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Chapter 12 Test Format: 60 question scantron test = 120 pts = 30% of your grade Things to study = 12.1 ppt., 12.

1 People and Terms, 12.1 Packet, 12.2 ppt., 12.2 People and Terms, 12.2 Section Review, 12.3 ppt, 12.4 ppt, online practice quizzes. The test is a combination of matching, true/false, sequence of events and multiple choices. Topics To Study:        Countries in the Central Powers, Allied Powers, Triple Alliance, Three Emperor’s League and Triple Entente Central Powers – Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire Allied Powers – Britain, France, and Russia Triple Alliance – united Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Three Emperor’s League – Austria – Hungary, Germany, Russia Triple Entente - France, Russia, and Great Britain Significance of Belgium in WWI -

Declaration of war, assassination of Franz Ferdinand, signing of the armistice - On June 28, 1914, as Franz Ferdinand’s car drove through the Sarajevo streets, a young Serbian man, Gavrilo Princip, opened fire with his pistol, killing the archduke and the archduke’s wife The spark of the war…reasons for the tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary - Some of the strongest nationalist tensions in the Balkans were in Serbia. At the time, Serbia was an independent nation. Many ethnic Serbs, however, lived outside Serbia in other areas of the Balkans. Serbian leaders wanted to expand the nation’s borders and unite all their people in a “greater Serbia.” But Austria-Hungary, the powerful empire to the north of Serbia, opposed any Serbian expansion; fear-ing that such growth might encourage ethnic groups within AustriaHungary to rebel. Tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbs would continue to rise in the early 1900s.

Russian withdrawal from WWI, reasons why, who was sent, which signed the treaty and what was it called. -On the eve of World War I, Russia was a troubled nation. Czar Nicholas II had promised reform after the revolution of 1905, but he delivered little real change. Led by Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks wanted to overthrow the czar so that the proletariat—the industrial workers—could gain the power to rule Russia as a socialist country. This plan was an adaptation of Marxist ideas. Marx had predicted a spontaneous uprising of the proletariat to overthrow capitalism, but Bolsheviks had other plans. They wanted an elite group— themselves—to lead a revolution and keep much of the power over Russia. Russian factories were not able to produce ammunition and other military supplies quickly enough to meet the army’s needs. In addition, the nation’s transportation system was weak. To make matters worse, the Russian military was not prepared to fight a major war. Its equipment was outdated, and many of its leaders were of poor quality. Russian officers commonly advanced on the basis of personal connections rather than actual ability.

Initially, the Russians enjoyed success on the battlefield, but the losses soon outnumbered the victories. In both victory and defeat, however, Russia’s costs in human life were great. Millions of Russian soldiers were wounded or killed during the war’s early battles. In 1915, Czar Nicholas II decided to take personal command of the Russian forces. The move made little sense. After the Bolshevik Revolution, Lenin set about ending Russia’s involvement in World War I. He sent Leon Trotsky, a top Bolshevik official, to negotiate for peace with the Central Powers.   Treaty of Brest-Litovsk = Signed with the Central Powers taking Russia out of the war (March 1918) Russian Revolution – Who is in charge, why does he abdicate, radical groups, leaders, etc. On March 8, 1917, unhappy citizens took to the streets of Petrograd, the Russian capital, to protest the lack of food and fuel. After the fall of the czar, the Duma established a provisional, or temporary, government. Aleksandra Kerensky led this government. Many Russians were unhappy with their new leadership. The government planned to continue fighting in World War I, even though most Russians were thoroughly tired of war. Russian peasants, who simply wanted land and food, felt that Kerensky’s government was doing too little to help. In mid-1917, Kerensky’s government ordered a final military offensive against the Central Powers along the Eastern Front. The drive failed. Even worse, it led to widespread rebellion in the Russian army. The conditions were ideal for Lenin to lead a Bolshevik takeover. In November 1917, armed Bolshevik factory workers known as the Red Guard attacked the provisional government. The October Revolution—its name came from the Old Russian calendar—was brief. After a nearly bloodless struggle, Kerensky’s government collapsed. Russia was now in Bolshevik hands, and Lenin became the nation’s leader. The two radical groups were the Mensheviks who were social and then the Bolsheviks who were more radical. Allies reaction towards Russia dropping out of the war – many countries were unhappy that Russia had left the war since they were the ones that started it and then many other countries supported the white troops over the red since they all feared communism. US involvement in the war…the pres., why they joined, what were the goals after the war, fourteen points, league of nations – Woodrow Wilson was president during WWI. The Germans had attacked many ships after the Unrestricted Submarine Warfare as well as America finding out about the Zimmerman Note. All of these factors led up to America joining the war. (Fourteen Points is at the bottom). America made the fourteen points to try and avoid another war that was as catastrophic as this one, but there was WWII so that didn’t happen as planned. L Of N - The League’s main goals were to encourage international cooperation and to keep peace between nations. But the League did not represent all the world’s nations. Germany, for example, was excluded from the League. In addition, Wilson was unable to convince the U.S. government to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, as some Americans worried that the League of Nations

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would drag them into another far-off war. The U.S. absence greatly weakened the League. Goals – (fourteen points) Paris Peace Conference, - I honestly have no idea what the hell this is so if someone could tell me that would be great. Treaty of Versailles - (1919) treaty ending World War I; required Germany to pay huge war reparations and established the League of Nations Big Four/leaders - this is also something that I don’t know so hmu if you do Changes to Europe after the war – much land was destroyed, ottoman empire and Austria were split apart, and Russian czar was overthrown and then all of Europe was economically punished and in debt, millions died and were injured. MAJOR BATTLES Marne - early September 1914, the Allied troops succeeded in driving the Germans back. After retreating, German forces dug a series of trenches, or deep ditches, along the Aisne (AYN) River and awaited the Allied attack

Verdun - (1916) the longest battle of World War I; it ended in stalemate, with both sides suffering hundreds of thousands of casualties. meant solely to kill or injure as many French soldiers as possible—to “bleed France white,” said the German commander.  From the start of the battle in February 1916 to its end that December, France suffered some 400,000 casualties. Germany, however, endured nearly as many. The battle left both sides weakened, and the stalemate continued. 1) Tannenberg - While France was struggling to fight off Germany during the Battles of the Frontiers, Russia attacked German territory from the east. The results for the Russians were disastrous. In the Battle of Tannenberg, German forces crushed the Russian invasion. The Russian attack had failed to defeat the Germans, but it succeeded in distracting German forces from their advance on France. This distraction allowed Allied forces to collect themselves and turn on the German invaders. Somme - The British launched their own attack, intended partly to pull German troops away from Verdun, in June 1916. This British attack took place in the Somme River area of France. The Battle of the Somme was the main Allied assault during 1916. On the first day of fighting alone, the British suffered nearly 60,000 casualties. Just as in the Battle of Verdun, by the time fighting ended in December 1916 there had been no major breakthroughs. Both sides lost an enormous number of troops. 1) Galipoli - (1915) failed attempt by the Allies in World War I to take control of the Dardanelles To destroy the guns and forts that lined the Dardanelles, the Allies landed a force on the Gallipoli Peninsula in the spring of 1915. After months of fighting and nearly 200,000 casualties, the Allies gave up. 2) Frontiers – series of battle fought on the eastern front of France between France, GB, and Germany. 7 August – September 1914. 3) October/March Revolutions – The March revolution that forced Nicholas to step down is known as the February Revolution in Russia. At the time of the revolution, Russia used an old type of calendar that was 13 days behind the one used in the rest of Europe and the United States. Russia adopted the new calendar in 1918.  VOCAB

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Propaganda - information such as posters and pamphlets created by governments in order to influence public opinion Ultimatum – a final, uncompromising demand or set of terms issued by a party to a dispute, the rejection of which may lead to a severance of relations or to the use of force. Alliance - a union or association formed for mutual benefit, esp. between countries or organizations Schlieffen Plan – Germany’s plan to enter through Belgium to get into France U-Boats - submarines used by Germans in World Wars I and II Lusitania – a boat that was sunk that was carrying around 120 American passengers that then brought America in the war.

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Militarism - Throughout the late 1800s and early 1900s, European countries had undertaken a massive military buildup. This militarism was caused mostly by the desire to protect overseas colonies from other nations. Across Europe, the size of armed forces and navies had risen sharply, particularly in Germany. The growing power of Europe’s armed forces left all sides anxious and ready to act at the first sign of trouble. In this nervous environment, even a minor disagreement had the potential to turn quickly into armed conflict.  Armistice - a temporary suspension of hostilities by agreement of the warring parties; truce  Imperialism - The quest to build empires in the late 1800s and early 1900s had created much rivalry and ill will among the nations of Europe. Germany, France, Russia, and Great Britain each saw themselves as great imperial nations. They believed they could not afford to stand by while a rival empire gained power.  Genocide – the killing of an entire people  Belligerent - warlike; given to waging war.  Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – when Germany disobeyed America’s orders to not attack any British ships that may or may not have had Contraband. This was one of the main reasons America joined.  War of Attritions - a prolonged war or period of conflict during which each side seeks to gradually wear out the other by a series of small-scale actions.  Nationalism – pride in one’s country  Stalemate - any position or situation in which no action can be taken or progress made  Contraband - goods that have been imported or exported illegally.  Zimmerman Note - a telegram sent to a German official in Mexico prior to U.S. entrance into World War I; proposed an alliance between Germany and Mexico. Allowed America to kick some serious ass. The Fourteen Points (1-5 and 14) • No Secret Treaties • Freedom of the Seas
• Removal of Economic Barriers and Tariffs • Reduction of National Armaments
• Adjustment to Colonial Claims
• Political Independence and Protection