HISTORY OF BUDDHISM IN NASHIK

(BASED ON THE INSCRIPTIONS AT TRIRASHMI BUDDHIST CAVES) Introduction: Inscriptions h !" #$ %s &""n #oo'"( )pon s th" con*ir+ tor% so)rc" o* histor%, +or" so in +)#ti-c)#t)r"( co)ntr% #i'" In(i . Th"s" inscriptions r"pr"s"nt th" histor% o* th"ir p"rio( n( h"#p histori ns n( # %+"n to )n("rst n( th" soci #/ po#itic #/ n( r"#i0io)s histor% o* th" p st. N shi' h s &""n r"cor("( s on" o* th" nci"nt citi"s o* In(i . Th" inscriptions s""n on th" Trir sh+i C !"s ( tiranhu in Br +hi script n( Pr 'rit-P #i # n0) 0") sh"( #i0ht on th" po#itic # histor% s $"## s th" contri&)tion o* ! rio)s 'in0s n( # %+"n to B)((his+ in N shi'. History: M h r shtr h s &""n r"0ion o* 0r" t nti1)it%. Th" c)#t)r # histor% o* M h r shtr c nnot &" co+p#"t" $itho)t th" c !"s/ hemadpanthi t"+p#"s n( *orts. Th" c !"s in In(i $"r" *irst c r!"( o)t in th" B r & r +o)nt ins o* Bih r, ho$"!"r $ithin c"nt)r% this conc"pt spr" ( cross M h r shtr n( to( % M h r shtr &o sts o* n" r#% 23 4 c !"s o* In(i or ppro5. 233 o(( c !"s. On" o* th" + 6or r" sons *or so # r0" nos. o* c !"s pr"s"nt in M h r shtr is ()" to th" pr"s"nc" o* & s #t roc' n( h r( &# c' roc' +o)nt ins *or+"( ()" to !o#c nic "r)ptions. Th"s" n t)r # con(itions * !or"( roc' rchit"ct)r". As p"r th" Vin % / th" +on's $"r" s)ppos"( to st % $ % *ro+ th" # %+"n in p" c"*)# "n!iron+"nt, so+" n t)r # c !"s &"c +" th" &"st option. Th)s c !" rchit"ct)r" *#o)rish"( in M h r shtr s " r#% s 7r( c"nt. B.C. n( contin)"( ti## 8933 A.D. Th"s" c !"s $"r" &)i#t c#os" to th" tr (" ro)t" $hich o**"r"( +on's th" r"1)ir"( h"#p in t"r+s o* (on tions *or th" +on st"r%. Sinc" th" tr (" "nrich"( th" St t" n( #oc #s/ th"% too $"r" in*#)"nc"( to h"#p th" +on st"r%. Nashik Caves: B s"( on th" st%#" o* rchit"ct)r" n( not tions n( st%#" o* inscriptions/ r"s" rch"r n( scho# r - S.N 0 r 6) st t"s th t th" N shi' c !"s ( t"(

C. . Th" inscriptions o* N shi' n( N n"0h t r" th" o#("st inscriptions o* S t ! h n s n( sh"( #i0ht on th" p"rio(icit% o* th"ir r)#". Th" histor% o* S t ! h n s is ("pict"( &% th" ! rio)s inscriptions th t h !" &""n c r!"(. Th" S t ! h n (%n st% $ s po$"r*)# n( r)#"( o!"r this r"0ion *or th" #on0"st p"rio( o* n" r#% :33 %" rs. B)h#"r/ Bh 0$ n# # In("r6i n( S"n rt h !" r" ( n( tr ns# t"( this inscription n( ( t"( it to 9n( c"nt.i N shi' $ s n i+port nt cit% on th" ro ( *ro+ P ith n to S)pp r' (Sop r ) n( h"nc" *or+"( r"stin0 p# c" *or th" +"rch nts.< inscriptions o* S t ! h n s r" s""n in M h r shtr .&"t$""n 9n( c"nt.th" ("sc"n( nt o* th" S t ! h n s/ Kin0 Krishn (or("r"() N shi'=s mahamatra S + n to ("si0n this c !">. >?. V rio)s inscriptions s""n on th" Trir sh+i C !"s sho$s th t th" r)#"rs/ +"rch nts s $"## s # %+"n h"#p"( &)i#( th" c !"s. N" r#% . B. Satavahana period Inscriptions: Th" S t ! h n s $ s th" " r#i"st 'no$n (%n st% o* M h r shtr . Th" inscriptions s""n in th" Trir sh+i c !"s r" $ritt"n in North"rn n( So)th"rn Br +hi script n( th" # n0) 0" is Pr 'rit n( P #i. Tho)0h th" Asho' n inscriptions +"ntion M h r tth s r"0ion/ %"t !"r% #itt#" is 'no$n o* its r)#"rs.D.ii Th" inscription st t"s th t/ saadvaahnakulao knho raijanaI samaNaona mahamaatoNa naaisakona laoNa kairt i. Th" 9 + 6or 'in0s $ho * !or"( B)((his+ $"r" S t ! h n n( th" Ksh tr p s.". B. On" o* th" o#("st inscriptions &"#on0 to N shi'=s Trir sh+i c !"s s s""n in C !" no. This sho$s th t N shi' $ s )n("r th" r)#" o* S t ! h n 'in0s n( th t th"% * !or"( B)((his+.8: in 9 #in"s on th" ri0ht si(" $in(o$.C to 7r( c"nt A.

82)/ inscriptions r" !"rtic ##% $ritt"n on th" 9 pi## rs sit) t"( on th" ri0ht h n( si(". S t' rni h ( (on t"( * r+# n( o* >' 'h (i> !i## 0" to th" +on's #i!in0 t Trir sh+i c !"s. Anoth"r inscription o* S t ! h n s c n &" s""n in C !" no. Fro+ (p# c") Ch #isi# n/ th" 'in0=s +inist"r Arh # % =s ( )0ht"r n( th" 0r n(-( )0ht"r o* M h h ')siri . Th" script is nci"nt Br +hi $ith Pr 'rit P #i # n0) 0".Bh tp #i' $ho is th" $i*" o* th" +inist"r o* stor"s A0i% t n ' n( +oth"r o* K p nn ' co+p#"t"( this Trir sh+i c !". This is on" o* th" &i00"st inscriptions o* 88 s"nt"nc"s.iii "rayaamaca Arhlayasa cailasaIlaNaksa duhutuya mahahkuisa ir…ya BaTpailakaya rayaamacasa AigayatNaksa BaMDakairk yasa Baairyaaya kpNaNakmaatuya caoityaGarM itrNhuima inazpaipt" i. Th" inscription cont in n)+"ric # #i'" 9/ :/ 83/ 93 n( 833. F)rth"r it in*or+s )s th t this c !" $ s (on t"( &% @)""n A )t +i B # shri n( on th" 8Bth thron" cc"ssion nni!"rs r%/ h"r 0r n(son -Kin0 P)#)+ %i/ son o* A )t +ip)tr S t' rni (on t"( !i## 0" >Pis chip ( '> (to th" so)th-$"st o* th" c !"s)to th" +on's *or prop"r + int"n nc" o* this c !" in r"sp"ct to his * th"r n( 0r n(-+oth"r.In th" ch it% (c !" no. This or("r s""+s to &" !"r& ##% 0i!"n .". Th" !"r n( h o* c !" 7 h s inscriptions o* A )t +ip)tr S t' rni.7 on th" $ ## &o!" th" (oor. i! Th" inscription ("scri&"s th" co)r 0"/ po$"r n( (+inistr tion c p &i#it% o* S t' rni. Th" inscription ("t i#s th" or("r 0i!"n &% S t' rni to his +inist"r n +"( S + ' $ho $ s & s"( t Ao! r(h n. ho$"!"r this * r+# n( (i( not %i"#( n% crops n( h"nc" S + ' $ s or("r"( to (on t" p rt o* th" Kin0=s # n( sit) t"( on th" &or("rs o* Ao! r(h n to th" +on's.

" on th" 9:th %" r/ ! rsh p 'sh :th n( <th ( %/ th" 'in0 0 !" th" or("r n( in th" s +" %" r th" or("r $ s c rri"( o)t. vaasaana pKo 4. This (on tion $ s 0i!"n &% S t' rni *t"r his !ictor% o!"r Ksh tr p N h p n . Th" ( t" +"ntion"( in this inscription is i+port nt sinc" it r"cor(s th t ti## th" 82th %" r o* cc"ssion to th" thron" &% S t' rni/ N shi' $ s not )n("r his contro#.7/ : #in"s r" inscri&"( $hich st t"s th t P)#)+ %i (on t"( !i## 0" n +"( Sh +#ip (r inst" ( o* " r#i"r S)( rsh n !i## 0" to th" +on's o* B"n ' t ' r"si(in0 in Trir sh+i c !"s. It is $orth +"ntionin0 h"r" th t B"n ' t $ s * +o)s B)((hist c"ntr" s s""n *ro+ th" "5c ! tion t P )ni in Bh n( r (istrict !.&% th" 'in0 n( $ritt"n &% his + i( s"r! nt n +"( >#ot > n( inscri&"( &% S)6i!in . idvasao 10 i. This inscription st t"s th t S t' rni or("r"( Vishn)p #it # to (on t" 933cr" !i## 0" to th" B)((hist +on's r"si(in0 t Trir sh+i +o)nt in n( to + '" this !i## 0" *r"" *ro+ ## t 5"s. In th" s +" inscription/ th" 7r( #in" st t"s - itrNhuimh Amh amadanao eqa Amhoih pvato !aoNao"" >on th" Trir sh+i +o)nt ins/ th" +on's st %in0 in o)r c !"s> $hich is not"$orth% sinc" it ("picts th" 0"n)in" int"r"st o* S t' rni in th" +on's n( his ("!otion to th" c !"s. On th" s +" !"r n( h/ on th" roo* o* c !" no. idvasao pcamao 5. Th" inscription r" (s s *o##o$sC savaCro 20 4. . sauijaivanaa kTa savaCro 20 4.7/ th"r" r" D #in"s inscri&"( *o##o$"( &% >swastika" n( th"n th" r"+ inin0 . On th" !"r n( h o* C !" no. #in"s r" $ritt"n. igamhaNa pKo 2. This is n int"r"stin0 r"cor(in0 $hich con*ir+s th t th" +on's r"si(in0 t Trir sh+i c !"s c +" *ro+ B"n ' t r"0ion on th" & n's o* V in0 n0 ri!"r.

83 in th" !"r n( h.Western Kshatrapas Inscriptions: Th" Ksh tr p s r)#"( o!"r th" north"rn p rt n( h ( contro# o!"r th" pr"s"nt r"0ion o* A)6 r t/ Kon' n/ M (h% Pr ("sh/ M #$ n( R 6p)t n .97/ th"r" is n inco+p#"t" c !" $ith inscriptions o* : #in"s.+"ntion o* *i0)r"s in tho)s n(s/ +"ntion o* > va#a$> (%" r) inst" ( o* >sava%&sar> n( th" inscriptions r" $ritt"n in 7 %" rs p"rio( .83/ th"r" is inscription o* D 'sh +itr / $i*" o* Rish &h ( tt . It st t"s th t !i n isa aM! ra"ao #ahratsa #a$psa nahpna sa dIihtu dInaIkpu$sa %&avadatsa kDuMi'ainaya doya aMmaM Aaovarkao +" nin0 > #"rtF/ Kin0 'sh h r t Ksh tr p N h p n =s ( )0ht"r n( Dini' =s son Rish &h( tt=s $i*" . Ksh tr p N h p n =s son-in# $ n( Dini' =s son Rish &h( tt (on t"( this c !" n( *or + int"n nc" n( $"## &"in0 o* th" +on's ("posit"( 7333 ' rsh p n s (0o#( coin) $ith th" #oc # +"rch nt. Th" inscriptions c #c)# t"( th" int"r"st !"r% +in)t"#% n( "!"n +"ntion"( its (is&)rs"+"nt. Th" inscriptions o* th" Ksh tr p Rish &h( tt r" s""n in C !" no. Th" sp"ci # *" t)r"s r" .:8/ :9 E :<. This inscription is i+port nt sinc" it +"ntions th" (on tion *ro+ d(ima$aya . Opposit" to c !" no.D 'sh +itr (on t"( this roo+ to th" +on's> Anoth"r inscription o* Ksh tr p N h p n on C !" 83 on th" !"r n( h $hich is on" o* th" # r0"st inscriptions st t"s th t Rish &h( tt or("r"( p)rch s" o* * r+ on " st"rn Ao! r(h n (N shi') *or :333 ' rsh p n s n( (on t"( th" pro()c" (* r+) to ## th" +on's st %in0 in th" cit%. On th" "ntr nc" &o!" ri0ht si(" roo+ o* C !" no. Th" inscription st t"s th t in 'ako 42. Th" inscription is o* D #in"s $ritt"n in Br +hi script n( Pr 'rit # n0) 0".

Th" inscriptions in ! rio)s c !"s sho$ th" ("!"#op+"nt in $ritin0 s'i##s. Style of Inscriptions: Th" st%#" o* th" inscriptions c#" r#% ("picts th" $ritin0 s'i##s n( its ("!"#op+"nt. Th" inscriptions +"ntion th" historic # & c'0ro)n( o* &oth th" Kin0s n( th"ir chi"!"+"nts. Th" # t"r on *onts/ siG" n( st%#" o* ! rio)s inscriptions c n &" t"r+"( s c# ssic. This is !"r% int"r"stin0 *or th" * ct th t th" Trir sh+i c !"s not on#% r"c"i!"( (on tions *ro+ th" 'in0s/ &)t "!"n *ro+ # %+"n sinc" th"% consi("r"( it s no&#" (""(. Th" S t ! h n s inscriptions o* # t"r st 0"s sho$ c ##i0r phic st%#" Br +hi $ith c#os"#% h"#( #"tt"rs. Th"ir r)#"/ th"ir (on tions to th" Trir sh+i c !"s is . Th" #ph &"ts r" not !"r% sh rp/ th" s)r* c" is ro)0h n( th" #"tt"rs/ tho)0h c)n"i*or+ r" not in )ni*or+ siG". Th" Ksh tr p s inscriptions h !" &o#( inscriptions n( th" #"tt"rs r" pro+in"nt n( sp cio)s. Th" initi # inscriptions o* th" S t ! h n s s""n in th" ch it% o* N shi'=s Trir sh+i c !"s ("pict th" " r#% *or+ o* $ritin0. It st t"s th t - isa aM! r"ao vaaisaizputsa saaimaisairpulau maa)sa saMva*ro + homaMta p(o . This sho$s th t $ritin0 s'i##s $ s not *)##% ("!"#op"( n( + r's th" "ntr% o* inscriptions in M h r shtr .* r+"r. Th" #ph &"ts r" +or" pro+in"nt/ sh rp n( )ni*or+. Anoth"r inscription sho$s th t th" $"## n" r c !" 83 is (on t"( &% th" A&hirs $ho h ( &ri"* contro# o!"r N shi'.itya puvaaya kuTMui'akoNa aNamaoNa )Na kairtM sah maata iptuih sah BaigaNao +" nin0 th t ()rin0 th" "r o* Kin0 P)#)+ %i/ * r+"r n +"( Dh n + (on t"( this c !" in +"+or% o* his p r"nts n( sist"r. idsao .

A-II References: . Conclusion: Th)s it c n &" s""n *ro+ th" inscriptions t Trir sh+i c !"s o* N shi' th t ()rin0 th" <33 %" rs o* &)i#(in0 th"s" c !"s/ &oth th"s" 'in0s not on#% * !or"( B)((his+/ &)t $"nt o)t to "ns)r" th t th" +on's $"r" not tro)&#"( &% +o!in0 ro)n( "ith"r *or #+s/ +"(icin" or *or chivaras (c#oth $orn &% +on's). O)t o* th" 97 inscriptions s""n/ 8. ho$"!"r &oth $"r" !"r% 0"n"ro)s in h"#pin0 th" B)((hist +on's. This co)#( &" ()" to th" # r0" spr" ( pr"s"nc" o* B)((his+ o!"r th" "ntir" contin"nt n( 1)it" n t)r ##%/ th" Kin0s *"#t th t it $ s th"ir ()t% to h"#p B)((hist +on's in "!"r% possi&#" $ %. &"#on0 to th" 'in0s n( th" & # nc" D inscriptions +"ntion (on tion &% th" +"rch nts n( # %+"n. This is s""n *ro+ th" ("posit '"pt &% Ksh tr p N h p n $ith th" #oc # +"rch nts. Tho)0h th" S t! h n s n( Ksh tr p s h ( "n0 0"( in $ r o!"r t"rritor% n( " ch h ( th"ir t)rn to r)#" N shi'. This 0"n"ro)s h"#p *ro+ th" 'in0s h"#p"( th" +on's to pr ctic" in p" c" n( spr" ( th" i(" #s o* B)((his+. At)# Bhos"' r M. Th" @)""ns too *"#t it no&#" (""( to (on t" roo+ or (on tion to th" Sangha.hi0h#i0ht"( n( th"ir chi"!"+"nts r" r"cor("(.

937 S"n rt . I)("rs no.I)("rs .no.88:: H.V.I)("rs .B)((hist Archit"ct)r" o* H"st"rn In(i / 8B28/ p0.887: ii iii i! ! !i . p0.789 H.I)("rs .B8 H.N 0 r 6) .no.no. 2.88:8.2/ p0.2.8897.D3 V.Epi0r phic In(ic .Iist o* Br h+i Inscriptions.S nsho(h n M)'t $ #i. !o#. !o#.Iist o* Br h+i Inscriptions. Epi0r phi in(ic .Iist o* Br h+i Inscriptions. !o#.i S. Epi0r phi in(ic .Mir shi .2/ p0.