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RESISTANCE WELDING

Resistance welding is a quite older welding technique. Here the heat is generated by the passage of an electric current through the resistance formed by the contact between two metal surfaces. In resistance welding methods, current density is so high that a local pool of molten metal is formed, joining the two parts. The current is often in the range 1 000-1 00 000 A, and the voltage in the range 1-30 V

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGÜN

RESISTANCE WELDING
Different types of resistance welding: •spot welding •seam welding •projection welding •resistance butt welding (upset welding) •flash welding Common properties: Generally fast, efficient and low polluting. No filler materials are required. Generally each machine can be used for one type of welding.

WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Caner BATIGÜN

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WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr.RESISTANCE WELDING SPOT WELDING: Spot welding is the best-known resistance welding method. and is widely used. •Easy to automate. •Very high rate of production for mechanised processes. •Fast: resistance welding of 1 + 1 mm sheet. It is used for joining thin sheet materials (up to 3 + 3 mm) by overlap joints. which is therefore suitable for mass production. e. with high consistency. for example. •Less environmental impact than when welding with an arc. •Low energy requirement and little pollution. takes 0. •Little special training required. An ordinary private car can have up to 5 000 spot-welded joints. in the automotive industry. •No filler materials required. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr.20 s.g. Caner BATIGÜN 2 . as the thermal energy is more or less restricted to the immediate vicinity of the weld. Caner BATIGÜN RESISTANCE WELDING SPOT WELDING: Advantages •Little deformation of the workpiece.

Caner BATIGÜN 3 .RESISTANCE WELDING SPOT WELDING: Important parameters •The welding current •Squeeze time •The clamping force •Welding time •Hold time •The electrode area WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. and operates with the same principle. which are rolling along (and usually feeding) the workpiece. Caner BATIGÜN RESISTANCE WELDING SEAM WELDING: Seam welding is similar to spot welding. The difference is that two wheel-shaped electrodes are used.

so closely positioned as to produce a single. •SEAM WIDTH MAY BE LESS THAN THE DIAMETER OF SPOT WELDS.RESISTANCE WELDING SEAM WELDING: •The two wheels should be of the same size. seam welding can be used therefore to position spots some regular distance from each other. •An unavoidable problem of seam welding is that some of the current 'leaks' through the completed weld. continuous weld. Caner BATIGÜN 4 . Caner BATIGÜN RESISTANCE WELDING SEAM WELDING: Advantages •GAS-TIGHT OR LIQUID-TIGHT JOINTS CAN BE PRODUCED (NOT POSSIBLE WITH SPOT WELDING OR PROJECTION WELDING). •COATED STEELS ARE GENERALLY MORE WELDABLE USING SEAM WELDING THAN SPOT WELDING. or intermittently to produce a series of spots. •If the weld does not have to be continuous. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. they do not need to be lifted between each spot. as with spot welding. BECAUSE THE ELECTRODE CONTOUR CAN BE CONTINUOUSLY DRESSED AND IS THEREFORE OF A STABLE SHAPE. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. which can be carried out quicker than ordinary spot welding. •As the electrode rollers rotate. •The current may flow continuously while welding is being carried out. •HIGH-SPEED WELDING (ESPECIALLY ON THIN STOCK) IS POSSIBLE. in order to prevent the part from being deflected towards one of them. BECAUSE COATING RESIDUE CAN BE CONTINUOUSLY REMOVED FROM THE ELECTRODE WHEELS IF SPECIAL PROVISIONS ARE MADE.

Caner BATIGÜN RESISTANCE WELDING RESISTANCE BUTT (UPSET) WELDING: Resistance butt welding is used for end-to-end welding of rods or wires. is that there is less wear and tear on the electrodes due to the greater contact area. relative to spot welding. An advantage of the process. shopping trolleys or wire racks for use in ovens. Caner BATIGÜN 5 . rods or pipes.g. The process involves pressing a number of 'dimples‘ in one of the plates. projection welding is used to join two overlapping sheets of relatively thin metal.RESISTANCE WELDING PROJECTION WELDING: As with seam welding and spot welding. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr. e. or for welding nuts to sheets. welding the two plates together at the same time. when welding wire baskets. The ends of the material are pressed together and a current is passed through them: the temperature across the contact resistance becomes so high that the metal softens to a plastic state and the two parts can be joined together. The method can also be used for welding metal sheet to the ends of bars.

Caner BATIGÜN 6 . rails and pipes. The process starts by preheating the components. by moving the parts forwards and backwards. copper. into and out of contact with each other a number of times. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr.2 mm diameter. as well as for gold. this is followed by the next stage. It is used for welding thicker workpieces such as heavy anchor chain. When the temperature is sufficiently high. while current is passing. The lower limit is determined by the purely practical ability of handling the material: for steel wire. The maximum contact area is usually stated to be about 150 mm2: the upward limit is determined by the ability of the welding machine to ensure even distribution of the heat across all parts of the joint. silver and zinc. of flashing.RESISTANCE WELDING RESISTANCE BUTT (UPSET) WELDING: Butt welding can be used for welding steel. the smallest size is generally regarded as being about 0. so that the contact points heat up and heat the body of the metal behind them. aluminium and its alloys. Caner BATIGÜN RESISTANCE WELDING FLASH WELDING: Flash welding is a method in which the ends of the workpiece are pressed together and welded. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr.

with spectacular ejection of molten material in a rain of sparks. and the process continues with application of forging pressure so that molten material and any trapped oxides or contamination are pressed out of the joint into a surrounding collar or upset. WELDING METALLURGY & TECHNOLOGY Dr.RESISTANCE WELDING FLASH WELDING: The parts are slowly brought together and pressed firmly in contact. which causes rapid melting and gasification. Caner BATIGÜN 7 . The molten metal of the two surfaces joins.