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Specifically, we will assume, albeit a bit navely, that all of the potential energy you start out with is nicely transformed into rotational kinetic energy (PE = KErot). We will then calculate the speed of the ball at the time of its release, and use the range equation to calculate the range of the projectile. More specifically: Step 1 Calculate PE (elastic for catapults, gravitational for trebuchets). Step 2 Calculate the rotational inertia (I) of the throwing arm. Step 3 Set PE = KErot to solve for the angular speed, , how fast the arm is rotating in radians per second. Step 4 Calculate the speed (v) of the ball at release using and the distance from the ball to the axis. Step 5 Calculate the range of your projectile using the range equation.

Step 1 Calculate Potential Energy For a catapult, you will need to complete the calculations outlined below for catapults. For trebuchets, you will need to complete the calculations as outlined below for trebuchets.

Catapults Since catapults use elastic potential energy, you will use the following equation: PEe = k(x2) 2 In the above equation, k is the spring constant. You will need to perform this quick experiment to calculate the spring constant for your spring or other elastic material. Measure the length of a piece of your elastic material unstrained. Now, attach a known weight to the material, and measure the new length. The distance the spring stretches is x1 and will be used in the following equation to solve for k., where F is the weight attached (1 pound = 4.448 N) F = kx1

Measure or estimate how much the elastic material will be stretched (or compressed) beyond its unstrained length prior to launch. Use this value x2 in the equation above to calculate elastic potential energy ( PEe) stored prior to launch. If you are constructing a torsion catapult, measure a tight circumference of your torsion bundle. The value you will use for x2 will be this circumference times the number of turns you complete prior to launch. This is a rough estimate. Trebuchets Trebuchets use gravitational potential energy, so you must use the following equation: PEg = mgh In the above equation mg is the weight of the counterweight (1 pound = 4.448 N), and h is the vertical distance the counterweight is allowed to fall during the launch.

Step 2 Calculate the Rotational Inertia ( I) for the Throwing Arm For both catapults and trebuchets, you will need to complete the calculations outlined below.

Remember that the rotational inertia of a rotating object is based on the distribution of mass about the axis of rotation; the further mass is located from the axis, the more rotational inertia it has. You will calculate the moment of inertia for your throwing arm based on the geometry of your throwing arm using the following equations: Equation 1: I = mr2 for any point mass m located distance r from the axis of location. Equation 2: I = 1/3 ml2 for any rod of mass m and length l rotating about an axis through its end.

The total I is the summation of the individual rotational inertia contributions each part of the throwing arm makes.

For example, if your throwing arm looks something like this, you will make three calculations for I, and then add them together: I1 and I2 would be calculated using Equation 2, and I3 would be calculated using Equation 1.

I3 I1 I2

If you do not know the exact mass of the individual pieces, you may make reasonable estimates this isnt quite rocket science .

Step 3 Use PE = KE to Calculate For both catapults and trebuchets, you will need to complete the calculations outlined below.

You calculated the PE provided by your siege engine, and now you will equate the potential energy prior to launch to the kinetic energy, specifically, the rotational kinetic energy (KEr) at launch. PE = KEr = I 2 Using the rotational inertia of the throwing arm, solve for the angular velocity, (in rad/sec), for your throwing arm.

Step 4 Use to find v For both catapults and trebuchets, once you have , you must calculate the launch velocity of the ball.

The angular velocity indicates how fast the throwing arm is rotating. Each part of the throwing arm essentially has the same value for . How fast the ball depends upon how far away the point of release for the ball is from the axis of rotation, r (see figure below). R should be measured in meters.

r = v

v

r

Step 5 Use the range equation to find the predicted range For both catapults and trebuchets, once you have v, you must calculate the estimated, best-case scenario, range of the ball.

You will need to estimate the launch angle, (see illustration above), for your siege engine, and then apply the range equation.

R=

v 2 sin2 g

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