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Hurricanes Summary Tropical cyclones are weather systems that convert the energy of warm ocean waters into

o wind and rain. They are called cyclones, hurricanes, or typhoons in different parts of the world. For requirements must be met for a hurricane to form: ( ! surface seawater temperature of at least "# degrees $% ("! warm and humid air% (&! wea' upper level winds% and ((! a substantial $oriolis effect. These conditions are encountered in the oceans between ) degrees and "* degrees latitude. Hurricanes spin in a counter+cloc'wise or cloc'wise fashion in the northern and southern hemisphere, respectively. Hurricanes go through four stages of development, gradually becoming more structured and powerful. ( ! , low+pressure disturbance forms from a cluster of thunderstorms. ("! -inds begin to flow in an organi.ed pattern and the system becomes a depression. (&! The system reaches the status of tropical storm when winds in e/cess of 0&'m1h converge to its center. ((! -hen winds e/ceed 2'm1h, a strong updraft prevents them from reaching the center ,n eye forms and the system reaches hurricane status. Hurricanes decline rapidly after they ma'e landfall, being deprived of their main source of energy, warm water. However, at mid+latitudes, some hurricanes undergo post+tropical transition, merge with other depressions, and temporarily regain strength. 3ven though weather forecasters trac' hurricanes several days before they ma'e landfall, hurricanes, together with earthqua'es, are the deadliest natural disasters worldwide. Storm surges and torrential rains associated with hurricanes can 'ill thousands of people in low+lying coastal areas. ,tlantic $anada e/periences the effects of hurricanes, most often after their transition to post+ tropical cyclones, on average four times a year. 4efinitions: Hurricane 5 , large, tropical cyclonic storm with wind speeds of 6 'm1h or more% called a typhoon in the western 7acific 8cean and a cyclone in the 9ndian 8cean North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) 5 , shifting of atmospheric pressures over the :orth ,tlantic 8cean occurring on a multi+year timescale. Post-tropical transition + ;radual transformation of a hurricane into a post+tropical storm, occurring typically between &* degrees : and (* degrees : latitude Rogue wave 5 ,n unusually tall wave created when several waves briefly and locally combine their energies. Surge 5 , large mound of seawater that builds up within the eye of a hurricane and then spills onto the land Swell 8ne of a series of regular, long+period, somewhat flat+crested waves that travel outward from their origin. Tropical depression 5 , tropical cyclone with wind speeds between &# and 0& 'm1h Tropical Disturbance 5 , low+pressure system in the tropics with thunderstorms and wea' surface wind circulation. -inds do not e/ceed &0 'm1h. Tropical Stor 5 , tropical cyclone with wind speeds between 0( and 2 'm1h Tropical wave 5 Surface low+pressure system over northwest ,frica that moves westward within the trade winds. ,bove warm ,tlantic 8cean water, it may grow into a tropical storm or a hurricane. T!phoon 5 , large, tropical cyclonic storm with wind speeds of 6'm1h or more% called hurricane in the -estern Hemisphere.

Floods Summary Floods occur when the infiltration capacity of the soil is e/ceeded. -ater runs off at the surface of the ground to reach streams and rivers, which swell and overflow their ban's. Hydro+meteorological floods are caused by e/cess rainfall or snowmelt, or both. <ainfall floods are mostly associated with torrential tropical rains. Snowmelt floods affect northern countries and tropical countries with high mountain ranges, especially in the spring. They are the most dominant flood style in $anada=s large drainage basins. :atural dams, earth material displaced during mass movements or by glaciers, for e/ample, can bloc' the flow of water. -hen natural dams fail catastrophically, high+impact, devastating outburst floods are triggered. Flood plains are flattish areas used as stream floors during floods. Streams routinely adopt new courses in their flood plains. 4evelopment on flood plains is ris'y as nature eventually ta'es bac' its rights Small floods happen frequently% large floods happen uncommonly. Statistical analysis of successive flooding episodes is used to assess the return period and severity of floods in a given area. Humans have occupied flood+prone land for millennia. 3fforts to control river flow in the long term have had various levels of success. >evees 'eep elevating river channels perilously higher and higher above the flood plain. Some dams gradually cho'e under e/cess sediments. 8n the other hand, small+scale channeli.ation and large+scale floodways and barriers have been effective in handling high water flow in times of crises. ?rbani.ation has increased society=s vulnerability to floods. 9n rural settings, a heavy rain supplies water to a stream quic'ly by overland runoff and slowly by underground seepage. ,fter urbani.ation occurs, pavement and roofs seal off most of the ground, increasing the amount of surface runoff. The result is flooding of a greater frequency and severity than a region=s pre+ urbani.ation history would have predicted. Floods cause much human suffering and infrastructure damage in a time span of a few days to a few wee's. 9n the longer term ,they can be responsible for famine when agricultural lands have been submerged and harvest is compromised. They are also often followed by epidemics, with polluted flood waters serving as vectors for infectious diseases. 4efinitions: Avulsion 5 ,n abrupt change in the course of a stream and adoption of a new channel "ase level # The level below which a stream cannot erode, usually sea level. "raided strea 5 ,n overloaded stream so full of sediment that water flow is forced to divide and recombine in a braided pattern. Di$e 5 , long artificial mound of earth constructed to hold bac' water. 4i'es differ from levees as they are not necessarily built along river ban's. Discharge 5 The volume of water flowing in a stream per unit of time Drainage basin 5 The land area that contributes water to a river system %&uilibriu 5 , state of balance in a system% a condition in which opposing processes are so balanced that changes cause compensating actions 'lood stage + >evel of water beyond which conditions become ha.ardous along the ban's of a flooding river. 'lood plain 5 The nearly flat lowlands that border a stream and act as the stream bed during floods.

(raded strea 5 ,n equilibrium stream with evenly sloping bottom ad@usted to efficiently handle water flow (discharge! and sediment (load! transport. (radient 5 The slope of a stream channel bottom% change in elevation divided by distance. H!drograph 5 , plot of discharge with respect to time. )n*iltration 5 The slow passage of rainwater through the soil. +evee 5 , natural or human+built emban'ment along the sides of a stream channel. +oad 5 The amount of material moved and carried by a stream ,eander # The curves, bends, loops, and turns in the course of an underloaded stream that shifts ban' erosion from side to side in its channel Outburst *lood 5 , sudden release of large quantities of water Runo** 5 The portion of precipitation that travels across land and ultimately reaches streams. Sinuosit! 5 The length of a stream channel divided by the straight+line distance between its ends.

Fire Fire is the rapid combination of o/ygen with carbon, hydrogen, and other organic material in a reaction that produces flame, heat, and light. Fire is photosynthesis run in reverse Fire is a natural process that is essential to the health of many ecosystems, including $anada=s forests. Fire recycles nutrients and plays a 'ey role in the reproductive cycle of some plants. Fire develops in three stages, which can occur simultaneously in different areas of a wildfire: . 9n the preheating stage, water is e/pelled from wood, plants, or fossil fuels by flames, drought, or hot weather. ". 9n the pyrolysis stage, when temperatures e/ceed &** degrees $, wood brea's down and gives off flammable gases. 9f o/ygen is present, these gases can ignite and combustion begins. &. 9n the combustion stage, the pyroli.ing woods first burn in flames. <eleased heat 'eeps the wood surface hot through conduction, diffusion, radiation, and convection. ,fter the active flames pass, glowing combustion slowly reduces the solid wood to ash. The spread of fire depends on Types of plants or fuel burned. Strong winds bringing o/ygen and pushing flames forward. 9n fact, fires heat air, which rises buoyantly and creates its own winds. Topography, which helps control plant distribution, and channels fire in preferential directions. , steep slope acts li'e a chimney that fire races up. Fire threats are greatest in areas with big contrasts between wet and dry seasons. , wet season triggers voluminous plant growth. Then dry conditions dehydrate plants, ma'ing it easier for ignition to occur. ;iven the type of vegetation and meteorological conditions, fire specialists use mathematical models to predict fire behavior. <esults are communicated to the public using a simple inde/ that rates fire ha.ard as low, moderate, high, or e/treme. Auildings can be constructed to withstand fire. Traditional structures can be made safer by eliminating flammable vegetation and woodpiles near them, avoiding wood+shingle roofs and overhanging wood balconies or dec's, and using double+pane glass in windows and doors. Fires cannot be prevented, only deferred. ,llowing natural fires to burn helps prevent buildups of e/tensive debris that can fuel a firestorm during heavy winds. 9n $anada, a ma@ority of forest fires are caused by people but lightning+cause fires, occurring mostly in remote areas where immediate remedial action is difficult, account for most of the area burned. Several climate change scenarios predict that forest+fire activity will intensify in

the future. 4efinitions "ac$*ire 5 , fire deliberately set to consume fuel in front of an ad -haparral 5 , dense, impenetrable thic'et of stiff shrubs especially adapted to a dry season about si/ months long% abundant in the State of $alifornia and Aa@a $alifornia. Fire is part of the life cycle of these plants. -o bustion 5 ,ct of burning Di**usion 5 , process of heat transfer by intermingling movement of particles flowing from hotter to cooler .ones due to thermal agitation Du** 5 , mat of organic debris in which fire can smolder for days. 'ire 5 The rapid combination of o/ygen with organic material to produce flame, heat, and light 'irebrand 5 Aurning debris such as branches and embers that are lifted above the fire and carried away to possibly start new fires. 'ire-danger rating 5 System of computer+generated indices used as indicators of fire ha.ard. 'irestor 5 , fire of large enough si.e to disturb the atmosphere with e/cess heat, thus creating its own winds. 'uel 5 ,ny substance that produces heat by combustion 'uel odel + $omputer algorithm predicting that rate of spread of a fire based on vegetation characteristics 'uel-driven *ire 5 Fire burning on calm+weather days that advances slowly through the fuel, giving firefighters opportunities to stop the fire. )gnition te perature 5 Binimum temperature to which a material must be heated for combustion to start +adder *uel # Cegetation of varying heights in an area that allow fire to move easily from the ground to the tree tops. O.idation 5 $ombination with o/ygen. 9n fire, o/ygen combines with organic matter% in rust, o/ygen combines with iron. Photos!nthesis 5 The process where plants produce organic compounds from water and carbon dio/ide using the energy of the Sun. P!rol!sis 5 $hemical decomposition by the action of heat Radiation 5 , process of heat transfer where energy is emitted as rays Slash 5 4ebris such as logs, branches, needles left on the ground by logging or high winds /ind-driven *ire 5 -ind+driven fire fronts that move quic'ly. The wind carries firebrands forward, starting spot fires up to *.0 'm ahead. Firefighters scramble to put out spot fires and can do little against the flame front.

Ha.ards From Space Summary The Sun sends solar wind particles in all directions. -hen strong gusts of solar wind reach 3arth, we e/perience a magnetic storm Bagnetic storms affect several technological systems. The direct hit of charged particles on electronic components can damage circuitry. <adio and ;7S signals are lost or become unreliable because of ionospheric disturbances Spurious induced current interfere with the normal operations of power transmission lines, telephone lines, and corrosion protection systems.

3arth revolving around the Sun in the vastness of space can become a target for impact. Space debris colliding with 3arth comprises primarily stony or metallic asteroids, or ices from comets. The consequences of impact are related to the si.e of the impactor $osmic dust (diameter DE mm! burns up due to friction upon entry in the atmosphere or falls on the surface of 3arth relatively unchanged. Some impactors with diameters between mm and ** m reach the surface of the 3arth and are recovered as meteorites. Beteoroids larger than ** m in diameter are slowed little by the atmosphere and may hit the ground at high speeds, e/plode, and e/cavate craters. The impact of a large asteroid generates tremendous heat and pressure. <oc' in the crater and debris thrown out of the crater is bro'en, melted, and vapori.ed% minerals develop new atomic structures. ,s the transient crater is emptied, the crater bottom rebounds upward, and the fractured walls slide inward toward the crater centre, forming a final, enlarged crater. 9t is difficult to recogni.e impact sites on 3arth because plate tectonics and erosion destroy the evidence. :evertheless, &* sites have been identified in $anada on the basis of aerial photographs and geological evidence, including the presence of shatter cones and shoc' minerals. >ife on 3arth is sub@ected to great stress by a large impact

4efinitions Aphelion 5 The point in the orbit of a body that is farthest from the Sun Astroble e 5 ,n ancient impact site on 3arth usually recogni.ed by a circular outline and highly disturbed, shoc'ed roc's "recciated 5 $haracteri.ed by angular fragments 0uiper belt 5 , flattened dis' of comets with orbital periods less than "** years travelling in an orbital plane similar to the planets of the Solar System but e/tending out )* astronomical units. ,agnetis 5 , group of physical phenomna associated with moving electricity ,aria 5 4ar', low+lying areas of the Boon filled with dar' volcanic roc's ,eteor 5 The light phenomena that occur when a meteoroid enters 3arth=s atmosphere and vapori.es% commonly called a shooting star ,eteoroid 5 , general term for space ob@ects made of metal, roc', dust, or ice Oort cloud 5 , vast and diffuse envelope of comets surround the Solar System Perihelion 5 The point in the orbit of a body that is closest to the Sun Plas a 5 State of matter, distinct from solids, liquids, and gases, in which charged particles wander freely among the nuclei of atoms. Shatter cone 5 4istinctively grooved and fractured conical fragments of roc' Shoc$ ineral 5 <are mineral formed in roc' sub@ected to the passage of a powerful impact shoc' wave Shooting star 5 The light phenomena that occur when a meteoroid enters 3arth=s atmosphere and vapori.es% also called a meteor Solar wind 5 The outflow of charged particles from the Sun Telluric current 5 3lectrical current propagating in the 3arth or through the sea.