Cytotoxic activity of fucoidans from Philippine Sargassum sp.

against colon cancer: an in vitro study
University of the Philippines Manila - College of Medicine Cubias JG, Coronel IJ, Cruz A, Cruz EJ, Cruz EM, Cruz P, Cua LJ, David KJ, De Castro L, De Jesus AV, De Jesus CF, De Leon RC, De Pano J, Del Barrio LA, Dela Fuente AL, Dela Paz GA, Diaz JK, Dominguez M, Dulawan JA, Dulnuan HG, Dumaoang OJ

Background: Fucoidans are brown macroalgae-derived sulfated polysaccharides which have shown antiangiogenic, pro-apoptotic and cytotoxic potential against a wide array of cancer cell lines. Philippine variants of brown seaweeds, however, have not been explored yet regarding the therapeutic value of their fucoidans. This study aims to determine the cytotoxic effects of the fucoidans obtained from local Sargassumagainst HCT-116 (colon) cancer and AA8(normal) celllines. Methodology: Sargassum was harvested from Surigao City in Mindanao. Fucoidans were extracted from the samples via a series of hexane dissolution, freeze-drying and dialysis. Obtained extracts were submitted for characterization through a Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the transmittance versus wavelength plot was analyzed. For the MTT-Assay, both the HCT-116 and AA8 cell lines were treated with four twofold dilutions of the fucoidans with a maximum dose of 400ug/mL. Doxorubicin was used as positive control while the solvent, DMSO was the negative control. After 72 hours incubation, the cells were subjected to a spectrophotometer to measure the reduction of MTT to formazan salt in order to quantify the remaining viable cells. The concentration required to half the cells, IC50, was then determined. Results and Discussion: FTIR: The transmittance versus wavelength plot revealed peaks of absorbance coincident with the fucus standard, suggesting that the obtained extract contained fucoidans. MTT Assay: The fucoidans exhibited cytotoxic activity against HCT-116, with the best IC50 seen at 86.06 ug/mL. Most potent IC50 against AA8 was observed at 124.99 ug/mL. The positive control, doxorubicin, had an IC50 of 2.25 ug/mL against HCT-116 and 2.47ug/mL against AA8. Conclusion and Recommendations: The fucoidans extracted from local Sargassum showed cytotoxic activity against HCT-116 (colon cancer) cells in vitro. The half inhibitory dose for AA8 (normal) cells were 45.2% higher than the IC50 for HCT-116.It is recommended to isolate the active compound in the fucoidan extract and to conduct trials in vivo to further assess the toxicity and therapeutic value of local fucoidans against cancer.