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Numerical Techniques for Shallow Water Waves

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**Numerical Techniques for the Shallow Water Equations
**

:89 3 :/843

The University of Reading, Department of Mathematics, P.O.Box 220, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AX, UK E-mail: yha88@dial.pipex.com

Numerical Analysis Report 2/99

Abstract

In this report we will discuss some numerical techniques for approximating the Shallow Water equations. In particular we will discuss finite difference schemes, adaptations of Roe’s approximate Riemann solver and the Q-Schemes of Bermudez & Vazquez with the objective of accurately approximating the solution of the Shallow Water equations. We consider four different test problems for the Shallow Water equations with each test problem making the source term more significant, i.e. the variation of the Riverbed becomes more pronounced, so that the different approaches discussed in this report can be rigorously tested. A comparison of the different approaches discussed in this report will also be made so that we may determine which approach produced the most accurate numerical results overall.

The work contained in this report has been carried out as part of the Oxford / Reading Institute for Computational Fluid Dynamics and was funded by the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council and HR Wallingford under a CASE award.

1 Introduction

Throughout this report, we will be discussing some numerical techniques for approximating the Saint-Venant equations, i.e. ∂w ∂F(w ) + = R (x,w ) ∂t ∂x where uh ⎡ ⎤ ⎡h⎤ ⎡ 0 ⎤ w (x, t ) = ⎢ ⎥ , F(w ) = ⎢ 2 1 2⎥ and R (x, w ) = ⎢ ⎥. ⎢hu + 2 gh ⎦ ⎥ ⎣uh ⎦ ⎣ ghH ′(x )⎦ ⎣ Here, h(x,t) and u(x,t) represent the water depth and the fluid velocity respectively and H(x) is the bed depth from a fixed reference level, see Figure 1-1.

(1.1)

River Riverbed h(x,t)

D

H(x) B (x )

x L Figure 1-1: Shallow Water Variables.

1

Notice that (1.1) has a source term present, R (x, w ) , which can cause difficulties in accurately approximating (1.1), especially if the source term is stiff (see Hudson[7] and LeVeque & Yee[9]). Sometimes, it is convenient to re-write the source term in terms of the bed height H (x ) = D − B (x ) ⇒ H ′(x ) = − B ′(x ) , hence, 0 ⎡ 0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ R (x, w ) = ⎢ =⎢ ⎥ ⎥. ⎣ ghH ′(x )⎦ ⎣ − ghB′(x )⎦ In Chapter 2, we will discuss four test problems for the Shallow Water Equations (1.1) where the source term becomes more significant for each test problem, i.e. the variation of the riverbed becomes more pronounced. The first test problem will have no source term present and the second and third test problem will have a source term present, with the third test problem having a source term more significant than the second test problem. The final test problem will also have a source term which is the most significant out of all of the four test problems and thus is the most difficult to approximate accurately. The four test problems will allow us to rigorously test the different numerical approaches for approximating the Shallow Water Equations (1.1), which are discussed in Chapter 3, and determine if the approaches are accurate when the source term becomes difficult to approximate accurately. The numerical approaches we will

discuss in Chapter 3 are the finite difference approach, adaptations of Roe’s approximate Riemann solver and the Q-Schemes of Bermudez & Vazquez[1]. Some of these approaches require the Jacobian matrix of F(w ) A( w ) = 1⎤ ∂F ⎡ 0 , =⎢ 2 ∂w ⎣ gh − u 2u ⎥ ⎦

2

In Chapter 4 the different numerical approaches discussed in Chapter 3 will be compared by using the four test problems so that we may determine which approach produced the most accurate numerical results overall. ⎣u + gh ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ All of the numerical approaches discussed will derive numerical schemes that are either first order.which has eigenvalues λ1 = u + gh and λ2 = u − gh and eigenvectors ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ = and e1 = ⎢ e 2 ⎥ ⎢u − gh ⎥ . 3 . Kroner[8] and Sweby[14]). second order or flux-limited second order schemes (see LeVeque[10].

2 Test Problems In this chapter.1) This is due to the riverbed being of constant depth resulting in H ′(x ) = 0 ∀x. (1. The final test problem was discussed by Bermudez & Vazquez[1] and represents a tidal wave propagating on a variable depth riverbed. 2. the variation of the bed depth becomes more pronounced. i. i. The second test problem contains a source term and represents a dam breaking on a variable depth riverbed.The Dam-Break Problem In this test problem.1) since no source term is present. on a variable depth riverbed. for the Shallow Water Equations (1.1). notice how the source term becomes more significant. u(x. The first test problem is the dam-break problem and was discussed by Glaister[3] and Stoker[13].0) = ⎨ ⎪φ if 1 < x ≤ 1 ⎪ ⎩ 0 2 4 . which breaks up into two waves travelling in opposite directions. ∂w ∂F(w ) + =0.e.e. This problem is one of the most basic problems for (1.1) has no source term present.0) = 0 and h (x . For each test problem. ∂t ∂x (2. we will discuss four test problems. We also have initial conditions 1 ⎧ 1 if 0 ≤ x ≤ ⎪ ⎪ 2. The third problem was discussed by LeVeque[11] and represents a square pulse.1 Problem A .

φ0 0. hence the downstream flow is subcritical. Walls are present at x = 0 and at x = 1 resulting in reflection at both boundaries. ⎧ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪ 1 2 x − 1 + 2t g ⎪ 3t u (x .5 represents a barrier. ( ) 1 1 − t g ≤ x ≤ (u2 − c 2 ) t + 2 2 1 1 if (u2 − c2 ) t + < x ≤ St + 2 2 1 if x > St + 2 if and ⎧ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎪1 ⎪ 9g ⎪ h (x . 1 1 = = 2 < 7.2 then both eigenvalues of A( w ) are of the φ0 1 < 7. t ) = ⎨ ⎛ ⎪1 ⎜ ⎪4 ⎜ ⎪ ⎝ ⎪1 ⎪ ⎩2 if x < 2 x −1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎟ ⎜2 g − 2t ⎠ ⎝ 1+ ⎞ 16S 2 − 1⎟ ⎟ g ⎠ if 2 1 −t g 2 if 1 1 − t g ≤ x ≤ (u2 − c2 ) t + 2 2 if (u2 − c2 ) t + 1 < x ≤ St + 1 2 2 1 2 x > St + 5 . In Figure 2-1. the discontinuity at x = 0. The following exact solution is illustrated in Figure 2-2 and Figure 2-3 and is only valid for φ0 = 0.2 then the eigenvalues φ0 If the same sign and the downstream flow is supercritical. for this test problem. Note that.2 .which are illustrated in Figure 2-1. which separates the two initial river heights and is removed at t = 0. If of A( w ) are of opposite sign and the downstream flow is subcritical. if 1 > 7.5 We may obtain an exact solution of the dam-break problem by using the analysis of Stoker[13]. downstream flow is supercritical then difficulties can arise in accurately numerically approximating the wave speed of the discontinuity at x = 0.5 and φ1 = 1. t ) = ⎨ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0 ⎩ if x < 1 −t g 2 In Figure 2-1.

w ) . which means that a source term is present.The Dam-Break Problem on a Variable Depth Riverbed This test problem is similar to Problem A but the riverbed is no longer of constant depth. resulting in H ′(x ) ≠ 0 for some values of x.957918120187525. 1 < x ≤1 2 6 .e.2 Problem B .0) = ⎨ ⎪φ − B(x ) if ⎪ ⎩ 0 0≤ x≤ 1 2. i. ∂w ∂F(w ) + = R (x. For a more in depth analysis on how the value of S was obtained see Glaister[3] and Stoker[13]. g ⎟ 8S ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ 2 ⎞ g⎛ ⎜ 1 + 16S − 1⎟ ⎟ g 4⎜ ⎝ ⎠ c2 = and the wave speed of the discontinuity created at x = 0 is S = 2.where u2 = S − 2 ⎞ g ⎛ ⎜1 + 1 + 16S ⎟ . ∂t ∂x For this test problem. 2.0) = 0 and h (x . the riverbed is defined as ⎧1 ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞ ⎞ 2 3 ⎛ ≤x≤ cos⎜10π⎜ x − ⎟ ⎟ + 1⎟ if ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ B( x ) = ⎨ 8 ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠ ⎠ 5 5 ⎝ ⎪ otherwise ⎩0 and we have initial conditions ⎧ 1 − B(x ) if ⎪ ⎪ u(x.

the riverbed is again of variable depth. ⎪1 − B(x ) if x > 0. This problem represents an initial pulse. causing a disturbance behind the hump. 7 . i. resulting in H ′(x ) ≠ 0 for some values of x. Walls are again present at x = 0 and at x = 1 giving reflection at these boundaries.0) = ⎨1.0) = 0 and h (x . In Figure 2-4. ∂w ∂F(w ) + = R (x. which breaks up into two waves moving in opposite directions. which separates the two initial river heights and is removed at t = 0. the riverbed is defined as ⎧1 ⎛ ⎛ 1 ⎞⎞ ⎞ 2 3 ⎛ π x − ≤x≤ cos 10 if ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ + 1⎟ ⎪ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ B( x ) = ⎨ 4 ⎝ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎠ ⎠ 5 5 ⎝ ⎪ otherwise ⎩0 and we have initial conditions ⎧1 − B(x ) if x < 0. there are no walls present at x = 0 and x = 1 and reflection does not occur.2 .2 ⎩ which is illustrated in Figure 2-5. the discontinuity at x = 0. Since a source term is now present.5 represents a barrier.A Problem Discussed by LeVeque[11] In this test problem. 2.1 ≤ x ≤ 0. In this problem. as we will see later. which means that a source term is present.which is illustrated in Figure 2-4.2 − B (x ) if 0. difficulties can arise when numerically approximating this problem. The right-going squarewave pulse passes the hump in the riverbed and becomes partially reflected. ∂t ∂x For this test problem. w ) .e.1 ⎪ u(x.3 Problem C .

which are illustrated in Figure 2-6.800s.200s.5. and boundary conditions ⎧ ⎛ ⎛ 4t 1 ⎞⎞ ⎪64.Tidal Wave Propagation on a Variable Depth Bed This test problem was discussed by Bermudez and Vazquez[1] and also has a source term present. we will discuss some numerical 8 . the reference depth D is taken as D = 60. Also. we can see that at t = 21. since the waves propagate at speed gh . ∂w ∂F(w ) + = R (x.5 + 4 sin ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ π ⎜ 86400 − 2 ⎟ ⎟ h (0. Throughout this chapter.t) = 0. For this test problem.4 Problem D .2. t ) = ⎨ ⎠⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎪60. L ⎝ ⎝ L 2 ⎠⎠ .t) represents a tidal wave of 4m amplitude and in Figure 2-7. i. the tidal wave has reached it’s full height of 8m at inflow whereas at t = 43.5 ⎩ if t ≤ 43200 if t > 43200 40 x ⎛ ⎛ 4x 1 ⎞⎞ + 10 sin ⎜ π⎜ + ⎟ ⎟ .0) = 0 and h(x. the tidal wave has disappeared. w ) . and u(L. ∂t ∂x We have a variable depth given by H ( x ) = 50. Here. representing an incoming wave which is illustrated in Figure 2-7.000m.5 − with initial conditions u(x.0) = H(x). h(0. In the next chapter.600s. the tidal wave should only reach as far as 216.e. we have discussed four different test problems for the Shallow Water Equations.000m at t = 10. This problem represents a tidal wave propagating on a variable depth riverbed. when L = 648.

5 x 0.1 0.3 1.3 0.8 0.2 1.9 h(x.4 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.5 1.6 0.2 0.0) for Problem A 9 .4 0.1 0 0 0.0) 0.1 1 0.7 0.6 0.4 0. Initial Conditions for Problem A 1.9 1 Figure 2-1: Initial condition h(x.techniques for approximating the Shallow Water Equations so that we can apply the different numerical techniques to the four test problems.2 0.7 0.

2 0 .5 0 .07 0 .2 0.6 0 .3 0 . 1 0 .1 0 .7 0.7 0 .Exact Solution of Problem A 1.1 0.8 0.1 0 0 0.09 0 .03 0.1 0.1 1 0.03 0 .8 0 .04 0.4 0 .07 0.09 0.2 1.4 0 .08 0 .t) 0 .1 0 0 0 .9 1 Figure 2-3: Illustration of the exact solution of Problem A 10 .7 0 .02 0 .4 0.6 0.01 0.9 1 Figure 2-2: Illustration of the exact solution of Problem A E x a c t S o lu tion o f P ro b le m A .5 0.6 u(x.9 0.08 0.4 0.5 x 0 0.02 0.5 x 0 0 .3 0.3 0 .7 h(x.3 0.9 0 .8 0.06 0 .06 0.1 0 .01 0 .2 0 .05 0 .t) 0.2 0.6 0.04 0 .05 0.8 0 .

5 0.1 1 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.8 0.5 1.9 1 Figure 2-4: Initial condition h(x.2 0.7 0.1 1 0.6 0.0)+B(x) 0.6 0. 11 .4 0.2 1.2 0.5 x B(x) h(x.1 0 0 0. Initial Conditions for Problem C 1.5 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.9 1 Figure 2-5: Initial condition h(x.4 1.0) and B(x) for Problem C.8 0.9 0.2 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.5 x B(x) h(x.9 0.3 0.8 0.2 1.4 0.0)+B(x) 0.6 0.Initial Conditions for Problem B 1.3 1.3 0.6 0.0) and B(x) for Problem B.1 0 0 0.

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10800 21600 32400 t 43200 54000 64800 60.t) for Problem D. 12 .t) for Problem D.h(0.0) and B(x) for Problem D.t) Figure 2-7: Boundary condition h(0. Boundary Condition h(0.5 .Initial Conditions for Problem D 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2000 4000 6000 x RiverBed River 8000 10000 12000 14000 Figure 2-6: Initial condition h(x.

Both dissipation and dispersion can cause very significant errors in the numerical results. e. we will discuss the finite difference approach (see LeVeque[10] and Kroner[8]). 13 . Hubbard[6] and Roe[12]) and the QSchemes of Bermudez & Vazquez[1]. Dispersion occurs when waves travel at different wave speeds and results in oscillations being present in the numerical results.1). see Figure 3-1. adaptations of Roe’s approximate Riemann solver (see Glaister[4]. One way to minimise dissipation and dispersion is to use a numerical method which satisfies the Total Variational Diminishing property (see Sweby[14] and Harten[5]). Flux-limiter methods will also be applied to the different numerical approaches so that oscillations present in the numerical solution can be minimised.g. and can sometimes give completely inaccurate numerical results. finite element methods. In this report. These approaches will be used to derive first order and second order numerical schemes where if a numerical scheme is first order then the scheme is dissipative and if a numerical scheme is second order then the scheme is dispersive (see Figure 3-1). finite volume methods. etc.3 Numerical Schemes There are a variety of numerical techniques for approximating (1. Flux-limiter methods satisfy the TVD property and switch between a second order approximation when the region is smooth and a first order approximation when near a discontinuity. Dissipation occurs when the travelling wave’s amplitude decreases resulting in the numerical solution being smeared.

9 u(x.4 0.7 0.4 1.5 x Exact Solution First Order Scheme with Dissipation present Second Order Scheme with Dispersion Present 0.….3 1.7 0. xi-1 xi xi+1 …… xI-3 xI-2 xI-1 x x = x1 i=I n=0 t0 = 0 tn+1 – tn = Δt xi+1 – xi = Δx Δx tn = nΔt xi = iΔx ui −1 ui n n −1 n +1 n +1 n ui +1 n n +1 ui −1 ui ui +1 ui −1 ui n −1 ui +1 n −1 Δt Figure 3-2: The Mesh 14 .8 0.2 1.6 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.. 1.0.1 0 0 0.9 1 Figure 3-1: Illustration of Dispersion and Dissipation t n=N t = tN tN-1 tN-2 .3 0.4 0.5) 0.1 1 0.3 0.5 0.0) x = x0 i=0 x1 x2 x3 ….Numerical Results of an Advection Test Problem using First and Second Order Finite Difference Schemes with the Exact Solution.1 0. tn+1 tn tn-1 t2 t1 … u(x.2 0.

1).3. so we will need to reflect the velocity at the two boundaries n n n n u−i = − ui and u I +i = − u I −i where i = 1. 1. we must define the mesh and then look at the numerical boundary conditions required to implement the numerical approaches correctly. 2. Here.2. For the water depth. walls are present at the upstream boundary. 15 . we will use a fixed mesh over the finite region xo ≤ x ≤ x I and 0≤ t ≤ t N . 2. 2. t ) and u I +i = 0 where i = 0. x = 1. h I +i = h I . the numerical solution is denoted by n ui ≈ u (iΔx. we will assume that the depth is constant at the boundaries n n n n h −i = h0 and h I +i = h I where i = 1. x = 0. and the downstream boundary. nΔt ) where Δx = xi − xi −1 and Δt = t n − t n−1 for all i and n.1 Mesh & Boundary Conditions Before we discuss the various numerical approaches for approximating the Shallow Water Equations (1. In this report. Numerical boundary conditions are required at x = x0 and x = xI and are derived separately for each test problem. For i) Problem A and Problem B. 2. which is illustrated in Figure 3-2. u −i = u0 and u I +i = u I where i = 1. ii) Problem C we will assume that the velocity and water depth are constant n n n n n n n n h −i = h0 . For the second boundary condition. we will use n 0 h I +i = h I +i and u −i = u0 n n where i = 1. iii) Problem D we use the analytical boundary conditions to obtain n n h −i = h (0.

Δx (3.e. especially when the source term is stiff.1) is the finite difference method. there are a variety of numerical techniques which approximate the source term and they generally fall under two categories: a pointwise approach. To ensure we obtain a conservative scheme.3) 16 . i.1) with finite difference approximations. giving inaccurate numerical results. we only construct finite difference schemes of the form n +1 n wi = wi − Δt * [Fi +1 / 2 − F*i−1 / 2]. ∂w win +1 − win = ∂t Δt which is a forward difference approximation in time.g.e. if at all.2) or a physical approach.3. Great care must be taken when using finite differences to construct a finite difference scheme as we need to ensure that the scheme is conservative. to obtain a finite difference scheme.1). e. i. This method involves replacing the derivatives of (1. A finite difference scheme that is not conservative may propagate discontinuities at the wrong wave speed.1). Obtaining a conservative scheme when a source term is present can be very difficult. n+ n wi 1 = wi − Δt * [Fi+1 / 2 − Fi*−1 / 2]+ ΔtRni Δx (3. n+ n wi 1 = wi − Δt * [Fi+1 / 2 − Fi*−1 / 2]+ ΔtR*i . where we add a source term approximation to (3. which involves taking an average value of the source term and upwinding (see Sweby[15] for more details).1) where F* is called the numerical flux function.2 Finite Difference Method One approach widely used to numerically approximate (1. Δx (3.1) approximates the homogeneous problem (2. Notice that (3. However.

i.We will now look at specific schemes which numerically approximate the Shallow Water Equations7. However. win = ⎢ n n ⎥ . LeVeque & Yee[9] eliminated 17 .1). n n wi +1 + wi −1 − s ( n − n ) + n n +1 wi = Fi +1 Fi −1 sRi 2 2 (S-1) where n n n ⎡ ⎤ hi ui 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ Δt h i ⎥ and R n s= .e. 3. which involves modifying the explicit MacCormack scheme.1) does not need to be approximated. 2 i = ⎢ n n − g hi (Bi − Bi −1)⎥ Δx ⎢hi (ui ) + g (hi ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣hi ui ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 Notice that this scheme is in a similar form of (3.2. n n n ⎡ ⎤ hi ui 0 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ Δt h i ⎥ and R n s= . this scheme suffers from dispersion and results in oscillations being present in the numerical approximation.e.Friedrichs Approach We can use the Lax-Friedrichs scheme with a source term approximation ‘added’ to approximate (1. Fin = ⎢ n n 2 1 .2) and that the Jacobian matrix of F(w) associated with the system (1. the Lax-Friedrichs scheme can suffer from oscillations but sometimes these oscillations can be minimised by using sufficiently small step-sizes.2 Explicit MacCormack Approach We can also use an approach discussed by LeVeque & Yee[9] to approximate (1. However. win = ⎢ n n ⎥ . . 3.1).1 First Order Lax. n+ wi 1 = s (1 ) 1 n 1) (wi + wi(1) )− s (Fi(1) − Fi(− Ri 1) + 2 2 2 (S-2a) where n n n n wi(1) = wi − s (Fi +1 − Fi ) + sRi . Fin = ⎢ n n 2 1 2 i = ⎢ n n Δx − g hi (Bi − Bi −1)⎥ ⎢hi (ui ) + g (hi ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣hi ui ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ 2 Unfortunately. i.2.

2 ( )( ) Q i +1 / 2 = min mod (αik−1 / 2 . αik+1 / 2 . c ) = ⎨ . b . b. 0 otherwise ⎩ ⎡ α1 Δt k i +1 / 2 ⎤ −1 k n n ⎢ 2 ⎥ = Xi +1/ 2 (wi +1 − wi ) and vi +1 / 2 = Δx λi +1 / 2 . k ek k =1 Variables which have ˜ ~ represent the Roe average and A is the Jacobian matrix evaluated at Roe’s average state. c ) if d = sgn (a ) = sgn (b ) = sgn (c ) min mod(a. eigenvectors and wave strengths associated with the system (1.e. ⎣ αi +1/ 2⎦ Here.these oscillations by adapting (S-2a) so that the scheme satisfies the TVD property and obtained n+ wi 1 = w(i 2) + Xi +1 / 2 ϕi +1 / 2 − Xi −1/ 2 ϕi −1 / 2 ( ) (S-2b) where X represents a matrix containing the right eigenvectors e. 18 . αik+3 / 2 ) . e and α represents the eigenvalues. wi( 2 ) is the numerical approximation derived from scheme (S-2a). i.1) respectively. which can be obtained by the decomposition 2 ~ ~ ~ =A ~k λ ΔF = ∑ α Δw . ⎧d min (a . We will discuss the method of decomposition in Section 3. k represents the kth component of the vector and λ. 2 2 2 ⎡φ1 ⎤ ϕi +1 / 2 = ⎢ i2+1 / 2 ⎥ ⎣φi +1 / 2 ⎦ φi +1 / 2 = k k where 1 k 2 k k vi +1 / 2 − (vik+1 / 2 ) αi +1/ 2 − Qi +1 / 2 .3. wi( 2 ) = and 1 n (wi + wi(1) )− s (Fi(1) − F(i1−)1)+ s R(i1) .

4) where w (2) i 1 s ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ s ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ (1) 1) I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ Ri .1).4) as n +1 ( 2) wi = wi + Xi +1 / 2 ϕi +1 / 2 − Xi −1/ 2 ϕi −1 / 2 ( ) (S-2c) where w and (2) i 1 s ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ s (1 ) 1) = (win + wi(1) )− ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (Fi(1) − Fi(− Ri 1) + 2 2 ⎣ 2 ⎣ ∂w ⎦ ⎦ 2 ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ n n n w = w − s ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (Fi +1 − Fi )+ s R i . w 2 ∂ ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ (1) i n i −1 −1 19 . ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ Also. we can re-write (3.3 Semi-Implicit MacCormack Approach LeVeque & Yee[9] also obtained a semi-implicit approach to approximate (1. notice that for the Shallow Water Equations −1 1 0⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎤ ⎤ ⎡ ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ n ⎡ n s I − = =⎢ ⎢ ⎥⎢ R i ⎥ ⎥ = Ri . which involves modifying the explicit MacCormack scheme so that n+ wi 1 = w(i 2) + Xi +1 / 2 ϕi +1 / 2 − Xi −1/ 2 ϕi −1 / 2 ( ) −1 (3.5) Hence. ⎢ 2 ⎢ ∂w ⎥ ⎥ n n 1 − − ( ) g − B B i i 1 − − − − ( ) ( ) g g ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 2 ⎦ ⎣ hi Bi Bi −1 ⎦ ⎣ hi Bi Bi −1 ⎦ (3.3. = (win + wi(1) )− ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (Fi(1) − Fi(− 1) + 2 2 ⎣ 2 ⎣ ∂w ⎦ ⎦ 2⎢ ⎣ 2 ⎣ ∂w ⎦ ⎦ ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤⎤ ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ n n n w = w − s ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥⎥ (Fi +1 − Fi )+ s ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ R i ⎣ 2 ⎣ ∂w ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ 2 ⎣ ∂w ⎦ ⎦ (1) i n i n −1 −1 −1 and which implies that 0 0⎤ ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎡ = ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦i ⎣ − g (Bi − Bi −1) 0⎦ ⎣ ∂w ⎥ −1 1 0⎤ ⎡ ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ s I ⎢ − 2 ⎢ ∂w ⎥ ⎥ = ⎢− g (Bi − Bi −1) 1⎥ .2.

Roe’s scheme [12] can be used n +1 n * * wi = wi − s (Fi +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ). I = i − sgn ((v k )i ±1/ 2 ) λ k . θk = ~ Δx (αk )i±1 / 2 and φk can be any of the flux-limiters listed in Table 3-1.6) ˜ is called the Roe ~ ~ e respectively and are average.3. 20 . i. (3. w R ) ≈ is the linearised Jacobian matrix and ∂w (3. w R ) = 0.7) where F* i +1 / 2 = M 1 n ~ (1− φ (1− ))~ ⎞ ~k λ (Fi +1 + Fin )− 1 ⎛ . ∂t ∂x ∂F ~ where A (w L . The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A are λ and ~ determined from the decomposition M ~ ~ ~ =A ~k λ Δw ΔF = ∑ α k ek k =1 ~ where Δw = w R − w L .3 Approximate Riemann Solvers Roe [12] derived an approach which approximates systems of conservation laws by using a piecewise constant approximation Δx Δx ⎧ < x < xL + w L if x L − ⎪ ⎪ 2 2 . α wave strengths associated with the linearised Riemann problem have been obtained. and determining the exact solution of a linearised Riemann problem which is related to (2. t n ) = ⎨ Δ x Δ x ⎪w R if x R − < x < x R+ ⎪ ⎩ 2 2 where wL and wR represent the piecewise constant states at tn. eigenvectors and represents the wave strengths. M is the number of waves present in the system and α ~ k = Δ w k . Once the eigenvalues.e.1) ∂w ~ ∂w + A (w L . ⎜ ∑α vk e k ⎟ k k ⎠i +1/ 2 2 2 ⎝ k =1 vk = ~ k )I ± (α Δt ~ 1/ 2 . w (x .

n ⎣ − g hi (Bi − Bi −1)⎦ We now need to obtain the eigenvalues.3.7) to numerically approximate the Shallow Water Equations. λ 2 = u − c . we may obtain eigenvalues. which has a source term present. eigenvectors and wave strengths associated with the linearised Riemann problem from the decomposition. For the Shallow Water Equations.Name of Flux-limiter Minmod Roe’s Superbee van Leer van Albada φ(θ) φ(θ) = max(0. We now extend (3.2)) θ +θ φ(θ) = 1+ θ φ(θ) = θ2 + θ 1 + θ2 Table 3-1: Some second order flux-limiters.1 Roe’s Scheme with Source Term Added As presented so far. θk = ~ Δx (αk )i±1 / 2 0 ⎡ ⎤ n Ri = ⎢ ⎥. ⎜ ∑α vk e k ⎟ k k ⎠i +1/ 2 2 2 ⎝ k =1 vk = and ~ k )I ± (α Δt ~ 1/ 2 . 21 . One approach is to add a source term approximation to (3.min(1. I = i − sgn ((v k )i ±1/ 2 ) .7) n * win+1 = win − s (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 )+ sR i (S-3a) where Fi +1/ 2 = * M 1 n ~ (1− φ (1− ))~ ⎞ ~k λ (Fi +1 + Fin )− 1 ⎛ . λ k . Roe’s scheme approximates homogeneous systems of conservation laws. 3.min(2θ.1).min(θ. eigenvectors and wave strengths (see Glaister[3] and Hubbard[6]) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ λ1 = u + c .θ)) φ(θ) = max(0.

i. ⎣u + c ⎦ ⎣u − c ⎦ ~Δh ) ~1 = 1 Δh + 1 (Δ(hu ) − u α ~ 2 2c and ~Δh ) . by using Taylor’s theorem. ∂ w 2 ⎣ ⎦⎦ ⎣ n i M 1 n ~ (1− φ (1− ))~ ⎞ ~k λ (Fi +1 + Fin )− 1 ⎛ . wi = wi − s (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ) + sR i where (3. n +1 n n +1 * . ~ 2 = 1 Δh − 1 (Δ(hu ) − u α ~ 2 2c ~ = h R u R + h L u L and c ~ = g hR + hL . we may obtain n +1 n n +1 n ⎡ ∂R ⎤ R i ≈ Ri + (wi − wi )⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ∂w ⎦ and by substituting into (3. n ⎣ − g hi (Bi − Bi −1)⎦ 22 . I = i − sgn ((v k )i ±1/ 2 ) λ k θk ~ Δx (αk )i±1 / 2 0 ⎡ ⎤ n Ri = ⎢ ⎥.5). ⎜ ∑α vk e k ⎟ k k ⎠i +1/ 2 2 2 ⎝ k =1 −1 (S-3b) vk = and ~ k )I ± (α Δt ~ 1/ 2 = . we may obtain w where Fi +1/ 2 = * n +1 i ⎡ s ⎡ ∂R ⎤ ⎤ n * = w − s ⎢I − ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ) +s R i .e. u 2 h L + hL A semi-implicit approach of (S-3a) can be obtained by approximating the source term at tn+1 instead of at tn.8) Now. . ~ e 2 = ⎢ ~ ~⎥ .8) and using (3.⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ~ e1 = ⎢ ~ ~ ⎥ .

e. i. Δx k =1 k ~ are the coefficients of the decomposition of the source term onto the Here. 1 M~ ~ ~ ∑β e k = R . Roe’s first order scheme with the source term decomposed may be written − + * win+1 = win − s (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ) +s (Ri +1 / 2 + Ri −1 / 2 ) (S-3c) where Fi +1/ 2 = * 2 1 n ~ ~ ⎞ ~k λ (Fi+1 + Fin )− 1 ⎛ ⎜ ∑α k ek ⎟ ⎠i +1/ 2 2 2 ⎝ k =1 and 23 . Once the values of β k approximate the source term by using * Ri = ~ΔH ~ =−c .3. Hence. This method approximates the source term by decomposing the source term in a similar way that we did for the flux terms.3. β k eigenvectors of the characteristic decomposition (see Glaister[3] and Hubbard[6]).2 Roe’s Scheme with Source Term Decomposed Instead of adding a source term approximation to Roe’s scheme [12].9) 1 (Ri−+1 / 2 + Ri+−1/ 2 ) Δx where 1⎛ 2 ~ ± ~ ⎞ . we may obtain ~ΔH ~ =c and β1 2 Alternatively. we can use ~ ~ΔB c ΔB ~ ~ =c and β β1 = − 2 2 2 ~ have been obtained. we can use an approach discussed by Glaister[3]. β2 2 (3. For the Shallow Water Equations. we can for the Shallow Water equations. e k (1± sgn (λ k ))⎟ R i +1 / 2 = ⎜ ∑ β k ~ ⎠i +1/ 2 2 ⎝ k =1 which is a first order approximation of the source term.

∑ β k e k (1± sgn (λ vk ⎥ k k ⎢ ⎦i +1 / 2 2 ⎣k =1 vk = ~k ) ± (α Δt ~ I 1/ 2 .3. θk = ~ Δx (αk )i±1 / 2 and φk can be any of the flux-limiter functions listed in Table 3-1. i. Bermudez & Vazquez[1] state that in order for a numerical scheme to satisfy 24 . we can also use an approach proposed by Hubbard[6] which involves applying TVD to the source term approximation as well as the conservation law approximation.e. 3. ⎜ ∑α vk e k ⎟ k k = ⎝ ⎠i +1/ 2 k 2 2 1 R i +1 / 2 = 1⎡ 2 ~ ~ ~ )(1− φ (1− )))⎤ . e k (1± sgn (λ k ))⎟ R i +1 / 2 = ⎜ ∑ β k ~ = ⎠i +1/ 2 2 ⎝k 1 We can also obtain a second order accurate approximation of the source term and thus obtain Roe’s second order scheme with source term decomposed − + * win+1 = win − s (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ) +s (Ri +1 / 2 + Ri −1 / 2 ) (S-3d) where F* i +1 / 2 = and R i +1 / 2 = ± 2 1 n ~ )2 ~ ⎞ ~ k (λ (Fi +1 + Fin )− s ⎛ ⎜ ∑α ek ⎟ k ⎠i +1 / 2 2 2 ⎝ k =1 s⎡ 2 ~ ~ ~ ~ ))⎤ . I = i − sgn ((v k )i ±1/ 2 ) λ k .3 The C – Property of Bermudez & Vazquez The advantage of decomposing the source term as well as the conservation law is that we obtain a numerical scheme that satisfies the approximate C-property. ∑ β e k λ k (1± sgn (λ k ⎥ ⎣ k =1 k ⎦i +1/ 2 2⎢ In addition. − + * win+1 = win − s (F* i +1 / 2 − Fi −1 / 2 ) +s (Ri +1 / 2 + Ri −1 / 2 ) (S-4) where Fi +1/ 2 = * ± M 1 n ~ (1− φ (1− ))~ ⎞ ~k λ (Fi +1 + Fin )− 1 ⎛ .1⎛ 2 ~ ± ~ ⎞ .

3. wi −1 . wi ) = n n 1 ˆ (xi −1 . the numerical scheme must be at least second order accurate when applied to the quiescent flow case. win+1)(win+1 − win ) . wi +1). wi +1) = g ⎛ hi + hi +1 ⎞⎛ H (x i +1) − H (xi ) ⎞⎥ ⎟⎥ ⎢ ⎜ 2 ⎟⎜ Δx ⎠⎦ ⎠⎝ ⎣ ⎝ 25 . wi . xi . 2 [ ] R R (xi . 2 2 n n n n n R i = R L (xi −1 . win ) R 2 1 −1 n n n n n ˆ I − Q(wn i . However. wi +1) = n n [ ] 0 ⎡ ⎤ n n n n ˆ ⎢ R (xi . win−1 .i) The approximate C-property.1). I + Q(win−1 . Roe’s scheme with source term added does not even satisfy the approximate Cproperty and may give misleading results as the source term becomes significant. w i . the numerical scheme must be exact when applied to the quiescent flow case. xi +1 . All of the Q-Schemes discussed were used with the following first order equation n +1 n n * * wi = wi − s (Fi +1 / 2 − Fi −1/ 2 )+ ΔtR i (S-5) where Fi +1/ 2 = * 1 n (Fi+1 + Fin ) − 1 Q(wni . wi )+ R R (xi . x i +1 . xi . w i +1) Q (w i . which numerically approximate (1.4 Q-Schemes of Bermudez & Vazquez Bermudez & Vazquez[1] discussed a variety of Q-Schemes. R L (x i −1 . win ). xi +1 . i. win ) Q−1 (win−1 . wi . xi . ii) The exact C-property. w i +1) . u ≡ 0 and h ≡ H. wi −1 . Hubbard’s approach and Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed all satisfy the exact C-property and should produce very accurate numerical results.e.e. i. u ≡ 0 and h ≡ H. wi +1) R (x i . xi +1 . wi .

⎣u + c ⎦ ⎣u − c ⎦ where ~ = g hR + hL .and Q is a matrix calculated by using a certain Q-Scheme. Bermudez & Vazquez[1] discussed a variety of Q-Schemes but generally concentrated on the Q-scheme of van Leer and a Q-Scheme which is equivalent to Roe’s first order scheme (S-3c). the modulus of matrix A can be obtained by using 26 . ~ e 2 = ⎢ ~ ~⎥ . 2 ⎣ gh − u 2u ⎦ which has eigenvalues λ1 = u + gh and λ2 = u − gh and eigenvectors ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ and e2 = ⎢ e1 = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥. λ 2 = u − c and eigenvectors ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎡ 1 ⎤ ~ e1 = ⎢ ~ ~ ⎥ . ~ ~ ⎣ c − u 2u ⎦ which has eigenvalues ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ λ1 = u + c . The Q-Scheme of van Leer is ⎛ win + wn i +1 ⎞ ) Q(win . i +1 2 ⎝ ⎠ where A denotes the Jacobian matrix of F( w ) 1⎤ ⎡ 0 A( w ) = ⎢ ⎥. wn i +1) = A (w ) = ⎢ 2 2 ~⎥ . ⎣u + gh ⎦ ⎣u − gh ⎦ The Q-Scheme that is equivalent to Roe’s first order scheme is 1⎤ ~ ⎡ 0 Q(win . ~ = h R u R + h L u L and c u 2 h L + hL For both Q-Schemes. wn A = ⎜ ⎟.

wn . xi +1 . ⎣λ1 λ 2 ⎦ Hence. λ 2 − λ1 ⎣λ2 λ1 (λ1 − λ 2 ) λ2 λ 2 − λ1 λ1 ⎦ and for the source term approximation we may obtain (λ1 λ2 − λ2 λ1 ) ⎤ ˆ (x . .1). xi . win−1 . wn i .A = X −1 X where Λ represents a matrix whose diagonal elements are the eigenvalues of A. wn ) ⎡ ˆ L (xi −1 . In this chapter. notice that (S-5) with either Q-Scheme satisfies the exact C-property. wn i . for both Q-Schemes we may obtain A= 1 ⎡ λ1 λ 2 − λ1 λ 2 λ 2 − λ1 ⎤ ⎢ ⎥. In the next chapter. w i +1) = R g n n ( hi + hi +1)(H (xi +1) − H (xi )) . 27 . w i +1) ⎡ R n n ˆ . . we will apply these schemes to the four test problems discussed in Chapter 2 to find out which approach is the most accurate. win ) = R 2 i −1 i i −1 i ⎢ R ((λ 2 − λ1)λ2 λ1)i−1 / 2 ⎣λ2 λ1(λ2 − λ1 + λ2 − λ1 )⎥ ⎦i −1 / 2 and n − (λ1 λ2 − λ2 λ1 ) ⎤ ˆ 2 (xi . ⎡1 1⎤ X( w) = ⎢ ⎥. λ1 =⎡ ⎢ ⎣0 0⎤ ⎥ λ2⎦ and X denotes a matrix containing the right eigenvectors. = R R (xi xi +1 wi wi +1) ⎢ ((λ2 − λ1)λ2 λ1)i +1 / 2 ⎣λ2 λ1(λ2 − λ1− λ2 + λ1 )⎥ ⎦i +1 / 2 where n ˆ 2 (xi . 2 Δx Again. xi +1 . we have discussed a variety of numerical schemes which approximate (1. x .

Name Of Approach Lax-Friedrichs MacCormack Roe’s Scheme with Source Term ‘added’ Roe’s Scheme with Source Term Decomposed Reference No. i. A comparison will be made at t = 0. We will not discuss the results of the semiimplicit approaches as they produced almost identical results to the explicit approaches. the numerical results of Bermudez & Vazquez’s Q-Schemes will not be discussed as the two Q-Schemes produced almost identical results to Roe’s first order scheme with source term decomposed.000m and a final time of t = 10. (S-1) (S-2b) (S-3a) (S-3b) Order 1 2 1/2 1 Paper Yee[16]. step-sizes Δx = 0.4 Numerical Results In this chapter.800s and numerical results will also be shown for t = 1080m. step-sizes Δx = 2800 and Δt = 1 will be used with a bed length of L = 648. A comparison will be made at t = 10. Roe[12] Hubbard’s Approach (S-4) 2 Hubbard[6] Table 4-1: Different approaches for numerically approximating (1.1.800s. Also. Hubbard[6].001 and Δt = 0. where m = 0 to 10. Glaister[3]. where m = 0 to 10.1 and numerical results will also be shown for t = 0.1). LeVeque & Yee[9].0001 will be used with a final time of t = 0.01m. For test Problem D. For the first three test problems. 28 . (S-3b). we will apply the schemes discussed in Chapter 3 and listed in Table 4-1 to the four test problems discussed in Chapter 2 to find out which approach produces the most accurate results.e.

By using schemes (S-1). Also.1. Roe’s scheme with source term added produced almost identical results to Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed showing that. we can see that Roe’s scheme is more accurate than the LaxFriedrichs approach since the Lax-Friedrichs approach is more dissipative than Roe’s scheme. no source term is present so schemes (S-3a) and (S-3b) are the same.1. 4. by using schemes (S-1) and (S-3b) to approximate Problem A and comparing with the exact solution. the results in Figure 4-2a to Figure 4-3b were obtained. Here we can see that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed has produced the most accurate results. Now. the Lax-Friedrichs scheme suffered badly from oscillations if larger step-sizes were used whereas Roe’s scheme remained accurate but became more dissipative.1 Numerical Results for Problem A For this test problem. Here. adding a source term approximation to Roe’s scheme produces sufficiently accurate results. we may obtain the numerical results in Figure 4-1a and Figure 4-1b. 4. The Lax-Friedrichs approach produced the least accurate results suffering badly from dissipation and the approach also misplaced the disturbance caused by the riverbed.1 First Order Comparison 4.Only first order and flux-limited second order numerical results will be discussed and the Minmod flux-limiter will be used with all flux-limited second order approaches. 29 . a source term is now present so approaches (S-3a) and (S-3b) are no longer equivalent.2 Numerical Results for Problem B For this test problem. (S-3a) and (S-3b) to approximate Problem B. for Problem B.

1.e.800s.55. This is because the numerical scheme satisfies the exact C-property whereas the other approaches do not even satisfy the approximate C-property. Here.3 > x > 0. which may cause some schemes to produce inaccurate results. By using approaches (S-1).4 Numerical Results for Problem D For this test problem.4. The Lax-Friedrichs approach has produced the least accurate results due to the scheme suffering badly from dissipation and the scheme has also produced more movement than Roe’s scheme with source term added for 0. (S-3a) and (S-3b) to approximate Problem C. the source term is becoming more significant.3 Numerical Results for Problem C For this test problem. the variation in the riverbed is becoming more pronounced. Here. we can see that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed has produced the most accurate results but the results are no longer almost identical to Roe’s scheme with source term added.55. This is because Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed satisfies the exact C-property whereas Roe’s scheme with source term added does not. i.3 > x > 0. Roe’s scheme with source term added was 30 . the results in Figure 4-8a to Figure 4-11b were obtained. 4. Adding the source term in this case has produced movement for 0.1. (S-3a) and (S-3b) to Problem D. from Figure 4-7b we can see that the Lax-Friedrichs approach has started producing oscillations at the peak of the pulse even though small step-sizes have been used.000m at t = 10. the source term is very difficult to approximate accurately which may cause some approaches to produce very inaccurate numerical results.55 whereas decomposing the source term has produced no movement for 0. we can see that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed has produced the most accurate results since it was the only approach not to produce movement after x = 216. the results in Figure 4-4a to Figure 4-7b were obtained.3 > x > 0. Also. By applying schemes (S-1).

2. Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed produced the most accurate results for all test problems in the first order case since it was the only approach to satisfy the exact C-property. The Lax-Friedrichs approach failed to accurately approximate Problem D at all due to the scheme producing oscillations over the whole domain. we have seen that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed has produced very accurate results for all test problems suffering only slightly from dissipation. the results in Figure 4-12a and Figure 4-12b were obtained. Both approaches have produced extremely accurate numerical results but Roe’s scheme was the most accurate.5 Overall Comparison of First Order Approaches From the results of this sub-section. In Problem D. The Lax-Friedrichs approach is accurate for the most basic test problems but only when sufficiently small step-sizes are used otherwise the scheme suffers from oscillations. by using approaches (S-2b) and (S-4) to approximate Problem A.2 Flux-Limited Second Order Comparison 4. Also. 4.800s.1.1 Numerical Results for Problem A Now.the second most accurate due to the approach producing movement after x = 216. the numerical scheme started to produce less accurate results. Hence. as the source term became significant the Lax-Friedrichs approach became impractical suffering badly from oscillations even when small step-sizes were used.000 at t = 10. 31 .000 at t = 10.800s making the scheme very inaccurate. but as the source term became more significant. 4. Roe’s scheme with source term added produced movement after x = 216. Here. we can see that Roe’s scheme and the MacCormack approach have produced almost identical results. Roe’s scheme with source term added produced accurate numerical results for the first two test problems.

we can see that Roe’s scheme with source term added.55 than Roe’s scheme with source term added but the approach has smeared the pulse at x = 0.2 Numerical Results for Problem B By using approaches (S-2).3 Numerical Results for Problem C By using approaches (S-2).001 with approaches (S-2). (S-3a) and (S-4) to approximate Problem C. we may obtain the results in Figure 4-19a and Figure 4-19b. (S-3a) and (S-4). the results in Figure 4-15a to Figure 4-18b were obtained. we can see that Hubbard’s approach has produced the most accurate results.3 > x > 0. The other two approaches have produced movement in the region 0. The MacCormack approach has produced less movement in the region 0. Here. Hubbard’s approach and the MacCormack approach have all produced almost identical results.4.5. Here we can see that Hubbard’s approach has again produced the most accurate numerical results and has not produced movement in the region 0. Hubbard’s approach is still very accurate when the step-size is increased but the other two approaches are becoming impractical.2.55.3 > x > 0.3 > x > 0. Here.3 > x > 0. (S-3a) and (S-4) to approximate Problem B. Roe’s scheme with source term added has produced inaccurate numerical results due to the approach producing a considerable amount of movement in the region 0. All three approaches have produced very accurate results. If we use a larger step-size of Δx = 0.2. 32 .5 considerably more than Roe’s scheme with source term added. the results in Figure 4-13a to Figure 4-14b were obtained. 4.01 and Δt = 0.55 with the MacCormack approach producing the most amount of movement of the three approaches. the MacCormack approach and Roe’s scheme with source term added have both produced very inaccurate numerical results. However. Hence.55 and the approach has slightly smeared the pulse at x = 0.

33 . the results in Figure 4-20a to Figure 4-23b were obtained.800s. Hubbard’s produced the most accurate results. Hence. we can see that Hubbard’s approach was the only approach that did not produce movement after x = 216.800s.4. However. as the source term became more significant. 4. we have seen that Hubbard’s approach has produced the most accurate results for all test problems producing very accurate results even for Problem D. (S-3a) and (S-4) to approximate Problem D.000m at t = 10. Roe’s scheme with source term added and LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach produced very similar results but both produced movement after x = 216. When the source term became significant and a larger step-size was used.Limited Second Order Approaches From the results of this sub-section. by using approaches (S-2).4 Numerical Results for Problem D Now. Roe’s scheme with source term added and Hubbard’s approach all produced almost identical results for the first two test problems.5 Overall Comparison of the Flux. LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach.2. Here.2. the MacCormack approach and Roe’s scheme with source term added both became impractical but Hubbard’s approach still produced very accurate numerical results. LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach and Roe’s scheme with source term added produced less accurate results but still produced very similar results due to both approaches adding a source term approximation on.000m at t = 10.

4 0.2 1.1) 0.8 0.0.2 0. 1.1.6 u(x.3 0.001.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 h(x.8 0. 1 0.9 0.0001 and at t = 0.1 0 0 0.5 x Exact Lax-Friedrichs Roe's Scheme 0.2 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.First Order Numerical Results: Comparison of the Different First Order Results w ith the Exact Solution using hx = 0. ht = 0.001 . h t = 0 .0.5 x E xact Lax-F riedrichs R oe 's S chem e 0.9 1 Figure 4-1b: Comparison of the results for Problem A 34 .2 0.1 0 0 0.8 0.1 0.000 1 a n d at t = 0 .1 1 0.6 0.7 0.1) 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.1.9 1 Figure 4-1a: Comparison of the first order results for Problem A C o m p a ris o n o f th e D ifferen t F irs t O rd er R es u lts w ith th e E xac t S o lutio n u sin g h x = 0 .2 0.5 0.

5 0.001. 1.4 0. ht = 0. ht = 0.2 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.001.7 0.1.06 0.09 0.Roe's Scheme with Source Term Decomposed and hx = 0.1 1 0.8 0.4 0.1.6 1.6 0.9 0.05 0.2 0. 1.2 1.5 0.04 0.4 1.01 0.3 1.3 0.1 1 u(x.7 0.1 0.1 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.8 1.3 0.9 0.1 0.03 0.08 0.01 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.2 1.09 0.9 1 Figure 4-2a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem B Roe's Scheme w ith Source Term Decomposed and hx = 0.8 0.3 0.4 0.9 1 Figure 4-2b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem B 35 .6 0.03 0.t) 0.8 0.02 0.1 0 0 0.7 1.5 x 0 0.7 0.05 0.1 0 0 0.06 0.5 1.6 0.6 0.07 0.5 x Riverbed 0 0.04 0.2 0.02 0.1 0.08 0.3 0.07 0.

6 0.9 1 Figure 4-3a: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem B Com parison of the Different First O rder Approaches at t = 0.4 0.4 1.2 0.1 0 0.8 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.2 0.1 1 u(x.1) 0.4 0.7 0.1 0 0 0.5 x Lax-F riedrichs R oe's S chem e with S ource Term A dded R oe's S chem e with S ource Term D ecom posed 0.2 1.1 0. 1.2 0.4 0.3 1.6 0.3 0.Comparison of the Different First Order Approaches at t = 0.7 0.5 0.1.9 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.6 1.8 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.7 1.1 1 0.2 0.1.3 0.5 x Riverbed Roe's Scheme with Source Term Added Lax-Friedrichs Roe's Scheme with Source Term Decomposed 0.8 0.1 0 -0.2 1.1 0.5 0.5 1.0.9 1 Figure 4-3b: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem B 36 . 1.

1.06 0.4 1.2 -0.5 0.1.1 -0.2 0.02 0.04 0.3 0.Lax-Friedrichs Approach w ith hx = 0.3 1.03 0.1 u(x.8 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.5 0.9 1 Figure 4-4a: Results of Lax-Friedrichs approach for Problem C Lax-Friedrichs Approach w ith hx = 0.4 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.2 0.08 0.5 x Riverbed 0 0.04 0.4 0 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.03 0.9 0.7 0.9 1 Figure 4-4b: Results of Lax-Friedrichs approach for Problem C 37 .001.2 0.t) 0 -0. 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.3 -0.3 0.09 0.07 0.06 0.01 0.3 0.001.07 0.01 0.2 1.1 0.7 0.6 0.8 0.05 0. ht = 0.4 0.1.08 0.5 x 0 0.09 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.02 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.05 0. ht = 0.6 0.1 1 0.

8 0.01 0.1 1 0.1 0.4 0.07 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.1 0.t) 38 .001.3 0.5 x 0 0.1 0.02 0.8 0.4 0.04 0.1 0.05 0.5 0.9 1 Figure 4-5a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem C Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term D ecom posed and hx = 0.2 0.4 1.2 0. 1.1.1 0 -0.08 0. ht = 0.06 0.001.0001 and t = 0 to 0.05 0.5 0.1 -0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.02 0.3 -0. ht = 0.07 0.9 0.03 0.09 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term D ecom posed and hx = 0.08 0.3 0.6 0.06 0.3 1.7 0.04 0.4 0.03 0.7 0.1.09 0.2 0.2 -0. 0.9 1 Figure 4-5b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem C u(x.1 0 0 0.6 0.2 0.8 0.2 1.01 0.6 0.4 0 0.

t) Figure 4-6b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem C 39 .04 0.6 0.4 0.2 1.02 0.5 0. ht = 0.5 x 0 0.2 0.Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added and hx = 0.001.07 0.09 0.2 0.1 0.3 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.01 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.1 1 0.2 0.09 0.6 0.03 0.001.07 0.1 -0.4 0.8 0.02 0.4 0. 0.1 0 0 0.4 0 0.1 0.08 0.1 0.7 0.9 1 u(x.3 0.4 1.1.4 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.8 0.9 0.03 0.1 0 -0.3 0.05 0.7 0.1.3 -0.6 0.06 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.3 0. 1.05 0.08 0.04 0.8 0.01 0.2 -0.2 0.06 0.9 1 Figure 4-6a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem C Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added and hx = 0. ht = 0.7 0.

3 0.1 0.6 0.06 1.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.9 0.45 0.5 x R iverbed R oe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added Lax-Friedrichs R oe's Schem e w ith Source Term Decom posed 0.1 0 0.02 1 0.1 1.04 1.8 0.2 1.9 1 1.2 0.3 0.7 0.3 u(x.98 0.1.1) 0.1 0 0 0.4 0.12 1.Com parison of the D ifferent First O rder Approaches at t = 0.6 0.7 0.1 1 0.2 0.9 1 Figure 4-7b: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem C 40 .35 0.08 1.1 0.3 0.0.8 0.2 0.2 0. 1.55 0.5 0.5 0.1.6 0.8 0.6 Figure 4-7a: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem C Com parison of the Different First O rder Approaches at t = 0.4 0.5 x Lax-Friedrichs Roe's S chem e with Source Term Added Roe's S chem e with Source Term Decom posed 0.1 0 -0.7 0.3 0. 0.

ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x R iverbed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-8a: Results of Lax-Friedrichs approach for Problem D Lax-Friedrichs Approach with hx = 1000.Lax-Friedrichs Approach w ith hx = 1000. 4 3 2 1 u(x. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.t) 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-8b: Results of Lax-Friedrichs approach for Problem D 41 .

8 u(x.4 1. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.1 0 -0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.2 1.4 0.6 0.t) 0.3 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x Riverbed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-9a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem D R oe's Schem e w ith Source Term D ecom posed and hx = 1000.9 0.Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Decomposed and hx = 1000.5 1. 1.2 0.7 0.1 1 0.3 1.5 0.1 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-9b:Results of Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed for Problem D 42 .

6 0.3 0.1 -0.1 1 0.5 0.4 0.1 0 -0.t) 0.Roe's Scheme with Source Term Added and hx = 1000. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.5 1.2 0.2 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-10b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem D 43 .4 1. 1.3 1. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.9 0.7 0.8 u(x.2 1. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x Seabed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-10a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem D Roe's Schem e w ith the Source Term Added and hx = 1000.

2 1.4 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 216000 x R iverbed Lax-Friedrichs R oe's Scheme with Source Term D ecomposed R iver Initially R oe's Scheme with Source Term Added 432000 648000 Figure 4-11a: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem D Comparison of the Different First Order Approaches at t = 10800.5 1.1 0 -0.6 0.2 0 216000 x Lax-Friedrichs Source Term Added Source Term Decomposed 432000 648000 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 0 216000 x 432000 648000 4 3 Figure 4-11b: Comparison of the different first order approaches for Problem D 44 . 1.9 u(x.1 1 0.1 -0.8 0.Comparison of the Different First Order Approaches at t = 10800.7 0.5 0.3 0.4 1.3 1.10800) 0.2 0.

9 1 Figure 4-12b: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem A 45 .7 0.0.1.5 x Exact Solution MacCormack Approach Roe's Scheme 0.Flux-Limited Second Order Numerical Results: Comparison of the Different Flux-Limited Second Order Approaches with the Exact Solution at t = 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.8 0.9 1 Figure 4-12a: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem A Comparison of the Different Flux-Limited Second Order Approaches with the Exact Solution and at t = 0.5 0.1) 0.1 0 0 0.7 0.4 0. 1.9 0.4 0.8 0.1 1 0.8 0.6 0.8 h(x.3 0.7 u(x.1 0 0 0.3 0.0.2 0.7 0.2 0.1) 0.1.5 x Exact Solution MacCormack Approach Roe's Scheme 0.6 0.6 0. 1 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 1.9 0.

04 0.8 0.5 x 0 0.09 0.07 0.1 0 0 0.02 0.1 1 0.9 1 Figure 4-13a: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem B Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 0.03 0.001.2 0.3 0.7 0.Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 0.8 0.1.9 0.2 1.3 0.3 1.001.4 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.6 0. ht = 0.9 1 Figure 4-13b: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem B 46 .1 1 u(x. 1.05 0.6 1.2 0.4 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.5 0.8 1.09 0.t) 0.7 0.4 1.6 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.05 0.8 0.06 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.4 0.03 0.08 0.1 0 0 0.3 0.01 0.04 0.02 0.6 0.5 1.2 1.1. 1.7 1.01 0.06 0.7 0.1 0.4 0.08 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.2 0.07 0.9 0. ht = 0.

8 0.1 1 0.9 1 Figure 4-14b: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem B 47 .1 0 -0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.5 x MacC orm ack Approach R oe's Schem e with Source Term Added H ubbard's Approach 0.1.1 1 u(x.2 0.3 0.1) 0.0.4 0.6 0.3 0.8 1.6 0.1 0 0 0.4 0.5 1.5 0.7 0.2 0.3 1.6 0.1 0 0.7 0.8 0.1 0.4 0.5 x R iverbed MacC orm ack A pproach R oe's S chem e with S ource Term A dded H ubbard's A pproach 0.9 0.7 0.9 0.9 1 Figure 4-14a: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem B Comparison of the Different Flux-Lim ited Second Order Appraoches at t = 0.6 1.8 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.4 1.Com parison of the D ifferent Flux-Lim ited Second O rder Approaches at t = 0.2 1.1 0.2 1. 1. 1.8 0.7 0.7 1.1.

01 0. ht = 0.1 0.001.3 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.1 0.6 0.2 0.06 0.06 0.3 0.8 0.4 0 0.04 0.03 0.4 0.9 0.01 0.2 -0.09 0.8 0.4 1.3 0.9 1 Figure 4-15b: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem C 48 .8 0.1 0 0 0.1.09 0.4 0.t) 0 -0.001.1.02 0.2 0.2 1.08 0.7 0.02 0.Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 0.1 u(x.1 -0.2 0.7 0.3 -0.4 0.1 0.05 0.7 0.05 0.6 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.5 x 0 0.9 1 Figure 4-15a: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem C Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 0. 1.08 0.6 0.03 0. 0.3 0.1 0.5 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.2 0.5 0.1 1 0.07 0.07 0. ht = 0.4 0.04 0.3 1.

**Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added and hx = 0.001, ht = 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.1.
**

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 4-16a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem C

**Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added and hx = 0.001, ht = 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.1.
**

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

u(x,t)

Figure 4-16b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem C

49

**M acCorm ack Approach w ith hx = 0.001, ht = 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.1.
**

1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x R iverbed 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 4-17a: Results of LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach for Problem C

**M acCorm ack Approach w ith hx = 0.001, ht = 0.0001 and t = 0 to 0.1.
**

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 u(x,t) 0 -0.1 -0.2 -0.3 -0.4 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x 0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 4-17b: Results of LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach for Problem C 50

**Comparison of the Different Flux-Limited Second Order Approaches at t = 0.1.
**

1.2 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x Seabed MacCormack Roe's Scheme with Source Term Added Hubbard's Approach 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1.12

1.1

1.08

1.06

1.04

1.02

1

0.98 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6

Figure 4-18a: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem C

**C om parison of the D ifferent Flux-Lim ited Second O rder Approaches at t = 0.1.
**

0.5

0.4

0.3

u(x,0.1)

0.2

0.1

0

-0.1 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 x MacC orm ack A pproach R oe's S chem e with S ource Term A dded H ubbard's A pproach 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Figure 4-18b: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem C

51

5 x MacCormack Roe's scheme with source term added Hubbard's Approach 0.01.3 0.2 1. ht = 0.6 0.5 x Riverbed MacCormack Roe's scheme with source term added Roe's scheme with source term decomposed 0. ht = 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.2 0.001 and at t = 0.9 1 Figure 4-19a: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem C Comparison of the Different Flux-Limited Second Order Approaches using a larger step size of hx = 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.8 0.3 u(x.1 0.4 0.2 0.1) 0.7 0.1 0.1 0 0.9 1 Figure 4-19b: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem C 52 .6 0.1 1 0.1 0 0 0.8 0.7 0. 1.001 and at t = 0.1.Comparison of the Different Flux-Limited Second Order Approaches using a Larger Step-Size of hx = 0.1 0 -0.2 0. 0.0.1.5 0.01.

3 0.9 0.5 1.2 0.4 0.8 u(x.1 0 -0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x R iverbed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-20a: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem D Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 1000.1 1 0.1 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-20b: Results of Hubbard’s approach for Problem D 53 .5 0.7 0.Hubbard's Approach w ith hx = 1000.3 1. 1.2 1.t) 0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.6 0.4 1. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x R iverbed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-21a: Results of LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach for Problem D M acC orm ac k Approach w ith hx = 1 000.1 -0.3 0.7 0.9 0.5 0.2 1. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 108 00.4 1.8 u(x.1 1 0.1 0 -0.3 1.M acCo rm ack App roach w ith hx = 1000.2 0. ht = 1 an d t = 0 to 10800.4 0.t) 0.5 1.6 0.2 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-21b: Results of LeVeque & Yee’s MacCormack approach for Problem D 54 . 1.

ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.4 1. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x S eabed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-22a: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem D Roe's Scheme w ith Source Term Added and hx = 1000.4 0.1 0 -0.1 -0.5 1.1 1 0.2 0.3 1.9 0.2 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 4-22b: Results of Roe’s scheme with source term added for Problem D 55 . ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.t) 0. 1.Roe's Schem e w ith Source Term Added and hx = 1000.3 0.5 0.6 0.2 1.7 0.8 u(x.

02 0.2 1 u(x.10800) 0.03 1. 1.4 0.Com parison of the Different Flux-Lim ited Second O rder Approaches at t = 10800.6 0.07 216000 316000 416000 516000 616000 216000 x MacC orm ack A pproach 432000 648000 R oe's S chem e with S ource Term A dded H ubbard's A pproach Figure 4-23b: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem D 56 .05 -0.8 0.2 0 -0.04 -0.02 -0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 216000 x Riverbed MacCorm ack Approach Hubbard's Approach River Initially Roe's Schem e with Source Term Added 432000 648000 Figure 4-23a: Comparison of the flux-limited second order results for Problem D Com parison of the D ifferent Flux-Lim ited Second O rder Approaches at t = 10800.01 -0.2 0 0.03 -0.01 0 -0.06 -0.6 0.4 1.

but as the source term became more significant. In Problem D we saw that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed and Hubbard’s approach was the only approach that did not produce movement after x = 216. it was shown that Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed and Hubbard’s approach produced the most accurate numerical results for all four test problems. if we use the Superbee flux-limiter instead of the Minmod flux-limiter with Hubbard’s approach then the approach produces inaccurate numerical results. the Minmod flux-limiter and van Leer’s flux-limiter and use Δx = 1000. produced the most accurate numerical results. Figure 5-4a and Figure 5-4b compare the results obtained by using the three different flux-limiters with Hubbard’s approach at t = 10. we can see that Roe’s Superbee flux-limiter has 57 .800s. If we use (S-4) with Roe’s Superbee fluxlimiter. Overall. All the other approaches were accurate for the first two test problems.800s.800s. Here. However. oscillations occur in the numerical results. which is Roe’s scheme with source term decomposed with a flux-limiter applied to both the conservation law and the source term. Δt = 1 and t = 0 to 10. Figure 5-3a and Figure 5-3b show that using the Minmod flux-limiter with Hubbard’s approach produces no oscillations in the numerical results. Figure 5-1a to Figure 5-2b show that by using either Roe’s Superbee flux-limiter or van Leer’s flux-limiter with Hubbard’s approach. we may obtain Figure 5-1a to Figure 5-4b.5 Conclusion In Chapter 4. Hubbard’s approach. This is because the other approaches did not satisfy the C-property of Bermudez & Vazquez[1]. the other approaches became inaccurate.000m at t = 10.

However. adding a source term approximation can give very inaccurate numerical results. This suggests that applying a flux-limiter to the source term approximation when the source term is significant can create oscillations in the numerical results. Throughout this report. followed by van Leer’s flux-limiter and the Minmod flux-limiter has produced no oscillations.produced the most oscillations. oscillations can occur in the numerical solution depending on which flux-limiter is used. we may obtain very accurate numerical results for the first order case. However. we have seen that adding a source term approximation can produce accurate numerical results but as the source term becomes significant. if we do not apply a flux-limiter to the source term approximation but we do to the conservation law then we will no longer be able to obtain a numerical scheme which satisfies the C-property of Bermudez & Vazquez[1]. 58 . The only solution at present is to use the Minmod flux-limiter with Hubbard’s approach or to use Roe’s first order scheme with source term decomposed. We have also shown that by decomposing the source term as well as the conservation law. when applying flux-limiters to the source term as well as the conservation law to ensure the numerical scheme satisfies the exact C-property.

Superbee Flux-Limiter with hx = 1000.8 u(x.9 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x Seabed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-1a: Superbee Flux-Limiter results for Problem D Superbe Flux-Limiter with hx = 1000.5 1.t) 0.3 1.1 0 -0.2 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-1b: Superbee Flux-Limiter results for Problem D 59 .2 0. 1.3 0.4 0.1 -0.4 1.5 0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.7 0.1 1 0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.6 0.2 1.

3 0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.4 1.6 0.9 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x Seabed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-2a: van Leer Flux-Limiter results for Problem D van Leer Flux-Limiter with hx = 1000.1 0 -0.4 0.8 u(x.t) 0.7 0.5 1.1 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-2b: van Leer Flux-Limiter results for Problem D 60 .2 1. 1.5 0.1 1 0.2 0.3 1.van Leer Flux-Limiter with hx = 1000. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.

4 0. 1.3 1.5 0.9 0. ht = 1 and t = 0 to 10800.1 0 -0.8 u(x. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 100000 200000 300000 x Seabed 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-3a: Minmod Flux-Limiter results for Problem D Minmod with hx = 1000.6 0.1 1 0.4 1.5 1.Minmod Flux-Limiter with hx = 1000.2 0.7 0.3 0.1 0 100000 200000 300000 x 0 1080 2160 3240 4320 5400 6480 7560 8640 9720 10800 400000 500000 600000 Figure 5-3b: Minmod Flux-Limiter results for Problem D 61 . ht = 1 and t = 0 t o 10800.t) 0.2 1.

1 -0.1 0 -0.10800) 0.3 1.8 0.4 0. 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 216000 x Riverbed River Initially Superbee van Leer Minmod 432000 648000 Figure 5-4a: Comparison of the Flux-Limiter results for Problem D Comparison of the Three Flux-Limiters at t = 10800.3 0.2 0.6 0.9 u(x. 1.2 1.2 0 216000 x Superbee van Leer Minmod 432000 648000 Figure 5-4b: Comparison of the Flux-Limiter results for Problem D 62 .4 1.5 0.7 0.5 1.1 1 0.Comparison of the Three Flux-Limiters at t = 10800.

Hubbard for their guidance and support. M. 63 .E. Sweby and Dr. I would like to thank the EPSRC and HR Wallingford for their funding. P. In addition.K.Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor Dr.

Water Waves. Approximate Riemann Solvers. Phys. MSc Dissertation. Birkhauser-Verlag (1990). 6. P. High Resolution Schemes for Conservation Laws.K. 5. Difference Schemes for the Shallow Water Equations. A.References 1. H. High Resolution Schemes Using Flux Limiters for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws.E. 357 – 372 (1981). Sweby. 3. J. 26.J. 9. 23. 21. 12.K. 64 . Hydr. J. Glaister. Wiley Interscience (1957). 1049 – 1071(1994). Some Considerations and Improvements on the Performance of Roe’s scheme for 1D Irregular Geometries. 4. 8. R. Comput. R. Private Communication (University of Reading).J. (1998). Yee. Hubbard. Wiley-Teubner series (1997). Bermudez and M^Elena Vazquez. Upwind and Symmetric Shock-Capturing Schemes. J. 8.J. Num. P. Numerical Analysis Report 9/87. SIAM J. Roe. No. 2. Numerical Techniques for Conservation Laws with Source Terms. Yee. J.3 (1988). No. Phys. Garcia-Navarro. J. 49 (1983). Comput. J. Internal Report 23 (1997). Anal. 995 (1984). Source Terms and Conservation Laws: A Preliminary Discussion. Computers and Fluids Vol. 10. Hudson. Kroner.C. Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws. Comput. A. A Study of Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws with Stiff Source Terms. R. University of Reading (1998).J Stoker. M. NASA Ames Research Center Technical Memoranda 89464 (1987). 86. 7. Harten. Phys. LeVeque. 14. J. University Of Reading (1987). Numerical Schemes for Conservation Laws. Upwind Methods for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws with Source Terms. P. 13. Sweby. LeVeque. D. Approximate Riemann Solutions of the Shallow Water Equations.L. Balancing Source Terms and Flux Gradients in High-Resolution Godunov Methods: The Quasi-Steady Wave-Propagation Algorithm.C. 187 – 210 (1990). 11. Comput. LeVeque and H. P. 43. Research Vol. Glaister. 15. University Of Reading (1989) 16. P. Parameter Vectors and Difference Schemes. Numerical Analysis Report 6/89. Phys. P.

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