Qing dynasty in 1792-1846 -Internal unrest and rebellion by Ming Loyalists that built up during the degenerating

Qing era, ergo the White Lotus Rebellion in 1796 up to 1804. Showed Military backwardness in terms of General He-shen prolonging the focused expedition for his own enjoyment and pleasure. - McCartney Mission of 1793 resulted in misunderstanding of tribute mission and Chinese rejection upon diplomatic engagement. Increased insight into Chinese society and the first intentions of British will to expand market into China without restriction. Showed British disdain of Canton trade system and the backwardness of Chinese military capabilities. -1796 Ban of Opium importation by Jia qing and the initiation of his rule. -Death of Qian Long Emperor, which arguably the era of Chinese benevolence towards foreign envoys effectively terminates until the opening of china due to the opium war. April 1814-British attack on the Chinese Tributary of Nepal, the seizure of the American steamer Hunter off Canton waters (by british warship Doris) which canton authorities protested the violation of Chinese jurisdiction and threaten to cut off British trade unless the Doris left port. British community refused to give in. 1816-The Amherst Mission , Britain decided to send Lord Amherst the exgovernor of India on a mission to Qing Court in Tianjin to called for removal of grievance at Canton, the establishment of free trade between Chinese and British merchants, the abolition of the co hong system, freedom to reside at the factory without time limit and to employ chinese servants and the opening of ports north of canton. But cultural clashes is the major reason that fail to reach the peace negotiations. 1820-Development of Canton Trade- many of private traders to avoid company’s intervention, many businessman managed to stay in Canton and expand their business, private trade had surpassed the company trade. 1821-Daoguang emperor reign the Qing Fynasty 1821-Imposition of anti opium legislation into force for the first time,Chinese government form the Dao uang period react to opium consumption. 1833 December 10 – Lord Napier appointed to lead mission in China 1834 – East India Company’s monopoly of trade is not renewed with China; no more Napier. Tensions rise between UK and China.

European powers also took out long leases on chunks of Chinese land such as Hong Kong.Emperor sent the chinese commissioner Lin Zexu as a special envoy to the port of Guangzho to bring opinion trade to end. Fuzhou. Xiamen. Ningbo and Shanghai for foreign residence and trade. Treaty of Nanjing. 1839 marks the beginning of the First Opium War. 1839-42. But in September 19. The effects of the war include the Treaty of Nanjing and Treaty of Wanghia. In addition.  Territorial losses. (subject to review 1854) -Cession of Hong Kong to England -Indemnity of 21 million Mexican silver dollars + 6 million dollars ransom for Guangzhou -Opening of Guangzhou. 1842 marks the end of it.  All of the above helped to cause a series of rebellions  Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)  Nian Rebellion (1853-1868)  Southwest Muslim Rebellion (1855-1873)  Northwest Muslim Rebellion (1862-1877) 1842-the British take Shanghai and then Jinjiang. leaving Nanjing open to attack.1836 May 17. 1839. -Abolition of the Cohong* (traders who had communication with the foreigners) .Xu Naiqi wants to legalise opium trade in order to solve the opium problem. which raised taxes and hurt the peasants. 1842 and supplementary treaties in 1843. they eventually reach Nanjing. an influx of Christian missionaries undermined the traditional order. created resentment towards foreigners. First of unequal treaties. pirates were pushed out by the British Navy and moved inland and demobilized soldiers caused increased lawlessness. Shows how the laws regarding opium were constantly fluctuating.the emperor bans the opium trade. Laos and Cambodia) and Burma. legalizing christiainty.  The import of foreign cloth and yearn hurt the native textile industry near the treaty ports  Coolies and boatmen who had transported things from Shanghai to Guangzhou lost jobs. Other infects include: The cost of the war and the indemnities bankrupted the state. I Treaty of Nanjing. Gradually foreign countries took over Chinese territory or their “spheres of influence”. It began with tributary states such as Indochina (Vietnam.British community leaves Canton due to the issue of Opium.

the population of China drops by over sixty million people. the consequences for China during this period were devastating. II Treaty of Wanghua/Wangxia (China-USA) 1844  Extraterritoriality for US commercial vessels in Chinese waters  US churches in treaty ports III Treaty of Whampoa/Huangbu (China-France) 1844 Note: all of the provisions of this treaty extended to the British automatically due to "Most Favored Nation Status". it was also convulsed by a number of rebellions in mid-century. captured Bogue fort and factories. Governorship of Kwangtung went to Yeh Ming-chen. the Taiping rebellion. which lasted for twenty years.-Fixed tariff of 5% which could only be altered with British consent -Appointment of consuls at treaty ports who could communicate directly with Chinese officials of equal rank. therefore the . -Extraterritoriality in treaty ports -Most favored nation status 1844-Treaty of Wanghia between the Qing Empire and the United States. several Muslim rebellions in the southwest (1855-1873) and northwest (1862-1877). In fact. 1848-56: The Hard Line at Canton: in 1948. Significant because now decisions of about UK sending an army to destroy Canton were being made. the period from 1850 to 1873 saw. he got rid of officials who were pro appeasement 1850-71. Resulted in attacks. insults.Taiping Rebellion: While the Chinese entered into conflict with Europe and European culture during the Opium War and after. In the Taiping rebellion alone.  Roman Catholic churches and cemeteries in treaty ports  Beijing rescinded ban on Roman Catholic Church in China 1847: (April) Davis retaliated with raid of Canton w/ 900 soldiers. almost twenty to thirty million died as a direct result of the conflict. UK appeasement made Qi-ying’s public image damaged. Replaced by Hsu Kuang-qin. 1850: Emperor Tao-kuang died. 1847: (April 6th) Qi-ying promised UK entry at the end of 2 years and punishment of people who offended UK. Their appointments = re-emergence of anti-foreign attitude. with the first United States Ambassador to China. UK traders and missionaries could build warehouses and churches too. and. Thus. succeeded by 20yr son Emperor Xian-feng (more uncompromising to foreigners). Relations deteriorated. stoning and killing of British. and famine. as a result of rebellion. due to strong local opposition. the Qi-ying Davis agreement rejected as it did not guarantee peace for both sides. The Qing government could not put down the rebellion because their military was regionally organized. drought. With rebellion in Nien (1853-1868). especially. Resigned in March 1848.

Late 1857: occupation of Guangzhou. took Tienstin. UK diplomatic envoy. Anglo-French forces sail to mouth of Beihe Beijing sends a viceroy to negotiate with the foreigners. They attack Guangzhou. 21 Sep. Arrow incident led to UK attack on Guangzhou from the Pearl River. Anglo-French control for nearly four years. 1856: (Oct 8) The Arrow War : This event was important because it showed the friction between UK and Chinese relations and General Yeh denied UK flag present in arrest and questioned consul’s right to intervene in a case that involved CHN nationals and CHN police on a CHN-owned ship in a CHN harbour. US & Russia offered help (ended up not sending military aid).. Summer 1860: UK captured Yantai and Dailan. encountered fierce resistance fighting. 24 June 1858: UK forces blew up iron obstacles in the Baihe river. Relations broke down when Harry Parkes. they felt the Chinese would only listen to force. 1856-60: terms to the 1854 treaty not accepted by Foreigners. Beijing refuses. 1860: Battle of Palikao – annihilation of Mongolian cavalry and - . (But he was also aware that military wise China could not handle the British) 1856: UK. Beijing stalls.gentry had to step in and take control. US and FR ministers again wanted treaty revision. but nothing major could be considered. Brief interlude of unfair treaties. Alliance of UK & French. (May) British and French take forts at mouth of river and proceed to Tianjin (June 26) Anglo Chinese Treaty signed in Tianjin followed by similar treaties with France. The Second Opium War: Phase 1 (1856-58) 1856. Ye refuses. and co. 1858 (January) British and French take Guangzhou and exile Ye to Calcutta Four powers send letters to Beijing asking for a high-level official to negotiate with them in Shanghai. They demand revisions to the existing treaties. CHN said minor changes of a reasonable nature may be allowed. were arrested – half bodies discovered unrecognisable. British and French decide viceroy lacks authority and demand someone else.British bombard Guangzhou Chinese burn down Foreign factories 1857-Joint British-French expeditionary Force arrives in China (with diplomatic support from USA and Russia). USA and Russia Opium War II. Yeh refused to negotiate even on minor issues. This rebellion showed the weakness of the Qing government (thousands of hundreds were dying) and the influence of Western thinking.

USA and Russia 1858: (April) The TseinTsin negotiations: Lord Elgin and Gros took the Dagu Forts (because the governer of TseinTsin was in no position to negotiate)à The treaty (June 26. 1958) attempted to bring a resolution for four main issues: 1) a resident minister at Peking (to keep pacifist relations with CHN) 2) opening of new ports along the Yangstze 3) foreign travel in interior China 4) indemnity.Elgin wanted to exchange ratifications in Peking with 400-500 soldiers. for the illegal detention of Parkes. Lord Eglin said if kuei-liang does not accept these terms. Plus.Old Summer Palace burn down anglo-french troops 1860: (August) The conventions of Peking. Shanghai was a major treaty port so this was important for Foreign Powers. 1858: (October) The Shanghai Tarriff Conference 1858. 1860 October. 1860. . After negotiations with Prince Gong the British and French helped to put down the Taiping rebellion.British right of representation at Peking. driving emperor to refuge in Jehol. . The Taiping try to take Shanghai but the foreign powers supply the Qing Army with militia and equipment to fight off the Taiping. -The Allied forces Skirted South China and pushed north to attack Pei-ho an Peit’ang in Aug 1860 (threatening the security of Peking. but too little too late.) . (May) British and French take forts at mouth of river and proceed to Tianjin (June 26) Anglo Chinese Treaty signed in Tianjin followed by similar treaties with France.Burning of Old Summer Palace 1860. Beijing stalls.Beginning of the Second Opium War 1860. indemnity increased to 8 million Taels for Both Britain and France.Internal rebellions and external threats. in charge of Peace). that he wanted to flee But he was persuaded by Russian ambassador Nikolai Ignatiev to instead accept the allied terms. So Elgin proceeded with the burning of the summer palace instead. Oct 24.Kuei-liang sent to Tianjin.- Chinese troops. This burning terrified Prince Kung (The emperor’s brother. Some argument happened between Harry Parkes (incharge of inspecting the roads) Elgin lost all patience and charged into Peking with forces. and the French gained rights for Catholic Missionaries to own land in interior China. Manchuria. Lord Elgin dictated to Prince Kung the Convention of Peking which estabilished: . there would be a march in Peking. Elgin toyed with the idea of replacing the Manchu dynasty with the Chinese dynasty and burning the palaces.decide viceroy lacks authority and demand someone else. + Britain acquired Kowloon Peninsula.

Beginning of the self strengthening movement. 1860 November – the Convention of Beijing:  Confirmed all the terms of the treaties of Tianjin  Doubled indemnities demanded in the Treaties of Tianjin  Added Tianjin to the list of Treaty ports  Restored all Catholic property and gave churches the right to buy property and build churches in the interior  Ceded the Kowloon peninsula near Hong Kong to Britain in perpetuity 1861.Taipings at Suzhou surrender and their leaders are treacherously executed by Li Hong Zhang July 19 1864-Fall of Nanjing and end of Taiping Rebellion . 1864-Dedember 4.Emerpor Xianfeng dies and his 5 year old son takes his place.With this the Allied troops left Peking around Nov 8. Tongzhi Emperor 5 comes to power. March 1863-Panthay Rebellion. 1860. 8 man council to rule until his majority but Cixi and Gong had them killed. was a rebellion by Muslim Hui people and other non muslim ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing dynasty in Yunan province.