You are on page 1of 18

Basic terminology

L1 interference

Thinking about teaching

spontaneous production

controlled production

Learners can know something (they are well aware of it

when they are making sentences carefully and attentively)


BUT

not know it when they are producing language spontaneously

Students are careless they know, they just dont care But everyone goes through these stages

Students need to go through a process which


involves making mistakes before they can produce appropriate forms spontaneously and without conscious attention

Improvisation

Understanding the rule + Applying it upon request while paying attention

consolidation

Producing spontaneously

To make sure students can respond appropriately in a test

OR

To make X a part of their usable repertoire

to eliminate errors

OR

to develop enhanced performance and confidence

Instructions facilitate learning Noticing and recognizing facilitate learning Awareness of personal Inter Language (IL) facilitates learning

Instructions facilitate learning Noticing and recognizing facilitate learning Awareness of personal Inter Language (IL) facilitate learning

Learners: recognize what it is that is to be learnt

Teachers:
Make the target language item salient

Provide useful lists and rules


Encourage rote learning

Identify for the students where L1 transference might be


advantageous

Learners: form hypotheses about the target language Teachers:


Provide appropriate input (which helps learners formulate rules for themselves) Provide rules of thumb Supply carefully chosen examples Ask students to find their own examples Provide exercises (which require use of the rules).

This is true not only for grammar but also for lexis patterns, collocations, relationships between words

Learners:
Find things out for themselves
Begin to develop systems without even being aware they are doing so

Teachers:
cannot directly affect this encouraging learners to analyze and look for patterns.

1. Recognition
2. System building 3. Exploration

1. Learning new words and patterns 2. Making better use of the language they already have 3. Generalizing from what they know to what they dont know 4. Using alternative means of achieving a given end (body language, synonyms, intonation)

BUT

We need to get meanings across in a way that can be readily and easily processed by a listener. - We need to have a form of English which can be readily processed by a wide range of other users, an internationally negotiable meaning system - We use English to present ourselves and are judged on the basis of the language we use and the way we use it.

Our students have a constant dilemma: Speed and Fluency

OR
Accuracy

Basic message (with speed and fluency)

Concern for reader/listener (readily comprehensible)

Presentation of self (as they wish to be seen)

Producing spontaneously

Improvisation

consolidation

Understanding the rule + Applying it upon request while paying attention

Learning is of little use unless what is learnt becomes a


part of the learners spontaneous language production

Our role is to encourage students to discover language for

themselves.

We need to provide learners with plenty of opportunities


to use the language, so they can gradually begin to put into practice what they have learnt