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Narrative Voice in El embrujo de Shanghai: Novel, Promise, Film Thomas Deveny Letras Peninsulares 16.3 (Fall-Winter 2003): p719-738. Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey W. Hunter. Vol. 302. Detroit: Gale. From Literature Resource Center. Critical essay
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[(essay date fall-winter 2003-2004) In the essay below, Deveny focuses on point of view and narrative technique in this comparison of three different versions of El embrujo de Shanghai: Marsé's novel; the unproduced movie script by Victor Erice; and the film, adapted and directed by Fernando Trueba.] Film makers have often adapted the novels of Juan Marsé to the screen.1 The cinematographic version of his El embrujo de Shanghai was originally to be filmed by Victor Erice, but was ultimately directed by Fernando Trueba. Antonio Santamarina's Dirigido review of Trueba's film begins with a series of questions pondered by possibly every fan of contemporary Spanish cinema: "¿Cómo hubiera sido la adaptación de El embrujo de Shanghai, la novela de Juan Marsé, si Victor Erice la hubiera llevado a la pantalla tal y como estaba inicialmente previsto? ¿Cuáles hubieran sido las diferencias más significativas con la adaptación del mismo texto que propone ahora Fernando Trueba? ¿Sobre qué bases estéticas y narrativas se hubieran fundado una y otra?" (36). The publication of Erice's script. La promesa de Shanghai, allows us to answer those questions. Since Marsé describes his authorial role as that of a "contador de aventis," the act of narrating and the role of the narrator are crucial to his fiction, and should be so in any film adaptation of his works. This paper examines the importance of the narrative voice in the three versions of the narrative. Shortly after the novel was published in 1992, Spanish producer Andrés Vicente Gómez acquired the screen rights to the work, and when it was announced that the director for the project would be Víctor Erice, many people eagerly awaited the screen adaptation, because Erice's previous three films are each considered a masterpiece. His version of Adelaida García Morales's El sur is one of the most outstanding cinematographic adaptations in the history of Spanish film. Erice is known to work at his own pace, however, and that earlier project was controversial. Producer Elias Querejeta wanted to present El sur at the Cannes film festival; he became impatient with Erice and did not give him more time to film the final segment in Sevilla. Consequently, the director always felt that the film was unfinished. Erice wrote the script for his version of the El embrujo de Shanghai between May of 1996 and December of 1997, and in May of 1998, he began the plans for filming (budgeting, selection of locales for filming and choice of actors). The initial script would have resulted in a film that was three hours long, and that apparently caused problems. Erice (15) states, A primeros de junio de 1998, a ocho semanas de la fecha establecida para iniciar el rodaje, de la noche a la mañana, el productor, Andrés Vicente Gómez, despidió al equipo de profesionales implicados en las labores de la preparación, poniendo punto final a la misma. No supe, al menos en ese primer momento, con exactitud, la razón que le llevó a tomar esa decision. El caso es que unas semanas después me comunicó que la película de tres horas era inviable. He tried cutting the script, reducing the time to two hours and twenty minutes, but this substantially changed the story, eliminating the material after the protagonists' childhood (including the homicide of Denis).2 In spite of these changes, the producer and scriptwriter could not come to an agreement, and eventually Trueba became the director. According to producer Andrés Vicente Gómez, "Yo no cambié a Erice por Trueba. Abandoné el proyecto con Erice porque no nos entendíamos. Y después de un tiempo, cuando Trueba leyó la novela, me dijo que si aún estaban disponibles los derechos, él lo haría" (www.buscacine). Erice bitterly accused Gómez of being stingy, and in the spring of 2002, when Trueba's film had its debut, he
si no recuerdo mal . quién sabe" (205). The Shanghai Gesture (called El embrujo de Shanghai in Spanish). From classical times. However. as he recognizes Forcat's ability to create a "spell" with "[el] conjuro de su voz" (156). 115). a novel that has an intertextual link with this work. los sentimientos y la atmósfera que nutrieron la aventera. pero su historia no iba destinado a la mente.galegroup. In addition.. "Una vez más. pero nada escencial añado ni quito de su narración . Dani shows a consciousness of his role as principal narrator and questions his own abilities: "No sé si lo estoy contando bien." (95). ." (219). Forcat occasionally breaks the "spell" of his narrative by addressing the narratees (Dani and Susana): "Si alguna vez habéis amado un horizonte. by means of a harmful kind of persuasion. Ancilla 133). "En qué estaría pensando. Aristotle listed three types of artificial (or artistic) proofs: the character of the speaker... the first part of the comment shows that the narrator's skill as a "contador de aventis" manifests what Joseph Conrad felt is the principal task of the novelist: "to make you see" (xiv). para no sentirme tan indefenso ." (210). "No llegué a captarlos [detalles] totalmente aquel día.. "Te cuento el resto si te bebes la leche . The embedded narrative. ciertos ecos y resonancias que no sabría explicar de dónde provienen o que me pareció escuchar entremedio de lo que él me contaba. sino al corazón" (205). De Oratore II. con el tiempo y casi sin darme cuenta." (214). The extraordinary powers that Forcat uses to heat a glass of cold milk with his hands (133) add to the magical qualities of this character http://go. muchachos. The first narrator (Dani) recognizes Forcat's role as secondary narrator.Print published the script that he had written.wisc.. Examples of this temporal dichotomy appears throughout the novel: "He pensado a veces que nunca me sentí tan cerca de ella como en este momento" (68). words can drug and bewitch the soul" (Freeman. el escenario vital de mi infancia se me fue convirtiendo poco a poco en un paisaje moral. y me habría gustado que hubiese en ella un lugar para mi padre. Plato regarded rhetoric (the art of persuasion) as psychagogia or the art of leading the soul (Phaedrus 261a).. the self-reflexivity of this tale in El embrujo de Shanghai is fundamental. Estos son los hechos y ésta la fatalidad que los animó. "Así. in a deeper sense. "He revivido mil veces esa fosforescencia y ese ardor en la oscuridad" (169).do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 2/11 .3 The importance of this second layer of narrative is evident in the fact that it gives rise to the title of the novel. pero en esa época a mi padre ya le daban definitivamente por desaparecido" (11-12).2). A second narrator is Forcat. tenerlo cerca para aconsejarme..ezproxy. The "embrujo de Shanghai" thus relates in a profound way to the idea of psychagogia. y así ha quedado grabado para siempre en mi memoria" (200). Si te dicen que caí.4 Forcat's role as narrator is highlighted at several places in the text. muchachos. the first-person narrator is the adult who thinks back on his childhood. Marsé's El embrujo de Shanghai and the question of narrative voice Dani's role as first-person narrator appears on the first page of Marsé's novel: "Aquí empieza mi historia.xxviii. the emotions that are produced in the soul of the listener.. a robe. or again. and thereby mythify Susana's father as a heroic maquis. Dani later offers this metanarrative comment: "Tenía Forcat el don de hacernos ver lo que contaba. As in Lazarillo de Tormes. sino más adelante . Dani overtly manifests an awareness of the ability of the maquis as a narrator. a postcard from Shanghai written in Kim's hand (69). commenting on the act of narrating--"aquí Forcat interrumpió su relato como si la luz eléctrica hubiese cortado bruscamente el hilo de sus recuerdos . in his "Encomium on Helen" states. me pregunto hoy ." (131).5 Forcat tries to persuade the children of Kim's exploits. A second postcard of a Chinese pagoda from Kim (126) helps confirm his veracity.. Just as with the aventis in Marsé's earlier novel. the tale within the tale.6 Gorgias." (155-156). "The power of speech [logos] over the constitution of the soul can be compared with the effect of drugs on the bodily state: just as drugs by driving out different humours from the body can put an end either to the disease or to life. pero el punto de vista y los pormenores.. the maquis whose tale of Kim's adventure in Shanghai constitutes the mythification of the hero.. "Y si en este momento hubiéramos estado allí." (120). it relates to classical rhetorical theory. "the earliest attested meaning of the compound psychagog. sabréis de qué os hablo" (117).." (133). occupies over 78 pages of the text--a full quarter of the novel.is that of 'conjuring' or 'evoking' souls of the dead.. and those of speech or the argument in itself (Rhetoric 1. there evolved the notion of influencing the souls of living people. From this use.. pleasure or fear. but it is clear from Dani's remarks that the perlocutionary aspect of Forcat's narrative is to persuade. The temporal reference with the demonstrative adjective (" esa época") indicates a temporal jump between the act of narrating and what is narrated. Forcat attempts to establish his credibility as narrator through certain objects that link him both to Susana's father and to the Orient: sandals. and the cover of the first edition of the novel has a photograph from that film.. so with speech: different words can induce grief..com.. and inciting their emotions to the desired action (Cicero. "Estábamos en la cabina del capitán Su Tzu.library.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center .edu/ps/printdoc. Asmis notes. with the connotation of 'alluring' or 'beguiling' them. serán pequeños detalles digamos ambientales y garabatos de recuerdo.. parémonos ante el Kim y fijémonos en su estilo ante la adversidad . Indeed." (167). The title of Marsé novel ostensibly comes from the movie by Josef von Sternberg. Moreover. treatises on rhetoric discuss the importance of the relationship between the speaker and his public. The maquis tells the children. giving particular importance to gaining the public's sympathy. "Si algo invento.
8 There were interviews with Juan Marsé and Fernando Fernán Gómez as well as Gil. and in retrospect it gives us reason to question Forcat's reliability as a narrator from the beginning. 2002 it opened in twenty movie houses in Madrid.Print and provide him with authority in the eyes of the children. The opening voice-over by Dani (Fernando Tielve) as narrator establishes him as a first-person narrator as in the novel.9 The film poster showing Ariadna Gil that appeared on billboards and in full-page newspaper ads leading up to its debut contains a fundamental symbol of the narrative--smoke. "The narrator's vested interests may be so marked that we come to think of him as unreliable. For its debut on April 12.' Films. The smoke has a double function: it relates to the wisps of smoke that frame the close-up of Ariadna Gil as Madame Chen in the publicity poster for the film. which fades away as quickly as does the happiness of the characters. donde me gustaría ímagínar que él lo vio casualmente una brumosa noche de invierno mientras deambulaba por los muelles sin saber qué hacer con su vida y sus recuerdos .galegroup. featuring a photograph of Ariadna Gil as Madame Chen. his oppositional stance toward the Franco regime and criticism of the social problems in post-civil war Barcelona is the fundamental ethical and ideological point of view in the narrative. el tiempo justo que la muchacha tardese en descubrir que el Nantucket no había existido nunca y que si acaso existía no podía ser otra cosa que un decrépito y carcornido buque que ahora mismo estaría pudriéndose en alguna apestosa dársena de la Barceloneta. However.wisc. including musical scoring. syntagmatic relationships of these images will make clear that the first two are symbols of Madame Chen's duplicity. are always presented--mostly and often exclusively shown. and metaphorically to the truth of the tale within the tale. The slow tracking shot with which the film begins must be attributed to an omniscient cinematic narrator. Voice. Trueba's film clearly has multiple narrators. sound effects. Fernando Trueba's El embrujo de Shanghai The debut of Fernando Trueba's El embrujo de Shanghai was much anticipated. and so on. editing... a Chinese book with the mark of lipstick from a woman's lips. the syntagmatic relationship with Kim's earlier description of Forcat as an "artista" (75) gives this early portrayal of Forcat a new meaning. http://go. As the father figure for Dani." Chatman (Story and Discourse 153) also points out "the crucial difference between 'point of view' and narrative voice: point of view is the physical space or ideological situation or practical life-orientation to which narrative events stand in relation. Forcat uses artful language with the aim of persuading without being concerned with the truth." 219) It is then that Dani fully realizes the importance that the fabrication of the tale has for Forcat: siempre supo que lo suyo con esta mujer crédula y desdichada y vulnerable sólo duraría lo que durase la débil llama que alumbraba el sueño de Susana. Capitán Blay's importance in the narrative is crucial. he says that the maquis was "enredado en la maraña de su propia invención. This polysemic symbol refers literally to the smoke of an opium pipe. "Though film theory tends to limit the word "narrator" to the recorder human voice 'over' the visual image track. lighting.10 The question of narrative voice in Trueba's film can be examined in the light of recent theoretical studies that explore the role of the narrator in cinema. through which the cinematic text is narrated" (43-44). en los confines de lo intangible que adorna la mentira del mundo" (and he calls Forcat "el gran embaucador. a languid wisp of smoke from an opium pipe. Seymour Chatman notes.ezproxy. refers to the speech or other overt means through which events and existents are communicated to the audience. as Chatman (Story and Discourse 158) notes.library. reaffirming the tenuous nature of the embedded narrative.com. Two weeks before it opened. as in the sophist tradition.edu/ps/printdoc.(219-220) Denis unmasks one of the main proofs of the veracity of Forcat's tale--the postcards from Shanghai written by Kim--when he states that Forcat simply imitated Kim's handwriting. as a dissolve changes the smoke from the opium pipe in Shanghai to the billowing smoke from the factory in Barcelona that will be the target of Captain Blay's quixotic campaign.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 3/11 . but sometimes partially told--by a narrator or narrators.11 Trueba's cinematographic adaptation of the novel manifests important questions concerning narrating and subjectivity. there is a good case to be made for a more general conception of 'cinematographic narrator. However. Kozloff theorizes that "voice-over is just one of many elements." In this regard. When Denis calls his fellow maquis "un verdadero artista" (222). El país semanal devoted its cover story to the film.. The overall agent that does the showing I would call the 'cinematic narrator'" ("The Cinematic Narrator" 482).7 From Dani's analysis of the motivation behind Forcat's tale.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . As the narrative progresses. and it functions as a visual bridge between the two narrative threads. When Dani begins to realize that Forcat's tale is a lie. on the contrary. in my view. This shot includes close-ups of three important symbolic elements in the narrative: a rose. donde empezó a urdir la trama de su pacifico asalto a la torre y la tela de araña sentimental con la que atraparia a la madre y a la hija .. we see that.
whose dark glasses give him the appearance of being blind. In the film version.) The very nature of this character blurs the line between reality and fiction. she relates her plight to that of Cinderella. (Though a small detail." and he satirizes a man who gives the fascist salute at the lowering of the flag. As a young teenager.) Her desire to be depicted with a dress like that of Madam Chen manifests the further blurring of reality and fiction. aprensivo y crédulo ). the narrative authority of this character is tentative. After hearing the story of Kim in Shanghai. the preference for a black dress matches the aesthetic of the film within the film. Dani's opening words. who is his right-hand man. She also invents a family of four where none really exists: when Forcat cures her of her headache." Anita (Ariadna Gil) likewise blurs fiction and reality. she first opts for black and then changes her color preference to green. one of the important coming-of-age themes is sex. Blay wants to use the art work as propaganda. but he settles on gas. However. he is a sort of "mole. "Así empieza mi historia" (11). The narrative offers differing voices regarding Kim and the other maquis. ¡Cría cuervos!. these tricks connote a literariness both in their play-acting and in their reference to folktale (Sleeping Beauty). which is shot in black and white. we would "identify with Jack simply because he is the one continually on the scene" (Story and Discourse 157-158)." and he gives the example that if Jack is in several scenes. "Hasta luego.edu/ps/printdoc. saying that we all have our little vices. and the film expands on and visually exploits motifs that are hinted at in the novel. Furthermore. and therefore does not convey the same temporal dichotomy as in the original narrative. and Dani first learns of his existence when that furniture begins to mysteriously shake and Blay emerges from its interior. The theme of reality/fiction that is at the crux of the embedded narrative also appears in the drawing that Capitán Blay commissions Dani to do of Susana (Aida Folch). Point of view is fundamental to the fiction/reality theme throughout. etc. The Marsé text begins. she begins to cry as she leaves. El sur. a slight change from page to screen here is significant. However. as he disguises himself as a pedestrian who has been hit by a streetcar. His point of view provides narrative information that is sometimes accurate and other times not: although he informs Dani about Kim's background as a son of a wealthy family who was disowned when he fell in love with the maid. and he constantly satirizes Franco and his regime. Secretos del corazón. His mother reproaches him.com. in the film. (The film conflates the emissions from the factory and the possible gas leak. (In the novel. he wonders if they are for one of her lovers." or a Republican who lives in hiding from the repressive Franco regime. The point of view may reside in a character who is 'followed' in some sense. is called a "delinquent. he obfuscates the neighborhood gossip ("mentira podrida"). stumbles. insisting on being depicted with a black Chinese dress.galegroup. (Blay complains of being old. The young Dani as protagonist and narrator links this film to a long heritage of coming-of-age narratives in Spanish cinema (El espíritu de la colmena. Kim is first called a "legend" (which makes him more fictive than real).12 Dani's point of view is doubly limited. since it has the innate limitations of all first-person narratives. and the important change in wording from the novel underscores the tentativeness of the film narrator's narrative authority. familia. as well. she affirms that everything with her sick daughter and her is wonderful ("estupendamente").wisc." http://go. showing that Susana's sickness is due to the presence of the noxious emissions of the chimney. The recurrent presence on screen of Capitán Blay (Fernando Fernán-Gómez) underscores his point of view in the film text. whereas he later admits that a relative of Anita infected the young girl." The young boys view the hole in the street as a possible tomb for the maquis Forcat. it simply represents "la ineficacia histórica de este pais. saying that his age is "el doble de Franco y la madre que lo parió. The initial close-up of Blay underscores the importance of speaking or telling on the part of this character.Print There are some minor but important differences between the first person narrator of the novel and of the film. as he tries to determine the source of a disagreeable smell: cat shit and rotten eggs are possibilities. Susana insists that Dani do another type of drawing in which she is cured and wears a flower in her hair.13 Chatman notes that "interest point of view can be established quite independently.library. When she returns home drunk. Capitán Blay's opening words also connote uncertainty. "No sé muy bien dónde empezar mi historia .do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 4/11 .14 In his flat.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center .. Blay inhabits a hidden room that is accessed through an armoire. When Dani discovers cigars in the basket of fruit that he is to take to Doña Conxa. a visual element that manifests the male gaze (as we see a close-up of a drawing). Called "el hombre invisible" in the novel. He hides the sketches in his room. Forcat. Belying her state. In the novel. also links him implicitly to the narrator of that classic picaresque novel." is in the voice-over by the child actor that continues throughout the film. Susana also plays tricks on Dani when she pretends to be asleep. and it also is that of a young and somewhat ingenuous person. saying that the gas has left him "fulminado"). Dani's "little vice" is his sketches of naked women. His role as Lazarillo to the quixotic Capitán Blay (Fernando Fernán Gómez). Dani describes himself as "timorato. she changes her directions to Dani. Blay's wanderings throughout the city further underscore the fiction/reality theme. and loses her shoe.) that also share the same chronotope: postcivil war Spain. whereas for Blay. thus manifesting the postwar taboo regarding sexuality.ezproxy. saying. Blay's persona allows him to become a voice of criticism..
are "el desprestigio del héroe" and "la corrupción de los sueños" (Luzán 47). It is significant that from that list--Gilda. The rest of this sequence contains the most important transformation from page to screen. Trueba tried to recreate two separate realities: "la Barcelona de la infancia de Juan Marsé y el Shanghai de las peliculas que veía en el cine de su barrio y el mundo de fantasia que le transportaban" (Renoir 2) While working on this project. according to Marsé. the kimono. the children's discovery of certain objects in Forcat's suitcase--a French newspaper. An American in the RAF. and a revolver--seem to confirm his condition as a maquis who has experienced what he tells. The idea of him possibly wanting to throw his pistol into the water from the original narrative (213) is materialized on screen.wisc. (The lie in the original narrative is more blatant. a stamp. Forcat's very first segment of the flashback tale should cause us to doubt his credibility. The next segment tells of Kim in Shanghai. someone knocks Kim out. "Con el blanco y negro recuperamos la nostalgia del tiempo que no hemos vivido y del cine que no hemos hecho" (García 38). His narrative makes us "see" Kim's first exploit: narrowly escaping arrest. In the fourth segment. which. "¿Quién no lo conoce?" Her explanation that when Kim saw them together. Casablanca. but it does not reflect the demythification that is one of the most important themes of the novel. but also destroys the credibility of Forcat.library. both of which have the function of shattering our versions of reality presented by the secondary narrator up to now. and then places the weapon in Kim's hand. Hitchcock's The Shadow of a Doubt. The arrival of Denis in search of his family not only further shatters the figure of Kim as a legend. It is significant that precisely this first segment of the tale within the tale contains the narrative information that will later catch Forcat in a lie. Kim finally confirms Chen's affair in his visit to The Yellow Sky: sneaking into Omar's private quarters. a copy of La conquista del pan.15 A dissolve marks the beginning of the first segment of the "long story" that Forcat tells. he chose Hitchcock's film to be on the billboard of the Cine Rovira when Dani goes to the movies at the end of the film. Trueba notes. and again the concept of point of view is crucial. Regarding his aesthetic choice of black and white for the embedded film narrative. This adds to Forcat's mysterious and exotic air.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 5/11 . Trueba documented and saw several of the films that were showing in Barcelona from 1946 to 1948 in order to give to the black and white film within the film the look of that period. Omar was merely asking about her husband proves to be a lie. Josef von Sternberg's The Shanghai Gesture. implying that if they do not believe him. all of which create a seemingly contradictory depiction of this character.galegroup. Like the legendary Kim http://go. the German denies this identity. "¿Conoce a ese hombre?" is an elusive rhetorical response. and postcards from Shanghai seem to validate him as narrator. and the point-of-view close-up tracking shot of Madame Chen's legs as she lies in Omar's bed underscores her illicit sexual affair. the Gestapo torturer whom Michel Lévy had identified as Omar. a communist. they should ask Susana's mother. because it shows him as a falsifier when he expertly makes fake passports for his fellow maquis. The syntagmatic relationship between the rose in segment four that Omar acquires in The Yellow Sky and the rose that Kim sees in a vase in Madame Chen's home imbues the flower with the symbolism of Chen's adultery. however. which is filmed in black and white. Kim later escapes. and a man with a dubious reputation. the Marx Brothers' Go West. Forcat further solidifies his credibility with regard to his youthful listeners by invoking the important adult in their lives. This is one of two culminating scenes in the narrative. reality: Michel wanted Kim to kill Omar because he knew that the German was Madam Chen's lover. and diverse opinions regarding the German further point to the inability to arrive at the truth: he is described as a gentleman. the postcards--are now simply the work of "un maestro de la falsificación. Although Forcat had told of Kim crossing the border with Denis's wife and child. With this important aesthetic choice. The heroes are demythified. an excellent person.Print The arrival of Forcat (Eduard Fernández) introduces the other important narrator. Finally. and Madam Chen reveals the more mundane. This radical departure from the novel seems to fit the film noir aesthetic that served as a basis for the black and white film within the film. Kim simply turns and walks away. and carries Madame Chen to a boat. Forcat establishes his credibility as narrator with the physical objects that "prove" his experience and knowledge: as in the novel.ezproxy. and they ran off together. The other culminating scene of demythification occurs following the last segment of the Shanghai narrative. Instead of a mission of justice. Madame Chen is yet another character who obfuscates fiction and reality. and of course. since Forcat falsely states that Kim "entregó a Carmen" 95). Her answer to the question. murders Omar." Susana cannot bear the demythification of her father and the destruction of the storyteller.com. he sees the German come out of a room. Forcat becomes merely a "mosquita muerta" and "pobre Diablo. and gives new meaning to the image from the opening sequence of the film. Throughout the embedded narrative. Forcat displays extraordinary powers by heating a glass of cold milk with energy that emanates from his hands. Denis now reveals his version of the truth: "el cabronazo de Kim" and Carmen were lovers.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . indeed sordid. The second segment of the embedded narrative also contains dubious information that is reflected in the transformation in the identity of the German from Kruger to Omar and the fact that Kim never really saw him. In the film version. Dani significantly confirms this seemingly impossible event by touching the milk. Kim questions Madame Chen about her relationship with Omar. fan. Also faithful to the original." The earlier objects that had established Forcat's credibility--the letters. and they sail out to sea amid a storm. the motivation is jealousy. the question of what is true is of great importance. However. he successfully leads Denis's wife Carmen and her child across the mountainous French border to exile. The reason for Kim's mission to Shanghai was to kill Kruger.edu/ps/printdoc.
de creer en otras cosas. al mismo tiempo. In addition. In the third version. After summarizing what occurred in the years following Forcat's departure (Denis had a bar with "fulanas" where Susana worked. mierda" seemingly refers to her frustration with the game.ezproxy. after Denis pushes Forcat aside and violently approaches Susana. Although her response.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center .wisc." saying. and characters offer differing opinions about him (45). In the second version. His role as maquis is emphasized early on by references to his distribution of incendiary pamphlets exhorting workers (in Catalan) to fight for social justice. the subsequent police persecution (scenes 10. Narrative point of view is again central to the development of this theme. "Toda la novela no deja de ser una reflexión sobre lo que significaba el cine para la generación de Juan [Marsé]. The narration of three versions of the events. The tears are more than result of the simple fact that Susana. Susana struggles with Denis. Her negative reaction. which Dani says the he always imagined and which is filmed in slow motion. it simultaneously connotes Dani's disappointment. La necesidad de evadirnos. As in Erice's previous screen adaptation.library. uno puede fugarse por la ramas de la imaginación. The emptying of the revolver's chamber occurs in a high-angle shot reflecting Forcat's point of view. Blay has a skeptical view of this "hero. The most important element is the recurring image of the dead Republican soldier--Dani's father--in the snow.. the chapter ending with the image of the dead Republican soldier in the snow relates the image metonymically to Blay. However. The foregrounding of narrative point of view and its importance for the reality/fiction theme culminates in the epilogue of the narrative. Trueba further believes that his film is "sobre la necesidad de la imaginación para poder soportar la realidad.. "¿Dónde hemos quedado?" and "¿Por dónde iba?" In addition. it constitutes one more disillusion for the protagonist." so that Erice captures the temporal dichotomy between the narrator and events narrated. and it is Anita who fires the shot. The director comments. and when Dani finally is able to show Susana his completed drawing. the cinematographic version of Adelaida García Morales's El sur. 4)--also serves to foreground the civil war. who was working in the ticket booth. mierda. Additional material at the beginning of the script--the classified ads for information regarding lost combatants. "Mierda. This. and Denis falls feet first down the stairs. did not even look up to see him when he bought his ticket. Forcat.16 Erice adds material to the original narrative in order to foreground the civil war. La novela trata como. Not only is this the first and last image of the script.com. y. Throughout the narrative. and when Denis comes to carry Susana out to the garden.Print that the teller of the Shanghai tale has invented. as there are three versions of events. and he metes out justice to the man who had returned Anita's life to depravation. Susana is focused on playing a new game when Dani offers to show her his work of art.17 After Capitán Blay's death. and the tray that is used to serve Kim in Shanghai. the scenes of a battlefield with dead bodies (scenes 3. asking why he did not draw her shitting. Forcat simply leaves. 11). a shot is fired. particularly Kim and Forcat. the dissolve used as a transition to the fifth segment of Forcat's tale links the two narratives with the visual bridge of the tray that Forcat uses to serve a snack to his adolescent audience. he steps on the drawing. Gracias a ellos existen el cine y la literatura" (Renoir 2) Víctor Erice's Promesa de Shanghai The first-person narrative in Erice's script is framed by the adult Dani's hand writing his story as we hear his voice.galegroup. Denis had essentially been Susana's pimp. The final images of the film are the low-angle shots of Dani sitting in the movie theater as the light from the projector appears over his head and tears roll down his cheeks. Kim "y los de su cuerda hacían lo que les salía de los cojones y eso no puede ser" (139).edu/ps/printdoc. then. but it appears throughout. lo imaginado. however. which corresponds to what the newspaper reported. and he often filters it through Dani's perspective. the heroism and demythification of these maquis swings back and forth like a pendulum. then. that the film advertised on the marquis of the cinema that Dani enters at the end of the movie is Hitchcock's Shadow of a Doubt. ante una realidad adversa. The distraught young artist then tears it to pieces. los sueños. Denis now rules the roost: he prohibits Dani from visiting Susana. "Aquí empieza mi historia . Denis falls head first down the stairs. In the first version. Ending the film with a scene in the cinema constitutes an important intertextual reference for Trueba. who became a father figure to Dani.. It is significant. Denis again falls down head first. causes doubt about which account is correct and calls into question the truth. Kim never actually appears on screen in the Erice version. In the film. it is Susana who fires the revolver. but Forcat later returned). These tears reflect the profound disillusionment that is concomitant with the main themes of the narrative. y encontrar otra manera de vivir. and we see that Forcat has the pistol in hand. and then Forcat takes the pistol from her and we hear the five shots off screen. As in the original. the film narrative also foregrounds the act of narrating by drawing our attention to the narrator. asks. the description that accompanies his http://go. Dani narrates how Denis aggressively enters the house to take Susana with him but is shot in the back.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 6/11 . restores some of the heroism to the discredited maquis: he sacrifices himself by shielding either Anita or Susana from the guilt. is heightened in the film version: the drawing falls to the floor. but its real meaning later becomes clear in its syntagmatic relationship with the specific recurring image of the dead soldier and its importance to the central theme of the film: the demythification of heroes. como la realidad te persigue y no te deja escapar de todo eso" (Renoir 2). esa ventana por la que uno escapaba de la realidad.
siempre me faltó algo. When Susana puts on the chipao. When Forcat refers to his Chinese robe.Dani: No.Susana: "¿Qué?"Forcat: "Valor. Nevertheless. algo enigmática por la expresión de Forcat. as proof that Susana's father had been in Shanghai. obligado por las circunstancias a dar a Susana noticia de su padre desaparecido. 106 ). such as "la ausencia recurrente de la figura paterna" and "la presencia del mito . they find a revolver. The presence of a Chinese sailor who approaches them to sell chipaos seems to add to the ambiguity. "¡Y decía que no había pegado un tiro en su vida!" (252). "Lo dice ahí: por cumplir con su deber." as well as Forcat's reaffirmation. pese a todo. a gift from Kim. calling him a "legendario personaje" (155).. He appears with a bouquet in Scene 126 (321). As part of the demythification process. because it is the only irrefutable proof that Forcat was indeed in China.com. Tiene uno. Forcat can only respond. Erice notes in the script. which is linguistic proof of the authenticity of Forcat's experience in the orient. aparte de la salud.Dani: Si y el Kim fue a Shanghai en el Veracruz. postcards from ocean liners. The most important change from the original narrative is the elimination of Forcat's tale about Kim in Shanghai. Erice's script notes that "todo en ella contribuye a crear la illusion de que se ha convertido en una jovencita oriental" (233). The photo gains importance with each scene in which it appears (scenes 91 . su parquedad de gestos.. nada!Forcat: ¿Tú no crees que el Kim está allí?(282) When Dani accuses Forcat of having forged the postcards from Kim. como espacio legendario y nebuloso donde se emnarcan los perfiles desvaídos de la figura ausente" (36). Shanghai becomes that legendary and nebulous space. Santamarina notes that there are thematic affinities between Erice's earlier films and Marsé's novel.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 7/11 .4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . Dani and Susana investigate Forcat's suitcase. "La respuesta resulta. Referring to the http://go. y el carácter de su vestuario tipicamente oriental" (182). ¿verdad? ¡Pues ya he visto a dónde ha ido a parar! ¡De Shanghai. Kropotkin's La conquista del pan. Susana manifests doubt about the veracity of narratives. this would be difficult to express on screen. pero sí que fuma . es el detalle que le faltaba al chaval para imaginar el itinerario que debió seguir Forcat cuando. pero dijo que no había pegao [sic] un tiro en su vida. Although Dani realizes that Susana's version of her father's visit is "pura fabulación" (176). "La presencia del marinero chino en la taberna. 94 . This marks an important difference from the original narrative. Es lo mismo con el revólver.wisc. which Dani hides under his shirt when he hears Forcat approaching (256). y no digamos un héroe . and Susana comments. however. and a single white rose appears on her nightstand instead of the photograph of her father (329). the rose symbolized the sexual relationship between Madame Chen and the German.ezproxy.. In his film script. buscaba una historia que contarle" (279).Forcat: Y es cierto. "Cuando hagas el segundo dibujo.library. "El deber me lleva de nuevo a esa lejana ciudad [Shanghai]. con su cargamento de 'souvenirs'.. and they find records by Edith Piaf and Charles Tenet. Forcat gives Susana the package that he claims is a gift from Kim: a silk chipao (Chinese dress) and a fan. Imagino que se trata de una misión especial" (180). Dani follows Forcat to the port (scene 97) where he sees the ship called the Veracruz. However. Whereas in Marsé's (and Trueba's) version of the narrative.. Perhaps we think that Forcat could have acquired the garment right there in Barcelona. and a note from Kim. transferring them from Madam Chen to Susana: the rose and the oriental make-up. both Kim's voiceover reading the words on his postcard. quiero salir con este traje y este abanico" (183). lo lo he visto.. here it symbolizes that of Susana and Denís.edu/ps/printdoc. Dani's subsequent confrontation with Forcat regarding the truth is ambiguous at best. "En esta vida. decir la verdad a veces no sirve de nada" (283). Denís metonymically has taken Kim's place. a fake refugee card. As in the original narrative. but also rice powder that is traditional among Chinese women). "el nombre que todavía sobrevive a duras penas inscrito en su proa enmohecida" (270) which causes Dani to be disconcerted.Print photo counters this skepticism. This discovery represents "la pérdida definitiva de una ilusión" (271). there are two comments regarding the fiction/reality dichotomy. In a totally original sequence. clippings from French newspapers. Forcat's magical ability to warm milk with his hands (199) also lends credibility to his extraordinary character. Although the embedded narrative is missing in Erice's script. no lo dijo.." The most important item. As further proof. but to Dani's (and our) surprise.. is a photograph of a young Forcat as a bartender in the Shanghai Club from 1930. seem to solidify of Kim's heroic character. pointing to Forcat's hands as proof. "¿Verdad verdadera?" and Forcat affirms that it is so by shaking his head. she skeptically asks.Forcat: Eso no lo dije nunca. Although the script notes.. both of which show skepticism about the act of narration. Forcat converses with the vendor in Chinese. Susana then instructs Dani. The narrative within the narrative is totally eliminated.. Forcat later openly admits his cowardice to the children: Forcat: "Para ser un soldado de verdad . marked by denials and rhetorical questions more than answers: Dani: "¿Por qué cuenta usted tantas trolas? Decía que no fumaba . she also wears makeup (not just lipstick. "Seem to" because "imagino" leaves open the possibility that that the mission is just imagination. Erice maintains two important motifs from the embedded narrative.galegroup. In addition.
Consequently. Perhaps the process of moving from illusion to disillusion is an inevitable part of becoming an adult.. Erice's script still demythifies this character. preciosa?" (305). her hair. 143. Susana points to physical proof of Kim's trip to Shanghai--the dress. Susana and Dani look at each other when he goes to the movies. shouts at the factory. and Susana tells him he is in Shanghai. Desde la calle se le oye gritar . and it also relates to Forcat's statement that "decir la verdad a veces no sirve de nada. and when Denís uncovers her. The original two shots that come from the darkness of the hallway is clarified by Anita: "Lo único que hizo mi niña fue defenderse" (374). and the Sancho-like Dani informs the quixotic Blay that the smell emanates from the chimney of the Plexiglas factory. but words unspoken leave an ambiguous meaning: "Se trata de un cruce de miradas cuyo sentido último permanence abierto" (390). In a beautiful visual transformation. the dead Republican soldier in the snow: "No sé de dónde has sacado tú este cuento de la trinchera y la nieve .library. and there is dialogue that inspired by Don Quixote's episode of the galley slaves (244). Susana gets under her bedcovers. provides a poetic touch to the ambiguity regarding truth and fiction. which Erice complicates when music from the Renoir film accompanies images on screen that show the thirteen-year-old Susana dressed in her chipao on board the Veracruz. in this script Blay wears binoculars when he goes out walking with Dani (85. más de un vecino sigue también con curíosidad lo que está pasando. no es verdad lo que se dice por ahí . and the tears she sheds when discovering the truth cause her white makeup to disappear: "su imagen de oriental se desvanece" (313). and Blay. thus paralleling Dani's earlier accusation. Even so. Es Forcat quien abre. 91. "Entonces yo aún no sabía que a pesar de crecer y por mucho que uno mire hacia el futuro. the script even emphasizes this fact ("Un detalle: no lleva sus prismáticos" http://go. that everything in movies is a lie. La seguimos síempre desde la calle. Denís beats him with his walking stick.Print "novella de quiosco" entitled Shanghai that Dani brings her. Forcat again shoots Denís in the garden.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . The narrator's rhetorical question as to whether he would be able to ask Susana who shot Forcat maintains us in suspense (389). which had been up in a bun.wisc. pero no tiene tiempo de decir nada. he attributes it to the plague. she says. here. When Dani later discusses the events with Doña Conxa. saying that Anita "un día cuenta una cosa y al siguiente otra.com. Pronto es evidente que una fuerte discussion tiene lugar en la torre. en busca tal vez del primer deslumbramiento" precede the final image of the dead Republican soldier. as if battling windmills. Anita tried to clarify details of what had occurred." (369). (367). is now loose.. Erice even refers to Blay and Dani as "el caballero y el escudero" (189). There is quixotic pathos in two scenes in which Blay suffers physical violence at the hands of representatives of authority: a municipal policeman who beats Blay when the Captain shouts that the information published in the newspaper Solidaridad nacional is all lies (70-71). When Forcat confronts Denís over Susana. Capitán Blay smells something bad. El espíritu de la colmena. In addition." which results in the guard throwing him to the ground (106-107).. 96. in Erice's Promesa. 229-30). they could have returned his dead son's binoculars. and he later refers to it as a "función" and "cuento chino" (307). When Blay leaves the house without the binoculars. The intertextuality of Erice's choice for the film being shown. Erice underscores Blay's point of view and the act of seeing through a significant change in a prop. To begin with. this does not occur until scene 33 (page 101). The narrator explains that much later. Blay. The narrative point of view that is so important in determining the truth takes a new twist in Erice's script. "Siempre supo que sólo era eso: un cuento" (308). His allegation is stronger than in the original.galegroup. after Denís stumbles into the garden. now covered completely with snow (392). El Denís empuja la puerta y penetra en el interior. Erice radically changes the narrative order regarding Blay's initial appearance.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 8/11 . We hear two shots. There are strong intertextual resonances in this relationship to both the Lazarillo and the Quixote. which was represented by a seminal recurring image of the film. 89. me parece que no son de verdad" 196). Yo no sé cuál es la verdad" (387). Denis. finally contending to Anita... "De estas noveluchas no te puedes fiar. Unlike in the novel and the Trueba film. Forcat appears and shoots him three times. points to tangible proof of his own--Forcat's hands (311). where the Captain complains that at the very least. Erice shows this episode from two different points of view--exterior and interior. La gran ilusión. Dani comments. she reinforces the ambiguity of the situation. "a mí los sitios. and Blay becomes an even more quixotic--and pathetic--figure in Erice's version. When discussing a movie about Shanghai (presumably Josef von Sternberg's The Shanghai Gesture). Dani's mother Rosa destroys Dani's myth regarding his father.." Elimination of the tale within the tale minimizes the importance of the secondary narrator. This metafilmic comment echoes Isabel's remark in Erice's first film. "agarrarse a un ultimo resquicio de verdad" (310). Todo lo que dicen es puro cuento" (194). negating the gossip that circulated: "No. The script manifests points of view that are both limited and conflictive regarding the events surrounding Denis's death: "Desde alguna ventana o balcón cercano. and we now see events on the inside of the house. calling the owner "asesino de inocentes. Pues no es verdad" (336). Unlike in the novel. The narrator's final words. The other character whose point of view is important in the Marsé novel and Trueba adaptation. in the words of the script. cuando los veo en una peli. his choice of words reveals the fictitious nature of Forcat's version of events: "¿Pero quién te ha contado ese cuento. the post-cards--in order to. When El Denís asks for Kim's whereabouts. however. In both the opening scene of the novel and the Trueba film. 100.edu/ps/printdoc. Her clarification that Forcat had opened the door leads to a flashback in Scene 157 in which there is a shift in point of view.ezproxy. as he accuses Kim of stealing his wife and of denouncing his maquis companions. compartiendo el punto de vista de los vecinos del barrio. also changes in the Erice version. uno crece siempre hacia el pasado.
La fidelidad o infidelidad es secundaria y carece de interés. the original text called for it. 5). but in that case. Forcat's tale of Kim's adventure in Shanghai occupies the following pages (since some pages have both the main narrative and the embedded narrative. Erice's rendition would undoubtedly have been as excellent as his previous works. "Lo de la fidelidad es un espejismo. 7. Earlier adaptations include La oscura historia de la prima Montse (Jordi Cadena.library.Print 285). It is on this outing that Dani hears Capitán Blay identify himself with his real name (287). Creo que algo que se escapa y que es lo más importante. 5. and saying that it is the best screen adaptation of any of his novels. que los niños ponen la cara de la madre en el cuento y que eso es una forma además de unir las dos historias" (García 38).5-192. 6. play the role? Trueba justifies his casting of Ariadna Gil in the double role of Anita and Madame Chen: "Cuando me ofrecen el proyecto. 8186. la respiración. Asmis argues that Socrates "relies on the etymology of the term psychagogia to reveal its underlying. why not have a Chinese-Spanish actress. and the unreliable nature of the secondary narrator in Marsé and Trueba temporarily captivate ("bewitch") the reader/viewer for a time. the illocutionary aspect is what sentences intend to do. Erice adds an accent to the name Denís. la madre. "Los embrujos de Shanghai" When discussing film adaptations of novels.' Only sham rhetoric beguiles others.20 From the perspective of writers and filmmakers who may not believe the political rhetoric of "España va bien.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 9/11 . the word "faithful" almost inevitably arises. 1993). 133-38.5." perhaps this process applies not only to these narratives. Diane Garvey believes that "We can only conclude that the boys who make up the aventis are just as fictional as the aventis themselves. true meaning. 1989).ezproxy. 1977).wisc. 145-152. director Trueba states.buscacine). and El amante bilingüe (Vicente Aranda. The limited knowledge of the first-person narrator that manifests the child's point of view. 3. such as Silvia Abascal. 2. 8. Sí te dicen que caí (Vicente Aranda. Likewise. Trueba's quality adaptation reaffirms him as one of the most important Spanish film-makers today. When he finally "sees" the truth. (www. before the naked truth destroys any notion of illusion..8-167. 94-102. 203-205. 182. 206-213 4.edu/ps/printdoc. After La fuente amarilla. tiene que ser Chen. Blay dies (291). Últimas tardes con Teresa (Gonzalo Herralde 1984). or Ramona Sun López. I have used decimal points to show at approximately what point of the page the latter begins): 74-79.3. In the next scene (Scene 112)." (In Erice's script. The focus is placed on the process of storytelling" (385).com. José Belmonte Serrano affirms that Marsé's El embrujo de Shanghai contains "una prosa modélica. el aire de la escena" (my emphasis) (García 38). labrada a cincel. The choice of Gil to play Madam Chen shows the importance of the star system in cinema. vuelvo a leer la novela y lo primero que pienso es que Anita." and calls it "una obra con la que Juan Marsé llegó a reafirmarse como uno de los escritores en lengua española más importantes de la segunda mitad del siglo veinte" (19. and other critics dismissing such criteria and focussing on the quality of the film narrative per se. . but also to Spanish cinema and to contemporary Spanish life in general. calling it "un peliculón" and "espectacular" (Luzán 44). Unlike the novel and the Trueba version. 156. Using the Russian formalists' terms. la mirada. Regarding Marsé's Si te dicen que caí. 1980)..galegroup. and the publication of La promesa de Shanghai adds to Erice's prominent position in contemporary Spanish culture. certainly Trueba's film more closely follows both the plot (sjuzet) and the story (fabula) of the original novel than Erice's "promise. it is too much for him. Unja Carolina Choi. La muchacha de las bragas de oro (Vicente Aranda. and the perlocutionary aspect is what they in fact do (99 ff). with numerous theorists contriving various models of relationships between the two texts.5.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . Lo que importa es el punto de vista. "Sophist" originally meant "skilled craftsman" (Freeman 341).18 Regarding this debate.5. real rhetoric guides souls to self-knowledge through knowledge of the soul" (157). This recalls Vicente Aranda's choice of casting Victoria Abril in multiple roles in his film adaptation of Marsé's Si te dicen que caí. In an interesting http://go. 115-121.19 The function of the narrator(s) and point of view in all three versions of the narrative is of fundamental importance. Author Marsé was certainly happy with Trueba's adaptation. the characters take on a life of their own in myriad scenes that are not in the original narrative).21 Notes 1. 'guidance of the soul. John Austin notes that texts have three fundamental aspects: the locutionary aspect is grammatical.
21. the veteran actor was the unanimous choice for the role (Marsé "Algo más" 49). Before Erice was terminated by Gómez. and Sports and United States Universities for a grant that supported my research on Spanish cinema during the spring of 2002. Culture. Film Theory and Criticism. Cambridge. 14. Seymour. Seymour. "El guión de Erice es una pieza literaria extraordinaria. Chatman. 1962. 1897. se acaba" (www. The marvelous portrayal of Blay by this veteran actor led novelist Marsé to muse.). M. 15." and he notes that from the very day that the film project was conceived. 12. as Gil will do in Trueba's film. Erice vino varias veces a Barcelona y hablamos mucho del tema.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 10/11 . que crean una ficción de familia y logran un instante de felicidad. Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film." Ojancano:-Revista-de-LiteraturaEspañola. Pero como todas las cosas hermosas. I would like to express my appreciation to the Program for Cultural Cooperation between Spain's Ministry of Education. are actually transmitted by the narrative agency I call the image-maker" (74). W. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. M. 13. " El embrujo de Shanghai: Regreso de las sombras tabernarias. Kozloff notes that "heterodiegetic voice-over narrators speak only intermittently and do not mediate every moment of the story. How to Do Things With Words. The Dialogic Imagination. "Se trata de una serie de personajes desamparados. Trueba notes. 18 (ending chapter 1) 35 (ending chapter 3) 52 (ending chapter 4). See Thomas Deveny's Contemporary Spanish Film from Fiction. Conrad. "¿Pero qué haces?" adds a note of suspense and a romantic touch to Susana's film persona. Trans. 1981. 11. Preface to The Nigger of the Narcissus. For a summary of this debate.p. Madrid: Areté. and 79. During the spring of 2002. 10. Victor. the only Spanish film to open in more cinemas in Madrid was Almodóvar's Hable con ella. 1978. see the Introduction to Thomas Deveny's Contemporary Spanish Film from Fiction. cambiamos bastantes impresiones". Tenía que ver con la novela. dice. 18. "El resultado era buenísimo. Such narrators. con las vidas rotas. "estaría dispuesto a afirmar que Fernando Fernán-Gómez era ya de algún modo el capitán Blay desde mucho antes de publicarse la novela. The slight transformation in the movie." In Leo Braudy and Marshall Cohen.buscacine). Griffith's Broken Blossoms (1919) with Gish dressed in Chinese garb. sábanas revueltas y lentas espirales de humo" (205). the narrator describes "un nido de cojines de raso.Print parallelism. M. Austin: U Texas P. La promesa de Shanghai. Erice. "The Cinematic Narrator. in twentyfour. 162-174. 2000: 3-23.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center . 19.galegroup. 9. John.ezproxy. This symbol may be based on a visual image from the novel. There is an associative relationship between this role and Fernán-Gómez's portrayal of the "mole" in Mambrú se fue a la Guerra (1986). MA: Harvard U P. 16. The concept of "chronotope" is from M. along with the accompanying scenic presentation.edu/ps/printdoc. Works Cited Austin. 1999: 473-486. Ithaca NY: Cornell U P. the cover photo for Erice's script features Lillian Gish in D. Marsé stated. Joseph. pero partía de un enfoque diferente. http://go. Story and Discourse. Belmonte-Serrano.wisc.com. 20. Fifth ed. 2001. Chatman. London: Dent. He seguido todo el proceso de su creación. when Susana points the pistol to her chest and Dani exclaims. NY: Oxford UP. Jose.library. Bakhtin. The image appears in scenes 5 [in Dani's artistic rendition]. When Kim encounters Omar with Madam Chen. 17. Introductory Readings. muy interesante" (Hermoso s. Bakhtin (84). April 18.
Kathleen. Source Citation (MLA 7th Edition) Deveny. Berkeley: University of California Press. Trueba. Cambridge. Hunter.galegroup.do? id=GALE%7CH1100104828&v=2." Dirigido (abril 2002): 36-38. Juan Marsé's Si te dicen que caí: The Self-Reflexive Text and the Question of Referentiality. Ed. 2nd ed. Luzán.ezproxy.edu/ps/i. 2014.library. 2011. Sarah. Invisible Storytellers: Voice-over Narration in American Fiction Film. Fernando. Rpt." El país 12 abril 2002: 38." El país semanal 1331 (31 marzo 2002): 44-49." http://www.elmundo. Film.1&u=wisc_madison&it=r&p=LitRC&sw=w&asid=ff6af15daf7d99a6577f9f569dd89630 Gale Document Number: GALE|H1100104828 http://go. Juan.galegroup. "El juego del agua y el aceite. "Narrative Voice in El embrujo de Shanghai: Novel. Literature Resource Center.ezproxy. "El blanco y negro recupera la nostalgia por el cine que no hemos hecho. 1980): 376-87. Antonio.2 (March.es/1999/11/06/cultura/06N0093. Promise. Diane I. 1966. "Algo más que saberse el papel de memoria y no tropezar con los muebles del decorado.com." Letras Peninsulares 16. "A propósito de Shanghai. Web." El país 12 abril 2002: 38. 302. Borja and Emma Rodríguez.html Kozloff. Marsé. 2002. "Simples marionetas de representación. Kathleen. El embrujo de Shanghai. Angel. Document URL http://go. Rocio.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&prodId=LitRC&userGroupName=wisc_madison… 11/11 . c1988.3 (Fall-Winter 2003): 719-738.edu/ps/printdoc.Print Fernández-Santos. Freeman. Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers. Julia. The Pre-Socratic Philosophers. Hermoso. "El embrujo de Shanghai» que nunca veremos. 1966. Jeffrey W. García." El país semanal 1331 (31 marzo 2002): 49.wisc. Vol. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Cambridge MA: Harvard UP.library. Santamarina. Garvey. Detroit: Gale. Freeman. 6 Apr. MA: Harvard U P. Madrid: Lolafilms.4/6/2014 Literature Resource Center .wisc. MLN 95.com. Thomas.
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