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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank

Chapter 1
1.1

The Sociological Perspective

True/False Questions
1) The corners of life that people occupy, such as jo s, inco!e, e"ucation, gen"er, age, an" race, are referre" to as the social i!perative. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge () )ecause sociology is ase" on co!!on sense, it is an e*cellent "iscipline for stu"ents to stu"y $ho approach the $orl" in a rational, !atter+of+fact $ay. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 2 Page Ref: Skill: !""lication ,) Sociologists often use -co!!on sense. to un"erstan" they $ay the $orl" -is.. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: Skill: Knowledge /) #pplying the scientific !etho" to the social $orl" is calle" e!piricis!. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 2 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 0) Her ert Spencer elieve" the !ost capa le an" intelligent !e! ers of a society $oul" survive $hile the $ea1 an" less capa le $oul" "ie, thus i!proving society, in a !aster plan he calle" -the survival of the fittest.. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 2 Page Ref: # Skill: $o%"&e'ension 4) 5arl 6ar* thought of hi!self as a classical sociologist, a la el that greatly influence" his theories on class conflict. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: #() Skill: Knowledge 7) '!ile 8ur1hei! i"entifie" the "egree of social integration as the pri!ary varia le to e*plain "ifferent rates of suici"e $ithin "ifferent 'uropean nations. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 1 Page Ref: )(* Skill: Knowledge 9) #ccor"ing to 6a* :e er, the -sign. Calvinists loo1e" for as an in"ication they $ere save" $as their successful invest!ent in capital. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 1 Page Ref: *(+ Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank >.) Frances Per1ins, a sociologist, $on the ?o el Pri@e for her $or1 $ith the ho!eless in Hull+House. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: + Skill: Knowledge 1<) 8espite her acclai!e" research on social life, until recently Harriet 6artineau $as est 1no$n for translating Co!teAs $or1s on sociology into 'nglish. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 1 Page Ref: + Skill: Knowledge 11) )oo1er T. :ashington $as the first #frican #!erican to earn a "octorate "egree fro! Harvar" 3niversity. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10 Skill: Knowledge 1() C. :right 6ills urge" #!erican sociologists to concentrate on social refor!, "eveloping the concept of the po$er elite to illustrate ho$ top lea"ers of usiness, politics, an" the !ilitary $ere an i!!inent threat to #!erican free"o!. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12(1, Skill: $o%"&e'ension 1,) Sociologists have al$ays agree" that the !ost i!portant goal of sociology is to generate social change. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1, Skill: Knowledge 1/) #ccor"ing to the principles of sy! olic interactionis!, sy! ols not only allo$ relationships to e*ist, they also allo$ society to e*ist. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1# Skill: $o%"&e'ension 10) Sociologists $ho use the functionalist perspective stress ho$ in"ustriali@ation an" ur ani@ation have un"er!ine" the tra"itional functions of the fa!ily. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1* Skill: $o%"&e'ension 14) Sociologist &e$is Coser pointe" out that conflict is !ost li1ely to "evelop a!ong people $ho are in close relationships. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20 Skill: Knowledge 17) Scientific research follo$s eight asic steps. #ns$er% T23' Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2, Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 19) Sociology places no i!portance on ethics an" values "uring research. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: ,, Skill: Knowledge 1>) )ecause of their training an" e*pertise, sociologists often stress their personal values in their research. #ns$er% F#&S' Diff: 1 Page Ref: , Skill: Knowledge

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6ultiple Choice Questions


1) The concept that "escri es opening a $in"o$ into unfa!iliar $orl"s that allo$s us to un"erstan" hu!an ehavior y placing it $ithin its roa"er social conte*t is calle" BBBBBBBB. #) the sociological perspective Cor i!agination) )) social location C) social integration 8) the social i!perative #ns$er% # Diff: 2 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge () :hich of the follo$ing ele!ents "i" C. :right 6ills attri ute as eing the one that sociologists $oul" use to e*plain in"ivi"ual ehaviorD #) co!!on sense )) instinct C) e*ternal influence 8) inherite" a ility #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge ,) :hen sociologistsA group people into categories ase" on their age, gen"er, e"ucational level, jo , an" inco!e, they are trying to "eter!ine BBBBBBBB. #) social net$or1 )) social location C) social personality 8) social s1ills #ns$er% ) Diff: , Page Ref: 4 Skill: !""lication /) The sociological perspective e!phasi@es ho$ the social conte*t influences peopleAs lives, particularly ho$ people are influence" y BBBBBBBB. #) ran"o! chance events )) geographical location C) inherite" genetic structure 8) society #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 0) The sociologist responsi le for suggesting the connection et$een history an" iography to e*plain the sociological i!agination $as BBBBBBBB. #) Talcott Parsons )) Her ert Spencer C) C. :right 6ills 8) '!ile 8ur1hei! #ns$er% C Diff: , Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge 4) :hat is the use of o jective an" syste!atic o servation to test theories, one that is often e!ploye" y sociologistsD #) the co!!utation process )) co!!on sense C) the scientific !etho" 8) research analysis #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: Skill: Knowledge 7) The first person to propose that the scientific !etho" coul" e applie" to the stu"y of social life $as BBBBBBBB. #) '!ile 8ur1hei! )) 6a* :e er C) 5arl 6ar* 8) #uguste Co!te #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 9) :hat $as the social event that !ost influence" #uguste Co!te to e*plore patterns $ithin society an" eco!e intereste" in $hat hol"s society togetherD #) the "iscovery of the ?e$ :orl" )) the Spanish =nEuisition C) the 2ussian 2evolution 8) the French 2evolution #ns$er% 8 Diff: 2 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge >) The notion that only the fittest !e! ers of society "eserve to survive an" that social progra!s to help the poor $ill ulti!ately $ea1en the social or"er is a "octrine 1no$n as BBBBBBBB. #) social 8ar$inis! )) positivis! C) post+!o"ernis! 8) social $elfare #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 1<) The ter! -survival of the fittest,. $hich is a principle part of the concept of social 8ar$inis!, $as coine" y BBBBBBBB. #) Charles 8ar$in )) Talcott Parsons C) #uguste Co!te 8) Her ert Spencer #ns$er% 8 Diff: , Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 11) The theorist $ho is so!eti!es referre" to as -the secon" foun"er of sociology. $as BBBBBBBB. #) Henri Saint Si!on )) Her ert Spencer C) '!ile 8ur1hei! 8) 5arl 6ar* #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 1() 5arl 6ar* suggeste" that the force that "rives hu!an history an" is at the core of hu!an society is BBBBBBBB. #) class conflict )) religion C) fa!ily 8) e"ucation #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 1,) The -all St&eet .o/&nal has "eclare" that the three greatest !o"ern thin1ers $ere BBBBBBBB, BBBBBBBB, an" BBBBBBBB. #) 5arl 6ar*F Sig!un" Freu"F #l ert 'instein )) 6a* :e erF ). F. S1innerF G. '"gar Hoover C) 5arl 6ar*F &ouis PasteurF #l ert 'instein 8) Fran1 &loy" :rightF Gonas Sal1F Sig!un" Freu" #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 1/) The social thin1er of the 1>th century $ho pre"icte" that there $oul" e a classless society once the $or1ing class unite" an" egan a revolution $as BBBBBBBB. #) '!ile 8ur1hei! )) C. :right 6ills C) Her ert Spencer 8) 5arl 6ar* #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: #() Skill: Knowledge 10) The titles 5arl 6ar* use" to "escri e the t$o classes in society $ere the BBBBBBBB an" the BBBBBBBB. #) no lesF peasants )) ourgeoisieF proletariat C) upper classF lo$er class 8) civili@e"F ar arians #ns$er% ) Diff: 2 Page Ref: #() Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank Skill: Knowledge 14) The French sociologist '!ile 8ur1hei! is !ost i"entifie" $ith $hich of the follo$ing areas of stu"yD #) social integration )) class conflict C) social 8ar$inis! 8) the spirit of capitalis! #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: ) Skill: Knowledge 17) 6a* :e er referre" to the self+"enying approach to life characteri@e" y people living frugal lives an" saving their !oney as the BBBBBBBB. #) spirit of capitalis! )) socialist conscience C) Protestant ethic 8) !anifest function #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: *(+ Skill: Knowledge 19) 5arl 6ar* elieve" that BBBBBBBB $as the central force for social change, $hile 6a* :e er elieve" that BBBBBBBB $as the force !ost responsi le for social change. #) econo!icsF religion )) e"ucationF political sta ility C) govern!entF econo!ics 8) religionF e"ucation #ns$er% # Diff: , Page Ref: * Skill: !""lication 1>) #ccor"ing to 6a* :e er, the Protestant ethic $as a central factor in the irth of BBBBBBBB. #) capitalis! )) "e!ocracy C) socialis! 8) ureaucracy #ns$er% # Diff: 2 Page Ref: + Skill: $o%"&e'ension (<) :hat "istinction "i" sociologist Frances Per1ins hol" in #!erican historyD #) She $as the first $o!an presi"ent of the #!erican Sociological #ssociation. )) She $on a ?o el Pri@e for her $or1 $ith poor $o!en. C) She $as the first $o!an electe" governor. 8) She $as the first $o!an to hol" a presi"ential ca inet position. #ns$er% 8 Diff: , Page Ref: + Knowledge (1) The first #frican #!erican to earn a "octorate fro! Harvar" 3niversity, $ho spent his lifeti!e stu"ying race relations in #!erica an" $as one of the foun"ers of the ?##CP, $as BBBBBBBB. #) :. '. ). 8u )ois )) )oo1er T. :ashington C) Heorge :ashington Carver 8) )enja!in Quarles Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 10(11 Skill: Knowledge (() The #!erican sociologist $ho focuse" on social analysis, "eveloping a stract !o"els sho$ing ho$ parts of society har!oniously $or1 together, $as BBBBBBBB. #) Talcott Parsons )) 'rnest )urgess C) 2o ert '. Par1 8) :. =. Tho!as #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12 Skill: Knowledge (,) )ecause of her outstan"ing contri utions to social refor!, as "e!onstrate" in her $or1 as co+foun"er of Hull+ House, BBBBBBBB $as a co+$inner of the ?o el Pri@e for Peace in 1>,1. #) 6arion Tal ot )) Charlotte Per1ins Hil!an C) #lice Paul 8) Gane #""a!s #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12 Skill: Knowledge (/) The sociologist $ho "evelope" the concept of the po$er elite $as BBBBBBBB. #) C. :right 6ills )) Talcott Parsons C) 2o ert 5. 6erton 8) F. =van ?ye #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 12 Skill: Knowledge (0) 8r. IahnAs aca"e!ic interest is analy@ing various aspects of society an" pu lishing his fin"ings in sociological journals. =n vie$ of this, 8r. Iahn is consi"ere" to e aCn) BBBBBBBB sociologist. #) applie" )) practical C) asic 8) refor! #ns$er% C Diff: , Page Ref: 1, Skill: !""lication (4) 8uring his career, #nthony has $or1e" as a juvenile police officer, corrections counselor in a state prison, an" e*ecutive "irector of an ur an re"evelop!ent progra!. =n vie$ of this, $hich "escription est "escri es #nthonyAs career pathD #) #nthony has een a pure sociologist. )) #nthony has assu!e" the role of eing a asic sociologist. C) #nthony has een an applie" sociologist. 8) #nthony has een a social refor!er. #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1, Skill: !""lication

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank (7) #ccor"ing to sy! olic interactionists, the "eci"ing factor that "eter!ines if change in society is goo" or a" reEuires BBBBBBBB. #) an un"erstan"ing of $ho !ay have enefite" fro! the change )) an un"erstan"ing of $ho !ay have een victi!i@e" y the change C) a fra!e$or1 or conte*t fro! $hich to vie$ the !eaning of the change 8) a !acroanalytical focus of the e*tent an" "uration of the change #ns$er% C Diff: , Page Ref: 1# Skill: !""lication (9) Sociologists $ho analy@e ho$ social life "epen"s on the $ays that people "efine the!selves an" others are !ost li1ely BBBBBBBB. #) ethno!etho"ologists )) functionalists C) conflict theorists 8) sy! olic interactionists #ns$er% 8 Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1# Skill: $o%"&e'ension (>) Functionalists refer to ho$ parts of a society fit together to for! a $hole as BBBBBBBB. #) a sy! ol )) a synthesis C) an integration 8) a structure #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1* Skill: Knowledge ,<) The t$o sociologists $ho referre" to society as eing a 1in" of living organis! $ere BBBBBBB an" BBBBBBBB. #) #uguste Co!teF '!ile 8ur1hei! )) 5arl 6ar*F 6a* :e er C) #uguste Co!teF Her ert Spencer 8) '!ile 8ur1hei!F 6a* :e er #ns$er% C Diff: , Page Ref: 1* Skill: Knowledge ,1) 6ar1 vie$s society as a syste! of interrelate" parts, $hile Gohn vie$s society as co!pose" of groups co!peting for scarce resources. 6ar1 $oul" e consi"ere" aCn) BBBBBBBB an" Gohn $oul" e seen as aCn) BBBBBBBB. #) sy! olic interactionistF functionalist )) applie" sociologistF functionalist C) asic sociologistF applie" sociologist 8) functionalistF conflict theorist #ns$er% 8 Diff: , Page Ref: 1), 20 Skill: !""lication ,() #ccor"ing to 2o ert 6erton, BBBBBBBB are the inten"e" eneficial conseEuences of peopleAs actions. #) latent functions )) !anifest "ysfunctions C) !anifest functions 8) latent "ysfunctions #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1* Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank Skill: Knowledge ,,) College provi"es a haven for several !illion potential $or1ers $ho are classifie" as -stu"ents. rather than -une!ploye",. $hich helps sta ili@e the jo !ar1et. This situation represents $hat 6erton $oul" "escri e as a BBBBBBBB. #) !anifest function )) latent "ysfunction C) !anifest "ysfunction 8) latent function #ns$er% 8 Diff: , Page Ref: 1* Skill: !""lication ,/) The conte!porary conflict sociologist $ho pointe" out that conflict is !ost li1ely to "evelop a!ong people in close relationships $as BBBBBBBB. #) &e$is Coser )) 2alf 8ahren"orf C) :illia! 8o!hoff 8) Ho$ar" :inet #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20 Skill: Knowledge ,0) Conflict theorists $oul" conten" that changes in BBBBBBBB e*plain the high "ivorce rates in the 3nite" States. #) the functions of the fa!ily )) our cultureAs eliefs a out !arriage C) the !ale+fe!ale po$er relationship 8) our attitu"es a out co!!it!ent #ns$er% C Diff: 2 Page Ref: 20(21 Skill: $o%"&e'ension ,4) :hich groups of social theorists $oul" focus !ost on !acro+level analysis $hen e*a!ining patterns of societyD #) sy! olic interactionists an" structural functionalists )) sy! olic interactionists an" conflict theorists C) conflict theorists an" functionalists 8) conflict theorists an" sy! olic interactionists #ns$er% C Diff: , Page Ref: 21 Skill: !""lication ,7) Cin"y is intereste" in ho$ the !ove!ent of 6aytag pro"uction plants an" other in"ustries fro! the 6i"$est to 6e*ico has change" the lives of thousan"s of une!ploye" $or1ers an" their co!!unities. Cin"y is con"ucting a BBBBBBBB analysis. #) !acro+level )) pure C) !icro+level 8) sy! olic #ns$er% # Diff: , Page Ref: 21(22 Skill: !""lication

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank ,9) Functionalists an" conflict theorists ten" to focus on the BBBBBBBB, or large scale patterns of society, in con"ucting their analyses. #) !acro level )) !icro level C) sy! olic level 8) interactionist level #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 Skill: Knowledge ,>) Sue is an e*pert in interpreting gestures, silence, the use of space, an" e*pressions people !a1e in their "aily interactions. =n vie$ of this, ho$ $oul" SueAs e*pertise e "efine"D #) Sue is a social linguist. )) Sue is an e*pert in !ulticulturalis!. C) Sue recogni@es the i!portance of glo ali@ation. 8) Sue is an e*pert in nonver al interaction. #ns$er% 8 Diff: , Page Ref: 22 Skill: E0al/ation /<) :hat is the relationship et$een theory an" research, accor"ing to C. :right 6illsD #) Theory $ithout research is a stract an" e!pty. )) Theory is al$ays to e consi"ere" superior to research. C) 2esearch is al$ays to e consi"ere" superior to theory. 8) 2esearch an" theory shoul" never interact. #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: 22 Skill: Knowledge /1) Scientific research follo$s eight asic steps. Jne of these steps is BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. #) selecting an e"itor for the research )) for!ulating a hypothesis C) collecting opinions on the researchAs i!portance 8) fin"ing a researcher to $rite a re uttal #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2, Skill: Knowledge /() A hypothesis predicts a relationship between or among ___________________, factors that vary, or change, from one person or situation to another. #) operational "efinitions )) varia les C) sa!ples 8) populations #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2, Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank /,) Sociologists use BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB asic research "esigns to gather "ata. #) three )) four C) ten 8) seven #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2 Skill: Knowledge //) So!e of the research "esigns that sociologists use to gather "ata inclu"e BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. #) hypotheses )) case stu"ies C) fictional accounts 8) che!ical analyses #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: ,0 Skill: Knowledge /0) Herar" is e*a!ining online conversations in a pu lic foru! in $hich participants are "iscussing spousal a use. :hat research !etho" is he usingD #) uno trusive !easures )) personal intervie$s C) "ou le+ lin" stu"y 8) voluntary survey #ns$er% # Diff: 2 Page Ref: ,2 Skill: !""lication /4) :hy !ight a sociologist intervie$ing $o!en $ho have een a use" y !en garner !ore effective results if she is a fe!ale, rather than a !aleD #) :o!en !a1e etter intervie$ers in !ost sociological research. )) Sociological research is vali" only if it is con"ucte" et$een !e! ers of the sa!e se*. C) =t is too easy for !en to !isun"erstan" $hat $o!en say. 8) Kicti!i@e" $o!en !ay e less $illing to share e*periences $ith a !ale. #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: ,, Skill: $o%"&e'ension /7) :hy $as 6ario )rajuha as1e" to reveal his restaurant o servationsD #) =t $as thought that his o servations $ere not accurate. )) The restaurant fire $as suspicious. C) =t is a co!!on proce"ure to reveal the sources of sociological research. 8) He $as thought to e !entally unsta le. #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: ,4 Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank /9) :hat are values in the conte*t of sociologyD #) eliefs a out $hat is "esira le in life an" the $ay the $orl" ought to e )) esti!ations of the a!ount of ti!e a given tas1 $ill ta1e C) in"ications of the financial $orth of an o ject or entity 8) fig!ents of i!agination use" to gauge personality #ns$er% # Diff: 1 Page Ref: , Skill: Knowledge />) Ho$ shoul" a sociologistAs values affect his or her research, accor"ing to 6a* :e erD #) 2esearch shoul" reflect the values of the researcher. )) 2esearch shoul" e value free. C) 2esearchers shoul" allo$ their values to influence the! only $hen it is clear so!ething is !orally $rong. 8) 2esearchers shoul" !a1e sure to state their values efore presenting their research fin"ings. #ns$er% ) Diff: 1 Page Ref: , Skill: $o%"&e'ension 0<) :hat Euality "i" 6a* :e er stress as eing the hall!ar1 of social researchD #) su jective assess!ent )) sy!pathetic un"erstan"ing C) o jectivity or value neutrality 8) capital invest!ent #ns$er% C Diff: 1 Page Ref: , Skill: Knowledge 1) The scientific !etho" reEuires BBBBBBBB, or repeating a stu"y in or"er to co!pare the ne$ research results $ith the original fin"ings. #) )) C) 8) replication ethnography triangulation correlation

#ns$er% # Diff: 2 Page Ref: , Skill: $o%"&e'ension 0() Ho$ "oes replication i!prove the vali"ity of sociological researchD #) =t can shape the $orl" into the $ay it ought to e. )) =t is li1ely to further "istort research that $as previously con"ucte". C) =t is li1ely to give a su jective perspective on the research su ject. 8) =t can in"icate iases in the original $or1. #ns$er% 8 Diff: 1 Page Ref: , Skill: $o%"&e'ension

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Short #ns$er Questions


1) :hat is social locationD

#ns$er% the group !e! erships that people have ecause of their location in history an" society Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve". 1(

Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank () =n a""ressing the sociological perspective, $hat "i" C. :right 6ills !ean y -history.D #ns$er% 'ach society is locate" in a roa" strea! of events, giving it specific characteristics, values, an" nor!s. Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 Skill: Knowledge ,) :hat is the scientific !etho"D #ns$er% the use of o jective an" syste!atic o servation to test theories Diff: , Page Ref: Skill: Knowledge /) Her ert Spencer suggeste" that to help lo$er classes is to interfere $ith the natural process of -survival of the fittest.. This concept $as the 1ey ele!ent in his vie$ of the evolution of society, calle" BBBBBBBB. #ns$er% social 8ar$inis! Diff: 1 Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 0) #ccor"ing to the -all St&eet .o/&nal, $ho $ere the three greatest !o"ern thin1ersD #ns$er% 5arl 6ar*, #l ert 'instein, Sig!un" Freu" Diff: , Page Ref: # Skill: Knowledge 4) :hy "i" 8ur1hei!As research support the position that suici"e $as !ore of a sociological issue rather than one ase" on psychological theoryD #ns$er% He foun" that people are !ore li1ely to co!!it suici"e if their social connections are $ea1, an" that suici"e rates $ithin countries an" cultures re!ain constant, ut "iffer consi"era ly et$een cultures. Diff: , Page Ref: ) Skill: !nalysis 7) 5arl 6ar* clai!e" that BBBBBBBB $as the central force of social change, $hile 6a* :e er argue" that BBBBBBBB $as actually the central force of social change. #ns$er% econo!icsF religion Diff: 2 Page Ref: * Skill: Knowledge 9) :hat "i" C. :right 6ills !ean y the ter! -po$er elite.D #ns$er% the top usiness, political, an" !ilitary lea"ers $ho !a"e the !ajor policy "ecisions an" $ere a threat to the nation Diff: 2 Page Ref: 12(1, Skill: $o%"&e'ension >) Sociologically, $hat is the !eaning of -sy! ols.D #ns$er% the things to $hich $e attach !eaning, the 1ey to un"erstan"ing ho$ $e vie$ the $orl" an" co!!unicate $ith one another Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1# Skill: Knowledge 1<) 2o ert 6ertonAs t$o classifications of function, oth of $hich can help a syste! a"just, are calle" BBBBBBBB an" BBBBBBBB functions. #ns$er% !anifestF latent Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1* Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 11) #ccor"ing to 5arl 6ar*, $hat single ele!ent $as the 1ey to un"erstan"ing hu!an historyD #ns$er% class conflict Diff: 1 Page Ref: 20 Skill: Knowledge 1() :hat are the si!ilarities an" "ifferences et$een !acro+level analysis an" !icro+level analysisD #ns$er% 6acro+level analysis focuses on large+scale patterns of society. 6icro+level analysis focuses on hu!an ehavior "uring social interactions. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 21(22 Skill: E0al/ation 1,) :hat ter! is use" y sociologists to refer to $hat people "o $hen they are in one anotherAs presenceD #ns$er% social interaction Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 Skill: Knowledge 1/)The prevailing i"eas in society, the things that -everyone 1no$s. as true, are collectively referre" to as BBBBBBBB. #ns$er% co!!on sense Diff: , Page Ref: 22 Skill: Knowledge 10) :hat is a hypothesisD #ns$er% a state!ent of $hat you e*pect to fin" accor"ing to pre"ictions that are ase" on a theory Diff: 1 Page Ref: 2, Skill: Knowledge 14) :hen collecting "ata, researchers !ust assure vali"ity of their "ata. :hat is vali"ityD #ns$er% $hen operational "efinitions !easure $hat they are inten"e" to !easure Diff: 2 Page Ref: 24 Skill: Knowledge 17) 2elia ility is very i!portant in "ata collection. 2elia ility !eans that BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. #ns$er% if other researchers use your operational "efinitions, their fin"ings shoul" e consistent $ith yours Diff: 2 Page Ref: 24 Skill: Knowledge 19) =f using a survey to con"uct research, the est $ay to get a fair representation is to use a ran"o! sa!ple. :hat is a ran"o! sa!pleD #ns$er% =n a ran"o! sa!ple, everyone in your population Cthe target group) has the sa!e chance of eing inclu"e" in the stu"y. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2 Skill: Knowledge 1>) :hat is the purpose of con"ucting case stu"iesD #ns$er% The researcher focuses on a single event, situation, or in"ivi"ual. The purpose is to un"erstan" the "yna!ics of relationships an" po$er or even the thin1ing that !otivates people. Diff: 2 Page Ref: ,0 Skill: Knowledge

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank (<) 'thics an" values in sociological research are very i!portant. # gra"uate stu"ent na!e" 6ario )rajuha "isplaye" high ethical ehavior $hen he BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. #ns$er% con"ucte" participant o servation of restaurant $or1ers. :hen a suspicious fire "estroye" the restaurant, "etectives an" the suspecte" fire starters trie" to get )rajuha to share his fiel" notes, ut he refuse" "ue to his ethical co!!it!ents. Diff: , Page Ref: ,4 Skill: !""lication

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'ssay Questions
1) 8efine the sociological perspective Cor i!agination), cite its co!ponents, an" e*plain ho$ they $ere "efine" y C. :right 6ills. #ns$er% The sociological perspective Cor i!agination) focuses on the groups an" social conte*ts that influence the $ays in $hich people live, ena ling us to grasp the connection et$een history an" iography. )y history, 6ills !eant that each society is locate" in a roa" strea! of events. )y iography, 6ills referre" to each in"ivi"ualAs specific e*periences. Diff: , Page Ref: 4 Skill: !nalysis 2) )riefly "escri e the factors that contri ute" to the e!ergence of sociology as a "iscipline in the 19<<s. #ns$er% The factors contri uting to the e!ergence of sociology $ere as follo$s% the =n"ustrial 2evolution, the #!erican an" French revolutions, an" the success of the natural sciences in applying the scientific !etho" in ans$ering Euestions a out the natural environ!ent. The =n"ustrial 2evolution cause" a great social upheaval in 'urope as the shift fro! agriculture to factory pro"uction rought a out !any changes in peopleAs lives. These changes inclu"e" an increase in ur ani@ation, horri le $or1ing con"itions, an" the failure of tra"ition in provi"ing ans$ers for their life e*periences. The #!erican an" French revolutions intro"uce" ne$ i"eas a out in"ivi"ualsA inaliena le rights. #s a result, !ore "e!ocratic for!s of governance $ere intro"uce" an" tra"ition no longer provi"e" a"eEuate ans$ers for in"ivi"uals. #n", $ith the success of the natural sciences in ans$ering Euestions a out the natural environ!ent y using the scientific !etho", so!e thought it logical to apply this !etho" to Euestions a out the social $orl". Diff: , Page Ref: Skill: $o%"&e'ension ,) Trace the historical "evelop!ent of sociology in 'urope, eginning $ith an e*planation of positivis!. Conclu"e the ans$er $ith a rief "escription of the contri utions of Co!te, Spencer, 8ur1hei!, 6ar*, an" :e er. #ns$er% C2efer to the su section on -Jrigins of Sociology..) Historical "evelop!ent shoul" cover the "ifference et$een science an" tra"ition, an" a "iscussion of pre+1>th century thought an" ho$ it challenge" the tra"itional thin1ing of the feu"al perio". =t shoul" inclu"e the !ain events that shape" sociology% the =n"ustrial 2evolution, the political revolution C#!erican an" French), an" the use of the scientuific !etho". =t shoul" incorporate the influences of in"ustriali@ation an" ur ani@ation on society an" hu!an interaction, as $ell as positivis! Cthe application of the scientific !etho" to the social $orl"). Diff: , Page Ref: #(+ Skill: Knowledge /) '*plain the "evelop!ent of social 8ar$inis!, as $ell as the "ifferences et$een this concept an" the philosophical i"eals hel" y !ost sociologists.

#ns$er% C2efer to the su hea"ing on -Her ert Spencer an" Social 8ar$inis!..) Her ert Spencer $as influence" y 8ar$inAs $or1, 1n t'e 1&igin of S"ecies, an" the iological an" evolutionary i!portance of the -survival of the fittest,. transferring this theory to a social philosophy $ith his concept of social 8ar$inis!. This concept rejecte" any notion of provi"ing charity or helping the poor. Sociologists in #!erica $oul" e especially appalle" y the notion of social 8ar$inis! ecause of their co!!it!ent to social refor!. 'uropean sociologists $ho $ere !ore theoretical also "i" not e! race the concept, an" eventually social 8ar$inis! $as "iscre"ite". Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve". 10

Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank Diff: Page Ref: # Skill: Synt'esis 0) )ase" on the $or1 of 5arl 6ar*, $hat are the t$o classes in societyD 8efine each. #ns$er% The t$o classes in society as "efine" y 6ar* are the ourgeoisie an" proletariat. The ourgeoisie are the capitalists, those $ho o$n the !eans of pro"uction. The proletariat refers to the e*ploite" $or1ers $ho "o not o$n the !eans of pro"uction. Diff: 4 Page Ref: #() Skill: Knowledge 4) Su!!ari@e the !ain points of 5arl 6ar*As theory of class conflict. #ns$er% 6ar* felt the 1ey to hu!an history $as ase" on class struggle. =n every society, there is a s!all group that controls the !eans of pro"uction an" e*ploits those $ho "o not. =n in"ustriali@e" society, this struggle is et$een the ourgeoisie Cthe s!all group of capitalists $ho o$n the !eans to pro"uce $ealth) an" the proletariat Cthe $or1ers $ho are e*ploite" y the capitalists). The capitalists are in control of societyAs resources an" can $iel" political po$er over $or1ers if they re el. Diff: 2 Page Ref: #() Skill: $o%"&e'ension 7) Ho$ "i" 6a* :e er e*plain the e!ergence of the -spirit of capitalis!.D #ns$er% :e er elieve" that religion $as the central force in social change. Protestants elieve" that financial success $as a -sign. fro! Ho" that they $ere save" an" part of -Ho"As $ill.. To enhance this -sign. of salvation, they egan to live frugal lives an" invest the surplus !oney they !a"e. #s a result, they !a"e !ore !oney. This rea"iness to invest !oney $as $hat :e er calle" -the spirit of capitalis!.. Diff: 4 Page Ref: + Skill: !nalysis 9) Ho$ "i" preju"ice an" "iscri!ination affect the "evelop!ent of sociology in #!erica in the late 1>th an" early (<th centuriesD #ns$er% =n the late 1>th an" early (<th centuries, se*is! an" racis! prevaile". Fe!ale sociologists an" researchers $ere often "enie" faculty appoint!ents in sociology, so they turne" their efforts to$ar"s $riting, activis!, an" refor!. '*a!ples inclu"e Harriet 6artineau, 6arion Tal ot, Gane #""a!s, 'llen Hates Starr, '!ily Hreene )alch, an" others. Ho$ever, so!e early fe!ale pioneers "i" serve in govern!ent positions, such as Hrace # ott an" Frances Per1ins. #lthough :. '. ). 8u )ois $as the first #frican #!erican to earn a "octorate fro! Harvar" 3niversity, he $as too poor to atten" !eetings of the #!erican Sociological #ssociation $hen invite" an" later foun" that $hen he coul" atten" he coul" not utili@e the sa!e hotels an" restaurants as his $hite colleagues. 3ntil recently, his $or1 contri utions to the "iscipline have een neglecte" in sociology. Diff: 4 Page Ref: +(12 Skill: !nalysis >) 8escri e the !ajor "ifferences et$een asic sociology an" applie" sociology. #ns$er% )asic sociology is "irecte" to$ar" the "evelop!ent of theory an" research, $hich atte!pt to ans$er asic Euestions a out hu!an social groups $ithout !a1ing changes in these groups. #pplie" sociology involves the practical application of sociological 1no$le"ge to solve pro le!s an" shape social policy. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1, Skill: !nalysis 1<) Social life can e interprete" fro! one of three !ajor theoretical fra!e$or1s. 8escri e the !ajor points of each fra!e$or1. &ist at least one sociologist $ho has een i"entifie" $ith each fra!e$or1. #ns$er% CSee the su section of the te*t, -Theoretical Perspectives in Sociology..) )egin y "escri ing sy! olic interactionis!, functional analysis, an" the conflict perspective. # co!prehensive "efinition of each is presente" y the author. Theorists associate" $ith sy! olic interactionis! inclu"e 6ea", Cooley, Jg urn, )urgess, an" &oc1. Those associate" $ith functional analysis inclu"e Co!te, 8ur1hei!, Spencer, Parsons, an" 6erton. Those associate" $ith the conflict perspective inclu"e 6ar* an" Coser. Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1 (22 Skill: $o%"&e'ension 11) :hat are the asic steps of a research !o"elD ="entify at least four of the!, an" e*plain ho$ they contri ute to the "evelop!ent of research. #ns$er% There are eight general steps in a research !o"el% select a topic, "efine the pro le!, revie$ the literature, for!ulate a hypothesis, choose a research !etho", collect the "ata, analy@e the results, share the results. Through this !o"el, the su ject !atter is chosen, refine", researche", stu"ie", analy@e", an" finally presente". Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2,(24 Skill: $o%"&e'ension 1() Surveys are often use" to fin" the -average. of a given sa!ple or population. ?a!e the three !etho"s y $hich to !easure the average in a "ata set, an" provi"e an e*a!ple of each. #ns$er% The !ean is foun" y a""ing up a set of nu! ers an" "ivi"ing the su! y the total of nu! ers use". '*a!ple% (L,L//,M,. The !e"ian is foun" y arranging a set of nu! ers fro! lo$est to highest an" i"entifying the nu! er that falls in the !i""le. '*a!ple% The !e"ian of (, ,, /, 0, 4 is /. The !o"e is foun" y i"entifying the nu! er that occurs !ost often in a set. '*a!ple% The !o"e of (, (, (, 0, 4, 7, 7 is (. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2) Skill: $o%"&e'ension 1,) :hat are close"+en"e" Euestions an" open+en"e" EuestionsD 8escri e the enefits an" shortco!ings of oth $hen use" in con"ucting sociological research. #ns$er% Close"+en"e" Euestions contain a list of possi le ans$ers. They are useful for co!paring respon"entsA ans$ers to one another, ut they !ay !a1e it "ifficult to capture the range of opinions on the su ject eing "iscusse". Jpen+en"e" Euestions "o not have a set list of possi le ans$ers. They allo$ for a $i"e range of responses an" opinions, ut they !ay !a1e it "ifficult to co!pare respon"entsA ans$ers to one another. Diff: 2 Page Ref: 2* Skill: $o%"&e'ension 1/) =!agine you are con"ucting a sociological e*peri!ent. 8efine the pro le!, then "escri e your proce"ure, e*peri!ental group, control group, in"epen"ent varia le, an" "epen"ent varia le. #ns$er% #ns$ers $ill vary. '*a!ple% = a! con"ucting an e*peri!ent to test the effect of therapy on people $ith alcoholis!. = $ill ran"o!ly "ivi"e the stu"y participants into an e*peri!ental group that $ill receive therapy, an" a control group that $ill not receive therapy. The in"epen"ent varia le is the therapy that is provi"e". The "epen"ent varia le is the ehavior of the stu"y participants an" $hether they continue to e*perience pro le!s $ith alcohol. Diff: , Page Ref: ,2 Skill: !""lication 10) :hat $as :e erAs vie$ on ho$ oneAs personal values shoul" affect social researchD Has his vie$ een a"opte" as the stan"ar" for all sociological researchD '*plain. #ns$er% :e er elieve" that sociological research shoul" e value free, that a sociologistAs values shoul" not affect his or her research. :e er $ante" total o jectivity, or -value neutrality,. to e the hall!ar1 of social research. =f values influence research, he sai", sociological fin"ings $oul" e iase". )ias in research, ho$ever, is su ject to so!e "e ate. #lthough sociologists agree that no one shoul" "istort "ata, they ac1no$le"ge that the values sociologists hol" have a certain "egree of influence on the topics they stu"y an" !anner in $hich they con"uct their research. Diff: 2 Page Ref: , Skill: !""lication

1.0

Jpen )oo1 Questions


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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 1) The author "escri es the anguish an" fear he e*perience" $hile !ingling a!ong the !en in a ho!eless shelter to gather "ata for a pen"ing research interest. :hy $oul" a professional in"ivi"ual such as the author, 8r. Henslin, su !it hi!self to such stan"ar"s -in the na!e of science.D #ns$er% Sociologists "o !any things in !any "ifferent $ays. The author $as con"ucting research ase" on his o$n o servation an" participation. He $as e*periencing $hat the ho!eless e*perience" an" using Eualitative !etho"s to learn fro! his su jects. 8r. Henslin ha" to e*perience the anguish of the ho!eless to effectively assess an" analy@e their plight an" ho$ it !ay e lessene" through pu lic sociology an" social refor!. Diff: 4 Page Ref: ,24 Skill: !nalysis () 8efine social location. Provi"e a "etaile" account of your o$n social location, ho$ it has change" in the past year, an" ho$ you e*pect it to change in the ne*t five years. #ns$er% Social location is the group !e! erships that people have ecause of their location in history an" society. JneAs in"ivi"ual social location $ill inclu"e age, occupation Cpart+ti!e or full+ti!e), se*, race or ethnicity, inco!e, class, !arital status, an" a nu! er of other varia les. JneAs social location changes constantly. # year ago the college stu"ent $as a year younger an" !ay have een a high school stu"ent, hol"ing a "ifferent part+ti!e jo , living in a "ifferent neigh orhoo". Jther statuses of the stu"ent Crace, ethnicity, se*, an" others) are less li1ely to change. Five years fro! no$ the stu"ent $ill e five years ol"er an" !ay e*pect to e a gra"uate stu"ent or a professional in the $or1force, hol"ing a "ifferent !arital status, an" e*periencing other changes that can e pre"icte" $ith so!e certainty. Diff: Page Ref: 4 Skill: Synt'esis ,) The social 8ar$inist i"eas of Her ert Spencer have een "iscre"ite", yet $e still $restle $ith the issue of ho$ to "eal $ith people $ho are poor, une"ucate", !entally i!paire", "isa le", or cri!inal. :hat social policies !ight Spencer have a"vocate" to "eal $ith such peopleD Co!pare SpencerAs li1ely response to the strategy un"erlying current social policies to$ar" these groups. #ns$er% Spencer !ay have a"vocate" refusing to provi"e pu lic support to such groups, isolating the! to re"uce the har! they coul" "o, an" preventing the! fro! repro"ucing. Current social $elfare policies are "esigne" to provi"e so!e assistance for people $ho cannot provi"e for the!selves, ut to encourage people to ta1e responsi ility for their o$n $elfare, to restrict the a!ount of pu lic support for people $ho are physically an" !entally a le to support the!selves, an" to punish people $ho violate the la$. Diff: # Page Ref: # Skill: E0al/ation /) #fter rea"ing the 8o$n+to+'arth Sociology o* -:. '. ). 8u )ois% The Souls of )lac1 Fol1,. interpret 8u )oisAs "escriptions of the people $ith $ho! he live" in relation to -the Keil. that, 8u )ois says, -hung et$een us an" Jpportunity.. #ns$er% 8u )ois "escri es the chil"ren $ho! he taught as eing eager an" full of e*pectation. Their a ility to gain an e"ucation, ho$ever, $as severely li!ite" y their !eans an" opportunities. 8u )ois "escri es going ho!e $ith so!e of the chil"ren to 8oc )ur1eAs far!, $here they live" in a tiny ca in an" scrape" a living out of the groun". 8u )ois !entions a co!!on elief that 8oc )ur1e $oul" not 1eep his far! for long, that $hite people $ere sure to ta1e it fro! hi! eventually. Jther fa!ilies that 8u )ois "escri es live on insufficient $ages an" lac1 foo". He pinpoints Gosie, a girl $ho $or1e" to support her fa!ily an" $ishe" to go to school ut $hose fa!ily $as not li1ely to fin" enough !oney to sen" her. The attitu"es of $hite people, !oreover, are !entione" in passing as yet another contri ution to the veil that $as "rape" over the opportunities that hung just out of sight. Diff: # Page Ref: 11 Skill: !nalysis 0) #fter rea"ing the 8o$n+to+'arth Sociology o* -Careers in Sociology% :hat #pplie" Sociologists 8o,. "iscuss ho$ these types of careers coul" contri ute to the tension that e*ists et$een asic sociology an" applie" sociology. #ns$er% )asic sociology analy@es society, $hile applie" sociology $or1s to$ar" its refor!. =n the case of the !ar1eting researcher, the in"ivi"ual e*plains ho$ she uses her 1no$le"ge of sociology to un"erstan" the nee"s of "ifferent groups an" ho$ to interact $ith the!. =n the case of the t$o sociologists $ith !asterAs Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank "egrees, the hu!an service professional applies his 1no$le"ge of sociology to evaluate chil"renAs progra!s an" ho$ they $or1 for fa!ilies, $hile the other in"ivi"ual utili@es her 1no$le"ge as a statistician in pu lic health. &astly, the "octorate sociologist applies his 1no$le"ge to ur an $aste an" recycling an" $or1s to refor! $aste "isposal la$s. #ll four e*a!ples utili@e their asic sociological 1no$le"ge an" research s1ills to effectively !a1e a "ifference in peopleAs co!!unities an" lives. These sociologists share traits of oth asic an" applie" sociologists, ut lean !ore to$ar" applie" sociology. Diff: # Page Ref: 14 Skill: E0al/ation #) The social history of the fa!ily an" the 3.S. "ivorce rate clearly sho$ that !any functions previously perfor!e" y the fa!ily are no$ perfor!e" y other institutions. &ist the functions currently perfor!e" y !ost fa!ilies an" e*plain ho$ changes in society have contri ute" to the increase" "ivorce rate. #ns$er% Functions currently perfor!e" y fa!ilies inclu"e% provi"ing foo", clothing, an" shelter for young chil"renF coor"inating the $or1 sche"ules of all in"ivi"uals, often inclu"ing t$o $age earnersF provi"ing transportation to $or1, school, after+school, an" recreational activities for a"ults an" chil"renF coor"inating financial !atters for all !e! ersF provi"ing !oral gui"ance an" supervision for chil"renF provi"ing for ro!antic an" se*ual activities for !arriage partnersF provi"ing for recreational activities for !arriage partners an" young chil"ren. The "iscussion of changing functions shoul" ac1no$le"ge that fa!ilies still perfor! !any functions, though they !ay "iffer fro! those of earlier generations. =n a""ition, fa!ilies face greater stress an" "ifferent types of social pro le!s in to"ayAs fiercely co!petitive society. Chil"ren are su jecte" to greater an" !ore "angerous te!ptations on the street an" fro! their peers, inclu"ing su stance use, se*ual pre"ators, an" negative peer influence. 2aising a fa!ily is far !ore e*pensive in co!parative "ollars, an" Euality fa!ily ti!e is often "i!inishe", as co!pare" to situations e*perience" y past generations. Diff: #Page Ref: Skill: E0al/ation )) 3sing the eight steps of a research !o"el, "e!onstrate the process y $hich a sociological stu"y is con"ucte". Choose a su ject that you are intereste" in stu"ying an" illustrate a potential stu"y in this area, ensuring that you i"entify ho$ all eight steps coul" e con"ucte". #ns$er% #ns$ers $ill vary. '*a!ple% 1) Select a topic% = $oul" choose to stu"y the sociological e*periences of people $ho are ho!eless. () 8efine the pro le!% There is little 1no$n a out the !igration patterns of people $ho are ho!eless. ,) 2evie$ the literature% = $oul" "o an e*tensive search of sociological journals to "eter!ine $hat is 1no$n a out the !igration patterns of people $ho are ho!eless. /) For!ulate a hypothesis% = $oul" create a hypothesis ase" on !y revie$ of the literature, such as -People $ho are ho!eless cycle through !ultiple living arrange!ents, inclu"ing shelters, !otels, an" street living.. 0) Choose a research !etho"% = $oul" choose to con"uct case stu"ies of people $ho are ho!eless. 4) Collect the "ata% = $oul" con"uct the case stu"ies of a chosen group of participants. 7) #naly@e the results% = $oul" e*a!ine the responses of participants an" "ra$ conclusions ase" on the fin"ings. 9) Share the results% = $oul" prepare a for!al report "etailing !y hypothesis, !etho"s, "ata collection, analysis, an" conclusion. Diff: # Page Ref: 2,(24 Skill: Synt'esis

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank 9) #fter rea"ing the 8o$n+to+'arth Sociology o* -&oa"ing the 8ice% Ho$ 3ot to 8o 2esearch,. "e!onstrate three of the si* $ays to i!properly con"uct sociological research y giving e*a!ples of a hypothetical instance of !isuse. #ns$er% #ns$ers $ill vary. '*a!ple% 1) Choose a iase" sa!ple% For a stu"y of so"a preferences, use participants $ho all $or1 at a single so"a co!pany. () #s1 iase" Euestions% 3se e!otionally charge" language in $or"ing a sentence, such as -:hat is !ore i!portantNprotecting innocent chil"ren or allo$ing convicte" cri!inals to roa! the streetsD. $hen as1ing a out early release progra!s for prisoners. ,) &ist iase" choices% Jffer only grapes, oranges, peaches, an" stra$ erries as choices for a Euestion "eter!ining $hether people prefer fruits or vegeta les. /) 8iscar" un"esira le results% 5eep sen"ing out surveys if the first one "oes not prove your hypothesis. 0) 6isun"erstan" the su jectsA $orl"% Fail to un"erstan" that people are un$illing to a"!it to so!ething consi"ere" politically incorrect, such as eing racist. 4) #naly@e the "ata incorrectly% 'nter incorrect "ata into the soft$are progra! you are using to analy@e your "ata. Diff: # Page Ref: 2+ Skill: !""lication >) #fter rea"ing a out close"+en"e" Euestions an" open+en"e" Euestions, construct t$o versions of a Euestion, one open an" one close", that as1s a out the sa!e su ject. #ns$er% #ns$ers $ill vary. '*a!ple% Close"+en"e" Euestion% :hich of the follo$ing is a li1ely cause of ho!elessnessD 1. alcoholis! (. poverty ,. lac1 of e"ucation /. personal or !oral failing 0. govern!ent policies Jpen+en"e" Euestion% :hat "o you thin1 contri utes to ho!elessnessD Diff: # Page Ref: 2* Skill: Synt'esis

1.4

&ine #rt Questions

1) )ase" on Figure 1.,, 'lliot is a syste!s analyst for the 8epart!ent of Health. =n his position he evaluates the effectiveness of health care progra!s in rural co!!unities. )ase" on Figure 1., -Co!paring )asic an" #pplie" Sociology,. $hich "escription est fits 'lliotAs role as a sociologistD #) 'lliot $oul" est e classifie" as a "e"icate" asic sociologist. )) 'lliot $oul" est e classifie" as a "e"icate" applie" sociologist. C) 'lliot shares traits of oth asic an" applie" sociologists ut leans !ore to$ar"s the asic !o"el. 8) 'lliot shares traits of oth asic an" applie" sociologists ut leans !ore to$ar"s the applie" !o"el. #ns$er% 8
Diff: , Page Ref: 1, Skill: !""lication

() =n Figure 1., -Co!paring )asic an" #pplie" Sociology,. $hat is the "ifference et$een asic an" applie" sociology regar"ing the au"ience an" pro"uct of the effortD #ns$er% =n asic sociology, the au"ience is co!pose" of fello$ sociologists an" the pro"uct of their effort is 1no$le"ge. #pplie" sociologists atte!pt to achieve change for their au"ience, $hich is their clientele.
Diff: # Page Ref: 1,

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Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank


Skill: E0al/ation

/) Figure 1.0 -3.S. 6arriage, 3.S. 8ivorce. generally in"icates that BBBBBBBB. #) oth !arriage an" "ivorce have sta ili@e" since 1>9< )) !arriage is on the "ecrease $hile "ivorce is on the increase C) !arriage is on the increase $hile "ivorce is on the "ecrease 8) oth !arriage an" "ivorce have "ecrease" since 1>9< #ns$er% #
Diff: 2 Page Ref: 1) Skill: $o%"&e'ension

0) =n Figure 1./, -Call )ac1 2ates y 2ace+'thnicity an" Cri!inal 2ecor",. $hat conclusions can e "ra$n fro! the graphD #ns$er% C1) :hites $ithout cri!inal recor"s are !ore li1ely to e calle" for e!ploy!ent $hen co!pare" to anyone $ith a cri!inal recor" or to #frican #!ericans $ithout a recor". C() There are !ore $hites $ith cri!inal recor"s calle" ac1 for e!ploy!ent than #frican #!ericans $ithout a Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve". (1

Henslin, Essentials of Sociology, 10/e Testbank


cri!inal recor". C,) Jnly a out 1 in 1< #frican #!ericans $ith a cri!inal recor" $ill e calle" for e!ploy!ent, ut , in 1< $hite applicants $ith a cri!inal recor" $ill e calle".
Diff: 4 Page Ref: 1 Skill: !nalysis

1.7

6atching Questions
Match the term with the definition.
Skill: Knowledge

1) sociological perspective Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 () society Diff: 1 Page Ref: 4 ,) the scientific !etho" Diff: 1 Page Ref: /) positivis! Diff: 1 Page Ref: # 0) ourgeoisie Diff: 1 Page Ref: # 4) social integration Diff: 1 Page Ref: ) 7) replication Diff: 1 Page Ref: , 9) values Diff: 1 Page Ref: , >) asic sociology Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1, 1<) applie" sociology Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1, 11) theory Diff: 1 Page Ref: 1 1() !icro analysis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 1,) !acro analysis Diff: 1 Page Ref: 21 1/) operational "efinitions Diff: 1 Page Ref: 24 10) secon"ary analysis Diff: 1 Page Ref: ,0

#) repeating a stu"y in or"er to test its fin"ings )) 6ar*As ter! for capitalists, those $ho o$n the !eans of pro"uctionC) precise ways to measure the variables 8) an e*a!ination of s!all+scale patterns of society ') the use of sociology to solve pro le!s F) people $ho share a culture an" territory H) the stan"ar"s y $hich people "efine $hat is "esira le or un"esira le, goo" or a", eautiful or ugly H) a general state!ent a out ho$ so!e parts of the $orl" fit together an" ho$ they $or1 =) un"erstan"ing hu!an ehavior y placing it $ithin its roa"er social conte*t G) an e*a!ination of large+scale patterns of society 5) during this, researchers analyze data that others have collected &) using o jective, syste!atic o servations to test theories 6) the "egree to $hich !e! ers of a group or society feel unite" y share" values an" other social on"s ?) sociological research $hose purpose is to !a1e "iscoveries a out life in hu!an groups J) the application of the scientific approach to the social $orl"

1) =F () FF ,) &F /) JF 0) )F 4) 6F 7) #F 9) HF >) ?F 1<) 'F 11) HF 1() 8F 1,) GF 1/) CF 10) 5 Copyright ; (<1, Pearson '"ucation, =nc. #ll rights reserve".
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