# Formula Sheet for Physics

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Density is mass per unit volume Density = mass / volume Force = rate of change of momentum Power is rate of work done Power = work / time Unit of power is watt Potential energy (P) PE = m.g.h m = mass g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s2) h = height Gravity (Force due to gravity) Fg : Force of attraction G : Gravitational constant M1 : Mass of first object M2 : Mass of second object

velocity = displacement / time Momentum = mass . velocity Kinetic energy (P) P = (1/2).m.v2 m = mass v = velocity

Acceleration due to gravity at a depth 'd' from earth surface is :

gd = g(1-

d R

)

G M1 M2 Fg = r2
Acceleration due to gravity at height 'h' from earth surface is : h is very much smaller than R Escape velocity Escape velocity from a body of mass M and radius r is

gh = g(1-

2h R

)
For example if you want to calculate the escape verlocity of sa object from earth then, M is dmass of earth r is radius of earth Under constant acceleration linear motion v = final velocity u = intitial velocity a = acceleration t = time taken to reach velocity v from u s = displacement v = u + a t s = ut + (1/2)a t s = vt - (1/2)a t v2 = u2 + 2 a s
2 2

OPTICS Index of refraction n = c/v n - index of refraction c - velocity of light in a vacuum v - velocity of light in the given material

Friction force (kinetic friction) When the object is moving then Friction is defined as : Ff = μ Fn where Ff = Friction force, μ= cofficient of friction Fn = Normal force

Linear Momentum Momentum = mass x velocity

Capillary action Simple harmonic motion The height to which the liquid can be lifted Simple harmonic motion is defined by: is given by: d2x/dt2 = - k x

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. λ=wavelength Doppler effect Relationship between observed Resonance of a string frequency f and emitted frequency f0: f = f0( v v + vs frequency = f = ) nv 2L where. where.. 3. v = speed of sound Resonance of a closed tube of air(approximate) where. L: length of the cylinder n: 1..com/education/physics/formula/physics_all_fo..8D) where. L: length of the cylinder n: 1.. v = Speed of wave. 3.. 2. 3. λ where ω = Angular frequency. h = 2γcosθ ρgr γ: liquid-air surface tension(T) (T=energy/area) θ: contact angle ρ: density of liquid g: acceleration due to gravity r: is radius of tube Time period of pendulum Waves 1 f = T 2 π ω = T v = f . 2.. L: length of the string n = 1.. L: length of the cylinder n = 1.teacherone.. It is negative if source of wave is moving towards observer. v = speed of sound intensity of sound where. v=velocity of wave vs=velocity of source. T=Time period. It is positive if source of wave is moving away from observer. 2. v: speed of sound d:diameter of the resonance tube Bragg's law nλ = 2d sinθ where n = integer (based upon order) λ = wavelength d = distance between the planes θ = angle between the surface and the ray intensity of sound = Sound Power area I I0 intensity of sound in decibel= 10log10 2 of 6 07-04-2014 17:15 . Resonance of a open tube of air(approximate) Resonance of a open tube of air(accurate) Approximate frequency = f = nv 2L frequency = f = nv 2(L+0.Formula Sheet for Physics http://www..8D) where.. v: speed of sound d:diameter of the resonance tube Resonance of a closed tube of air(accurate) Approximate frequency = f = nv 4L frequency = f = nv 4(L+0. 2. 2. L: length of the cylinder n = 1. 3.. 3.

Kin Kelvin [K]) Boyles law (for ideal gas) P1 V1 = P2V2 T (temperature is constant) Charles law (for ideal gas) V1 V2 = T1 T2 P (pressure is constant) Translational kinetic energy K per gas Internal energy of monoatomic gas molecule (average molecular kinetic energy:) 3 of 6 07-04-2014 17:15 .com/education/physics/formula/physics_all_fo.67E . σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant σ = 5. dB = 10log10 I I0 where I=intensity of interest in Wm-2 I0=intensity of interest in 10-12Wm-2 de Broglie equation Relation between energy and frequency E = hν where E = Energy h = Planck's constant ν = frequency λ = h p = h mv where p = momentum λ = wavelength h = Planck's constant v = velocity Davisson and Germer experiment Centripetal Force (F) λ = h m v2 F = = m ω2 r r where e = charge of electron m = mass of electron V = potential difference between the plates thru which the electron pass λ = wavelength Circular motion formula v = ω r Torque (it measures how the force acting on the object can rotate the object) Torque is cross product of radius and Force Torque = (Force) X (Moment arm) X sin θ T = F L sin θ whete θ = angle between force and moment arm Stefan-Boltzmann Law The energy radiated by a blackbody radiator per second = P P = AσT4 where..Pa..6703 × 10-8 watt/m2K4 Ideal gas law P V = n R T P = Pressure (Pa V = Volume (m3 ) n = number of of R = gas constant 1 mol-1] ) T = Temperatue ( Centripetal acceleration (a) = v2 r Forces of gravitation F = G (m1 .11 N m2 / kg2 Efficiency of Carnot cycle η = 1 - Tc Th i. Pascal) gas (in moles) ( 8.m3. G = 6.e.m2)/r2 where G is constant.teacherone.314472 .Formula Sheet for Physics http://www.

38066 x 10-23 J/K Boltzmanns constant m = mass of gas Cp γ = Cv Cp = specific heat capacity of the gas in a constant pressure process Cv = specific heat capacity of the gas in a constant volume process In Adiabatic process no heat is gained or lost by the system. . I = I2 . . .Formula Sheet for Physics http://www. R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current Electric power (P) = (voltage applied) x (current) P = V . . Internal entergy of ideal gas Internal entergy of ideal gas (U) = cv nRT Cp γ = Cv Boltzmann constant (k) Speed of the sound in gas R k = Na R = gas constant Na = Avogadro's number.314472 . Under adiabetic condition PVγ = Constant TVγ-1 = Constant where γ is ratio of specific heat. R V = voltage applied R = Resistance I = current In AC circuit average power is : Pavg = VrmsIrms cosφ where.V where Q = charge on the capacitor C = capacitance of the capacitor In AC circuit Instantaneous power is : PInstantaneous = VmIm sinωt sin(ωt-φ) where. Pavg = Average Power Vrms = rms value of voltage Irms = rms value of current Capacitors Q = C. + Rn If resistors are in parallel then equivalent resistance will be 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + . + Cn Total capacitance (Ceq) for SERIES Capacitor Combinations: 4 of 6 07-04-2014 17:15 .38066 x 10-23 J/K Boltzmanns constant 3 K = n R T 2 n = number of of gas (in moles) R = gas constant ( 8. . . . .com/education/physics/formula/physics_all_fo. R = gas constant(8.K1 mol-1] ) Ratio of specific heat (γ) Root mean square speed of gas 3 k T V2rms = m k = 1.314 J/mol K) T = the absolute temperature M = the molecular weight of the gas (kg/mol) γ = adiabatic constant = cp/cv Capillary action Resistance of a wire The height to which the liquid can be lifted ρL is given by R = h=height of the liquid lifted A T=surface tension r=radius of capillary tube h= 2T ρrg ρ = rsistivity L = length of the wire A = cross-sectional area of the wire Resistor combination If resistors are in series then equivalent resistance will be Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + . . 3 K = k T 2 k = 1.m3. . .teacherone. PInstantaneous = Instantaneous Power Vm = Instantaneous voltage Im = Instantaneous current Total capacitance (Ceq) for PARALLEL Capacitor Combinations: Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 + . . . . .. + 1/Rn Ohm's law V = I .Pa..

. . + 1/Cn Cylindrical Capacitor Parallel Plate Capacitor C = κ ε0 A d C = 2 π κ ε0 L ln (b/a) where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant A = Area of plate d = distance between the plate ε0 = permittivity of free space (8. Self inductance of a solenoid = L = μn2LA n = number of turns per unit length L = length of the solenoid. Energy stored in capacitor 1 E = C V 2 2 Ohm's law V = IR where V = voltage I = current R = Resistence Electric Field around a point charge (q) E = k ( q/r2 ) where k is constant.85 X 10-12 C2 /N m2) Magnetic force acting on a charge q moving with velocity v F = q v B sin θ where F = force acting on charge q (Newton) q = charge (C) v = velocity (m/sec2) B = magnetic field θ = angle between V (velocity) and B (magnetic field) a b C = 4 π κ ε0 b .. .m2 /C2 q = point charge r = distance from point charge (q) Electric field due to thin infinite sheet σ E = 2 ε0 where E = Electric field (N/C) σ = charge per unit area C/m2 5 of 6 07-04-2014 17:15 . F = k (q1 .a where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant a = outer radius of conductor [m] b = inner radius of conductor [m] ε0 = permittivity of free space (8.m2 /C2 q1 = charge on one body q2 = charge on the other body r = distance between them Calculator based upon Coulomb's Law In an RC circuit (Resistor-Capacitor).85 X 10-12 C2/N m2) Spherical Capacitor where C = [Farad (F)] κ = dielectric constant L = length of cylinder [m] a = outer radius of conductor [m] b = inner radius of conductor [m] ε0 = permittivity of free space (8.Formula Sheet for Physics http://www.85 X 10-12 C2/N m2) Force on a wire in magnetic field (B) F = B I l sin θ where F = force acting on wire (Newton) I = Current (Ampere) l = length of wire (m) B = magnetic field θ = angle between I (current) and B (magnetic field) In an RL circuit (Resistor-inductor ). .teacherone. q2)/r2 where k is constant. k = 1/(4 π ε0) ≈ 9 x 109 N. . k = 1/(4 π ε0) ≈ 9 x 109 N. Coulomb's Law Like charges repel.com/education/physics/formula/physics_all_fo. one wound on top of the other M = μ0N1 N2LA N1 = total number of turns per unit length for first solenoid N2 = number of turns per unit length for second solenoid A = cross-sectional area L = length of the solenoid. . V = voltage applied to the capacitor 1/Ceq = 1/C1 + 1/C2 + 1/C3 + . the time constant (in seconds) is: τ = RC R = Resistance in Ω C = Capacitance in in farads. the time constant (in seconds) is: τ = L/R R = Resistance in Ω C = Inductance in henries Mutual inductance of two solenoid two long thin solenoids. unlike charges attract.

σ E = ε0 where E = Electric field (N/C) σ = charge per unit area C/m2 ε0 = 8.2... ε0 = 8. Half life of radioactive element where n1 < n2 E0 = 13. μ0 I B = 2 π r where I = current r = distance from wire and r ≥ Radius of the wire Magnetic Field At the center of an arc μ0 I r B = 2 π R2 where I = current R = radius of wire r = distance from wire and r ≤ Radius of the wire (R) Bohr's model μ0 I φ B = 4 π r where I = current r = radius from the center of the wire Emitting Photons(Rydberg Formula) L = nh 2 π Ephoton = E0( 1 n12 - 1 n22 ) where L = angular momentum n = principal quantum number = 1.6 eV Average life of radioactive element t1/2 = ln(2) λ τ = 1 λ 6 of 6 07-04-2014 17:15 .85 X 10-12 C2/N m2 Magnetic Field around a wire (B) when r is less than the radius of the wire....85 X 10-12 C2/N m2 Electric field due to thick infinite sheet Magnetic Field around a wire (B) when r is greater than the radius of the wire.n h = Planck's constant.Formula Sheet for Physics http://www.teacherone.com/education/physics/formula/physics_all_fo.3.