the rise o$ ne social classes" the introduction o$ universal education@E 'economic ?e%g% the introduction o$ land tax" the promotion o$ industriali*ation@E 'military ?e%g% the setting up o$ a conscript army" naval re$orms #ased on the British model@% Bote: 5ns ers hich consist o$ a mere account o$ )ei. score more than 10 marks out o$ 1/% -hat 2ere the ma! %eat#re" a d co "eA#e ce" o% the ed#cat!o al a d eco om!c re%orm" carr!ed o#t ! >apa d#r! $ the Me!5! per!od3 Gducational/Gconomic CR <eatures/Conse9uences 12/13 either ay Gducational 2<eatures2 may include the important role played #y the government" the setting up o$ a modern school system" strong emphasis on seeking kno ledge throughout the orld" pragmatic and utilitarian nature" etc% 2Conse9uences2 may #e categori*ed into positive and negative ones" e%g% a high degree o$ literacy" rapid advances in industrial and technological developments" the spread o$ li#eral and progressive ideas" un9uestioning o#edience and loyalty to the state" the rise o$ extreme nationalism% Gconomic 2<eatures2 may include the active role taken #y the government" the introduction o$ the ne land tax" the promotion o$ heavy and light industries" the improvement o$ transportation and communications systems" etc% 2conse9uences2 may include the increase o$ agricultural and industrial production" a higher level o$ industriali*ation" the expansion o$ overseas markets" the rise o$ the *ai#atsu and territorial expansionism" etc% .i re$orm measures should BC.? mar."0 I -hat 2a1" ca >apa 4e re$arded a" a moder !:ed "tate 41 ')'+3 .i period trans$ormed 6apan into a moderni*ed state in respect o$ the $ollo ing areas: 'political ?e%g% the enactment o$ the )ei.

.his also trou#led the Common ealth countries hich ere concerned a#out the upsetting o$ their amica#le relations ith the +nited .i#eria and Borthern .handong during the WW!" her eagerness to seek legal sanction o$ such rights" and China2s indignation over her treatment at the >ersailles Con$erence% 5$ter the close o$ WW!" the +nited .tates and 6apan interpreted the .akhalin% &o ever" the immigration 9uestion as not on the agenda% Ho2 d!d the relat!o " 4et2ee Ch! a a d >apa 2or"e d#r! $ the per!od '(?/-)@3 -hat preve ted 2ar %rom 4rea.tates and 6apan ere engaged in a naval race% 5merican'6apanese relations had #een strained #y disagreement over .reaty in di$$erent ays% 5 #ilateral agreement as signed restoring Chinese sovereignty in .he pro#lems concerning 6apan2s relations ith China as 6apan2s sei*ure o$ -erman rights in .his removed 5merican and Common ealth $ears o$ 5nglo'6apanese cooperation in some $uture ar ith the +nited .!CB!.onghak Re#ellion" g% the sinking o$ the Jo shing% 5 mere description o$ the t o countries2 con$licts over these places deterioration o$ their relations" should #e marked sparingly% <actors that prevented ar $rom #reaking out in 1//4 ithout explaining ho these led to a .B@ 6535B2.i#eria" arguments over the 7'po er consortium and the immigration 9uestions% Conse9uently there as suspicion o$ an 5merican'6apanese War in the 3aci$ic% Britain did not ish to #e involved as the ally o$ 6apan in an 5merican'6apanese ar through the 5nglo'6apanese 5lliance o#ligation% .')+'-++0 2a" called3 To 2hat e8te t 2ere the"e "ettled at that co %ere ce3 3ro#lems/settlements: 12/13 either ay !n the $irst part" attention should #e $ocused on the pro#lems concerning 6apan2s relations ith the three po ers" #ut credits ill #e given to candidates ho can point out the gro th o$ 6apanese in$luence in the <ar Gast during WW!% !n the second part" candidates are expected to discuss the decisions made at the con$erence and say ho $ar these had settled the pro#lems% .reaties o$ Jangh a and Chemulpo" d% $actional stri$e in Jorea" e% the assassination o$ Jim Ck'kun" $% the .reaty" concerning naval disarmament ? hich had speci$ic re$erence to the 3aci$ic@ as signed% Candidates should say hether the po ers ere satis$ied ith this% .! $ o#t 4et2ee the t2o co# tr!e" ! '((*3 &o .ino'6apanese relations orsened in 1/=0'(7 )ark up candidates ho analytically explain ho con$licts #et een China and 6apan over the Aiuchiu !slands" <ormosa and Jorea orsened the t o countries2 relations% 5n ans er scoring more than 10 marks in this part should make re$erence to incidents that culminated in ar #et een China and 6apan in 1/(7" such as: a% 6apan2s expedition to <ormosa" #% 6apanese annexation o$ the Aiuchiu !slands" c% the .ino'6apanese relations orsened in 1/=0'(7/<actors that prevented ar $rom #reaking out in 1//4 12//" ith 4 marks $or overall assessment% &o .tates% . <CRG!-B 3CA!C: -hat 2ere the pro4lem" co cer ! $ >apa 7" relat!o " 2!th Ch! a< 9r!ta! a d the U !ted State" 2he the -a"h! $to Co %ere ce .reaty" #ut the +nited .he China pro#lem as settled #y the conclusion o$ the ('po er .tates% 5 . GI35B.handong" #ut rati$ying 6apan2s economic privileges there% 6apan $inally agreed to ithdra $rom .he 5nglo'6apanese 5lliance as allo ed to lapse and to take its place" a 7'po er pact as signed% .

ino'6apanese War" Russo'6apanese War" WW!@ should #e a arded credit% Acco# t %or the e tr1 o% Ch! a a d >apa >apa e"e relat!o " #p to ')+B3 ! to --I.riple !ntervention o$ 1/(4@E 3% the threat to 6apan2s security posed #y the -erman military #ase at Jiaocho E 7% the excuse $or 6apan2s entry into the ar on the side o$ the 5llied po ers provided #y the 5nglo'6apanese 5lliance% ?B%B% Credit should #e given to candidates ho understand hy China entered the ar later than 6apan%@ .cram#le $or ConcessionsE the Gight'3o er GxpeditionE pre' occupation o$ the 3o ers ith the WW!@% 2% Re$erence to relevant incidents ?e%g% the <irst .he discussion may include: 1% China2s ar aims" hich consisted o$ the enhancement o$ her international status" the a#olition o$ une9ual treaties" and the ac9uisition o$ $oreign loans etc%E 2% inducement $rom the 5llied po ersE 3% the role o$ .ui" ho sought to expand his personal po er and in$luence through involving China in ar% 6apan: .his part may pose di$$iculty to candidates not used to 9uestions re9uiring analysis and perspective" and should #e assessed sympathetically% Credit those ho analy*e the terms o$ the Ai'!to Convention" sho ing ho it helped to avert an impending ar in 1//7'4% 1omestic issues in #oth China and 6apan ?including their involvement in moderni*ation programs@ and China2s pre'occupation ith a <rench ar in 5nnam" hich served to discourage ar$are in the 1//0s" should also #e mentioned $or $ull marks% Ho2 %ar d!d >apa 7" e8pa "!o to2ard" Ch! a %rom '(?/-')'* re"#lt %rom her eco om!c developme t d#r! $ the per!od3 Role o$ 6apan2s economic development/Role o$ other $actors14/10 either ay Role o$ 6apan2s economic development 1% 1escription o$ 6apan2s economic development or o$ her expansion to ards China in the period ithout relating the t o should #e con$ined to a maximum o$ F marks% 2% Gmphasis should #e placed on 6apan2s economic needs ?e%g% markets" ra materials@ hich could #e satis$ied #y ac9uiring territories in China% 3% Credit candidates ho see the economic motivation $rom 6apan2s economic gains ?B%B% opening o$ treaty portsE the right to manu$acture etc%@ #y the treaties $orced upon China a$ter the latter2s de$eat% Role o$ other $actors 1% Candidates are expected to discuss the role o$ $actors such as: a% security needs ?particularly the threat $rom Russia@E #% the political need to divert discontent overseasE c% China2s lax control over her vassal states and peripheral provincesE d% $avora#le international circumstances ?e%g% the .uan Ch2i'. Ho2 d!d the 2ar a%%ect S! o- Reasons $or entering the ar/G$$ects 12/13 either ay Reasons $or entering the ar China: .he discussion may include: 1% 6apan2s desire to take the opportunity o$ the po ers2 pre'occupation ith the ar in Gurope to esta#lish a dominant position in ChinaE 2% 6apan2s hostility to ards -ermany ?B%B% partly a result o$ the ..

his part may include the ac9uisition o$ the Aiu9iu !slands ?1/=(@" .ai an and the 3escadores ?1/(4@" Jorea ?1(10@" and Chinese concessions to -ermany in .handong 8uestionD #y Washington Con$erence ?1(22@ Trace a d acco# t %or >apa 7" am4!t!o " ! Corea d#r! $ the per!od '(?/-')'/.handong and 6iao*hou an ?1(17@ '6apan2s presentation o$ the 21 1emands to China ?1(14@ '6apan2s role in :uan .hikai2s monarchical movement ?1(14'1F@ '6apan2s inter$erence in China2s entry into the WW! ?1(14'1=@ '6apan2s in$luence on 1uan 8irui2s government through the Bishihara Aoans ?1(1/@ 'international recognition o$ 6apan2s gains in .or aspects such as: '6apan2s sei*ure o$ -erman concessions in .ino '6apanese relationsE 2% ho the granting o$ the -erman concessions in . . score more than 12 marks% G!ve a acco# t o% >apa 7" terr!tor!al e8pa "!o -hat 2ere the mot!ve" 4eh! d th!" e8pa "!o 3 ! A"!a d#r! $ the per!od '(?/-')'(.erritorial Gxpansion/)otives10/14 either ay .erritorial Gxpansion .G$$ects Gmphasis should #e placed on 1% ho the ar" hich ena#led 6apan to intensi$y her expansion into China ?B%B% through the 21 1emands" loans to .reaty o$ Jangh a ith Jorea in 1/=F '6apan2s challenge to China2s su*erainty in Jorea in the 1//0s 'the de$eat o$ China in the .handong to 6apan at the 3aris 3eace Con$erence culminated in anti'6apanese activities in the )ay <ourth periodE 3% ho the cur#ing o$ 6apan2s naval po er at the Washington Con$erence and the su#se9uent restoration o$ . Candidates should trace and explain 6apan2s political and economic am#itions in Jorea as ell as the strategic value o$ Jorea $or 6apan" in the period speci$ied% Re$erence may #e made to: 'the signing to the .handong to China eased temporarily the tense relations #et een China and 6apan% Trace a d acco# t %or the developme t o% S! o->apa e"e relat!o " ! ')++.handong at the 3aris 3eace Con$erence 'anti'6apanese $eelings among the Chinese during the )ay <ourth )ovement ?1(1(@ 'the settlement o$ the D.ui etc%@ led to a deterioration o$ .hese may include the need $or emigration outlets" the desire to prevent Jorea $rom $alling under the control o$ hostile po ers ?especially Russia@" the 9uest $or #ig'po er status and natural resources% Botes: 5ns ers hich give an integrated account o$ #oth 6apan2s territorial expansion and its motives should #e considered accepta#le as ell as those treating the t o parts o$ the 9uestion separately% To -hat e8te t d!d >apa 7" emer$e ce a" a 2orld po2er 41 ')') re"#lt %rom !t" v!ctor!e" ! %ore!$ 2ar"3 . the per!od ')'@- Candidates should trace and explain the development o$ .ino'6apanese relations in the period speci$ied" ith re$erence to ma.handong ?1(17@% )otives .ino'6apanese War ?1/(7'4@ '6apan2s contest ith Russia $or the control o$ Jorea and victory in the Russo'6apanese War ?1(07'4@ 'the annexation o$ Jorea in 1(10 Bote: 5ns ers merely tracing ithout explaining 6apan2s am#itions in Jorea should BC.uan Ch2i'.

>ictories in $oreign ars/other $actors 20/10 marks >ictories in $oreign ars ?20 marks@ Candidates are expected to discuss the impact o$ each o$ 6apan2s victories in $oreign ars #e$ore 1(1(" sho ing ho such ars helped it to #ecome a orld po er% .he $oreign ars may include the .hese may include the )ei.i moderni*ation programs hich helped to enrich and strengthen 6apan" and 6apan2s diplomatic skills hich helped to enhance its international standing ?e%g% the 5nglo'6apanese 5lliance@% .ino'6apanese War ?1/(7' (4@" the Gight'3o er Gxpedition in China ?1(00'1@" the Russo'6apanese War ?1(07'4@" and the <irst World War ?1(17'1/@ ?Bote: 5n ans er that only descri#es the ars and $ails to relate them to 6apan2s rise as a orld po er" should not #e a arded more than 10 marks%@ Cther $actors ?10 marks@ .