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EXPLANATION, ANALYSIS, ARGUMENT [EAA] USE OF EXAMPLES USE OF TERMINOLOGY TOTAL Q1A MARKS OVERALL A2 GRADE BOUNDARIES: A = 80%+, B = 70-79, C = 60-69, D = 50-59, E = 40-49, U = 0-39
MARKSCHEME: Level 3 (C/B)
Explanation/analysis/argument (6-7 marks) Candidates demonstrate the ability to relate their own creative outcomes to some ideas about [MANGeR topic] drawn from media theory. Use of examples (6-7 marks) Some relevant and convincing examples from the production are offered and these are handled proficiently. Use of terminology (3 marks) The answer makes proficient use of conceptual language. Relatively straightforward ideas have been expressed with some clarity and fluency. Arguments are generally relevant, though may stray from the point of the question. There will be some errors of spelling, Level 4 (A/A*) Explanation/analysis/argument (8-10 marks) Candidates demonstrate a clear understanding of [MANGeR topic] and can relate concepts articulately to the production outcome, describing specific elements in relation to theoretical ideas about how media texts are produced, distributed and exchanged according to generic categories. Use of examples (8-10 marks) Candidates offer a broad range of specific, relevant, interesting and clear examples of how their product can be understood in relation to theories of [MANGeR topic]. Use of terminology (4-5 marks) The use of conceptual language is excellent. Complex issues have been expressed clearly and fluently using a style of writing appropriate to the complex subject matter. Sentences and paragraphs, consistently relevant, have been well structured, using appropriate technical terminology. There may be few, if any, errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar.
10/25 10/25 5/25 25
0-19 20-29 30-39 40-50
TOTAL SECTION A (Q1A + Q1B) MARKS: 50 (ie double mark /25; for rough grade x4)
LEVEL 1 = U LEVEL 2 = E/D LEVEL 3 = C/B LEVEL 4 = A/A*
MANGeR: Media language; Audience; Narrative; Genre; Representation
Use these examples to gain a better understanding of what type of points you should be using, how to structure your response, the range of points to raise, etc.
NB: the question wording is standardised; the only thing that (might!) change is which of the MANGeR areas your essay is on
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The sample answers below include E+, C, B and A/A* (with one full marks example). These are the examples the exam board have provided as of April 2014.
JAN 2010 Q1B: REPRESENTATION
1 example of E+ from Jan 2010; you can find other U-grade egs on OCR site.
Analyse one of your coursework productions in relation to the concept of representation.
Jan 2010 AS Mag EG: L2 (E+)
For my Foundation Portfolio, I decided to create a much magazine which be based and be about „UK Grime music.‟ I originally decided to do this because having done market research into music magazines distributed in the mass market, I found and felt that there was a gap in the market, and that gap was „UK Grime‟. The market research I had conducted, was in regard to type of magazines on available in mass markets retailers such as WHSmith and Sainsbury‟s. „UK Grime‟ is a genre of music closely related to Hip-Hop and UK Garage. Moreover, the genre of music tends to be only popular with teenagers and young adults in their twenties. Therefore, I felt that this was the target market to which I needed my product to appeal to in order for it to be deemed successful. In order for me to achieve this, I had to create a product which my target audience could relate to and consider purchasing. Therefore, I needed to create a representation for my product, a representation which my audience would understand and relate to. Taking this into consideration. I was aware that „UK Grime‟ was very much originated from inner-city urban areas of the UK and therefore was very much like HopHop/Rap music in the US, in that they both had strong connotations with streaat-life and mise-en-scene such as young people who wore hoodies, microphones, Disco Jockey sets, dark clothes with brands such as Nike being commonly worn such as the attire worn by popular Grime artists such as Roll Deep. Moveover, there are other more negative connotations such as inner-city crime. I felt in order to create a successful media product. I had to make sure my magazine brought these connotations too in order for my product to be defined as a Grime magazine and appeal and relate to my target market. For my magazine, I decided to feature one “up and coming” grime artist „Grime kid‟, similar to the way established magazines such as NME and Rolling Stone feature up and coming artists in order to appear innovative and „cutting-edge‟. I decided to apply this successful convention to my magazine. And on the front cover, I decided to have a full-length image of him similar to the way other established magazine have done. In order to create the right representation, I created an image where „Grime kid‟ dressed up in a Nike track suit, with a hood up appeared to be climbing inside a window frame (although its unclear who the window frame belongs to i.e he maybe breaking the law by breaking and entering or simply climbing inside a window.) The idea that my artist maybe breaking the law may bring the connotations of an inner city kid breaking the law which may be appeal or familiar to my target audience similar to the way popular Rap Star 50 Cent is pictured posing with a gun on his front cover. Moreover, the mise-en-scene of the character with his „hood up‟ acting almost as a signifier to my target audience that this artist is very much a „Grime Artist‟ and very much has the same attributes / characteristics as other popular Grime Artists such as Dizzee Rascal and Kano who have already been successful and established enough to appeal to my target audience and target market. Moreover, I‟ve tried to create a representation like this throughout the magazine such as the interview done in my double-page spread where I my artist uses a dialect similar to that in inner-city London and shared by popular Grime Artists such as Kano, Wiley and Chipmunk. EAA 5, EG 5, T 2 (12 = E+) EXAMINER COMMENT: ‘a description of the product in the main with limited theoretical analysis utilising the concept at stake.’
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JUNE 2010 Q1B: GENRE
3 examples of C-A range from June 2011, 2 teaser trailer 1 music vid. NB: this includes a FULL MARKS example
EXAM BOARD COMMENTARY: Stronger answers to this question were able to do three things well. Firstly, they set up the concept of genre for discussion, with reference to writing on the subject from the likes of Altman, Buckingham, Buscombe, Neale, McQuail, Stam, Boardwell, Miller, Goodwin or in some cases, with varying relevance, Propp and Todorov, Mulvey and Barthes, Strauss and Saussure. Level 4 answers generally offered references to writing about the particular genre in question as well as the more general work. Secondly, these higher-marked answers went on to apply these ideas to a range of specific elements of their own chosen production. And thirdly, the extent to which the ideas in the referenced writing fit with the product being analysed would be discussed. Mid-range answers would more straightforwardly list generic elements of the work with less reference to theoretical material. Lower level answers would neglect theories of genre altogether and/or lack specific examples. To what extent the production in question adhered to or challenged genre conventions is, at least, required in order for Candidates to be credited for both understanding and applying the concept. An alternative approach is to deal with more institutional aspects of the workings of genre and format. Many answers dealt with narrative theory which is, of course, appropriate – as it is so closely linked to genre – providing Candidates explicitly make this connection for the examiner, so it does not have to be inferred in the marking. Clearly, to prepare for all the concepts which may arise in the exam and then to condense understanding and application into thirty minutes of writing is challenging.
June 2010 teaser: L3 (C)
For my A2 production (Advanced Portfolio) I created a teaser trailer in the sub-genre of slasher from the genre of Horror. The synopsis of this teaser trailer is about a young couple (roughly 17-19 years of age) who are in love in the beginning but the relationship turns sore and they split up, the girls moves on with her life and the boy doesn‟t like this and starts to follow her; The girl starts tutoring a guy in her class who is struggling but who is a complete binary opposition to her ex-boyfriend in the sense that he is a bit of a geeky character and her ex-boyfriend is a Jock (both of these characters you will find stereotypically in horror films) one by one the girls friends keep disappearing or are murdered and the suspision lies in the hands of the ex-boyfriend due to spite. But the question is does he really love her enough to not kill her? Throughout the trailer the audience thinks the ex-boyfriend si the killer but actually as it turns out it‟s the geeky boy who has become very obsessive over the girl and wants her to himself. The characters in this production are all very stereotypical of what you would find in an American „slasher/horro‟ film. The two main female protagonists are „Carie‟ and „Hannah‟ Carie is your stereotypical „final girl‟ which you would find in of not all, most horror films, this character is always brunette and seen to be „innocent‟ we used this key code and convention of the genre horror from the film „Halloween‟ staring „Jamie Lee Curtis‟, As she is the „final girl‟, she has brunette hair, the same as „Catie‟ and she also wears the coulor blue as throughout our production „Catie‟ is seen wearing the colour blue. For „Hannah‟ she is our stereotypical „scream queen‟ we looked at a film called „Hell Night‟ and from seeing this their „scream queen‟ was wearing red, had red lipstick and had blonde hair, we chose our character of „hannah‟ specifically so that she would have blonde hair and we also dressed her in a red costume and put red lipstick on her for her makeup. These two characters are complete binary opposites and are juxtaposed together. From our research into „Horror‟ teaser trailers we found that a common code and convention was a fast montage so we created a fast montage of all the killings throughout the film, however we also found that
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„slasher‟ films portrayed someone else as the killer so that the audience don‟t actually know who the killer is, or the suspect that the wrong person until is revealed at the end of the film; this is strereotypically done in horror films to create tension, suspense and even a narrative enigma. On some shots of the killings eg. When the killer is following „Abby‟ one the girls friends down into an underground tunnel, you have a point of view shot in the perspective of the killer walking behind Abby with the view of her back, we also tried to create yellow tinted lighting, using colour filters as we also found that this was a common code and convention of „horror‟ also with the colour blue. Through using these different lighting effects I have tried to anchor the preffered reading so the audience can tell what the genre of the film would be but also to connote that something bad is about to happen to that specific character. There were many more signifiers throughout our media production that would have signified the genre to the audience however it was difficult with having to create a piece that lasted between 60-90 seconds and due to the fact that we are young film makers we don‟t have big Hollywood film funding budgets. We only have small budgets to go on make-up and costumes. Had we had larger budgets though we would have been able to create a production a lot better. So there were limitations which could have had an effect on the genre. EAA 6, EG 7, T 3 (16 = C)
June 2010 MVid (VIXENS): L3/4 borderline (A/B)
1b) Analyse one of your coursework productions in relation to genre. Genre is often used as a way of distinguishing one style from another; it categorises works so that the audience can more easily choose what they want to experience. For my music video, the genre of our music was a hybrid of electropop/rock/dance, which come mostly from the original song and from our personal tastes. Since our genre is modern and not common, we drew conventions from artists that had similar styles to ours. The conventions we found for music video for our genre are; editing often cuts to the beat; for female artists – costumes are bold, they wear high heels, ands the performances are strong and full of attitude. Examples of artists‟ videos that do this are Beyonce (through her powerful dance routines and sexy costumes) and Lady GaGa (who wears extreme hair, costume and makeup). My music video consisted of my group members (4 girls) giving powerful performances with sections of dance routine. We stuck to these conventions because we wanted the audience to recognise it as belonging to a genre and looking back at it now I think we succeeded. The genre has postmodern influences as does our video. It starts with a short narrative to no music, where a girl looks at a picture in a locket of her and a guy, slams it shut and looks in a mirror – which transports her into „subconscious mind‟. We filmed the bulk of our video in an all-white studio and with our powerful costumes that intertextually referenced the deadly sins and Marie Antoinette the audience can quite clearly see that it is not reality. You can see that our video promotes strong women by their feisty performance and this is emphasised by the use of a male, white headless, mannequin with a „perfect‟ torso. In the video the sins are corrupting the girl (but they are all just facets of her personality) and they dominate the mannequin. This is in contrast with Laura Mulvey‟s theory of the „Male Gaze‟ whereby media is predominantly made with a male or masculine audience in mind. Our target audience is 14-25 year old women, and this is obvious because the audience immediately identify with the main girl since she is the focus of the narrative and on the mannequin‟s torso is a kiss mark, showing the women „marking their territory‟ on him. If we were targeting men we would‟ve used a real man, but by our production decisions the target audience and genre is clear. We followed the convention of cutting shots to the beat, however we challenged the convention of keeping lines of the song in one shot. We cut midway through words and phrases in order to quicken the pace, which is often fast for this genre. An aspect of the genre which we developed is comedy. In some of the
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music videos artists take themselves very seriously, however we combined the sexy performances with the comic editing and cut aways to five the characters a „human feel‟ in the make believe world. For example we used what was originally going to be an outtake, where one girl shakes her bum from side to side, and we matched it to the beat, giving it a comic edge. You can apply Lyotard‟s theory of meta-narratives to our video since it blurs the lines between reality and fantasy using the key signifier of a mirror in the opening narrative. I think the my music video successfully conveys its genre while still maintaining enigma. The Reception Theory can be applied, since from feedback, many people had different interpretations, which is what this genre is all about. Looking at it objectively I would say that it is a fun, interesting video that invites playability and successfully promotes the song, which is the aim of a music video. EAA 7, EG 8, T 4 (19 = B+)
June 2010 teaser: L4 (A) FULL MARKS
he media production I am going to write about in relation to genre is my favourite piece from the whole course which is my horror teaser trailer. The genre of the trailer is obviously „horror‟ and this in itself allowed us to be creative with narrative etc but limited us because we had to stick to a certain amount of generic conventions in order for it to be recognised by it‟s existing target audience. Steve Neal said that „genre is a repetition with an underlying pattern of variations‟ which meant certain generic features had to be included and repeated which in my case was the use of a creepy location of the woods as well as hand held camera and restricted narration to cause disorientation and suspense within our trailer. However, the pattern of variation Neal describes also links to my horror teaser trailer because we were able to creatively push the boundaries by twisting some generic features in order to make the trailer interesting and therefore cause the audience to want to watch the full movie. For this my group chose use a female psycho killer I order to subvert the stereotypical male dominated role. This female identification through point of view shots etc captured our female audience because were providing them with power and this is unusual for the horror genre although it is known for its forward thinking approach as it often attempts to focus on subcultural views instead of targeting the mainstream. Genre encompasses many parts and the trailer links to it in more ways than one. Its use of enclosed location and the fact the woods attempts to reinforce our society‟s fear of loneliness and isolation which the woods creates when the three friends get lost. In these sections of the trailer we used a lot of heavy cross cutting between the female victim who is running anxiously through the woods in order to find her friends and get home safely. We also used the Kuleshove and collision cutting methods as the pace began slow as the friends head our in the car unaware of the danger before them and once they are in the woods we deliberately quickened the pace of editing to cause tension and to show that something is not right, keeping the audience on the edge of their seats. Editing and mise-en-scene is really important to genre and reflects very quickly certain moods and atmospheres. Levi Strauss and Roland Barthes argued that the horror genre like many others used „binary oppositions‟ in order to show the contrast between good and evil in order to force the audience to be constantly questioning the trailer for example; in my trailer I used light and dark to connote their happiness and carefree attitude in the daytime and the darkness to emphasise their fear and reliance on their senses. This is particularly important to the horror genre as characters are often shown in high angle shots to appear vulnerable and therefore under threat. Gore or „body horror‟ is also a common generic convention used by most horror films that we studied including Dawn of the Dead by George A. Romero who used it to make the audience feel sick by forcing them to see extreme violence. In my own trailer we were inspired to use gore differently by showing a hanging scene in slow motion to create tension and the centoring in on the face and neck which had been broken and this was shown by the rope burn we had made from latex and the blood pouring down her
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chest. This shot moves clockwise and slowly zooms in to force the audience to see what the hang (woman) has done. In our final two shots we finish the trailer with the male anti hero being lifted off the ground with blood pouring out of his mouth which causes the audience to assume no one survives because the final girl is stabbed by her friend accidentally which quickens the pace and adds tension but she is the survivor who as Carol Clover suggests will be terrorised throughout the film and finally overcome the monster. This plays with the audiences emotions and links back to the horror genre well by creating our own style of horror. Andrew Sarris argues because it encompasses so much and is key to explaining a film. Genre is the ideas that collectively make a particular recognisable style that draws in its existing target audience. My horror trailer had expressionist camera angles as the female victim desperately trips over the camera and we see her running above it as well as close ups of her facial expression that causes us to identify with her fear and therefore makes us scared. This meant the audience also were forced to objectify the female victim from the high angle camera shot down her top in which we can see her breasts slightly after watching other Hitchcock movies which use the male gaze theory by Laura Mulvey to force us to take a male‟s viewpoint. In my trailer we also used an iconic symbol of the noose because obviously as a hangwoman she needed the prop but also as a female the circular shape suggested female power and this is something the horror genre often does but for male characters using guns etc as phallic symbols which we also used as the male anti hero takes out a knife and stabs his friend frantically when she walks up behind him. The horror trailer was made much darker in Final Cut Pro using the brightness and contrast menu and also dragged the saturated colours towards the blue in order to create a dark, dusky night time atmosphere a generic convention of horror trailers. The generic conventions we chose to use were all important to the success of our product and since distributing it on YouTube we have over 4000 which I am really pleased with and gives me the confidence that we obviously stuck to the genre enough to capture our intended target audience but were creative enough to make people want to keep watching the trailer and virally sharing it with others. Genre places a media text into a grouping giving it an identity which can be recognised by the mainstream society and I believe my product is successfully fitted to the horror genre using the narrative that todorov argued was important to the horror genre by following an equilibrium at the beginning then a problem which in our case was the male anti hero playing a joke on the soon to be female victim making jump running after him causing their separation then a pathway to resolution – as they attempt to find each other and then a new equilibrium at the end which we deliberately left as an open ending to capture our audience effectively. EAA 10, EG 10, Term 5 (25/25)
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JUNE 2011 Q1B ANSWERS: AUDIENCE
3 examples of B-A range from June 2011, 2 teaser trailer 1 music vid.
Analyse one of your coursework productions in relation to the concept of audience.
EXAM BOARD COMMENTS: Successful responses demonstrated understanding of the concept of audience (which can be easily done by referencing particular audience theories and relating them to a product); the best answers making use of more contemporary theory (such as Gauntlett, Jenkins or Hills). There were relatively few high scoring responses for this question as most candidates adopted the same approach as for 1(a) – writing about their own decision making rather than analysing a finished product as a text from a critical distance. The majority of candidates reduced ‘the concept of audience’ to some very basic ideas about ‘target audience’ and there was too much reliance on Todorov, Hypodermic Needle & Hall which did not enable candidates to stretch their discussions and subsequently these responses were fairly onedimensional.
June 2011 TTrailer EG: L3 (C/B)
„Spinning Time‟ was the teaser trailer I made in A2 media and is what I will eb analysing in terms of genre. „Spinning Time‟ is a teen comedy about a teenage girl who has a watch that can control time. As such it is aimed at teenage girls who can relate and identify with the protagonist. Subsequently my target audience is girls aged between eleven and nineteen. I catered for this audience, firstly by presenting a relatable protagonist in Myles Brown. She is a student dedicated to her work, though also a bit lazy as depicted by her hesitance to get out of bed the trailers beginning. The film was intended to be a Disney family film and as such „Funmi Buriamoh‟ the actress playing Myles Brown is the new up and coming teen start like Selena Gomez in „Ramona and Beezus‟. As such the casting of Buriamoh would be an aspect to draw in the target audience. My target audience are predominantly fans of popular music – energetic, exciting, like stuff from the top 40. Chick flicks which are the sub genre of films that cater to my audience feature this kind of music throughout teaser trailers and the film. As such I complied with the conventions of Chick Flicks by incorporating this kind of music to entice my target audience. I was in no way trying to create moral panic with my film. It‟s Disney-esque vide was highly considered during its creating, empowering it to be the kind of film the family can see together. I think that there are many uses and gratifications to „Spinning Time‟. The positive portrayal of an AfroCaribbean teen is not something that is often seen in big-budgeted Hollywood films/ As such it breaks stereotypes and challenges conventions, and subsequently some preconceptions regarding the demographic. Additionally it provides the target audience with a new role model to look up to and possibly use as reinforcement for their personal values and beliefs – as Myles is quite a positive character. The preferred reading of „Spinning Time‟ is that audiences will wish they were in Myles position; having a watch that could control time as it would make life more exciting, easy and generally more fun. Having the instant opportunity to rewind time and do things over again (like a test for example) would eliminate the universal fear of making mistakes. I think eroding that fear would generally make people happier and less self conscious.
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However, an oppositional reading to the film could be that Myles is too lazy and selfish to be using such an amazing gift for lazy personal gain reasons – like catching a bus. The audience may expect Myles to do something much more meaningful like prevent deaths or wars. In conclusion I provided for my target audience in a number of ways (including music, casting, mise en scene to give the happy Disney-esque vibe and plot) duting the creation of „Spinning Time‟. The piece is for entertainment as opposed to creating moral panic, and hopefully offers audience members the opportunity for self discovery and social integration through discussing what they‟d do if they had a time controlling watch. This is a level 3 response. Some elements are proficient and some are competent. Proficient – the ability to select one piece of work and to relate it to theories of audience / effects such as moral panics and preferred readings (though these are not attributed to Cohen or Hall / Morley). Competent – the examples are clear and the theoretical analysis is straightforward – in this sense the understanding of audiences’ reading the text is insufficient for the higher mark level.
June 2011 MVID EG (Lexi Grace): L3 (B)
The target audience of my music video for debut artist „Lexi Grace‟ was a huge consideration as it was important to construct a music video that would entice and excite them. Lexi is an androgynous artist as she is feminine and can attract male audiences, yet has short hair and can wear biker boots to represent a „girl power‟ image. David Gauntlett addresses „fluidity‟ in media and Lexi is a prime example of this as she drifts between sexy red lipstick and girly dresses and yet directly addresses the camera, subverting traditional stereotypes of passive women which shows her diversity and appeal to many people. Her target audience is young people of both genders and her Britishness is a key factor. The video is set in London, with Lexi walking around different iconic scenes such as Trafalgar Square and Covent Garden. My aim was that by associating Lexi with iconic places, audiences would associate her as an icon as well. Also, by incorporating post-modern ides through intertextuality as Lexi wears a Rolling Stones vest, audiences would recognise this, gratifying their needs as they would associate Lexi with the band and legendary music in general. Furthermore, Lexi can be a role model to young people as she is a young person herself, at 19 years old and audiences can familiarise with her. Laura Mulvey‟s idea on the action of „looking‟ was an inspiration as Liexi is objectified in someways, for example through ECUs on her lips or pans across her legs as she walks, yet she directly addresses the camera and subverts this „passive‟ role as she almost objectifies those looking at her. This ability to be diverse is key to Lexi‟s audience appeal and again, her fluidity. Through camerawork, editing, mise en scene and sound I was able to create a brand image for Lexi to appeal to her audience. Editing was used to emphasise sounds, for example, jump cuts on lyrics like “things that are inside” to emphasise the importance of them. The message of the song was important as Lexi needed to attract viewers to watch repeatedly. The majority of shots were very short and Lexi wore many outfits and appeared in different locations ranging from central London to North London. During the audience screening I noticed people talking about places they recognised and Lexi‟s clothes, so this was a positive point as it provided a „basis for social interaction‟ which gratifies the needs of the audience. Moreover Lexi appeals to her audience because she is unlike any other artist. Singers like Pink and Robyn have similar styles but seem very edgy and artists like Pixie Lott are extremely feminine and overtly sexualised. Lexi has the right balance, which is why she can appeal to both males and females. She can embody Winship‟s theory of girl power, but also appeal to males through subtle sexuality through costume and styling (using dresses and high heels). She is the ultimate icon of post modernism as she has feminine qualities but isn‟t overtly sexualised and subverts stereotypical roles.
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This is a level 3 response. The question is answered directly and theories of audience / reception are coherently and intelligently applied to one chosen text. There are flaws - Winship’s theories do not relate to ‘girl power’ in this simplistic sense and at times ‘audience theory’ is reduced to ‘appealing to the audience’ and these shortcomings prevent the script from accessing the level 4 mark range.
June 2011 TTrailer EG2: L3/4 borderline
The concept of audience is fundamental to the making of a media text. A producer must take into account the age, social status and gender and interests of a target consumer in order to adjust the text to make it as appealing to them as possible. For my A2 coursework I created a horror called „The sleepover‟. Classification of age appropriateness is important in audience identification. Films are screened by an external board and given a minimum age of viewers. Most horror films are rated 18, due to extreme gore, violence, sex and disturbance – not to mention emotional trauma which is why I chose to rate my film as 18 as my film was a very conventional slasher film. The Hypodermic Needle effect is the first audience theory. It originated in the 1920s when mass media first began to be popular. This suggests that a producer has an intended meaning which is definitely understood by the audience. In this theory the audience are completely passive. If this was applied to my text the audience would view the killing scenes and sex scenes and instantly replicate the actions. This of course is unrealistic and this theory is often argued to be very simplistic and outdate, considering how much the media has developed this century. The uses and gratifications audience theory suggests than an audience consume particular texts in order to receive something from them. Bulmer and Katz identified four uses and gratifications as diversion (entertainment and escape from reality), surveillance (information), personal identity (seeing yourself reflected in the text and learning new values and personal relationships (seeking emotional interaction and substituting media relationships for your own). In my coursework, a consumer may use diversion - the horror trailer is escapist – a route away from reality and they would be entertained by the mystery and fear of my film. Diversion would also include catharsis that my trailer would enable, which is using the media as an outlet of emotion – they would experience horror in the safety of cinema. They would also experience the „personal identity‟ stage in seeing themselves in, or, admiring, the good characters – particularly the „final girl‟ character and her charming boyfriend, depending on gender of audience member. They would also have the personal relationships because they could feel emotion of the fear and sadness of the victims whilst substituting their emotional relationship with the friendships in my trailer or the main characters‟ romantic relationship with her boyfriend. My audience would not use the surveillance stage as horror films are not intended to be instructional. The most modern and developed theory of audience is reception theory. This model based on Stuart Hall‟s encoding model, suggests that a producer will encode a text and the audience will decode it. Their reading is affected by many contextual and personal factors such as age, social status, gender, current mood and personal experiences. I encoded my horror trailer as well as I could using beautiful, edgy, feminine characters which appeal to the female consumers. I used isolated settings which suggest to the audience that escape isn‟t possible (deserted house, woods) thus highlighting the experience of fear and panic that one hopes for when watching a horror film. I used acoustic codes in the form of a deep male voice over and jumpy, low orchestral score to hope that my audience will feel tension and suspense. My killer was masked and always appeared silent and in the shadows, connoting evil and dehumanising him hopefully creating a response of fear from the audience. My main target audience were males and females aged 18-30. I used attractive actors to appeal to the audience who would admire / desire them. The „cool‟ stylish clothing adds to this. I used the male gaze theory by Laura Mulvey, showing a victim‟s cleavage and the „final girl‟ theory (hopefully creating a stronger feminist image to other women) to attract both genders. I used audience research in the form of questionnaires to find out my audiences preferences and dislikes in order to make my trailer meet their
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interests as fully as possible. I also asked for audience feedback on my first drafts which allowed me to make improvements based on the opinions of 20 18-30 year olds. The told me to exaggerate gore and violence more and use more threatening music which I then incorporated using iMovie so that me audience was tempted to watch my piece. I aimed my piece at a low social status as my trailer was a version of British teenagers experiencing the American slasher experience. I used strong language, popular music for soundtrack and fashionable clothing to hopefully attract this group. This is a level 3 / level 4 borderline response Level 4 qualities –coherence, range of useful examples, ability to answer the question in sustained manner, relating of theory to practice. The understanding of Hall’s encoding / decoding model in relation to own work. The discussion of ‘effects’ early on is clear and relevant. Level 3 qualities – the application of audience theories (insufficiently developed for level 4 – eg the ‘use of’ Mulvey, in the same paragraph as the use of questionnaires for feedback).
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