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1: Organizations Background:

Organization # 1
The Pakistan TV came into being with the Pakistan Television Corporation. It is the National Broadcaster of Pakistan. The National Television is governed by the board of directors duly appointed by the Pakistan overnment. Pakistan Television Corporation !imited "PTV# is a public limited company. $ll its shares are held by overnment of Pakistan. The decision to establish a general purpose television service with the participation of private capital and under the eneral %upervision of the overnment of Pakistan " &P# was taken in &ctober '()*. %ubse+uently the &P signed an agreement with ,Nippon Electronic Company o !apan"- allowing it to operate two pilot stations in Pakistan. The first of these stations went on air in !ahore on .) November '()/. &n the completion of the e0perimental phase- a private limited company- called Television Promoters !imited was set up in '()1 which was converted into a public limited company in '()2. #$%aid&$r&'e(man"- 3irst 4- "3ounder and Chief 50ecutive of PTV#- by appointment of #President )yu% *(an+"

,ission -tatement:
To impart refined- modern and superior 5ducation. To disseminate information that is accurate and authentic. To offer healthy and value6oriented 5ntertainment. Bringing the Pakistan to the 7orld and the world to the Pakistan. %timulating creativity and cultural e0cellence.

Vision -tatement:
,PTV will be the voice of freedom from the $sian subcontinent. It will highlight the issues of concern and the cultural richness of its people through information- discussion andentertainment. PTV will propagate transparency of responsibility that will ensure its position as the most credible and meaningful source of information- through +uality programming based on issues. PTV will provide entertainment audiences can relate to- thereby creating viewers loyalty and response. PTV will forge an

alliance amongst its three stakeholder8s viewers- advertisers and shareholders to ma0imi9e viewer ownership. PTV will invest in human resources as it recogni9es it to be the foundation upon which the PTV future will be built. It is this very foundation that will allow PTV to attain and sustain a leadership positionthus fulfilling the promise associated with its creation.:

Nature o Business:
It is an International 5lectronic 4edia service providing News and 5ntertainment services.

Types 1 o products:
News- 5ntertainment- Infotainment- sport- and language channels.

It is not actually a manufacturing business rather a service business that generates a TV channels namely; 1. PTV /O,E 0Entertainment. 1. PTV NE2- 0NE2-. 3. )!* TV04n otainment. 5. PTV BO6ON 7. PTV 86OB)6 9. PTV -PO'T:. PTV N)T4ON)6 ;. PTV 2O'6< 0Englis( Ne=s.

The main competitors of PTV are 1. 8EO Net=ork 1. )'> Net=ork 3. /$, TV 5. E?P'E-7. <unya

'. To give entertainment to people of Pakistan and outside the country by arranging different movies- plays and sports programme. ..To keep its viewers in touch with changing circumstances of world and give them current affairs information like news. *. To increase the literacy rate by producing educational programme. /. $s Pakistan is an Islamic <epublic- therefore to convey the message of Islam and teachings to people of all religions with the help of religious programme. 1. To bring social and cultural awareness in the people. ). Political and social security 2. Provide information about science and technology

Organization: 1

4NT'O<$C4N8 8EO TV:

5& TV was established in 4ay .==.. Test transmission started on '/th $ugust .==. on The P$% '= digital satellite. <egular transmission started on 'st &ctober .==.. eo TV is the first %outh $sian >rdu language channel to provide content comparable with e0cellent television broadcasters.

, 5& will be the voice of freedom from the $sian subcontinent. It will highlight the issues of concern and the cultural richness of its people through information- discussion and entertainment.

,ission statement:
5& informs and entertains while celebrating cultures and prompting dialogue in the spirit of ?live and let live?


PTV is the main competitor of 5& with regards to viewer ship because of the reason that geo is a satellite channel and is accessible in specific areas whereas PTV is a national antenna channel- which is easily accessible. eo is trying to compete with PTV and trying harder and harder to be the No.' channel in Pakistan. &ther satellite channels like %ony- %tar plus etc. are 5&8s ma@or competitors among satellite channels

It is not actually a manufacturing business rather a service business that generates cable TV channels namely; 1. 8eo Ne=s 1. 8eo TV 0entertainment. 3. ))8 TV 5. 8EO super

Types o products:
News- 5ntertainment- Infotainment.

Type o O=ners(ip
It is a Private limited Company and has '==A internal shares "family shares only#. This is part of the Bang roup of Companies- the biggest and strongest group in media of the Private %ector.

1: -2OT )N)6>-4-:
-2OT )N)6>-4- O@ PTV: -T'EN8T/:
o The strength of PTV is its nationwide coverage unlike any other channel. o 4ost competitive work team. o o oodwill as the largest media group in the country. ovt. sponsored organi9ation.

o There are news bulletins in >rdu- 5nglish- $rabic and Cashmiri languages. o <egional language bulletins include Pun@abi from !ahore Centre- %indhi from Carachi CentrePashto and Dindko from Peshawar- and Baluchi- Pashto and Bravi from Euetta Centre are telecast o Promote culture

o &ver employment o Political Influence o Clerical 4entality o %hortage of 3unds o 7ork place Feviance

o o

The opportunities are to e0pand globally $dd +uality programs with slight change in culture rowing awareness about PTV of the people. They are attracted towards entertainment.


o 3re+uent change in the government is also a threat for PTV



5specially in entertainment because of new channels

-2OT )N)6>-4- O@ 8EO: -trengt(s

New ideas and concept with fast e0ecution has become a trade mark of 5& ,fastest first: 3irst to bring ,the breaking news: >nbiased- accurate and timely ./ hrs. news in >rdu language 4ost competitive team work

ood will as the largest media group in country

It is newly established company so it is still under the learning process. Because Pakistan has no institution that provides formal education on this field thy are re+uired to hire all employees trained from foreign countries !ack of innovation in the entertainment scene

rowing awareness about eo of the people. They are attracted towards 5ntertainment. Increase in viewership Improvement of Pakistan term with India. It can increase cultural activities

3ear of competition 5specially in entertainment because of new channels 5mployees turnover is high appro0imately )6 (A because new channels attracts geo +ualified and trained employees by offering them . time the salary they earn at 5&. They also offer different fields of @obs. These demands are difficult to meet for geoG

3: )B-T')CT O@ 4NTE'V4E2-: )rticle: 1

Organizational Culture and Organizational Per ormance:
This article defines organi9ational culture- organi9ational performance their relation and the former8s impact upon the latter. $ccording to the 7ebster8s dictionary- culture is the ideas custom skills- arts etc of a given people in a given period. 5very organi9ation has its own culture that distinguished it from the others. &rgani9ational culture can be defined as a set of believes ideas- values and principles that shape the behavior of an organi9ation. It can also be defined as ,) system o s(ared meaning (eld %y mem%er t(at distinguis(ed t(e organization rom ot(er organization:. $ccording to Dofstede- organi9ational culture is #T(e collectiAe programming o t(e mind t(at distinguis(ed t(e mem%ers o one organization rom anot(er+ T(is includes t(e s(ared %elieAes Aalues and practices t(at distinguis( organization rom ot(er+:

Dofstede initially developed four dimensions of culture values which are as follow '. Po=er distance: the e0tent to which the less powerful members of an organi9ational member accept that power is distributed une+ually. .. $ncertainty aAoidance: the e0tent to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situation and have created beliefs and institution that they try to avoid. *. 4ndiAidualismBcollectiAism: this dimension reflect an ethnic position of the culture in which people are supposed to look after themselves and their immediate families- or a situation in which people belong to groups or collective which are supposed to look after them in e0change for loyalty. /. ,asculinityB eminity: a situation in which the dominant values are success money and professions as opposed to the situation in which the dominant values are caring for others and the +uality of life. 1. 6ong term and s(ort term orientation: the degree to which there is concern for the maintenance of traditional social orders- versus more individualist- libral social orders based on negotiationrather than obligation. !ater on the globe study conduct a survey of H.1 organi9ations located in ). countries and added four new dimensions in Dofstede above dimensions which are;

1: future orientation 1: performance orientation 3: human orientation 5: assertiveness &rgani9ational performance is the ability of an organi9ation to attain its goals and ob@ectives by using resources in an efficient and effective manner it @udges whether the organi9ation has achieved its goals or not. In short organi9ational performance is e+uivalent to the famous *58s "economy- efficiency and effectiveness of an &rgani9ation. 4any researchers have found a positiAe relations(ip between &rgani9ational cultures and performance. %tewart has mentioned that one of the best places to start improvement is with an e0amination of the &rgani9ation work culture .he states that the strongest component of the work culture is the believes of an attitude of the employees. It is the people who make up the culture- De stated that if these cultural norms contain beliefs such as #)round (ereC no%ody dears make =aAes: or ,<o Dust enoug( to get %y and people =ill leaAe you alone.: ,T(e Organizations per ormance =ill re lect t(at %elie s+ ,ore oAer i t(e cultural %elie s system contains positiAe approac(es suc( as #=inners are re=arded (ere ,or ,people really care i you do a good Do% in t(is out it t(at also =ill %e re lected in t(e Organizations per ormance.: De also stated that &rgani9ations cultural norms strongly affect all who are involved in the &rgani9ation. Those norms are all most invisible- but if we would like to improve performance and profitability- norms are one of the first places to look. &rgani9ational performance can be enhanced through strong values. Competition- innovations and a cohesive culture determine the appropriateness of a firm8s activities that can contribute to its performance in fact organi9ational culture is not @ust an important factor of an &rgani9ationI it is the central driver of superior business performance. allagher and Brown stated that a

company culture influences everything which a company does. They also stated that between "'((= and .==2# more than )= research studies observing J:91E8 companies and small business units in .) countries have found that market culture and business performance are strongly related. Fenison found that performance was a function of values and beliefs held by the members of the organi9ation. De postulated that an &rgani9ation that had a strong culture was defined to be off widely strong shared values among its employees. The strength with which the cultural values were held among its employees was then taken to be the predictor of future &rgani9ational performance. 7aldron and berg argued that instead of striving for strong culture researcher should attempt to reduce the gap between employees preferred organi9ational culture practices and their perception of organi9ational practices which were also supported by Dofstede. ,any Aaria%les are used to measure Organizational per ormance these variables include profitability gross profit <&$- <&I- <&5- <&%- revenue growth- market share- stock price- sales growth- e0port growth li+uidity and operational efficiency + Organizational per ormance is Dudged t(roug( t=o criteria financial performance and non Kfinancial performance. $n &rgani9ational is widely measure through the financial successes of the &rgani9ation. The measure to know the non6financial performance of an &rgani9ation include @ob satisfaction- &rgani9ational commitment and employee turnover. There are basically three common cultural perspectives that helps to determine the organi9ational performance these are; '; The strong perspective.; the fit perspective*; the adaptation perspective T/E -T'ON8 PE'-PECT4VE: The strong culture facilitates performance with the intensity visible to the outsiders. It states that organi9ation with strong culture performs better than other organi9ations. T/E @4T PE'-PECT4VE: 3it perspective argues that the culture of the organi9ation is valid- if it fits the industry or firms strategies. It is useful in e0plaining short term performances. T/E )<)PT)T4ON PE'-PECT4VE: The cultures that help organi9ations adapt to environmental change are deeply associated with e0cellent performance. It encourages confidence and risk taking capacity among the employees. $ccording to Dansen and 7erner6felt- in the business policy literature- there are two ma@or streams of research on the determinant of &rgani9ational performance. one was based on economic traditionemphasi9ing the importance of e0ternal market factors in determining &rgani9ational performance .the other line of research was built on the behavioral and sociological paradigm and saw &rgani9ational factors and there- Jfit8 with the environment as the ma@or determinant of successes .the economic model of &rgani9ational performance provides a range of ma@or determinants of &rgani9ational profit which includes '# Characteristics of the industry in which &rgani9ation competes .# The &rgani9ation position relative to its competitors *# The +uality of the firm8s resources

&rgani9ational model of firm8s performance focuses on &rgani9ational factors such as human resourcespolices- &rgani9ational culture and &rgani9ational climate and leadership styles. $nother study by Chien found that there were 1 ma@or factors determining &rgani9ational performance- namely; '# !eadership styles and environment .# &rgani9ational culture *# Bob design /# 4odel of motive human resource polices

To conclude- organi9ational culture deeply influences the organi9ational performance. If organi9ations culture is truly followed by employees then performance will be good otherwise the organi9ations suffer.

)rticle: 1
-erAing Culturally <iAerse E&6earners in Business -c(ools
This article is relate to 56learner culturally diverse in business school. The purpose of this article is to highlight how future teaching in business school will probably take place in an online "here called ./L2 classrooms- such as I6phone- I Kpad and variety of social media easy access to information "./L2#. The online access is e+ually available yet across culture to compare the $rab world and $frican learning communities. This article is identifying the various barriers occur in management classrooms. %ome barriers are Technical- !anguage and cross culture. 56learning means transfer the knowledge and skills in easy way in anytime and place through electronic like $udio- CF- video- T.V- I6phone or I6pad. Nowadays the 56 leaning can diversify the culture of the teachers in business schools called management 56learners. Dowever research on the cost effectiveness and efficient is scare. In this article the stewardship is a role key in business school teacher. %tewardship is those leaders who8s the responsibility to nurture talent develop the organi9ation. %tewardship is responsible to sustainability teamwork and role model of the followers. In some innovations of the business school the stewardship is given more attention. The <ound s+uare movement school is another concept to innovate the business school. These school are based on the erman Curt Dahn to support the growth of ,7hole persons:. Curt Dahn felt young people becomes empowered and develop the skills and abilities to be a leader. Podsen focusing the classroom and develop the teachers role while the stewardship is also focused to online cross culture and virtual scenarios. %ome cross culture barriers and hopeful prospects in ./L2 business school. The stewardship of business school teachers e0plored and increasing the coach in online across culture. The basic three barriers that effected to serve culturally diverse 56learners are; $6 Technical barriers B6 !anguage barriers C6 Cross culture barriers. These barriers e0emplified to $rab and $frican cases on the basis of culture.

1&Tec(nical Barrier: In first we look at the profile of .'st century young 56learners. De sits the computer with headphones piping music from an IPod to his ears. Ten different chat windows blink an online role playing game is minimi9ed. De is doing his homework. De is real- De is .'st century. T(e )ra% =orld: The ,$rab: world is the lowest internet broadband penetration on '.A due to e0treme internet facilities in .==H. But now .='* the $rab countries work increasingly and broadband is on 2=A to provide better internet facilities. ) rican 6earners: ,$frican: countries the technical issue barrier is to digital gap by filling the $frican classroom with low cost computers. Because in $frican talented researcher and students are widely dispersed due to the lack of funding at the same time high cost in internet access point Nigeria faces many problems due to 56leaners because of remote locations and access of cyber cafes computers. &ndari6 okemwa underlines another technical barrier in sub6%aharan higher education. The technical barriers is to lack of @ournals and books- poorly e+uipped laboratories and limited access to the internet. 1& 6anguage Barrier: The language barrier is also impact the culturally diverse in 56learner. In 5nglish language is more affecting e6leaning. %o- nowadays some languages are merge to the 5nglish like %panisherman and %wedish. %o the $rab and $frican countries used the 5nglish and 3rench language. The intensity of language barrier depends on local circumstances. 5.g. in the $rab world the lack of available content in $rabic language. The online $rabic content is less than 'A of all global content. The main problems faces to different culture peoples are different !anguage. 3&Cross Culture: The cross culture is also effects on the 56learning because of the peoples belongs to the different cultures. %ome culture wisdom is verbally- signboards and music of words. Nowadays the e6 learner of social networks like 3acebook- twitter is mostly used for various culture persons. The voice or video conference is more vulnerable or ridiculous to easy understand. The online credibility effects all the ender- $ge- <ace etc. In the technical hopeful prospects like I6phone- I6pad- tracker- can solved many problems of e6learning. %i0 senses devices the huge innovation device that used the protector and camera. In the classrooms PC- Ceyboards and monitor can provide many facility to the students. 4ulti language competences is hopeful prospects but in national and mother language is more important. 4ore than (=A of the contents e0it in '. language but in e6learners different fonts used to understand the language through online internet. The semi language culture people8s works in the company can many language issues but in e6learning process can solved this issue and all peoples can easily understand the languages. The cross culture prospects is to provide and developing the skills of leadership due to digital image- video- twitter can easily understand the peoples. The cross culture of e6learner is facilitate and motivate the peoples. $t last we conclude that the culturally diverse of e6learners is to provide three basic dilemmas in the changing world of management education. '6the changing societies and values. .6teachindg and learning challenges and *6finally the education content itself. &ne of the really e0isting aspects of the .'st century is that hard to predict what the long term implications of some of the new technology are going to be and how these technologies will better serve culture diverse management e6learners. Because- each technological innovations has the potential to be a game changer in the online management classroom "./L2#.

)rticle: 3

T(e in luence o organizational culture on organizational pre erences to=ards t(e c(oice o organizational c(ange strategy
In this article first of all author briefly e0plain about culture- that how culture comes in to e0istence. &rgani9ational culture is defined as a system of assumptions- values- norms- and attitudes- manifested through symbols which the members of an organi9ation have developed and adopted through mutual e0perience and which help them determine the meaning of the world around them and how to behave in it. &rgani9ational culture is a form of collective interpretative scheme shared by the members of an organi9ation- due to which they assign meanings to occurrences- people- and events within and outside of the organi9ation in a similar way and treat them similarly. The character of different components of management and organi9ation- such as strategy- structure- leadership style- organi9ational learning- system of rewards- and motivation- emerges precisely from the way in which employees and management understand organi9ational reality and behave in it. Then the author e0plains about change and different types of change. the changes are incremental or radicalcomprehensive or partial- directed from the top down or from the bottom up- focused on the change of the Jhard8 or of the Jsoft8 component of organi9ation- will all to a great e0tent depend on how the leader and the members of the organi9ation see its functioning and a suitable- useful- or effective way of making changes. This is the reason why the process of organi9ational change management will be very different in different organi9ational cultures. 3or e0ample- if organi9ational culture is dominated by the value of fle0ibility- this means that the members of the organi9ation will consider changes as something good and useful for the organi9ation and themselves. In this case changes are likely to be continual- and thereby also incremental in nature- because there will be no need for radical changes precisely due to the fact that they are continual. $lso- changes will be conducted with less resistance and more participation by the employees. &n the other hand- if organi9ational culture contains the values of stability and conservatism- then the members of the organi9ation will consider changes as harmful- both for themselves and the organi9ation. The paper is e0plorative in character- which means that it will generate hypotheses suitable for empiric testing. The structure of the paper is as follows; first- organi9ational change strategy will be defined- and classification through which various organi9ational change strategies are differentiated will be presented. Then the classification through which organi9ational culture types are differentiated will be presented. 3inally- in the last segment of the paper- based on the similarity of the criteria in the described classifications of culture and strategy- hypotheses will be established in which it will be stated that implementation of a specific organi9ational change strategy is conditioned by a certain type of organi9ational culture. 4anagers have been mainly focused on three principal +uestions; what changes- why it changes- and when it changes. Therefore the three key topics in organi9ational change research have been causes or factors of organi9ational change- organi9ational change content- and the character of the organi9ational change process. The conclusion reached has been that organi9ational changes are initiated due to either internal or e0ternal causes. Dence- two types of organi9ational change have been differentiated according to the criterion of cause organi9ational development and adaptation. &rgani9ational changes are differentiated in two basic ways changes of organi9ational statics "structure and system# and changes of organi9ational dynamics "process#- as well as changes of work structure "tasks# and changes of social structure "relations#.3inally- research has showed that- according to the character of the processorgani9ational changes can be continual or discontinuous Continual changes are incremental "first order changes#- partial- and evolutionary- while discontinuous changes are radical "second order changes#- comprehensive- and revolutionary. The role of the leader in the process of change has also been an important issue in organi9ational change research. &rgani9ational change strategy includes the approach- method- or manner in which changes are implemented in an organi9ation. This definition implies that changes are always planned and that- whenever we speak of change implementation strategy- we actually speak of planned organi9ational changes. The fact that the very first classification of organi9ational change strategy deals with planned change strategy also contributes to this impression. But this does not always have to be the case. Changes can also be spontaneous or unplanned- and their consistent approach- method- or manner constitutes a change strategy. They can be a strategy for reali9ing organi9ational change- even though the changes are unplanned. There are three basic ways to implement change in a social system rational empirical- power coercive and normative re6educative.

<ational empirical strategies founded on the assumption of the rationality of organi9ations and the people who constitute them. &rgani9ations are observed as a rational means for achieving the mutual goals of their members through collective action. People are treated as rational beings lead by self6interest. Power coercive strategy implies that an organi9ation is observed as a political system in which those who have the power also have the right to manage the organi9ation and therefore change it. 4an is not a rational but a political being- who submits to the will of the more powerful. Therefore in power coercive strategy power is the key driver and tool for change. Normative re6educative strategy is based on the assumption that an organi9ation is a social system in which the behavior of its members is determined by shared assumptions- values- norms- and attitudes. People areabove all- social beings who- in the process of social interaction- construct the image of reality and set the rules of behavior in this reality. %ocial construction of reality is the basic mechanism for determining individual and collective action in each social system- such as an organi9ation. Creative strategy is based on the assumption that people are creative beings- and that an organi9ation is a form of improvisation in which all processes- including the process of change- are happening as a conse+uence of the free will- actions- and ideas of its members. Dence the changes are con6ducted through the process of articulation of new ideas by a member of the organi9ation- and acceptance of these ideas by the rest of the members. In this article different authors have given different types of culture but the most important types given by handy. Dendy8s classification recogni9es power culture- role culture- task culture- and people culture. Trompenaars8 classification recogni9es family culture- ,5iffel Tower: culture- ,guided missile: culture- and incubator culture. These two classifications use the same criteria for differentiation of organi9ational culture type hence the recogni9ed types are similar. Power or family culture is authoritarian. In this type of organi9ational culture the metaphor for organi9ation is the patriarchal family with a powerful father figure at the head. Bust as all the power in the family is concentrated in the hands of the pater familiar- likewise in an organi9ation with this type of culture a high degree of centrali9ation is e0pected and valued. <oleor culture is bureaucratic. In this type of culture rationality is highly valued- and it thereof ,5iffel Tower re has a high level of standardi9ation- formali9ation- and speciali9ation- as well as depersonali9ation. In this type of culture the organi9ation is understood as a machine in which every part must perform its role in a prescribed manner. 3ormal rules- procedures- systems- and structures are highly respected- and therefore are highly developed and have a critical role in the functioning of the organi9ation .Task or ,guided missile culture is a culture in which organi9ation is a tool for problem solving and accomplishing tasks. <esultscompetency- creativity- achievement- and change are highly valued. %ince tasks are often very comple0 entire teams are needed to solve them; therefore teamwork is highly valued. Comple0 problems solving is entrusted to professionals who have the necessary knowledge and skills. But in order to use all the potential of the professionals8 knowledge and competency they must have autonomy in their work. People or ,incubator: culture values individualism and individual growth the most. The organi9ation is understood as an incubator of ideas and people. Individual goals are more important than organi9ational goals- and hence organi9ation is regarded merely as a suitable ambience for personal development. It is then only natural that egalitarianism in distribution of power is preferred. The organi9ation members- most often e0perts- must have a lot of authority in decision6making in order to develop. In this article the author told us that how organi9ational culture influence in the organi9ation.

)rticle: 5
T(e Et(ical Culture o Organizations and Organizational 4nnoAatiAeness

This article is related with the ethical culture of organi9ations and organi9ational innovativeness. This research paper provide empirical evidence on the inter relation between the ethical culture of organi9ation and organi9ational innovativeness. $s we know that innovation is a key to success or survival for any organi9ation. 4any organi9ations emphasi9e on making innovations but some of them try to make and little bit succeed in making innovations. The reality is that it is discussed only by top management meetings and in speeches and it ends there because the risk is attached with innovation. In the future the most successful organi9ations will be those who will take the risk for innovation. Now a days the demand for innovation is increasing rapidly which is leading the ethics to crucial sustainable performance for the organi9ations. In this modern era they need guiding principles and norms to meet these comple0 challenges successfully. &rgani9ational misconducts harm to individuals and societies but also organi9ations themselves. $ lack of attention to ethics leads to downfall. 5thical standards are important in public sector which we have e0amined in this paper- these organi9ations are crucial to overall functioning and wellbeing of society such as >nited Nations etc. the results from the survey showed that many organi9ations had recently introduced value declaration or codes of conduct for promotion of ethical standards. !egal standards and codes of conducts are important in providing a framework for organi9ation- but implication and maintaining is a big challenge than making these rules and regulations. By these regulation organi9ation can be held accountable for responsibilities but they are limited to guide to ethical behavior. Value statements and codes of conduct are general e0pressions but potential of an organi9ation8s culture for creating and improving ethics s important. Culture refers to values- beliefs and tradition that are shared by members of an organi9ation. It affects the organi9ation ability with stakeholders and tells how people behave more or less ethically in organi9ation itself. The public sector is mostly affected by the ethical dilemmas and challenge in many countries. The growing interest can be regarded as a result of efficiency and effectiveness and better +uality to reform public sector. In this article the data was gathered from 3inland- so improving productivity in public sector is basic theme. Currently financial policy and attempt to limit increase the cost are increasingly limiting the public sector. There are many issues which are faced by public- these issues are not ethically loaded but they also re+uire innovativeness from public sector to ad@ust their activities. $n ethical organi9ational culture enables a public sector organi9ation to operate in a sustainable way and organi9ation innovativeness leads to regenerate itself. Promoting both re+uires a lot of attention by management and leadership to create an environment to emerge and flourish the targets. The main focus of this article was to know about the relation between ethics and innovation. In this article author used many tools to collect the data such as surveys in public sector- regression analysis to check the relation between ethics and innovation. 5thical organi9ation consists of ethical climate which means ethical conducts and ethical culture which means feelings about organi9ation practices and policies. The importance of creativity and innovation is the success of an organi9ation and their management to increase creativeness and innovation. The basics assumptions and shared meanings that have been created- found or developed in organi9ation and it has learned to manage problems related to e0ternal and internal integration. The culture consist of values beliefs and tradition that are shared among organi9ational members- it includes shared assumptions it is a deeper and broader construct than climate. The culture tells how members of organi9ation interact with each other and outside the organi9ation. It also affect process and procedure of members. 5thical culture involves e0perience- e0pectations and presumptions of how organi9ation promotes ethical and prevents unethical behavior. Previous studies have measured ethical culture in one dimension but it is improved to multidimensional construct. In this study we use Corporate 5thics Virtue 4odel which form criteria with multiple dimension for evaluating ethical culture. There are some of virtues based on business ethics. Clarity points out that these e0pectation should be concrete- comprehensive- and understandable. If organi9ation does not distinguish between ethical culture and unethical culture- the risk

of unethical increases. If the top management does not follow these standards then employees are opposed to these standards. 5mployees should be aware of his action they should raise and discuss ethical issues. It should be punished for behaving unethical behavior and should be rewarded for behaving ethically. The innovation means opening of new business- technology and new organi9ational forms. $ltogether organi9ational innovation is closely linked to change as organi9ation use innovation as tools to influence their changing internal and e0ternal environment. &rgani9ational innovation is related to its ob@ective as ideas are converted into product and services. Individual creativeness is the initiation of innovation. Innovative capability of introducing new products to the market or opening new market through innovations. There are some of the dimension used in multidimensional phenomenon i.e. product- marketprocess- behavioral and strategic innovativeness. &rgani9ation must use innovation for creativeness and constantly get the solution of the problems. $ll of the people should participate in sharing of information and learning. The study focused on culture rather it focused on innovation and ethics whether right- fair and @ust within organi9ation via communication. %o from this article I can conclude that a positive link was found in the ethical culture of an organi9ation and organi9ational innovativeness; ethical culture was important to behavioral- strategic and process innovativeness. 7ithin the ethical culture of an organi9ationthe dimension of the congruency of management in particular had an important role in the organi9ational innovativeness.

)rticle: 7
) storys impact on organizational culture c(ange
This article is written by 5li9abeth Briody Cultural Ceys !!C- Troy- 4ichigan- >%$ Tracy 4eerwarth Pester Consolidated Bearing Company- New Vernon- New Bersey- >%$- and <obert Trotter Northern $ri9ona >niversity- 3lagstaff- $ri9ona- >%$ In this article following are the main points which are e0plained these are&rgani9ational culture- &rgani9ational6culture change- Cultural applications- Collaboration&rgani9ational stories- 5thnography- 4anufacturing industries- in this article there is e0planation of the successful of the implementation of the organi9ational applications and ensuring organi9ational change based on a story from a 4 manufacturing plant. <esignBmet(odology Bapproac(; The approach involved collecting and analy9ing the Doist %tory as part of a multi6year ethnographic research pro@ect designed to identify the key attributes in an ideal plant culture. Through a cooperative process of co6production- the authors worked in tandem with organi9ational members on issues related to organi9ational6culture change. @indings K The findings emphasi9e both the Doist %tory8s process impact and outcome impact. The Doist %tory was a catalyst for the change processresulting in a high level of buy6in across the organi9ationI as such it contrasts with much of the management literature on ,planned change.: It also led to the development of several ,packaged products: "e.g. a story script- video- collaboration tools# which propelled 4 manufacturing culture closer to its ideal K a culture of collaboration. >sing employee stories as a means to understand and drive culture change is a largely underdeveloped area of scholarship. OriginalityBAalue K This article provides value by bridging the gap between theory and pra0is. It includes the documentation and cultural analysis of the story- but illustrates how the story evolved into specific organi9ational6culture6change applications. This ,soup6to6nuts: approach can serve as a model for organi9ational researchers and change agents interested in spearheading or supporting organi9ational6 culture change. Background The research portion is based on the pro@ect by conducting ethnographic research in four 4 manufacturing plants in the >%. The guiding ethnographic +uestion was intended to elicit views of an ,ideal: plant culture. 7hich phrased in various ways; 7hat would make the plant the best possible place in which to workG 7hat ideal plant culture is to be consideredG 7hat characteristics make up an ideal plant cultureG Dow do they reach the idealG 7hat are the barriersG The perspectives of a cross6section of organi9ational members "i.e. over /== hourly- salary- and e0ecutive employees during the field period and validation phases of the pro@ect# in various settings including along the assembly or subassembly lines- in skilled6 trades areas- in break rooms- in offices- and in the cafeteria. %tudy participants typically responded by relaying e0amples or telling stories of their e0periences at work both positive and negative. That could be grouped into four topical categories;"'# Plant environmentI".# work forceI"*# 7ork practicesI and"/# <elationships. <ocumenting t(e /oist -tory: The story varied in content- character development- comple0ity of cultural themes- and length. In the article we learned about the Doist %tory in an interview with one of the plant engineers. Furing the interview- the engineer used the original blueprints to e0plain some of the difficulties encountered by operators when they tried to use a hoist an apparatus used for raising something into position. The Doist story script divided into si0 scenes based on the key events in the story; "'# The <ecordableI ".# The Proposal for the Buy &ffI

"*# 5ncountering a Technical litchI "/# %oliciting %olutionsI "1# Permission for the Buy &ffI ")# $ Cultural and Technical %uccess. T(e centerpiece o t(e 2orkplace <isagreements Colla%oration Tool is t(e /oist -tory+ It provides a framework for plant personnel to analy9e and solve common conflicts within manufacturing environments. 7hether used by individuals or groups- including facilitated discussions- this tool can be useful in learning about and developing strategies to deal with different types of conflict. >sers of the tool can either watch the Doist %tory video or read the story script to understand the collaborative and confrontational behaviors associated with plant floor interactions. The tool e0plores the different sources of disagreement among the story8s characters including divergent interests and e0pectations. It also e0amines the effects of the unfolding disagreements on plant working relationships- work practices- and output. Tools or understanding colla%oration: 3our tools help promote an understanding of the critical elements of an ideal plant culture and how plant cultural conditions can be improved. . Ideal Cultural 4odel . Cultural Toolkit . %tory Packet . <ecipes for Cultural %uccess Tools or practicing colla%oration . Collaborative +uestions . Cultural ,Dot %pots . 7orkplace disagreements Tools or measuring colla%oration . 7ork group relationship metrics . Individual relationship effectiveness metrics ) tool or making decisions consistent =it( a culture o colla%oration 50plore Plant Culture computer game

5: E--)>: )B-T')CT O@ PTV )N< 8EO:

$fter readings the articles- books about organi9ational culture and visiting the organi9ations we find the results on the basis of seven characteristics of organi9ational culture that are;

-EVEN <4,EN-4ON- O@ C$6T$'E )T PTV and 8EO:

It means degree to which employees are e0pected to e0hibit precision analysis and attention to detail at 5&- employees do show accuracy in their work and they are kept under the keen observation and they analy9e the different situation as well. They gather the detail and they come up with deep analysis and they are attentive towards detailed information by the management. 7hile in PTV employees don8t show accuracy and also don8t gather the detail and they come up without deep analysis and they are not attentive towards detailed information by the management

It is degree to which manager8s focus on results or outcomes- rather than how these outcomes are achieved. $t 5&- the managers both consider the outcomes and they also pay attention to how these results are achieved to maintain their +uality- while in PTV the managers only consider the outcomes.

4ost of the decisions at 5& are taken at managerial levels and higher management do consider people important. $nd they are also concerned about the effects these decisions can have on the people concerned. 4anagement consults with the employees on important issues as well- while PTV is not people orientation organi9ation because the management decisions did not take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people.

$t 5& team orientation is an essence of work at non managerial levels to perform specific @obs in respective departments PTV have very less team orientation because of more power and politics and also due to the unions .

There is strong status +uo being observed at PTV as well as in 5&. &rgani9ational decisions and actions strong stress upon the above.

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In PTV they don8t encourage their employees on risk taking and innovative thinking because it is a centrali9ed organi9ation and influenced by the government .while in 5& they encourage their employees to be innovative and take risk .they said that it helped the organi9ation in form of goodwill and on performance basis.

In PTV we don8t find any aggressiveness element because there is no check and balance system while in 5& people are aggressive because they now that if they don8t work they might be kicked off from the organi9ation. The internal culture of PTV is as follow There is a code of conduct that all employees have to follow strictly. 3or e0ample; '# They have a No6%moking environment howeverI they have specified a 9one for smoking only. .# 5very employee has to display the PTV Identity Badge. *# $ll employees should conduct the display of Fiscipline strictly because of too much interaction with the other departments. /# There is no formal dress code e0cept for certain levels such as- the Deads of the Fepartments. 1# 5atables are not allowed everywhere in the office e0cept in the CafM. )# 5mployees mush reach and leave the office in time at the '=62 office timings 7e were privileged to have * hrs even from the busiest 4 D<L$F4IN. 7e were cordially allowed to visit the various departments of the organi9ation

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$t 5&- we observed that there is very strong culture. $ll the employees are punctual. There is no compromise on cleanliness. Neatness and cleanliness is strictly observed. There is separate uniform of workers in every department. %imilarly separate security passes are re+uired to enter into each department. There is strict check and balance on security. uards are highly alert every time. $nd snap shooting is strictly prohibited due to security concerns. $t that place- if someone is found holding camera or mobile in his hand- strict action is taken and respective things are confiscated at moment by security guards. $t 5&there is a culture to warmly welcome the visitors. 3or 5&- the employees are considered as a value able asset to the organi9ation. There is culture of care and welfare of their employees. 3or health and safety purpose- a great deal of initiatives are taken and

implemented .7e also observed that the administration has provided the work space with proper ventilation and air conditioning system. New employees are taken on merit basis. 4erit is the criterion- which is strictly followed at 5&. There is an internship of / to ) si0 weeks in which fresh graduates are trained and informed about 5& culture. 4inimum incentives are given during this period. $t the end of this probation an evaluation is conducted and if the employee is considered fit for the company then he is hired and provided with handsome salary and good incentives. $ll these factors contribute to the growth and development of the strong culture which is already deep routed in 5&. People at 5& do the things e0pected of them. They do these things because they consider them right.

PTV may receive their funding from individuals through voluntary donations- specific charge such as a television license fee- or as direct funding by the state eo may receive their funding from individuals through sponsors or voluntarily donations but no direct funding by the state. PTV broadcasting stations are always locally licensed. eo TV broadcasting stations belongs to Independent 4edia Corporation. PTV has various channels transmitting throughout the world including PTV National- PTV 7orld- PTV .PTV lobal- PTV Bolan etc. eo TV has since launched several other channels which include the 5& 5ntertainment- 5& News- 5& %uper- $$ TV 5& kahani.

%imilarly we also finds that in PTV there is more influence because it is owned by government while in geo there is no thing which we also want to say that know a days there is a perception that in overnment organi9ations the behaviors of the employee and manager is not good but after visiting PTV we found that its totally wrong because the employees and managers gave us to much respect and served us with drink and treat us like their children8s while when we visited 5& the behavior of the manager was not good to us .the way he talk to us was also very rude and used harsh language.

6iterature 'eAie=:
In order to determine the culture of the organi9ations we have selected two organi9ations so that we compared their cultures with the help of articles and what we have studied in the books about organi9ational culture. Before comparing first of all we e0plained what is organi9ational cultureG Dow it starts- shape and why it matteredG 5tc.

&rgani9ational culture is a set of shared understandings- norms- values- attitudes and beliefs of an organi9ation which can foster or impede change. It is a pattern of basic assumptions invented- discovered or developed by a given group- as it learns to cope with the problems of e0ternal adaption and internal

investigation that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore is to be taught to the new members as the correct way to perceive- think- and feel in relation to those problems. 7hen people @oin an organi9ation- they bring with them the values and beliefs that they have been taught. Euite often- however these values and beliefs are insufficient for helping the individual succeed in the organi9ation. The person needs to learn how the particular enterprise does things. $ common misconception is that an organi9ation has a uniform culture. Dowever- at least as anthropology uses the conceptI it is probably more accurate to treat organi9ations as ifN they had a uniform culture. $ll organi9ations have culture- in the sense that they are embedded in %pecific societal cultures and are part of them. $ccording to this view- organi9ation culture is a common perception held by the organi9ations members. 5veryone in the organi9ation would have to share this perception. Dowever- all may not do so to the same degree. $s a result- there can be a dominant culture as well as subcultures throughout a typical organi9ation. $ dominant culture is a set of core values shared by a ma@ority of the organi9ation8s members. The values that create dominant cultures in organi9ations help guide the day6to6day behavior of the employees. Important- but often overlooked- are the subcultures in an organi9ation. $ su%culture is a set of values shared by a minority- usually a small minority of the organi9ations members. %ubcultures typically are a result of problems or e0periences that are shared by members of a department or unit. %ubcultures can weaken and undermine an organi9ation if they are in conflict with the dominant culture and overall ob@ectives. %uccessful firms- however find that this is not the case always. 4ost subcultures are formed to help the members of a particular group deal with the specific day6to6day problems with which they are confronted. The members may also support many- if not all- of the core values of the dominant culture. /O2 <4< O'8)N4F)T4ON)6 C$6T$'E -T)'T 7hile organi9ational cultures developed in different ways- the process usually involves some version of the following steps; $ single person "founder# has an idea for a new enterprise The founder brings in one or more other key people and creates a core group that shares a common vision with the founder The founding core group begins to act in concert to create an organi9ation by raising fundsobtaining patents- incorporating- locating space- building and so on $t this point- others are brought into the organi9ation and a common history begins to be built 4ost of today8s successful corporate giants in all industries basically followed these steps. Three well6known representative e0amples are 4otorola- 4cFonalds and 7al64art

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Why is culture important?

Culture is important for every organi9ation because the goodwill- success and performance of the employees depend upon the culture which is opt by the organi9ation.


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The strong culture facilitates performance with the intensity visible to the outsiders. It states that organi9ation with strong culture performs better than other organi9ations.


3it perspective argues that the culture of the organi9ation is valid- if it fits the industry or firms strategies. It is useful in e0plaining short term performances.


The cultures that help organi9ations adapt to environmental change are deeply associated with e0cellent performance. It encourages confidence and risk taking capacity among the employees.

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These are the functions being served by the organi9ation %ense of identity %ense making device <einforcing the values in organi9ation Control mechanism for shaping behavior

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Culture provides a sense of identity to the members and enhances their commitment towards the &rgani9ation.

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Culture in the organi9ation provides the employees to interpret the meaning of the organi9ational events.

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Values in the organi9ation can be reinforced by the cultural activities.

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In shaping the behavior of members in the organi9ation culture plays the big role.

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$rtifacts are the most visible and accessible level of culture. It is symbol of culture in the physical and social work environment of the organi9ation. $rtifacts of culture are; P5<%&N$! 5N$CT45NT

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Personal enactment is a behavior that reflects the value of organi9ation- through the e0amination of the behavior of organi9ation members.

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%et of activities that are enacted time and again on important occasion. It provides the opportunity to reward and recogni9e the employees whose behaviors are according to the values of the organi9ation. <ites to the employees can be awarded as <ites of passage <ites of renewal <ites of integration <ites of conflict reduction <ites of degradations

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<ites of passes show the changed status of individuals in the respected organi9ation.

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<ites of renewal show the holistic changing in organi9ation by enhancing the dedication towards learning and growth.

'4TE- O@ 4NTE8')T4ON:
It emphasize on the commitment of the employees by uniting diverse group within the organization. Company function, annual picnic, cultural fest are the rites of integration in the organization.

'4TE- O@ CON@64CT 'E<$CT4ON:

Its primary ob@ective is to reduce the disagreements and keep up with the positive environment inside the organi9ation by satisfying the tangible and intangible needs of the employee. rievance hearing- negotiation of union contracts is rite of conflict reduction.

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It is basically punishment oriented and organi9ation people may be punished visibly if they don8t follow the organi9ational norms. <ibbon of shame- demotion in the organi9ational post- reduction in salary can be under the rites of degradation.

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%tories are the most effective way to reinforce the organi9ational values. it give meaning and identity to the organi9ations and very helpful in orienting new employees. %tories can be delivered in different ways %tories about the boss

%tories about getting fired %tories about company details %tories about employees %tories about rules

<ituals are unwritten and shows the way the employee follow the things to be done in the organi9ation. These are the everyday organi9ational practices repeated over and over.

%ymbols are again one important artifact of the organi9ation which communicates about the organi9ational culture by unspoken messages.

Values reflect a person8s underling believes in the organi9ation- it is often consciously articulated both in conversation and the companies8 mission statement or annual report. $ firms values and how it promotes and publici9es them can also affect workers feeling about their @ob and themselves.

$ssumptions are deeply held believes that guide behavior and awakens the members of the organi9ation how to perceive and go about the things.

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$lthough some organi9ational scientists argue for assessing organi9ational culture with +uantitative methods- others say +ualitative methods yield better results. Euantitative methods such as +uestionnaires are valuable because of their precision, comparability and objectivity.

4ssues in managing culture:

If culture is important- is it possible to manage culture changeG Culture change involves moving an organi9ation on from one form of culture to another- often through a culture change program. 4anaging this cultural change program re+uires that attention be paid to a range of issues. Pettigrew et al.- ".==*- .==='((.- and '(H*# suggest a number of key factors; creating a receptive climate for change top leadership drive Pcoherent and cohesive re+uiring an articulate and precise vision from the top discrepant action to increase tension use of deviants and heretics new avenues for articulating problems reinforcing structural change and rewards use of role models deep sociali9ation- training and development new communication mechanisms to transmit new values and beliefs

integrated selection criteria and removal of deviants !uck- persistence and patience.

There are- therefore- competing views in the literature as to the degree to which it is possible to manage culture. %ome argue that culture can be directed and controlled- particularly by influential leaders. &thers argue that directive- top down change is unlikely to be successful in the long run- and that managing culture is either not possible or only possible if the comple0ity of reality is understood and change is progressed in a consensual and longer6term manner.

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$nother process that perpetuates culture is the way it is handed down from generation of employees. Newcomers learn the culture through organi9ational sociali9ation the process by which newcomers is transformed from outsiders to participating- effective members of the organi9ationsN. The process is also a vehicle for bringing newcomers into the organi9ational culture.

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The organi9ational sociali9ation process is generally described as having three stages; $nticipatory %ociali9ation. 5ncounter. Change and $c+uisition.

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The first stage encompasses all of the learning that takes place prior to the newcomers first day on the @ob. It includes the newcomer8s e0pectations. The two concerns at this stage are; <ealism. Congruence.

<ealism is the degree to which a newcomer holds realistic e0pectations about the @ob and about the organi9ation. &ne thing newcomers should receive information about during entry into the organi9ation is the culture. Information about values at this stage can help newcomers begin to construct a scheme for interpreting their organi9ational e0periences. There are two types of Congruence between an individual and an organi9ation; Congruence between the individual8s abilities and the demand of the @ob- and the fit between the organi9ations values and the individual8s values. Value Congruence is particularly important for organi9ational culture. It is also important in terms of newcomer ad@ustment.

The second stage of sociali9ation- encounter- is when newcomers learn the tasks associated with the @obclarify their roles- and establish new relationships at work. This stage commences on the first day at work and is thought to encompass the first si0 to nine months on the new @ob.

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Task demand involves the actual work performed. !earning to perform tasks is related to the organi9ations

culture. In some organi9ations- newcomers are given considerable latitude to e0periment with new ways to do the @ob- and creativity is valued.

'O6E <E,)N<:
<ole demand involves the e0pectations placed on newcomers. Newcomers may not know e0actly what is e0pected of them or may receive conflicting e0pectations from other individuals. The way newcomers approach these demand depends in part on the culture of the organi9ation.

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Interpersonal demand arises from relationships at work. Politics- !eadership style- and group pressure are interpersonal demand. $ll of them reflect the values and assumptions that operate within the organi9ation.

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In the third and final stage of sociali9ation- change and ac+uisition- newcomers begin to master the demands of the @ob. They become proficient at managing their tasks- clarifying and negotiating their roles- and engaging in relationship at work. The end of the process is signaled by newcomers being considered by themselves and others as organi9ational insiders.

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Newcomers who are successful sociali9ed e0hibit good performance- high @ob satisfaction- and the intention to stay with the organi9ation. In addition- they should e0hibit low levels of distress symptoms. Digh levels of organi9ational commitment are also marks of successful sociali9ation. %uccessful %ociali9ation is also signaled by mutual influences. 7hen sociali9ation is effective- newcomers understand and adopt the organi9ations values and norms. This provides employees a conte0t for interpreting and responding to things that happen at work. Newcomers adopt the company8s norms and values more +uickly when they receive positive support from organizational insiders.

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%ociali9ation is a powerful cultural communication tool. 7hile the transmission of information about cultural artifacts is relatively easy- the transmission of value is more difficult. The communication of organi9ational assumption is almost impossible. The primary purpose of sociali9ation is the transmission of core values to new organi9ation members. Newcomers are e0posed to these values through the role models they interact with- the training they receive- and the behavior they observe being rewarded and punished.

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Changing situation may re+uire changes in the e0isting culture of an organi9ation. 7ith rapid environmental changes such as globali9ation- workforce diversity and technological innovation- the fundamental assumptions and basic values that drive the organi9ation may need to be altered. &ne particular situation that may re+uire cultural change is a merger or ac+uisition.

&rgani9ational culture is an important concept and a pervasive one in terms of its impact on organi9ational change programme. The literature suggests an ambiguity in terms of the link with organi9ational

performance as strong cultures have been shown to hinder performance "unadaptive# and there is also a problem of isolating the impact of corporate culture on performance. The problems associated with the cultureLperformance linkage include validation concerns in terms of measurement- as the effect of a particular cultural variable may not affect all performance6related organi9ational processes in the same way. 7e should also view it as a socially constructed norm and not @ust a managerial control strategy P8caught not taught8. 7e suggests that organi9ations should aim to manage with cultural awareness and not merely manage the culture.

'. 7hich culture belief system you followG PositiveLnegative .. 7hat is the criteria to measure the performanceG *. Fid you motivate the employees to their performanceG /. 7hich model your organi9ation follows to determine the organi9ational performanceG ' "economic model# or "organi9ational model# 1. 7hat steps your organi9ations take for improvementG Foes it e0amines the organi9ational cultures to measure the performance or notG ). Foes your organi9ation performance affected due to internal or e0ternal factorsG 2. 7hat is the impact of Dofstede culture on your organi9ation and employees performanceG H. 7hat is the nature of the business in this organi9ationG (. 7ho are yours competitorG '=. Foes the change in culture effect the organi9ationG

''. 7hich type of culture affects either it is internal or e0ternalG '.. Is it an organic or mechanistic organi9ationG '*. 7hich type of decisions adopted by the organi9ation centrali9ed or decentrali9edG '/. Fo you have the proper training program for the employees to motivate themG '1. Is there proper department to department relationship among the employees of the organi9ation like collaboration- cooperation and unity among the membersG '). 7hich type of training has been adopted by the organi9ationLwhich tools and techni+ues are used to train the employeesG '2. Foes that tool have impact on the performance of the organi9ationG 'H. Fo you have any achievementLappreciation award for your organi9ationG

'(. Foes this organi9ation have any type of influenceG a. 7hen we asked this +uestion then both organi9ations answer was in positive they said that yes we faced. .=. 7hich type of influence internal or e0ternal- political- or any otherG a. m of PTV said that we are facing both internal and e0ternal influences as it is semi government organi9ation so we faced influence of government and worked according to its directions. %imilarly we also faced the influenced from politicians as well. 3rom internal side we faced the influence from the top management like 4F and members of board of director8s 5& they said that that we don8t face any type of influence however sometime in some matters we faced very minor influence from the top management.

.'. 7hich type of strategy has been made by the organi9ationG ... That strategy is in fluently made by the top level management or notG a. In both PTV and 5& mangers said yes strategies always made by the top management. .*. 7hat is participative changeG ./. 7hat is creative strategyG .1. 7hat is normative strategyG .). 7hich type of strategy is more productive for the organi9ationG .2. Is the innovation success or survival for the organi9ationG .H. 7hat are the ethical standards used within the organi9ationG .(. Is it easy to handle ethics and ethical laws in the organi9ationG *=. 7hat are different perspectives of innovationG

*'. Is ethical culture followed or not in the Business organi9ationG *.. 7hat are the conse+uences of not implementing ethical behaviorG **. 7hat is the dimension of evaluating ethical culture of organi9ationG */. Dow is innovation positively impact on organi9ation cultureG *1. 7hat are different types of innovativeness used in the organi9ationG *). 7hat is the result of evaluation of ethical culture in the organi9ationG

*2. 7hat are the stewardship role play in organi9ationsG *H. 7hat are the technical barrier occurs the organi9ationsG *(. 7hat are !anguage point of view in &rgani9ationG /=. 7hat are the cross culture of the organi9ationsG /'. 7hat are the organi9ations meet the lobali9ationG

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