Notes Unlike Churchill, Attlee, Roosevelt and Truman, Stalin found it difficult to engage fully with his allies

because of the Soviet political culture. He was used to having his orders obeyed without question, he now had to negotiate post-war policies that were not always strictly in line with communist ideology. The competing ideology ensured that once the war was over. It would prove difficult to maintain a working relationship committed to world peace. Tehran Conference 1943: Military aims were put before political aims. All three wanted the unconditional surrender of Germany. USSR wanted USA and Britain to open up another front in Europe (Operation Overlord) to ease the German fighting in Russia.

Cause of the cold war – Soviet mistrust of the West, which eventually lead to the breakdown of the wartime alliance (Briggs) Stalin left the Tehran Conference with the belief that Allied forces delayed the proposed opening of a second front in Europe (Operation Overlord) to ensure that Soviets endured heavy military and civilian losses He was suspicious that the proposed landing had been delayed (although in reality, it was delayed because of the weather) Stalin felt that it was delayed to ensure that the USSR would have sustained such huge losses that it would be in no position to continue its western movement through Europe

Success: Commitment to the creation of the UN and collective security. It represented Roosevelt’s commitment to internationalism. The big five – France, Britain, China, the Soviet Union and the US formed the Security Council and learned from the mistakes of the League of Nations. E.g. they would enforce its decisions military, if necessary Employment of economic or military sanctions required the unanimous approval of the Big Five.

The Yalta Conference – the Polish issue (concerning its borders and the formation of a new Polish government) Stalin wanted the Lublin government, which included many communists and individuals sympathetic to the Soviet Union to form the basis of new government in Poland. The Lublin government had been formed after the Germans destroyed

He therefore aimed to create Soviet-style regimes in neighboring countries. Churchill got his way. To support this claim.the Warsaw government in 1944 Stalin “The Polish question is a matter of life and death for the Soviet Union” He meant that never again would a hostile force use Poland to invade the Soviet Union Churchill wanted a Free Polish government based in London to be included in the post-war administration This debate causes a rift in the relationship between Churchill and Roosevelt whose primary concern was to gain the support of the Soviets in ending the war with Japan. which would be natural allies of the USSR. 27 million died in the Soviet Union (some due to Stalin’s actions but most as a result of Nazi atrocities and battlefield casualties) Churchill said that no figures should be used as they were not aware of Germany’s financial situations and Churchill did not want to see the resurgence of German resentment as had happened after WW1 after reparations were set too high for the Germans to pay Other historians see the cold war resulting from the huge losses (human and material) that Russia suffered in WW2. Stalin was determined to prevent any further invasions of the Soviet Union from Europe. German troops destroyed 1700 cities and towns. The final agreement in the Yalta Papers called for ‘Free and unfettered elections in Poland to be organized” The Yalta Conference: February 1945 Defined unconditional surrender for Germany – temporary control of Germany by the tree major allies and France as they saw fit Germany + Berlin to be cut and divided up between the three allies and France German military power was to be dismantled and Nazi war criminals brought to trial Churchill and Roosevelt were well aware of the discrimination against the Germans in the Treaty of Versailles and the implications of this. (Counter this point with the naught document by Churchill who gave Stalin control of Romania and Bulgaria in exchange for Stalin’s promise of not interfering . In the end. Stalin did little to support the communist side in the Greek Civil War. Reparations: Soviet said that the total sum should be 20 billion with 50% for the Soviet Union. From 1945. 27 million Soviet soldiers dead and a large part of western USSR had suffered economic devastation.

General attitude of USA (and USA citizens) were “favorable” to the Soviet Union as the Secretary of State Byrnes put it. Each of the occupying force would take reparation from each zone in the form of goods and services. the political future of Poland and Soviet commitment in the war against Japan Tension arose because: Soviet constant interference in the elections of Bulgaria and Romania Lend lease loan was denied to the USSR (virtually ended on May 1945) Polish question resolved: The US would recognize the Polish government The USSR would accept the terms of the reparation. Roosevelt had promised Stalin territorial concession in Japan and China due to Russia’s support in the Pacific war. The vague wording of the secret Far Eastern agreements entered into by Roosevelt . Roosevelt recognized that Soviets had legitimate interest in Eastern Europe and the Soviets had to be accommodates if there was to be genuine cooperation between the two countries in the post-war Greece) Nevertheless. Stalin is seen as a practical politician rather than someone who wanted to spread communism throughout Europe and the world. He realized that by accommodating Stalin’s demand at Yalta might enable him to safeguard more vital US and British interests elsewhere in the globe at a lesser cost When Roosevelt died. Even Byrnes (the secretary of state) was unable to fully grasp what Roosevelt was trying to achieve Truman very inexperienced Potsdam: July-August 1945 Central issues– dismantling of German military and war industries. they would receive extra reparations from the Ruhr and the three Western zones combined The Council of Foreign Ministers: Problems in the Far East: At Yalta. Stalin did little to support the communist party in Italy and France. In recognition of the huge damages that the USSR had suffered. Truman had no idea why Roosevelt was so accommodating towards the USSR. he left no instruction to Truman.

This angered the Soviets as this violated the terms of the Yalta agreement and demanded that the Soviets receive Kuriles and Hokkaido (the northern sector of Japan) Truman compromised towards Stalin . the US directed Japanese troops to surrender to the Russians in Manchuria and Korea north of the 38th parallel only. the Soviets were also working on a smaller bomb. General Zhukov ‘The government of the USA intended to exploit the atomic weapon for the attainment of its imperialist aims from a position of strength in the Cold War. . Truman casually mentioned to Stalin that ‘we had a new weapon of mass destruction’ The Russian premier showed no interest although unbeknownst to Truman. Even Stalin acknowledged that it was easier for them to cooperate when they were fighting against a common enemy but in peacetime it would be difficult. However. The Potsdam conference tried to keep Stalin out of the Far East.gave the Soviets Kuriles but not Hokkaido This clearly revealed the mistrust between Truman and Stalin. the atomic bomb shifted the balance of power more favorably towards the US and contributed to the deteriorating relationship between the US and USSR.’ The argument that the USA used the atomic bombs to ‘blackmail’ the Soviets into agreement in Europe and the Far East has limitations The USA only had two bombs and the Soviets were aware of this and one of the atomic scientists working for the USA was also a Soviet spy Nevertheless. The Potsdam Declaration called on the Japanese to surrender unconditionally. The Atomic Dimension: Gaddis: Argued that the use of the atomic bomb against Japanese forces in August 1945 was as much a deterrent to Soviet activities in Eastern Europe and the Far East as it was a weapon to force the unconditional surrender of Japan At the Potsdam Conference. Far East after Japan’s surrender: Following Japan’s surrender. Stalin was determined to declare war on Japan and moved troops into northern China and Manchuria just two days after the use by the USA of the first atomic bomb.and Stalin presented formidable diplomatic problems for Truman.

they made their hostile intentions plain enough  They seized the German experimental submarine station in Gdynia and refused allied naval experts access to its secrets even though the Battle . His actions resembled those of Chamberlain who believed he could 'handle' Hitler  He did not believe that Stalin wanted territory  To Churchill 'You have 400 years of acquisitive instinct and you just don't understand how a country might not want to acquire land'  'I think that if I give him everything I possibly can and ask nothing from him in return. It was largely the creation of Roosevelt Other politicians (who had dealt with Stalin) opposed Roosevelt's line  Ambassador Laurence Steinhardt (in Moscow) 'My experience has been that they respond only to force' Roosevelt also bypassed Churchill whom he thought was an incorrigible old imperialist  Roosevelt letter (1942) to Churchill 'I know you will not mind me being brutally frank when I tell you that I think that I can personally handle Stalin better than either your Foreign Office or my State Department'  Extremely naive of Roosevelt.The occupation of the Kuriles by Soviet troops caused bitter protests against Truman’s actions in the Far East by conservatives in Congress who believed that Soviet occupation of the island threaten the security of the USA Notes from Paul Johnson The notion that the grand alliance was in any way altruistic had been an illusion from the start. he won't try to annex anything and will work with me for democracy and peace' Roosevelt's blindness and naivety in dealing with Stalin lead to a rift between him and Churchill  This can be seen in Tehran Conference (November 1943)  As one of the British politician summed it up "Stalin has got the President (of the US) in his pocket'  Roosevelt's attitude towards Stalin led Churchill to pursue a two pronged policy: Screw Roosevelt and bargain realistically with Stalin  Churchill went to Moscow in October 1944 'naughty document'  The naughty document was an attempt to exclude Russia from the Mediterranean at the price of giving her Romania and Bulgaria as satellites General Eisenhower (the Supreme Commander) refused to accept the salient point that the degree to which his troops penetrated into Central Europe would in fact determine the post-war map of Europe  'I would loath to hazard American lives for purely political purposes'  As the Soviets advanced.

Democracy was restored in Greece and Churchill effectively and almost single-handedly kept totalitarianism out of the Mediterranean by his vigorous policy  However.  ‘It is beyond the power of this country.of the Atlantic was still raging  Churchill wanted democracy for Europe whereas Roosevelt just did nothing and appeased Stalin (similar to Chamberlain).  Greece  ‘Naughty document’ – Churchill calculated that Greece was the only country that was possible to be saved from the clutches of communism  When Greece was pushed into a civil war. The responsibility lies with the United States’  Yalta  Roosevelt deliberately blocked Churchill’s attempt to co-ordinate AngloAmerican policy  Harriman ‘Roosevelt did not wish to feed Soviet suspicions that British and Americans would be operating in concert’  Polish Issue  Roosevelt settled for a Russian agreement to elections in which all democratic and anti-Nazi parties had a right to take part  BUT he did not backed the British demand for international supervision  He gave his typical Roosevelt-ian rhetoric – making vague commitments about a liberate Europe in which all people were free to choose their own government  Roosevelt’s aid Admiral Leahy complained that the ‘Yalta agreement was so elastic that the Russians can stretch it all the way from Yalta to Washington without even technically breaking it’  Roosevelt also promised that all American troops would be out of Europe within 2 years Potentially use in Conclusion or can use in point – the grand alliance was doomed from the beginning  The Cold War is considered to have started from March 1945 (the aftermath of the Yalta Conference) BUT could be argued that Soviet Russia had waged Cold War since October 1917 (The Bolshevik Revolution) (Paul Johnson)  It was inherent in the historical determinism of Leninism  The alliance was merely an interruption . Churchill did not have the power to save Europe for communism. Churchill worked late into the night to save Greece.

It was inevitable that Stalin would resume his hostile predation sooner or later  This can be seen when Molotov announced on the 23rd of March 1945 that the elections (in Poland) would be held Soviet-Style  Roosevelt finally realizes that ‘we can’t do business with Stalin’ but he still did nothing to encourage Eisenhower to push on rapidly towards Berlin. The Grand Alliance was a “marriage of convenience’ between states which had been mutually hostile to each other before 1941  This interpretation of events places great emphasis on the ideological differences between the Soviet communist system and the western capitalist system (Morris & Murphy)  The USSR saw itself as the defender of the world’s exploited classes against ‘Big Business’ in western capitalist countries like the USA  The USA in turn saw itself as the defender of the ‘Free World against the international ambitions of a communist dictatorship   Harry Truman as described by Paul Johnson  Not a member of the wealthy. guilt-ridden East Coast establishment  One of Roosevelt’s fashionable progressive fancies  Ignorant but he learnt fast  His instincts were democratic and straightforward  Harry Truman as described by Bragg  No experience with foreign policy  A product of the Missouri political system  He had no meetings with Roosevelt prior to Roosevelt’s death and was thus unaware of Roosevelt’s plans  Molotov-Truman talk  Truman ‘I gave it to him straight.’  Molotov ‘I have never been talked to like that in my whole life’  Truman ‘Carry out your agreements and you won’t get talked to like that’ . Vienna and Prague as the British wanted  General Montgomery ‘The Americans could not understand that it was of little avail to win the war strategically if we lost it politically’  Morris &Murphy – The Bolshevik Revolution created a new regime which program was the conversion of the whole world to communism  The international dimension of Soviet Communism meant that it was seen as a threat to non-communist states such as Britain and the USA  Therefore. I let him have it. hostility between East and West had occurred long before 1945.

Eastern Europe and most of the Balkans were lost to totalitarianism (largely due to US)  BUT. accused them of ‘terrorism’  This pattern was repeated elsewhere in Eastern Europe  Belgrade (Serbia) – anyone seen with a British or American were arrested  Bloodbath of 20 000 in Bulgaria  The imposition of a communist dictatorship in Hungary  Stalin’s action led to a change in American foreign policy  Truman made up his mind ‘I am tired of babying the Soviets’  Sent out the long telegram which was designed to arouse American citizens to the dangers of the Communist conspiracy  A fortnight later. capturing Prague was not possible + General Eisenhower was opposed to anything which ended military co-operation with the Red Army. Bragg argues that the Molotov Truman talk did not worsen the relationship between the US and USSR  Truman’s interpreter at the Molotov-Truman recorded that there was no animosity between the two premiers  Truman greeted Molotov in a warm and friendly way and stated that ‘he stood squarely behind all commitments and agreements taken by our late great President Roosevelt’  Truman did take a firm stance on Poland but there was no evidence that the meeting had even been stormy or even undiplomatic   Stalin’s greed led to the Cold War (Traditionalist view)  He arrested 16 leading non-Communist Polish politicians. the exchange did symbolize the beginning of post-war divergence that led to confrontation’  Nevertheless. American and Britain must continue their joint defense  ‘an overwhelming assurance of security’ ***Fact: The iron curtain speech was made before the Soviets had fully completed the transformation of Eastern Europe*** .Daniel Yergin ‘a stern lecture by the President of the US was hardly cause of the cold War. all wanted Soviet assistance against Japan  SO. Truman could not transform American military policy in the last days of the war. Churchill made the Cold War a public fact when he delivered his iron curtain speech under Truman’s sponsorship at the university of Fulton  Since the Russians respected military strength. It was estimated that it would cost 100 000 US casualties to take Berlin.

Conflicting ideology between the USSR and US Thesis: The inherently flawed idea of internationalism and international good will + the Yalta Conference – February 1945 April – Roosevelt dies and is replaced my Truman March 1945 – Iron Curtain speech Revisionist view – the USA was at fault as well (Historian: William Williams) These historians interpretation of events were givens support by President Truman’s recollection of the years after 1945 in his memoirs America’s chief aim in the years after WWII was ensure an "open door" for American trade in Europe and as many places in the world as possible. To prevent this.This changed when Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Truman. Truman must take personal responsibility for the breakdown in US-Soviet relations .There were important economic advantages for the USA in starting a cold war. that would keep nations capitalist like the USA. The USA refused to compromise on this vision. the US government hoped to keep high levels of military and government expenditure. This led the U. both diplomatic and military. Truman had an abrasive and direct style when dealing with representatives of the Soviet government such as Molotov .Gar Alperovitz in Atomic Diplomacy believed that the USA contributed to the start of the Cold War because of Truman’s use of atomic diplomacy .Stalin’s expansionist aims (and greed) .During the presidency of Roosevelt.Roosevelt’s policy . government towards policies. relations between the USA and USSR were kept on a reasonably friendly level .As a result.S. USA at fault – Paul Johnson (USA just wanted to appease Stalin) Appleman in Tragedy of American Diplomacy claimed that the USA was responsible for the war because .The Long Telegram suggested that the only way to prevent Soviet growth was openly to prevent further Soviet aggression. US feared a depression once WW2 was over. . (Traditionalist view) Causes for the Cold War .

Although the Soviet Union lost nearly 20 million of its population. It was compounded by a deep-seated ideological tension between capitalist democracy and MarxistLeninist communism that dated back to the Bolshevik revolution of 1917. France and Italy also suffered economically. In such a situation. The British Empire was in rapid decline as a world power’ From Palmer Use this point to back up the fact that there was no chance of the Grand Alliance being retained after the war. a diplomatic equilibrium is more difficult to sustain. The cold war was inevitable USSR and USA no longer had a common enemy + After the war. it was still a formidable military power with 4 million soldiers and in control of populations and territories in central and Eastern Europe (well beyond it’s pre-1939 boundaries) The characteristic of a two state system is that each power knows in advanced how dangerous the enemy can be. Although Britain tried to play an active role in European affairs after 1945. USA and USSR fell into this uneasy relationship after the war. by 1947 it was clear that Britain was too weak.John Lewis Gaddis – plays down America’s role in starting the cold war Britain and France crippled by the war and USA was forced to take a more active part in the war. Each measure taken by one country for security is seen by the other as a sign of aggression. While it is not possible for anyone to know what Stalin (who dictated all decisions) . The conflicting ideology meant that the two superpowers were in a constant state of competition. only USA and USSR were the only two remaining superpowers with the other countries crippled by the war. The British decision to stop aiding Greece and Turkey in that year demonstrates this point Marshall Plan should not be seen just as move by America to keep high levels of military spending but rather as a real attempt by the USA to help post-war reconstruction Derrick Murphy ‘Germany and Japan had been defeated and had suffered considerable economic damage.

to “contain” this offensive. British.really believed or intended at the end of the second world war. and Russians had jointly occupied Iran during the war to forestall a Nazi takeover. occupation meant full control over the political. It was therefore the responsibility of the United States. Conflicting ideology: For the Soviet Union. R. BASICALLY To the USA. as the only power in the West able to act effectively. but the Soviets refused to evacuate their troops at the stipulated time and pressed for oil concessions . economic and social institution of a country and shape it in their image whereas the Western powers hoped for pluralist and democratic societies which would have been opened to western trade and influence. they took steps to consolidate their occupation zone into a communist government. The Russians undoubtedly saw an opportunity to consolidate their hold over territories gained during the war (or regained since some of these had been lost at the end of the First World War) President Truman became convinced that the Soviets were bent not only on consolidating their grip on Eastern Europe but were also embarking on a worldwide Communist offensive. Iran: The Americans.R Palmer believed that they were disturbed by the goals of American capitalism which sought markets in Eastern Europe and the American’s possession/use of the atomic bomb. once they occupied the northern part of Japan. However. the Soviet control of Eastern Europe seemed like the first step in a plan for unlimited expansion in Europe (not like the Nazi and Fascist aggression of the 1930s) whereas Stalin may have been acting more as a Russia nationalist bent on protecting Russian national security than a champion of worldwide Communist revolution *** BUT *** His stubbornness and paranoia about capitalist encirclement and lack of concern for world public opinion made it difficult for the west to deal with him in the Cold War or to distinguish between what might have been legitimate Soviet security needs and expansionist missionary zeal Evidence of this: At the Yalta conference. it was agreed that the Soviets could occupy the Northern part of Japan (Kuriles see above).

in turn. fearful of an American relapse into isolationism. undertook to become a nuclear power on their own. This would require the body to have the right to send inspectors into any country to check violations and enforce sanctions. The US proposed in 1946 that an international authority should control atomic energy. The Soviets objected. as the idea of foreigners freely examining their society was repugnant to them. They questioned the good faith of the Americans who would not destroy their own atomic bombs The British. It was based on mutual distrust and opposing ideology between all three parties. The plan for international control foundered on mutual suspicion and mistrust .The failure of the international supervision of nuclear weapons demonstrates why the Grand Alliance was inherently flawed.

Stalin was viewed as a totalitarian leader who imposed fear and terror on the population of the Soviet Union. USSR wanted the Lublin government to remain in power in Poland citing the huge losses sustained by them in the war and the fact that Poland bordered on Russia and could be used as a launching pad for an attack. The alliance was destined to fail. They did not want to set reparations too high as this would lead to German resenting the allies and potentially another war. The agreement was made in secret and the wording was very made which made it difficult for Truman to negotiate with the USSR. Even during the war. Russia wanted 20 billion in reparations whereas Churchill and Roosevelt were well aware that discrimination against Germans in the Treaty of Versailles lead to the WW2. Roosevelt (USA) also wanted to work with Stalin but Churchill did not trust him. both the US and the Soviet Union sought to exert their ideological beliefs from the very start (through economic and strategic policies in Europe. The Polish Issue raised in the Yalta Conference caused a rift in USA-USSR relations. Roosevelt also promised Stalin territorial concession in Japan and China to Stalin if Russia joined the war in the Pacific. Truman had to handle an agreement (that was secret) not made by him – it was a huge mess. The allies also disagreed over reparations.Was the alliance destined to fail? Yes. This created major divisions within the wartime alliance after 1945. Roosevelt recognized that Soviets had legitimate interest in Eastern Europe and the Soviets had to be accommodates if there was to be genuine cooperation . Which event revealed that the alliance was going to fail? `The Yalta Conference brought up many problems that highlighted the tension between the superpower and it also demonstrated that there was no way that USA and USSR could work together because of their ideological differences. Even Stalin admitted that it was easier to cooperate when they were fighting Germany than during peacetime. Roosevelt and Churchill had their differences over colonialism and free trade. a rift was already growing between the wartime allies. Roosevelt called for unfettered elections and got his way.

He did not understand why the USA was so concerned about Eastern Europe when it had no strategic concern there. he now had to negotiate post-war policies that were not always strictly in line with communist ideology. .between the two countries in the post-war era. Unlike Churchill. he left no instruction to Truman. Stalin found it difficult to engage fully with his allies because of the Soviet political culture. The competing ideology ensured that once the war was over. Truman had no idea why Roosevelt was so accommodating towards the USSR. He could not get his head around basing foreign policy on collective goodwill or the importance of morality in foreign policy. He was used to having his orders obeyed without question. Stalin conducted his foreign policy based on territory. He realized that by accommodating Stalin’s demand at Yalta might enable him to safeguard more vital US and British interests elsewhere in the globe at a lesser cost When Roosevelt died. He was only willing to discuss spheres of interest or economic assistance for communist countries. Roosevelt and Truman. Negotiations between the USA and USSR were doomed to fail because of their differences. It would prove difficult to maintain a working relationship committed to world peace. Attlee. Even Byrnes (the secretary of state) was unable to fully grasp what Roosevelt was trying to achieve Who/what is to blame for the Cold War The ideological differences between USA and USSR were the main reason for the Cold War.