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CHY4U The West & the World Unit 2 The Rise of Napolon Background: The French Revolution The

he National Assembly took control of the French Government. Created a constitutional monarchy in 1791. In June 1791, Louis XVI attempted to flee France but was captured and imprisoned. On April 20, 1792, in reaction to an Austrian ultimatum, the National Assembly declared war on the Austrian monarchy. This started the series of wars known as the French Revolutionary Wars. War of the First Coalition Was fought between 17921797 against the combined forces of Austria, Prussia, Britain, Holland, Spain, Sardinia and Naples. Revolutionary France responded by created the Committee for Public Safety and instituting the leve en masse, the first universal male conscription program in Europe. France largely successful all the opposing powers except England had signed peace treaties with France by 1797. Napolon first gained prominence in this war from his successes in Northern Italy. Political Situation On August 10, 1792, an armed group of Jacobins, a radical political group, arrested the Royal family. The Jacobins took power from the more moderate Girondin in the next month. In 1792, the September Massacres led to widespread violence against former nobles and other prisioners. On September 21, the Convention, the new government, abolished the monarchy and declared France a republic. On January 21, 1973, Louis XVI was executed, followed by Marie Antoinette. The Jacobins, led by Maximilien Robespierre, started a Reign of Terror. By 1795, the people were hungry and tired of revolutionary extremism. Led by the Directory, a more conservative and middle-class government, France looked for a stable alternative to revolutionary fervour. This would ostensibly materialize in the person of Napolon Bonaparte. Napolon: Early Life and Career Napolon Bonaparte was born in Corsica in 1769 to a family of lesser nobility. Joined the French military early in life and shined as an artillery officer. Was an early supporter of the Revolution wrote Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire), a pro-republican pamphlet.

Early Military and Political Successes At only 24, he was promoted to Brigadier General during the War of the First Coalition. In 1793, the successful execution of his battle plans at Toulon in the Mediterranean gained him the attention of Robespierre and others in Paris. In Paris in 1795, he used artillery to disperse royalist reactionaries and protected the Convention and the Directory with a whiff of grapeshot. His competence in the battlefield and willingness to use force against political enemies earned him the patronage of the powerful politicians, particularly Paul de Barras. He married Barras former mistress, Josphine, on March 9 1796. Italian Campaign At 26, Napolon was given command of the French invasion of Italy with 41,000 troops On December 27, 1976, he established the Cisalpine Republic after the successful battles of Rivoli, Milan and Mantua. He brought the ideals of the revolution to the new Italian state freedom of the press, the right to petition and education and legal equality. Also captured Rome, Naples and Venice and authorized his soldiers to loot Italian treasures. Was involved in French politics during the campaign, with the Directory increasingly reliant on his military support. In December, Napolon returned to Paris as a celebrity. Egyptian Campaign, 1798-99 Napolons goals for conquering Egypt were to establish a French presence in the Middle East and eventually attack and drive the British out of India. Successful on land in the Battle of the Pyramids against the Egyptian Mamluk warriors However, the French fleet was destroyed by Admiral Nelson, ending Napolons dreams in the Middle East. French scholars and soldiers carried off many Egyptian artifacts, chiefly the Rosetta Stone, which eventually helped decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics. Napolon in Power Napolon returned to a weak Directory and with some of the Directors and others, staged a coup d'tat on November 9, 1799, known as the 18 Brumaire. In December, the Constitution of the Year VIII established a Consulate system, with Napolon dominating as First Consul. In May 1804, following a suspicious referendum, Napolon was proclaimed Emperor of the French and crowned by Pope Pius VII. He swore to uphold the ideals and institutions of the Republic.

Napoleonic Changes Concordat (1801) o Established with the Catholic Church in order to reconcile the largely religious Catholic population with the hitherto anti-clerical sentiment of the revolution. o The government recognized Roman Catholicism as the religion of the majority and paid for the clergy. o Catholic Church could veto the government appointees to clerical positions. o Maintained the freedom of religion for other faiths (especially Judaism). Educational Reform o Created a system of lyces or militaristic secondary schools and community colleges. o This led to the Big Schools in Paris for professionals like lawyers and teachers. o Entrance to institutions were based on a meritocratic system of examinations. The Code Napolon o Promoted the implementation of the Metric System (adopted in 1799) not only in France but across French territories around the world. o The prefectoral system of 1799 set up a system of appointees by Napolon himself. o The fifty members of the State Council, drafted legislation. o A new Civil Law Code instituted equality in taxation and before the law. E.g. Civil marriage in addition to religious ceremony. o Jury trials for major criminal cases. o Still the basis for the legal system in France and elsewhere such as Quebec. War of the Second Coalition Was started in 1798 while Napolon was in Egypt. Against a coalition of European states including Austria, Britain, Russia and Naples. In 1800, Napolon led an army across the Alps defeated the Austrians at Marengo. He conquered Italy in the same year. In 1801 war with Austria ended with the Treaty of Lunville. The 1802 the Treaty of Amiens was signed briefly ending warfare with Britain. o With both sides weary of conflict, Britain finally recognized the French republic. o But war would break out again within a year.